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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(3): 143-146, sept. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1517927

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un niño de 6 años con antecedente de retraso del lenguaje que llevó a sus padres a realizar múltiples consultas. En un primer momento, su cuadro fue interpretado como parte de un retraso global del desarrollo. Posteriormente, el paciente presentó convulsiones y episodios de descompensación metabólica, comenzando desde entonces su seguimiento por los Servicios de neurología, genética y metabolismo. Finalmente, tras varios estudios complementarios, por medio de un exoma trío se arribó al diagnóstico de síndrome de microduplicación del cromosoma 7q11.23, lo que justifica tanto el retraso global de desarrollo del paciente como su clínica neurológica. (AU)


A six-year-old boy presents with a history of language delay that led his parents to make multiple consultations. At first, we interpreted his condition as part of a global developmental delay. Subsequently, the patient presented seizures and episodes of metabolic decompensation, and since then, he had to be followed up by neurology, genetics, and metabolism services. Finally, after several complementary studies, following a trio exome analysis, we diagnosed chromosome 7q11.23 microduplication syndrome, which explains his global developmental delay and neurological symptoms. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Williams Syndrome/genetics , Chromosome Duplication , Language Development Disorders/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/diagnosis , Developmental Disabilities/metabolism , Genetic Testing , Williams Syndrome/diagnosis , Williams Syndrome/metabolism , Language Development Disorders/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/metabolism
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1434511

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: revisar os estudos clínicos acerca de biomarcadores para o câncer cervical publicados nos últimos 10 anos, com foco no diagnóstico, prognóstico e avaliação do tratamento. Metodologia: as bases de dados PubMed, Web of Science e Science Direct foram pesquisadas utilizando os descritores "Uterine Cervical Neoplasms" e "Biomarkers". Foram selecionados os artigos originais publicados em inglês ou português, no período de 2011 a 2021. Após uma triagem pelos títulos e resumos dos artigos, aqueles relacionados ao objetivo do estudo foram lidos integralmente para a decisão final de inclusão na revisão. Os trabalhos que atenderam todos os critérios de seleção tiveram seus dados extraídos, principalmente, no que se refere ao tipo e objetivo do biomarcador proposto, população do estudo, tamanho da amostra, metodologia utilizada e principais desfechos obtidos. Resultados: esta estratégia de busca e seleção resultou em 22 artigos publicados nos últimos 10 anos na temática de interesse. Ocorreu um grande empenho na investigação de biomarcadores séricos para o câncer cervical, com a vantagem de serem minimamente invasivos. Houve destaque para marcadores genéticos e moleculares, como aqueles voltados para a metilação do DNA, detecção de polimorfismos, padrões de expressão de micro-RNA e expressão de genes relacionados à proliferação, imortalização e invasão celular. Conclusão: os dados reunidos encorajam a ampliação das pesquisas para aprimorar e validar a eficiência destes biomarcadores em grandes populações. É evidente o potencial dos biomarcadores como estratégia para melhorar o manejo do diagnóstico e o tratamento do câncer cervical, sendo que a utilização de marcadores genéticos parece ser o futuro dos biomarcadores para o câncer cervical


Aims: to review clinical studies on biomarkers for cervical cancer published in the last 10 years, focusing on the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment evaluation. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases were searched using the descriptors "Uterine Cervical Neoplasms" and "Biomarkers". Original articles published in English or Portuguese from 2011 to 2021 were selected. After screening by the titles and abstracts of the articles, those related to the objective of the study were read in full for the final decision of inclusion in the review. The studies that met all the selection criteria had their data extracted, especially regarding the type and objective of the biomarker proposed, study population, sample size, methodology used, and main outcomes obtained. Results: this search and selection strategy resulted in 22 articles published in the last 10 years on the topic of interest. There was a great effort to investigate serum biomarkers for cervical cancer, with the advantage of being minimally invasive. There was an emphasis on genetic and molecular markers, such as those focused on DNA methylation, detection of polymorphisms, expression patterns of microRNA, and expression of genes related to cell proliferation, immortalization, and invasion.Conclusions: the data gathered encourage expanded research to improve and validate the efficiency of these biomarkers in large populations. The potential of biomarkers as a strategy to improve the management of cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment is evident, and the use of genetic markers appears to be the future of biomarkers for cervical cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Biomarkers, Tumor , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prognosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Genetic Testing , Early Detection of Cancer , Clinical Decision-Making
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 949-954, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985501

ABSTRACT

Mosaic embryos contain two or more genetically distinct cell lines, which can be detected by pre-implantation genetic testing for aneuploidy. At present, it has been reported that mosaic embryo transfer can lead to healthy live births. In order to prevent severe adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as implantation failure, abortion, congenital malformation and neonatal death after implantation of mosaic embryos, it is critical to carry out genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy supervision for mosaic embryo transfer. This article reviews the selection of mosaic embryos, the pregnancy outcomes of mosaic embryo transfer, and the safety of offspring, in order to provide references for the clinical practice of mosaic embryo transfer.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Preimplantation Diagnosis , Embryo Transfer , Pregnancy Outcome , Genetic Testing , Embryo Implantation/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 265-271, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical features of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and their association with prognosis.@*METHODS@#Clinical and prognosis data were collected from the children with JMML who were admitted from January 2008 to December 2016, and the influencing factors for prognosis were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 63 children with JMML were included, with a median age of onset of 25 months and a male/female ratio of 3.2∶1. JMML genetic testing was performed for 54 children, and PTPN11 mutation was the most common mutation and was observed in 23 children (43%), among whom 19 had PTPN11 mutation alone and 4 had compound PTPN11 mutation, followed by NRAS mutation observed in 14 children (26%), among whom 12 had NRAS mutation alone and 2 had compound NRAS mutation. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was only 22%±10% in these children with JMML. Of the 63 children, 13 (21%) underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The HSCT group had a significantly higher 5-year OS rate than the non-HSCT group (46%±14% vs 29%±7%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the 5-year OS rate between the children without PTPN11 gene mutation and those with PTPN11 gene mutation (30%±14% vs 27%±10%, P>0.05). The Cox proportional-hazards regression model analysis showed that platelet count <40×109/L at diagnosis was an influencing factor for 5-year OS rate in children with JMML (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The PTPN11 gene was the most common mutant gene in JMML. Platelet count at diagnosis is associated with the prognosis in children with JMML. HSCT can improve the prognosis of children with JMML.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile/therapy , Prognosis , Genetic Testing , Mutation , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 98-103, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971046

ABSTRACT

Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug for the treatment of children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and its safety and efficacy show significant differences in the pediatric population. This article reviews the genetic factors influencing the pharmacokinetic differences of atomoxetine from the aspect of the gene polymorphisms of the major metabolizing enzyme CYP2D6 of atomoxetine, and then from the perspective of therapeutic drug monitoring, this article summarizes the reference ranges of the effective concentration of atomoxetine in children with ADHD proposed by several studies. In general, there is an association between the peak plasma concentration of atomoxetine and clinical efficacy, but with a lack of data from the Chinese pediatric population. Therefore, it is necessary to establish related clinical indicators for atomoxetine exposure, define the therapeutic exposure range of children with ADHD in China, and combine CYP2D6 genotyping to provide support for the precision medication of atomoxetine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Atomoxetine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/therapeutic use , Drug Monitoring , Genetic Testing , Propylamines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 354-359, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a woman featuring moderate intellectual disability (ID).@*METHODS@#The patient had presented at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University on April 28, 2021. With informed consent, peripheral blood and amniotic fluid samples were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were detected with CNV-seq, and single gene variants were detected by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing, and CNV-seq and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to detect fetal CNVs.@*RESULTS@#The 23-year-old woman had moderate ID, sideway walking, and unstable holding. Ultrasonography at 18+3 weeks' gestation had revealed no fetal abnormality. No pathogenic CNV was detected in the woman by CNV-Seq, while WES revealed that she has harbored a heterozygous c.1675C>T (p.Arg559*) variant of the DLG4 gene, which was verified by Sanger sequencing. Based on guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_supporting). Sanger sequencing has confirmed that the fetus has inherited this variant, and CNV-Seq also revealed that that fetus has harbored a 0.1 Mb heterozygous deletion at Xp21.1, which has encompassed the DMD gene, and the result was verified by MLPA.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.1675C>T variant of the DLG4 gene probably underlay the mental retardation in this woman, and her fetus was found to harbor the same variant in addition with deletion of the DMD gene, which may predispose to ID type 62.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Disks Large Homolog 4 Protein , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetus , Genetic Testing , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Pregnant Women
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 349-353, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of a patient with STISS syndrome due to variant of PSMD12 gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and result of genetic testing of a patient who was admitted to Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine on October 4, 2020 were analyzed, together with a review of relevant literature.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor a heterozygous c.601C>T (p.Arg201*) nonsense variant of the PSMD12 gene, which was unreported previously. Clinically, the height of the patient has differed significantly from reported in the literature. An extremely rare case of STISS syndrome due to variant of the PSMD12 gene has been diagnosed.@*CONCLUSION@#Whether the severely short stature is part of the clinical spectrum for PSMD12 gene variants needs to be further explored, and the efficacy and safety of growth hormone therapy has yet to be determined.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , China , Dwarfism , Genetic Testing , Heterozygote , Syndrome
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 322-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical manifestations and genetic characteristics of patients with congenital central hypothyroidism due to variants of IGSF1 gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical data, results of genetic testing, and follow-up of four patients admitted to Children's Hospital of Soochow University during 2017 to 2021 were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#All of the four patients were males. Patient 1 had presented neonatal jaundice, patients 2 and 3 were admitted for growth retardation during childhood, and thyroid function test indicated slightly low free thyroxine (FT4), patient 4 was found to have reduced FT4 in the neonatal period. Genetic testing revealed that all of the four patients have harbored pathogenic variants of the IGSF1 gene, which were all inherited from their mothers. The thyroid functions in all patients were well controlled with oral levothyroxine and regular follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Pathogenic variants of the IGSF1 gene probably underlay the congenital central hypothyroidism with a variety of clinical manifestations, and genetic testing can facilitate the diagnosis at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Child , Male , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Hypothyroidism/genetics , Genetic Testing , Mothers , Immunoglobulins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 295-300, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the molecular epidemiology of thalassemia in Jiaxing area of Zhejiang province and provide a basis for prenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling and prevention and control of birth defects.@*METHODS@#A total of 24 003 pregnant women who presented at the Jiaxing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from April 2017 to September 2021 were enrolled. Capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis in combination with routine blood test were used for primary screening for carriers of thalassemia-associated mutations, and those with positive results were subjected to fluorescence quantitative PCR assay. Prenatal diagnosis was provided for couples with a risk of giving birth to children with intermediate or severe thalassemia.@*RESULTS@#Among the 24 003 pregnant women, 1 211 cases were suspected as carriers of thalassemia-associated mutations, among whom 443 (36.58%) were confirmed by genetic testing. Among these, carriers of α-, β- and α-complex β-globin gene mutations have accounted for 27.31% (121/443), 70.65% (313/443) and 2.04% (9/443), respectively. The result of prenatal diagnosis for an at-risk couple was --SEA/αCSα, and the fetus was predicted to have intermediate or severe thalassemia. Termination of the pregnancy was recommended.@*CONCLUSION@#Hemoglobin electrophoresis combined with routine blood test during pregnancy may be used as a preliminary screening measure for carriers of thalassemia-associated variants. Combined with genetic testing, this will be of great significance for the control of thalassemia in this region.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Testing , Mutation , Prenatal Diagnosis , Thalassemia/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 269-275, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and spectrum of SPTB gene variants among 16 Chinese children with Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and explore their genotype-phenotype correlation.@*METHODS@#Sixteen children who were diagnosed with HS at the Affiliated Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics from November 2018 to July 2022 were selected as the research subjects. Genetic testing was carried out by whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and subjected to bioinformatic analysis and prediction of 3D structure of the protein. Correlation between the SPTB genotypes and clinical phenotypes was analyzed using Chi-squared test.@*RESULTS@#The male-to-female ratio of the HS patients was 6 : 10, with the median age being 7-year-and-10-month. Clinical features of the patients have included anemia, reticulocytosis and gradual onset of splenomegaly. Mild, moderate and severe anemia have respectively occurred in 56.25% (9/16), 31.25% (5/16) and 12.50% (2/16) of the patients. SPTB gene variants were detected in all patients, among which 10 were unreported previously and 7 were de novo in origin. Loss of function (LOF) variants accounted for 93.75% (15/16). Only one missense variant was detected. Eleven, 4 and 1 of the variants had occurred in the repeat domain, CH1 domain, and dimerization domain, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the type or domain of the SPTB gene variants with the clinical features such as severity of anemia (x² = 3.345, P > 0.05). All of the variants were predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.@*CONCLUSION@#Mild to moderate anemia are predominant clinical features of the HS children harboring a SPTB gene variant, for which LOF variants are the main mutational type. The clinical feature of HS is unaffected by the type of the variants.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Computational Biology , Genetic Testing , Genomics , Genotype , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/genetics , East Asian People/genetics , Spectrin/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 238-241, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To report on a child with B-cell-negative severe combined immunodeficiency (B-SCID) manifesting as fulminant myocarditis and carry out genetic testing for her.@*METHODS@#A child with B-SCID who presented at Fujian Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital on January 31, 2021 was selected as the subject. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for her. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The female infant had developed recurrent skin and lung infections soon after birth, and was admitted due to fulminant myocarditis. Serological examination has disclosed a remarkable reduction in immunoglobulins. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that her peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes and NK cells were significantly reduced. Whole exome sequencing revealed that she has harbored a homozygous c.C3007T (p.Q1003X) nonsense variant of the RAG1 gene, for which both of her parents were heterozygous carriers. The variant has not been recorded in normal population databases. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#A case of RAG1 gene associated B-SCID has been diagnosed. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of RAG1 gene variants and enabled early diagnosis and intervention of the disease.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Infant , Genetic Testing , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Myocarditis/genetics , Phenotype , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/diagnosis
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 226-229, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical phenotype and genetic basis of a neonate with Au-Kline syndrome (AKS).@*METHODS@#Clinical data and result of genetic testing of a neonate with AKS who was admitted to the Affiliated Provincial Children's Hospital of Anhui Medical University in January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Relevant literature was searched from the Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and PubMed databases using key words "Au Kline syndrome", "Au-Kline syndrome", "HNRNPK" and "AKS". The research period was set as from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2020.@*RESULTS@#The male newborn has manifested feeding difficulties, hypotonia, absence of the upper jaw to the uvula and facial dysmorphism. Trio-whole exome sequencing revealed that he has harbored a frameshift c.478dupA (p.Ile160AsnfsTer7) variant of the HNRNPK gene, which was varified by Sanger sequencing to have a de novo origin. The variant has not been included in the databases. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was rated as pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2_Supporting). Literature retrieval has identified 14 children with AKS and de novo mutations of the HNRNPK gene. Their clinical manifestations have included growth and motor retardation, various degree of mental retardation, facial dysmorphism and a high frequency of congenital heart malformations.@*CONCLUSION@#The AKS in this child may be attributed to the c478dupA frameshifting variant of the HNRNPK gene. Diagnosis of AKS should be suspected for children with mental retardation and multiple congenital malformation syndromes including Kabuki syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Genetic Testing , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 177-180, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical features and genetic basis for a child with early-onset Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD).@*METHODS@#A child with ISOD who was admitted to Weihai Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University on May 10, 2020 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the child was analyzed. The child and her parents were subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing, and candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The female neonate was transferred to the intensive care unit due to "secondary pollution of amniotic fluid and laborious breathing for 11 minutes", and had developed frequent convulsions. Genetic testing revealed that she has harbored c.1200C>G and c.188G>A compound heterozygous variants of the SUOX gene, which were inherited from her mother and father, respectively. The c.1200C>G has been described previously and was rated as pathogenic based on guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, whilst the c.188G>A variant was unreported previously and rated as variant of unknown significance.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the SUOX gene probably underlay the ISOD in this child. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of SUOX gene variants and provided a basis for the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Testing , Mutation , Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors/genetics , Sulfite Oxidase/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 171-176, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic basis for a child with acute form of tyrosinemia type I (TYRSN1).@*METHODS@#A child with TYRSN1 who presented at the Gansu Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in October 2020 was selected as the subject. The child was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) and urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the detection of inherited metabolic disorders, in addition with whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate variants were validated by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The child's clinical features included abdominal distension, hepatomegaly, anemia and tendency of bleeding. By mass spectrometry analysis, her serum and urine tyrosine and succinylacetone levels have both exceeded the normal ranges. WES and Sanger sequencing revealed that she has harbored c.1062+5G>A and c.943T>C (p.Cys315Arg) compound heterozygous variants of the FAH gene, which were inherited from her father and mother, respectively. Among these, the c.943T>C was unreported previously.@*CONCLUSION@#Considering her clinical phenotype and result of genetic testing, the child was diagnosed with TYRSN1 (acute type). The compound heterozygous variants of the FAH gene probably underlay the disease in this child. Above finding has further expanded the spectrum of FAH gene variants, and provided a basis for accurate treatment, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for her family.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Child , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Genetic Testing , Mutation , Phenotype , Prenatal Diagnosis , Tyrosinemias/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 166-170, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis for three children with Congenital chlorine diarrhea (CCD).@*METHODS@#Three children with CCD who attended the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Capital Pediatric Institute from June 2014 to August 2020 were selected as the research subjects. Peripheral blood samples of the three children and their parents were collected for genetic testing. And the results were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The clinical manifestations of the three children have included recurrent diarrhea, with various degrees of hypochloremia, hypokalemia and refractory metabolic alkalosis. Genetic testing revealed that the three children have all carried variants of the SLC26A3 gene, including homozygous c.1631T>A (p.I544N) variants, c.2063_1G>T and c.1039G>A (p.A347T) compound heterozygous variants, and c.270_271insAA(p.G91kfs*3) and c.2063_1G>T compound heterozygous variants. Sanger sequencing confirmed that all of the variants were inherited from their parents.@*CONCLUSION@#The variants of the SLC26A3 gene probably underlay the CCD in these children. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of SLC26A3 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Chlorine , Genetic Testing , Hypokalemia/genetics , Homozygote , Diarrhea/genetics , Mutation
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 148-154, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of single sperm sequencing in preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease (PGT-M).@*METHODS@#A Chinese couple with two children whom had died of Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and attended the Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in June 2020 was selected as the subject. Eleven single sperm samples were isolated by mechanical immobilization and subjected to whole genome amplification. Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to detect the SMN1 variants in the single sperm samples. Genomic DNA of the wife, her parents and the husband, as well as one single sperm sample harboring the SMN1 variant and two single sperm samples without the variant were used for the linkage analysis. Targeted capture and high-throughput sequencing were carried out to test 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms distributed within 2 Mb up- and downstream the variant site. The haplotypes linked with the SMN1 variants were determined by linkage analysis. Blastocyst embryos were harvested after fertilizing by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Cells from the trophoblasts of each embryo were biopsied and subjected to whole genome amplification and targeted capture and high-throughput sequencing to determine their carrier status. Chromosomal aneuploidy of wild-type embryos was excluded. An euploid embryo of high quality was transferred. Amniotic fluid sample was taken at 18 weeks of gestation to confirm the status of the fetus.@*RESULTS@#Genetic testing showed that the couple both had deletion of exons 7 ~ 8 of the SMN1 gene. The wife has inherited the deletion from her father, while the husband was de novo. The haplotypes of the husband were successfully constructed by single sperm sequencing. Preimplantation genetic testing has indicated that 5 embryos had harbored the heterozygous variant, 4 embryos were of the wild type, among which 3 were euploid. Prenatal diagnosis during the second trimester of pregnancy has confirmed that the fetus did not carry the deletion.@*CONCLUSION@#By single sperm sequencing and PGT-M, the birth of further affected child has been successfully avoided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Child , Male , Preimplantation Diagnosis , East Asian People , Semen , Genetic Testing , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Aneuploidy , Blastocyst/pathology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Spermatozoa
17.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 143-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic/single gene disorders (PGT-M) for a Chinese family affected with Molybdenum co-factor deficiency due to pathogenic variant of MOCS2 gene.@*METHODS@#A family with molybdenum co-factor deficiency who attended to the Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in April 2020 was selected as the research subject. Trophoblast cells were biopsied from blastocysts fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryos carrying the MOCS2 gene variant and chromosome copy number variation (CNV) of more than 4 Mb were detected by single-cell whole genome amplification, high-throughput sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism typing. Embryos without or carrying the heterozygous variant and without abnormal chromosome CNV were transplanted. During mid-pregnancy, amniotic fluid sample was collected for prenatal diagnosis to verify the results of PGT-M.@*RESULTS@#Eleven oocytes were obtained, among which three blastocysts were formed through culturing. Results of genetic testing suggested that one embryo was heterozygous for the maternally derived MOCS2 gene variant and without chromosomal CNV. Following embryo transfer, intrauterine singleton pregnancy was attained. Prenatal diagnosis by amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation revealed that the MOCS2 gene variant and chromosomal analysis results were both consistent with that of PGT-M, and a healthy male infant was born at 37+5 weeks of gestation.@*CONCLUSION@#PGT-M has helped the couple carrying the MOCS2 gene variant to have a healthy offspring, and may become an important method for couples carrying other pathogenic genetic variants.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , China , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genetic Testing/methods , Preimplantation Diagnosis/methods , Metal Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 71-75, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of a child with Kartagener syndrome (KTS).@*METHODS@#Trio-whole exome sequencing was carried out for the child and his parents, and candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing. Changes in protein structure due to missense variants were simulated and analyzed, and the Human Splicing Finder 3.0 (HSF 3.0) online platform was used to predict the effect of the variant of the non-coding region.@*RESULTS@#The child had featured bronchiectasis, sinusitis and visceral inversion. Genetic testing revealed that he has harbored compound heterozygous variants of the DNAH5 gene, namely c.5174T>C and c.7610-3T>G. Sanger sequencing confirmed the existence of the variants. The variants were not found in the dbSNP, 1000 Genomes, ExAC, ClinVar and HGMD databases. Protein structural analysis suggested that the c.5174T>C (p.Leu1725Pro) variant may affect the stability of local structure and its biological activity. The results of HSF 3.0 analysis suggested that the c.7610-3T>G variant has probably destroyed a splicing receptor to affect the transcription process.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the DNAH5 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis in the child. Above finding may facilitate the understanding of the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of KTS, and further expand the spectrum of DNAH5 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Child , Mutation , Kartagener Syndrome/genetics , Genetic Testing , Mutation, Missense , Exome Sequencing , Axonemal Dyneins/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 66-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for an infant with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child was collected. Targeted capture-next generation sequencing was carried out to identify the potential variants. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of her family members.@*RESULTS@#The child was a 4-month-and-26-day female featuring onset of ketoacidosis accompanied with fasting blood glucose of 24.4 mmol/L, positive urine glucose, decreased serum C-peptide, HbA1c of 9.58%, and negative diabetes autoantibody. Genetic testing revealed that she has carried a heterozygous c.314T>G (p.L105R) variant of the INS gene. Sanger sequencing verified that neither of her parents has carried the same variant, which was also unreported in the literature. The variant was classified as likely pathogenic based on the ACMG guidelines.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.314T>G (P.L105R) variant of the INS gene probably underlay the genetic etiology in this child. Genetic testing should be conducted for children with suspected PNDM for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Infant, Newborn , Female , Mutation , Insulin/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Genetic Testing
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 53-56, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970877

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic etiology of a child with Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of the child and his parents were collected and subjected to whole exome sequencing. Sanger sequencing was used for family constellation verification, and bioinformatic analysis was performed for the candidate variant.@*RESULTS@#The child, a 1-year-and-9-month-old boy, had clinical manifestations of retarded growth, small penis, and unusual facies. Genetic testing revealed that the child has harbored a novel heterozygous variant of c.3078dupG (p.Leu1027Valfs*28) of the MAGEL2 gene. Sanger sequencing showed that neither parent of the child carried the same variant. The c.3078dupG(p.Leu1027Valfs*28) variant of the MAGEL2 gene has not been included in the databases of ESP, 1000 Genomes and ExAC. According to the Standards and Guidelines for the Interpretation of Sequence Variants of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was judged to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.3078dupG (p.Leu1027Valfs*28) variant of the MAGEL2 gene probably underlay the SYS in this child, which has further expanded the spectrum of the MAGEL2 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Exome Sequencing , Genetic Testing , Heterozygote , Mutation , Proteins/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/genetics
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