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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 311-315, abr. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559674

ABSTRACT

El alelo HLA B*57:01 es un marcador genético asociado con la hipersensibilidad al fármaco anti-retroviral abacavir (ABC) y su frecuencia en la población peruana todavía es desconocida. El objetivo fue identificar el alelo HLA B*57:01 en una población militar de Lima, Perú. Se reclutaron 43 personas viviendo con VIH (PVV) quienes aceptaron participar a través de un consentimiento informado. La detección del alelo HLA B*57:01 se realizó mediante RPC en tiempo real (RT-PCR). Asimismo, se determinó la carga viral (CV), el recuento de linfocitos CD4 y la genotipificación del VIH. Se identificaron dos casos positivos al alelo HLA B*57:01 (4,7%). Además, uno de ellos presentó múltiples mutaciones de resistencia a los anti-retrovirales (ARV), incluyendo ABC. Se demostró por primera vez en el Perú la presencia del alelo HLA B*57:01.


The HLA B*57:01 allele is a genetic marker associated with hypersensitivity to the antiretroviral Abacavir (ABC) and its frequency in the Peruvian population is still unknown. The objective was to identify the HLA B*57:01 allele in a military population from Lima, Peru. Forty three people living with HIV (PLWH) were recruited, who agreed to participate through informed consent. Detection of the HLA B*57:01 allele was performed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Likewise, viral load (VL), CD4 lymphocyte count and HIV genotyping were determined. Two cases positive for the HLA B*57:01 allele (4.7%) were identified. In addition, one of them had multiple resistance mutations to antiretrovirals (ARVs), including ABC. The presence of the HLA B*57:01 allele was demonstrated for the first time in Peru.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/genetics , Military Personnel , Peru , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Genetic Markers , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV/genetics , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Alleles , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(1): 20-26, feb. 2024. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559662

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección persistente por genotipos de virus papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH-AR) es la principal causa del cáncer cérvico-uterino en todo el mundo. Los genotipos 16 y 18 están asociados a la progresión hacia el cáncer de cuello uterino; sin embargo, otros genotipos también presentan alto riesgo oncogénico. Existe escasa evidencia respecto a la distribución de genotipos VPH-AR en la población nacional, siendo un tema que debiese ser abordado en el contexto de un creciente aumento de la inmigración e implementación del programa de inmunización en Chile desde 2015. Objetivo: Dar a conocer la distribución de genotipos de VPH-AR detectados en pacientes de ambos sexos, atendidos en la red de atención privada de Clínica Dávila de Santiago, entre los años 2014 y 2021. Metodología: Se estudiaron muestras genitales y anales provenientes de 3.642 pacientes, incluyendo ambos sexos. La genotipificación fue realizada mediante reacción de la polimerasa en cadena (RPC) en tiempo real (HPV AnyplexTM II HPV28 detection, Seegene, Korea. Resultados: La distribución global de genotipos en mujeres (porcentaje) fue: 16 (14,34%) - 31 (6,20%) - 39 (5,94%) - 58 (5,94%) - 51 (5,68%) - 53 (5,64%) - 52 (5,30%) - 56 (5,27%) - 68 (5,19%) - 66 (4,97% - 18 (3,36%) - 59 (3,29%) - 73 (2,80%) - 35 (2,54%) - 45 (2,13%) - 33 (1,53%) - 82 (1,38%) - 26 (0,49%) y 69 (0,41%). En hombres fue: 16 (8,52%) - 58 (4,39%) - 51 (8,44%) - 26 (0,42%) - 18 (3,21%) - 52 (4,47%) - 39 (5,40%) - 53 (4,56%) - 33 (1,69%) - 35 (2,03%), 73 (2,19%) - 69 (0,59%) - 45 (2,11%) - 59 (4,22%) - 68 (3,04%) - 66 (5,06%) - 31 (4,64%) - 56 (4,81%) y 82 (1,10%). Conclusiones: La distribución de los genotipos de VPH fue concordante con estudios previos nacionales. Se observó una tendencia a la reducción del genotipo 16 en el tiempo, lo cual podría relacionarse a la vacunación, implementada en los últimos años en Chile. Destaca que otros genotipos de VPH-AR tuvieron una alta frecuencia en la población estudiada por lo que sería recomendable evaluar la pesquisa ampliada de genotipos de VPH-AR para valorar el riesgo oncogénico, con fines diagnósticos y terapéuticos.


Background: Persistent infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotypes is the main cause of cervical cancer worldwide. Genotypes 16 and 18 are associated with progression to cervical cancer, however other genotypes also present high oncogenic risk. There is little evidence regarding the distribution of HR-HPV genotypes in the national population, being an issue that should be addressed in the context of a growing increase in immigration and implementation of the immunization program in Chile since 2015. Aim: To show the distribution of HR-HPV genotypes detected in women and men, attended at the private care network of Clinica Davila, Santiago City, between 2014 and 2021. Methods: Genital and anal samples from 3,642 patients were studied, including both sexes. Genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (HPV AnyplexTM II HPV28 detection, Seegene, Korea). Results: The global distribution of genotypes in women (percentage) was: 16 (14.34%) - 31 (6.20%) - 39 (5.94%) - 58 (5.94%) - 51 (5.68%) - 53 (5.64%) - 52 (5.30%) - 56 (5.27%) - 68 (5.19%) - 66 (4.97%) - 18 (3.36%) - 59 (3.29%) - 73 (2.80%) - 35 (2.54%) - 45 (2.13%) - 33 (1.53%) - 82 (1.38%) - 26 (0.49%) and 69 (0.41%). In men was: 16 (8.52%) - 58 (4.39%) - 51 (8.44%) - 26 (0.42%) - 18 (3.21%) - 52 (4.47%) - 39 (5.40%) - 53 (4.56%), 33 (1.69%) - 35 (2.03%) - 73 (2.19%) - 69 (0.59%) - 45 (2.11%) - 59 (4.22%) - 68 (3.04%) - 66 (5.06%) - 31 (4.64%) - 56 (4.81%) and 82 (1.10%). Conclusions: The distribution of HPV genotypes was consistent with previous national studies. A tendency to reduce genotype 16 over the years was observed, which could be related to the vaccination, implemented in recent years in Chile. It is remarkable that other HR-HPV genotypes had a high frequency in the population studied, so it would be advisable to evaluate an expanded screening for HR-HPV genotypes to assess the oncogenic risk, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Genotyping Techniques , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Health Facilities, Proprietary
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(1): 27-35, feb. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559663

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH-AR) es responsable del cáncer de cuello uterino y sus lesiones preneoplásicas. Los genotipos VPH16 y VPH18 son los más frecuentes en este cáncer. La integración del VPH-AR en el genoma de la célula hospedera es crucial en la carcinogénesis cervical, pero la etapa en que ocurre en la población chilena es incierta. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la integración de VPH16 y VPH18 en lesiones pre-neoplásicas de cuello uterino. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 108 muestras de raspados cervicales. El VPH se genotipificó mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) e hibridación no radiactiva. La integración de VPH16 y VPH18 se determinó por presencia del gen E2 mediante RPC. RESULTADOS: VPH16 y VPH18 se detectaron en 36,1% y 12,0% de las muestras, respectivamente. El VPH16 se integró en 23,1% de los casos de VPH16, mientras que VPH18 se integró en 100% de las muestras positivas para este genotipo. CONCLUSIONES: La integración VPH-AR es un evento temprano en la carcinogénesis cervical que ocurre en casi la mitad de las lesiones pre-neoplásicas y es más frecuente en VPH18 que en VPH16. La evaluación de la integración VPH-AR puede ser una herramienta útil para detectar el virus en la población chilena.


BACKGROUND: High-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and its preneoplastic lesions. HPV16 and 18 are the most frequent HR-HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancer. HR-HPV genome integration into the host cell is an important event in the carcinogenic process. However, it remains uncertain which stage of cervical carcinogenesis HPV16 and 18 integration occurs in the Chilean population. AIM: The goal of this study was to evaluate HPV16 and HPV18 integration in preneoplastic lesions of the cervix. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 108 cervical scrape samples with preneoplastic lesions. HPV was genotyped using PCR and non-radioactive hybridization. The integration status of HPV16 and HPV 18 was determined by evaluating the E2 gene presence through PCR. RESULTS: HPV16 and HPV18 tested positive in 36.1% and 12.0% of samples, respectively. HPV16 was found integrated in 23.1% of HPV 16 cases, while HPV 18 in 100% of samples positive for this viral genotype. CONCLUSIONS: HR-HPV integration is an early event in cervical carcinogenesis, occurring in nearly half of preneoplastic lesions and being more frequent in HPV18 than in HPV16. The evaluation of HR-HPV integration can be utilized as a complementary tool for detecting HPV in the Chilean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Precancerous Conditions/virology , Cervix Uteri/virology , Virus Integration/genetics , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Human papillomavirus 16/isolation & purification , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/isolation & purification , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Genotyping Techniques , Genotype
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 431-440, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Findings on the association of genetic factors and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival are limited and inconsistent, and revealing the mechanism underlying their prognostic roles is of great importance. This study aimed to explore the relationship between functional genetic variations and the prognosis of CRC and further reveal the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#We first systematically performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Then, the Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to filter out the survival-related eQTL target genes of CRC patients in two public datasets (TCGA and GSE39582 dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database). The seven most potentially functional eQTL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with six survival-related eQTL target genes were genotyped in 907 Chinese CRC patients with clinical prognosis data. The regulatory mechanism of the survival-related SNP was further confirmed by functional experiments.@*RESULTS@#The rs71630754 regulating the expression of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 ( ERAP1 ) was significantly associated with the prognosis of CRC (additive model, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.88, P = 0.012). The results of dual-luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the A allele of the rs71630754 could increase the binding of transcription factor 3 (TCF3) and subsequently reduce the expression of ERAP1 . The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that lower expression of ERAP1 could affect the tumor immune microenvironment and was significantly associated with severe survival outcomes.@*CONCLUSION@#The rs71630754 could influence the prognosis of CRC patients by regulating the expression of the immune-related gene ERAP1 .@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#No. NCT00454519 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ).


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Quantitative Trait Loci , Colorectal Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment , Aminopeptidases/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To develop a genotyping method for the Junior blood type and report on a rare blood type with Jr(a-).@*METHODS@#Healthy O-type RhD+ volunteer donors of the Shenzhen Blood Center from January to May 2021 (n = 1 568) and a pedigree with difficult cross-matching (n = 3) were selected as the study subjects. Serological methods were used for proband's blood type identification, unexpected antibody identification, and antibody titer determination. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method was used for typing the proband's RhD gene. ABCG2 gene coding region sequencing and a PCR-SSP genotyping method were established for determining the genotypes of the proband and his family members and screening of Jra antigen-negative rare blood type among the 1 568 blood donors.@*RESULTS@#The proband's ABO and RhD blood types were respectively determined as B and partial D (RHDDVI.3/RHD01N.01), Junior blood type Jra antigen was negative, and plasma had contained anti-D and anti-Jra. Sequencing of the ABCG2 gene revealed that the proband's genotype was ABGG201N.01/ABGG201N.01 [homozygous c.376C>T (p.Gln126X) variants], which is the most common Jr(a-) blood type allele in the Asian population. Screening of the voluntary blood donors has detected no Jr(a-) rare blood type. Statistical analysis of the heterozygotes suggested that the allelic frequency for ABCG2*01N.01 (c.376T) was 0.45%, and the frequency of Jr(a-) rare blood type with this molecular background was about 0.2‰.@*CONCLUSION@#A very rare case of partial DVI.3 type and Jr(a-) rare blood type has been identified. And a method for identifying the Junior blood type through sequencing the coding regions of the ABCG2 gene and PCR-SSP has been established.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Group Antigens/genetics , Genotype , Genotyping Techniques , Heterozygote , Alleles , Blood Donors , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the early neurodevelopmental features of young children with SYNGAP1 variants and their genotype-phenotype correlation.@*METHODS@#Young children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (< 5 years old) who were referred to the Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics between January 2019 and July 2022 were selected as the study subjects. All children had undergone whole-exome sequencing, comprehensive pediatric neuropsychological assessment, familial segregation analysis, and pathogenicity classification. Meanwhile, young Chinese NDD children (< 5 years old) with pathogenic/likely pathogenic SYNGAP1 variants were retrieved from the literature, with information including detailed clinical and genetic testing, neurodevelopmental quotient (DQ) of the Children Neuropsychological and Behavior Scale-Revision 2016 (CNBS-R2016). Children who did not have a detailed DQ but had their developmental status assessed by a medical professional were also included. The correlation between neurodevelopmental severity, comorbidity and SYNGAP1 variants were summarized.@*RESULTS@#Four young NDD children carrying SYNGAP1 variants were recruited (1 male and 3 females, with a mean age of 34.0 ± 18.2 months), among whom one harboring a novel variant (c.437C>G, p.S146*). Combined with 19 similar cases retrieved from the literature, 23 Chinese NDD young children were included in our study (8 males and 10 females, 5 with unknown sex, with a mean age of 37.1 ± 14.2 months). A loss of function (LOF) variant was found in 19 (82.6%) children. All of the children had presented global developmental delay (GDD) before the age of two. In addition, 16 (69.6%) had seizure/epilepsy at the age of 27.0 ± 12.1 months, among whom 15 had occurred independent of the global developmental delay. Myoclonic and absence were common types of seizures. Compared with those with variants of exons 8 to 15, the severity of developmental delay was milder among children with variants in exons 1 to 5.@*CONCLUSION@#The early neurodevelopment features of the SYNGAP1 variants for young children (< 5 years old) have included global developmental delay and seizure/epilepsy. All of the children may present GDD before the age of two. The severity of developmental delay may be related to the type and location of the SYNGAP1 variants.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Epilepsy/genetics , Genetic Testing , Genotype , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics , Seizures/genetics
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia , Case-Control Studies , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

ABSTRACT

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Subject(s)
Glycine max/growth & development , Glycine max/genetics , Phenotype , Bangladesh , Plant Breeding , Genotype , Mutation
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256799, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360215

ABSTRACT

Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is one of the most important corn leaf diseases. Appropriate management strategies and the use of resistant cultivars allow disease control. Therefore, knowing the aspects related to the pathogen and the response of hosts makes it possible to design efficient strategies for selecting genotypes resistant to this disease. In this sense, the objective was to carry out the Bipolaris maydis isolate characterization, evaluating the pathogenicity in different popcorn lines and the symptoms generated in the host after inoculation. The isolate characterization consisted of the macromorphological evaluation of the colonies and the micromorphological evaluation of the conidia in the PDA medium. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolate, using 20 inbred lines of popcorn in a randomized block design with four replicates. Inoculation was carried out by spraying leaves, with a suspension containing 1.0 x 104 conidia.ml-1 of the CF/UENF 501 isolate of B. maydis. An incidence assessment and three assessments of disease symptom severity were performed, with seven days intervals between evaluations. The morphological characterization data of the isolate were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and for disease severity, the linear regression model was applied the first-degree model. The variance analysis was performed for the linear and angular coefficients obtained for each treatment. When a difference was found, the Scott-Knott clustering algorithm at 5% significance was applied. The isolate had gray-green colonies, a cottony appearance, and an irregular shape. The lines L353, L354, and L624 show more resistance at the beginning and throughout the evaluations. The high virulence of the CF/UENF 501 isolate made it possible to differentiate the lines in terms of disease intensity and the pattern of symptoms presented.


Mancha-de-Bipolaris é uma das mais importantes doenças foliares do milho. Estratégias de manejo adequadas e o uso de cultivar resistente permitem o controle da doença, mas para tanto, conhecer os aspectos associados ao patógeno e a resposta do hospedeiro é necessário para traçar estratégias eficientes para seleção de genótipos resistentes a essa doença. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a caracterização do isolado de Bipolaris maydis avaliando a patogenicidade em diferentes linhagens de milho-pipoca e os sintomas gerados no hospedeiro a partir da inoculação. A caracterização do isolado consistiu na avaliação macromorfológica das colônias e micromofológica dos conídios em meio nutritivo BDA. Para avaliação da patogenicidade do isolado foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação utilizando 20 linhagens endogâmicas de milho-pipoca, com delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A inoculação foi realizada por meio de pulverização em folhas, com uma suspensão contendo 1,0 x 104 conídios.ml-1 do isolado CF/UENF 501 de B. maydis. Foi realizada uma avaliação de incidência e três avaliações de severidade dos sintomas da doença, com o intervalo de sete dias para cada avaliação. Os dados da caracterização morfológica do isolado foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e para severidade da doença foi aplicado o modelo de regressão linear de primeiro grau. Realizou-se a análise de variância para o coeficiente linear e angular obtido para cada tratamento e quando constatada diferença aplicou-se o agrupamento de médias de Scott-knott a 5% de significância. O isolado apresentou colônias com coloração cinza esverdeado, aspecto algodonoso e forma irregular. As linhagens L353 e L354 e L624 estão entre as linhagens que apresentaram maior resistência no inicio e ao longo das avaliações. A elevada virulência do isolado CF/UENF 501 possibilitou diferenciar as linhagens quanto a intensidade da doença, bem como o padrão dos sintomas apresentados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control , Zea mays , Genotype
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(4): 296-204, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515219

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: La biopsia guiada por colposcopia (BGC) marca el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial cervical. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la concordancia de los resultados entre la BGC y la escisión amplia de la zona de transformación (LLETZ, large loop excision of the transformation zone), y la utilidad del genotipado del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para seleccionar a las pacientes con riesgo de lesión intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado/neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 3 (HSIL/CIN3). Método: Se compararon los resultados de la BGC y de la LLETZ, siendo esta última el método de referencia. Se evaluó la relación del genotipo del VPH con el diagnóstico final de HSIL/CIN3. Resultados: La precisión de la biopsia comparada con LLETZ fue del 61,4%. La tasa de concordancia fue del 64,4% para CIN1, del 31,4% para CIN2 y del 77,4% para CIN3. La tasa global de sobrediagnóstico fue del 18,68% y la de subdiagnóstico del 19,89%. En mujeres menores de 30 años, la concordancia fue del 62,79% (CIN1 65%, CIN2 39,58% y CIN3 73,08%), la tasa de sobrediagnóstico del 22,67% y la tasa de subdiagnóstico del 15,11%. La infección por VPH16 tuvo una odds ratio de 3,86 para el diagnóstico final de HSIL/CIN3+. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de CIN2 por BGC parece insuficiente para seleccionar a las pacientes para tratamiento escisional, principalmente en mujeres jóvenes. El hallazgo de VPH16 es un factor de riesgo de HSIL/CIN3+ independientemente del resultado de la biopsia.


Objective: Colposcopy-guided biopsy (CGB) is a basic tool for the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the concordance of results between CGB and large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), and the usefulness of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping to select patients at risk of H-SIL/CIN3. Method: The results of colposcopy-guided biopsy and LLETZ were compared, with LLETZ being the gold standard. The relationship of HPV genotype to the final diagnosis of CIN3 was assessed. Results: The accuracy of CGB compared to LLETZ was 61.4%. The concordance rate was 64.4% for CIN1, 31.4% for CIN2 and 77.4% for CIN3. The overall overdiagnosis rate was 18.68% and underdiagnosis rate was 19.89%. In women under 30 years of age the concordance rate was 62.79% (CIN1 65%, CIN2 39.58% and CIN3 73.08%), and the rate of overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis was 22.67% and 15.11%, respectively. HPV16 infection had an odds ratio of 3.86 for the final diagnosis of CIN3+ and the result was significant regardless of the biopsy result. Conclusions: The CGB result as CIN2 is inaccurate and seems insufficient to select patients for excisional treatment, mainly in young women. HPV16 infection is a risk factor for CIN3+ regardless of the colposcopy-guided biopsy result.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Biopsy/methods , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/genetics , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/pathology , Colposcopy/methods , Precancerous Conditions , Retrospective Studies , Genotyping Techniques , Image-Guided Biopsy , Genotype , Papillomaviridae/genetics
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 216-228, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533885

ABSTRACT

Introduction. For over a century, Sporothrix schenckii was considered the sole species responsible for sporotrichosis. In 2007, scientific community confirmed the disease could be caused by various Sporothrix species. These species differed in their virulence factors and their antifungal sensitivity. Objective. This study aims to characterize 42 Colombian clinical isolates of Sporothrix spp. phenotypically and genotypically. Materials and methods. Forty-two clinical isolates were characterized using phenotypic methods. It involved various culture media to determine their growth range at different temperatures and to assess the type and distribution of pigment and colony texture. Microscopic morphology was evaluated through microcultures, as well as the conidia diameter, type of sporulation, and morphology. Additionally, the assimilation of carbohydrates was selected as a physiological trait for species identification. Genotyping of 40 isolates was performed through partial amplification of the calmodulin gene, followed by sequence analysis. Results. Molecular studies enabled the identification of 32 isolates of S. schenckii and 8 isolates of S. globosa. The combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods eased these species characterizations and the recognition keys development based on parameters such as growth diameter at 25 and 30 °C, colony texture (membranous or velvety) on potato dextrose agar, and microscopic morphology with predominance of pigmented triangular, elongated oval globose, or subglobose conidia. Conclusions. Confirmation of the phenotypic characteristics and molecular analysis is crucial for identifying Sporothrix species and determining adequate treatment. This study represents the first phenotypical and genotypical characterization of clinical isolates of Sporothrix spp. reported in Colombia.


Introducción. Por más de un siglo se creyó que Sporothrix schenckii era la única especie responsable de la esporotricosis. Sin embargo, en el 2007, se consideró que podría ser causada por diferentes especies de Sporothrix, que difieren en sus factores de virulencia y su sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Objetivo. Caracterizar fenotípica y genotípicamente 42 aislamientos clínicos colombianos de Sporothrix spp. Materiales y métodos. Se caracterizaron 42 aislamientos clínicos mediante métodos fenotípicos. Se usaron varios medios de cultivo para determinar el rango de crecimiento a diferentes temperaturas, el tipo y la distribución del pigmento, y la textura de las colonias. Se evaluó la morfología microscópica por microcultivos mediante la determinación del diámetro, el tipo de esporulación y la morfología de las conidias. La asimilación de carbohidratos se usó como una característica fisiológica para identificar las especies. La genotipificación de los 40 aislamientos se llevó a cabo mediante la amplificación parcial del gen que codifica para la calmodulina y se confirmó por secuenciación. Resultados. Mediante estudios moleculares, se identificaron 32 aislamientos de S. schenckii y ocho de S. globosa. La combinación de métodos fenotípicos y genotípicos permitió caracterizar las especies y construir claves para su reconocimiento, con base en parámetros como el diámetro de crecimiento a 25 y 30 °C, la textura de las colonias (membranosa, aterciopelada) en agar papa dextrosa y la morfología microscópica con predominio de conidias (triangulares pigmentadas, ovales globosas elongadas, subglobosas). Conclusiones. La caracterización fenotípica y los análisis moleculares son necesarios para identificar las especies de Sporothrix y, de esta forma, elegir el tratamiento indicado. Esta es la primera caracterización fenotípica y genotípica reportada de aislamientos clínicos colombianos de Sporothrix spp.


Subject(s)
Sporotrichosis , Phenotype , Sporothrix , Genotype
12.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(3): 138-142, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515202

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el grupo RhD fetal a través del estudio del gen RHD en ADN fetal que se encuentra libre en plasma de embarazadas RhD negativo. Método: Se analizó la presencia de los genes RHD, SRY y BGLO en ADNfl obtenido de plasma de 51 embarazadas RhD negativo no sensibilizadas, utilizando una qPCR. Los resultados del estudio genético del gen RHD se compararon con el estudio del grupo sanguíneo RhD realizado por método serológico en muestras de sangre de cordón, y los resultados del estudio del gen SRY fueron cotejados con el sexo fetal determinado por ecografía. Se calcularon la sensibilidad, la especificidad, los valores predictivos y la capacidad discriminativa del método estandarizado. Resultados: El gen RHD estaba presente en el 72,5% de las muestras y el gen SRY en el 55,5%, coincidiendo en un 100% con los resultados del grupo RhD detectado en sangre de cordón y con el sexo fetal confirmado por ecografía, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Fue posible deducir el grupo sanguíneo RhD del feto mediante el estudio del ADN fetal que se encuentra libre en el plasma de embarazadas con un método molecular no invasivo desarrollado y validado para este fin. Este test no invasivo puede ser utilizado para tomar la decisión de administrar inmunoglobulina anti-D solo a embarazadas RhD negativo que portan un feto RhD positivo.


Objective: To determine the fetal RhD group through the study of the RHD gene in fetal DNA found free in plasma of RhD negative pregnant women. Method: The presence of the RHD, SRY and BGLO genes in fetal DNA obtained from plasma of 51 non-sensitized RhD negative pregnant women was analyzed using qPCR. The results of the genetic study of the RHD gene were compared with the RhD blood group study performed by serological method in cord blood samples, and the results of the SRY gene study were compared with the fetal sex determined by ultrasound. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and discriminative capacity of the standardized method were calculated. Results: The RHD gene was present in 72.5% of the samples and the SRY gene in 55.5%, coinciding 100% with the results of the RhD group detected in cord blood, and with the fetal sex confirmed by ultrasound, respectively. Conclusions: It was possible to deduce the RhD blood group of the fetus through the study of fetal DNA found free in the plasma of pregnant women with a non-invasive molecular method developed and validated for this purpose. This non-invasive test can be used to make the decision to administer anti-D immunoglobulin only to RhD-negative pregnant women carrying an RhD-positive fetus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics , DNA , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/diagnosis , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/genetics , Phenotype , Prenatal Diagnosis , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Rho(D) Immune Globulin , Genes, sry/genetics , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/blood , Fetal Diseases/diagnosis , Fetal Diseases/genetics , Fetal Diseases/blood , Genotype
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 286-296, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430539

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and colorectal cancer is the only cancer that has shown a sustained increase in mortality in the last decade. In the search for new chemotherapeutic agents against cancer, extremophilic microorganisms have shown to be a potential source to obtain molecules of natural origin and with selective cytotoxic action towards cancer cells. In this work we analyzed the ability of a collection of Antarctic soil bacteria, isolated on Collins Glacier from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica Desv plant, to secrete molecules capable of inhibiting cell proliferation of a colorectal cancer tumor line. Our results demonstrated that culture supernatants from the Antarctic bacteria K2I17 and MI12 decreased the viability of LoVo cells, a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the Antarctic bacteria showed that they were taxonomically related and nucleotide identity analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the bacterium K2I17 as a species belonging to the genus Bacillus.


El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y el cáncer colorrectal es el único que presenta un aumento sostenido de la mortalidad en la última década. En la búsqueda de nuevos agentes quimioterapeúticos contra el cáncer, se ha propuesto a los microorganismos extremófilos como una fuente potencial para obtener moléculas de origen natural y con acción citotóxica selectiva hacia las células cancerígenas. En este trabajo analizamos la capacidad de una colección de bacterias de suelo antártico, aisladas en el glaciar Collins desde rizosfera de la planta de Deschampsia antarctica Desv, de secretar moléculas capaces de inhibir la proliferación celular de una línea tumoral de cáncer colorrectal. Nuestros resultados demostraron que los sobrenadantes de cultivo de las bacterias antárticas K2I17 y MI12 disminuyeron la viabilidad de la línea celular de adenocarcinoma colorrectal LoVo, en un ensayo de reducción metabólica de MTT. La caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de las bacterias antárticas, demostró que estaban relacionadas taxonómicamente y el análisis de la identidad nucleotídica en base a la secuencia del gen ARNr 16S identificó a la bacteria K2I17 como una especie perteneciente al género Bacillus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/physiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phenotype , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Survival/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Genotype , Antarctic Regions
14.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35jan. 31, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526864

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections are of significant concern in men, given its potential impact on their health and the risk of transmission to partners. Understanding and addressing this infection in men is crucial to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination in reducing HPV-related diseases. Objective: To assess the impact of HPV vaccination, potential genotype shifts, and adverse effects, through a prospective study conducted with male university students. Methods:The study involved 286 volunteers who were examined at Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics at the Universidade Federal Fluminense in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The HPV prevalence was evaluated using generic PCR, genotyped by DNA microarray and monitored adverse effects. Results: The findings of this study revealed the absence of moderate or severe adverse effects. Genetic shifts were observed, including the disappearance of oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18. Surprisingly, even after completing the full vaccine regimen, students still harbored HPV11 in the oral tract. Furthermore, persistent HPV 6 and 11 infections were identified in three students, who had pre-existing infections prior to vaccination, at the follow-up visit. Multivariate analysis uncovered independent associations, notably an increased risk of HPV infection in the oral tract among men who have sex with men. HPV prevalence rates remained low both before and after the vaccination scheme (T0: 14.7%, T1: 8.7%). Even after the full vaccination scheme, the prevalence remained similar at T2 (14.6%), with no statistically significant differences recorded. HPV11 emerged as the most prevalent type throughout the study, followed by HPV6. Vaccine genotypes were detected in a significant proportion of samples at T0 (85.4%), T1 (89.5%), and T2 (100%). Conclusion: Overall, this study suggests that vaccination may represent a promising approach to reducing HPV-related health risks. These findings shed light on the potential benefits and challenges of HPV vaccination, emphasizing the need for continued monitoring and vaccination efforts


Introdução: As infecções por papilomavírus humano (HPV) são de grande preocupação em homens, dada sua possível influência na saúde deles e no risco de transmissão para parceiros. Compreender e abordar essa infecção em homens é fundamental para avaliar a eficácia da vacinação na redução de doenças relacionadas ao HPV. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da vacinação contra o HPV, possíveis alterações genotípicas e efeitos adversos, por meio de um estudo prospectivo realizado em estudantes universitários do sexo masculino. Métodos: O estudo envolveu 286 voluntários examinados em Clínicas de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis na Universidade Federal Fluminense, em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A prevalência do HPV foi avaliada por polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genérico e genotipada por microarranjo de DNA, e foram monitorados os efeitos adversos. Resultados: Os resultados deste estudo revelaram a ausência de efeitos adversos moderados ou graves. Observaram-se mudanças genéticas, incluindo o desaparecimento dos tipos oncogênicos do HPV 16 e 18. Surpreendentemente, mesmo após a conclusão do esquema completo de vacinação, os estudantes ainda abrigavam o HPV 11 na cavidade oral. Além disso, foram identificadas infecções persistentes pelo HPV 6 e 11 em três estudantes que já tinham infecções preexistentes antes da vacinação e na visita de acompanhamento. A análise multivariada revelou associações independentes, especialmente um aumento no risco de infecção pelo HPV na cavidade oral em homens que têm relações sexuais com homens. As taxas de prevalência do HPV permaneceram baixas tanto antes quanto depois do esquema de vacinação (T0: 14,7%, T1: 8,7%). Mesmo após a conclusão do esquema de vacinação, a prevalência permaneceu semelhante em T2 (14,6%), sem diferenças estatisticamente significativas registradas. O HPV 11 emergiu como o tipo mais prevalente ao longo do estudo, seguido pelo HPV 6. Genótipos da vacina foram detectados em uma proporção significativa de amostras em T0 (85,4%), T1 (89,5%) e T2 (100%). Conclusão: No geral, este estudo sugere que a vacinação pode representar uma abordagem promissora para a redução dos riscos à saúde relacionados ao HPV. Esses achados lançam luz sobre os benefícios e desafios potenciais da vacinação contra o HPV, enfatizando a necessidade de monitoramento contínuo e esforços de vacinação


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genotype
15.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 276-282, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981861

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To derive general formulas for calculating commonly used kinship index (KI).@*METHODS@#By introducing the Kronecker symbol, the formulas used to calculate the same KI under different genotype combinations were summarized into a unified expression.@*RESULTS@#The general formulas were successfully derived for KI in various case situations, including the paternity index, full sibling index, half sibling index, avuncular index, grandpaternity index, first-cousin index, and second-cousin index between two individuals without or with the mother being involved; grandpaternity index between grandparents and a grandchild without or with the mother being involved; half sibling index between two children with two mothers being involved; full sibling index among three children; and half sibling index among three children with no, one, or two mothers being involved.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The general formulas given in this study simplify the calculation of KIs and facilitate fast and accurate calculation through programming.


Subject(s)
Female , Child , Humans , Paternity , Siblings , Genotype , Mothers , Models, Genetic
16.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 271-275, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To derive the paternity index (PI) calculation formula of the alleged father (AF) when the AF is a relative (parent/child, siblings, grandparent/grandchild, uncle/nephew, first cousins) of the child's biological mother.@*METHODS@#For the case when the AF is related to the child's biological mother, the existence of the relationship in the numerator and denominator hypothesis of PI was considered. The genotype frequency of the AF was calculated by using the frequency formula in which the mother's genotype was considered, while the random male in the denominator was substituted as another relative of the mother's same rank. The PI calculation formula was derived to eliminate the effect of the relationship between AF and the child's biological mother.@*RESULTS@#When the AF and the biological mother have first, second and tertiary kinship, a more conservative PI was obtained from the PI calculation formula derived in this study compared with the PI calculation method which did not consider kinship.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The calculation method provided in this study can eliminate the effect of the relation of the AF and mother on the PI in incest cases, to obtain more accurate and conservative identification conclusions.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Child , Paternity , Mothers , Genotype , Fathers
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 262-270, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the application value of the likelihood ratio (LR) method and identity by state (IBS) method in the identification involving half sibling relationships, and to provide a reference for the setting of relevant standards for identification of half sibling relationship.@*METHODS@#(1) Based on the same genetic marker combinations, the reliability of computer simulation method was verified by comparing the distributions of cumulated identity by state score (CIBS) and combined full sibling index in actual cases with the distributions in simulated cases. (2) In different numbers of three genetic marker combinations, the simulation of full sibling, half sibling and unrelated individual pairs, each 1 million pairs, was obtained; the CIBS, as well as the corresponding types of cumulative LR parameters, were calculated. (3) The application value of LR method was compared with that of IBS method, by comparing the best system efficiency provided by LR method and IBS method when genetic markers in different amounts and of different types and accuracy were applied to distinguish the above three relational individual pairs. (4) According to the existing simulation data, the minimum number of genetic markers required to distinguish half siblings from the other two relationships using different types of genetic markers was estimated by curve fitting.@*RESULTS@#(1) After the rank sum test, under the premise that the real relationship and the genetic marker combination tested were the same, there was no significant difference between the simulation method and the results obtained in the actual case. (2) In most cases, under the same conditions, the system effectiveness obtained by LR method was greater than that by IBS method. (3) According to the existing data, the number of genetic markers required for full-half siblings and half sibling identification could be obtained by curve fitting when the system effectiveness reached 0.95 or 0.99.@*CONCLUSIONS@#When distinguishing half sibling from full sibling pairs or unrelated pairs, it is recommended to give preference to the LR method, and estimate the required number of markers according to the identification types and the population data, to ensure the identification effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Siblings , Genetic Markers , Computer Simulation , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Genotype
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 254-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish an analytical method for half sibling testing involving common three relatives' participation.@*METHODS@#Based on the half sibling testing scenarios with the known biological mother, grandfather or uncle, and two unidentified controversial half siblings participating, two opposing hypotheses were set. Lineage reconstruction according to Mendel's law of heredity was carried out, and the calculation formula of the half sibling kinship index was derived. Verification of actual cases was carried out and the results were compared with duo half sibling testing.@*RESULTS@#In the scenarios of the known biological mother, grandfather and uncle participating in half sibling testing, the kinship calculation formulae of 54, 91 and 99 genotype combinations for kinship index calculation were deduced respectively. The actual cases showed higher kinship indexes in trio half sibling testing compared with duo half sibling testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is beneficial to obtain more genetic information for family reconstruction and improvement of the strength of genetic evidence for half sibling testing by adding known relatives.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Siblings , Genotype , Mothers , Microsatellite Repeats
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To develop a polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneous amplification and identification of the KIR genes among Chinese population.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples from 132 healthy donors who had given blood at Shenzhen Blood Center from January 2015 to November 2015 were selected as the study subjects. Based on the polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information of high-resolution KIR alleles in the Chinese population and the IPD-KIR database, specific primers were designed to amplify all the 16 KIR genes and the 2DS4-Normal and 2DS4-Deleted subtypes. The specificity of each pair of PCR primers was verified by using samples with known KIR genotypes. During PCR amplification of the KIR gene, co-amplification the fragment of human growth hormone (HGH) gene by multiplex PCR was used as the internal control to prevent false negative results. A total of 132 samples with known KIR genotypes were randomly selected for blind inspection to verify the reliability of the developed method.@*RESULTS@#The designed primers can specifically amplify the corresponding KIR genes, with clear and bright bands for the internal control and KIR genes. The results of detection are fully consistent with the known results.@*CONCLUSION@#The KIR PCR-SSP method established in this study can yield accurate results for the identification of the presence of KIR genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, KIR/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genotype , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the serological characteristics of ABO blood group and molecular genetic mechanism for a Chinese pedigree with cisAB09 subtype.@*METHODS@#A pedigree undergoing ABO blood group examination at the Department of Transfusion, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University on February 2, 2022 was selected as the study subjects. Serological assay was carried out to determine the ABO blood group of the proband and his family members. Activities of A and B glycosyltransferases in the plasma of the proband and his mother were measured with an enzymatic assay. Expression of A and B antigens on the red blood cells of the proband was analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members were collected. Following extraction of genomic DNA, exons 1 to 7 of the ABO gene and their flanking introns were sequenced, and Sanger sequencing of exon 7 was carried out for the proband, his elder daughter and mother.@*RESULTS@#The results of serological assay suggested that the proband and his elder daughter and mother had an A2B phenotype, whilst his wife and younger daughter had an O phenotype. Measurement of plasma A and B glycosyltransferase activity suggested that the titers of B-glycosyltransferase activity were 32 and 256 for the proband and his mother, which were respectively below and above that of A1B phenotype-positive controls (128). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of A antigen on the red blood cell surface of the proband has decreased, whilst the expression of B antigen was normal. Genetic sequencing confirmed that, in addition to an ABO*B.01 allele, the proband, his elder daughter and mother have harbored a c.796A>G variant in exon 7, which has resulted in substitution of the methionine at 266th position of the B-glycosyltransferase by valine and conformed to the characteristics of ABO*cisAB.09 allele. The genotypes of the proband and his elder daughter were determined as ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*O.01.01, his mother was ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*B.01, and his wife and younger daughter were ABO*O.01.01/ABO*O.01.01.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.796A>G variant of the ABO*B.01 allele has resulted in an amino acid substitution p.Met266Val, which probably underlay the cisAB09 subtype. The ABO*cisA B.09 allele encodes a special glycosyltransferase which can synthesize normal level of B antigen and low level of A antigen on the red blood cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Pedigree , East Asian People , Genotype , Phenotype , Alleles , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Molecular Biology
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