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3.
Rev. ADM ; 80(5): 242-246, sept.-oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530634

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la periodontitis es una enfermedad infecciosa multifactorial asociada a un biofilm de microorganismos patógenos. Objetivo: el objetivo del trabajo fue establecer la prevalencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis en pacientes con periodontitis y relacionarla con la severidad de la enfermedad. Material y métodos: participaron 45 pacientes, sistémicamente saludables, con edades entre 35 y 65 años. El grado de periodontitis se definió según los criterios de Papapanou y colaboradores. Como grupo control, se incluyeron 20 sujetos de ambos sexos sin periodontitis y sin enfermedades sistémicas. Se tomaron muestras de fluido gingival en dos sitios más profundos. Porphyromonas gingivalis se detectó por PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa). Resultados: la frecuencia relativa de periodontitis fue de 13.3% grado I, 46.7% grado II y 40% grado III. El sexo masculino presentó periodontitis grado III 72.2% y grado II 52.3%. El grado I se registró con mayor frecuencia en el sexo femenino, 66.7%. La prevalencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis en la población con periodontitis fue de 44.4%. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grados de severidad de periodontitis y la presencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis (p = 0.0002, α = 5%). Conclusión: la periodontitis predominó en el sexo masculino. La prevalencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis en la población con periodontitis crónica fue de 44.4% y su presencia está relacionada con la severidad (AU)


Introduction: periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease associated with a biofilm of pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: the objective of the work was to establish the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with periodontitis and relate it to the severity of the disease. Material and methods: 45 systemically healthy patients, aged between 35 and 65 years old, participated. The degree of periodontitis was defined according to the criteria of Papapanou et al. As a control group, 20 patients of both sexes without periodontitis and without systemic diseases were included. Gingival fluid samples were taken from two deeper sites. Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Results: the relative frequency of periodontitis was 13.3% grade I, 46.7% grade II and 40% grade III. The male sex presented periodontitis grade III 72.2% and grade II 52.3%. Grade I was recorded more frequently in the female sex, 66.7%. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the population with periodontitis was 44.4%. Statistically significant differences were obtained between the degrees of severity of periodontitis and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p = 0.0002, α = 5%). Conclusion: periodontitis predominated in males. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the population with chronic periodontitis was 44.4% and its presence is related to severity (AU)


Subject(s)
Dentistry/trends , Sustainable Growth , Environmental Health , Global Health , Preventive Dentistry/trends , Health Policy
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 261-269, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533932

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los cursos en línea, masivos y abiertos, brindan la oportunidad de formar profesionales e investigadores en Latinoamérica sobre salud global. Objetivos. Determinar la oferta global de los cursos en línea, masivos y abiertos, sobre salud global y conocer las características de su contenido. Materiales y métodos. Se examinaron las plataformas especializadas en cursos en línea, masivos y abiertos, para recopilar aquellos sobre salud global. La búsqueda no tuvo restricción de tiempo y se realizó por última vez en noviembre de 2021. La estrategia de búsqueda solo incluyó el descriptor "global health". Posteriormente, se obtuvieron las características del curso, su contenido y el dominio abordado de salud global. Estos datos fueron analizados descriptivamente, y se reportaron frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados. La estrategia de búsqueda identificó 4.724 cursos en línea, masivos y abiertos. De ellos, solo 92 estaban relacionados con salud global. La mayoría de estos cursos (n=44; 47,8 %) se ofrecieron mediante la plataforma Coursera. Más de la mitad de los cursos (n=50; 54,4 %) fueron realizados por instituciones de Estados Unidos y en idioma inglés (n=90; 97,8 %). La mayor parte de los cursos se centró en la "globalización de la salud y la asistencia sanitaria" (n=24; 26,1 %), seguido de los dominios "fortalecimiento de capacidades" (n=16; 17,4 %), "carga global de enfermedad" y "determinantes sociales y ambientales de la salud" (n=15; 16,3 %). Conclusiones. Se encontró una importante oferta de cursos en línea, masivos y abiertos, sobre salud global. Estos cursos abordaron las competencias de la salud global que se requieren para los profesionales sanitarios.


Introduction. Massive open online courses provide the opportunity to train health professionals and researchers from Latin America in global health. Objective. To determine the global offer of massive open online courses in global health and the characteristics of their content. Material and methods. We examined massive open online course platforms to compile the global health offerings. The search had no time restriction and was last conducted in November, 2021. The search strategy only included the descriptor "global health". We obtained the characteristics of the courses, their content, and the global health domain covered. These data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, reporting absolute and relative frequencies. Results. Our search strategy identified 4,724 massive open online courses. Of these, only 92 were related to global health. Most of these courses (n=44; 47.8%) were offered through Coursera. More than half (n=50; 54.4%) of the MOOCs were conducted by U.S.A. institutions and in English language (n=90; 97.8%). Most courses focused on "globalization of health and healthcare" (n=24; 26.1%), followed by the domains "capacity building" (n=16; 17.4%), "global burden of disease" and "social and environmental determinants of health" (n=15; 16.3%). Conclusions. We found a high offer of massive open online courses on global health. These courses covered the global health competencies required for health professionals.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Health Education , Education, Distance , Education, Continuing , Self-Directed Learning as Topic , Learning
5.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 17-26, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970004

ABSTRACT

Poliomyelitis, or polio, is a highly infectious disease and can result in permanent flaccid paralysis of the limbs. Singapore was certified polio-free by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 29 October 2000, together with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region. The last imported case of polio in Singapore was in 2006. Fortunately, polio is vaccine-preventable-the world saw the global eradication of wild poliovirus types 2 and 3 achieved in 2015 and 2019, respectively. However, in late 2022, a resurgence of paralytic polio cases from vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) was detected in countries like Israel and the US (specifically, New York); VDPV was also detected during routine sewage water surveillance with no paralysis cases in London, UK. Without global eradication, there is a risk of re-infection from importation and spread of wild poliovirus or VDPV, or new emergence and circulation of VDPV. During the COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide routine childhood vaccination coverage fell by 5% to 81% in 2020-2021. Fortunately, Singapore has maintained a constantly high vaccination coverage of 96% among 1-year-old children as recorded in 2021. All countries must ensure high poliovirus vaccination coverage in their population to eradicate poliovirus globally, and appropriate interventions must be taken to rectify this if the coverage falters. In 2020, WHO approved the emergency use listing of a novel oral polio vaccine type 2 for countries experiencing circulating VDPV type 2 outbreaks. Environmental and wastewater surveillance should be implemented to allow early detection of "silent" poliovirus transmission in the population, instead of relying on clinical surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis based on case definition alone.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Public Health Surveillance , Pandemics , Wastewater , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Vaccination , Global Health
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2834-2838, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is limited data to comprehensively evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of multiple myeloma (MM) in China; therefore, this study determined the characteristics of the disease burden of MM at national and provincial levels in China.@*METHODS@#The burden of MM, including incidence, mortality, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), with a 95% uncertainty interval (UI), was determined in China following the general analytical strategy used in the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019. The trends in the burden of MM from 1990 to 2019 were also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#There were an estimated 347.45 thousand DALYs with an age-standardized DALY rate of 17.05 (95% UI, 12.31-20.77) per 100,000 in 2019. The estimated number of incident case and deaths of MM were 18,793 and 13,421, with age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of 0.93 (95% UI, 0.67-1.15) and 0.67 (95% UI, 0.50-0.82) per 100,000, respectively. The age-specific DALY rates per 100,000 increased to more than 10.00 in the 40 to 44 years age group reaching a peak (93.82) in the 70 to 74 years age group. Males had a higher burden than females, with approximately 1.5- to 2.0-fold sex difference in age-specific DALY rates in all age groups. From 1990 to 2019, the DALYs of MM increased 134%, from 148,479 in 1990 to 347,453 in 2019.@*CONCLUSION@#The burden of MM has doubled over the last three decades, which highlights the need to establish effective disease prevention and control strategies at both the national and provincial levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Global Burden of Disease , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Global Health , Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , China/epidemiology
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1030-1046, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010827

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported at the end of 2019 as a worldwide health concern causing a pandemic of unusual viral pneumonia and many other organ damages, which was defined by the World Health Organization as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pandemic is considered a significant threat to global public health till now. In this review, we have summarized the lessons learnt during the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2, including its prototype and variants. The overall clinical features of variants of concern (VOC), heterogeneity in the clinical manifestations, radiology and pathology of COVID-19 patients are also discussed, along with advances in therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Global Health , China/epidemiology
8.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 222-230, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to estimate spatiotemporal variations of global heat-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden from 1990 to 2019.@*METHODS@#Data on the burden of heat-related CVD were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were used to quantify heat-induced CVD burden. We calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and DALY rate (ASDR) per 100,000 population to compare this burden across regions. Generalized linear models were applied to evaluate estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) for temporal trends from 1990 to 2019. The correlation between the socio-demographic index (SDI) and age-standardized rate was measured using the Spearman rank test.@*RESULTS@#Heat-induced CVD caused approximately 90 thousand deaths worldwide in 2019. Global ASMR and ASDR of heat-related CVD in 2019 were 1.17 [95% confidence interval ( CI): 0.13-1.98] and 25.59 (95% CI: 2.07-44.17) per 100,000 population, respectively. The burden was significantly increased in middle and low-SDI regions and slightly decreased in high-SDI regions from 1990 to 2019. ASMR showed an upward trend, with the most considerable increase in low-latitude countries. We observed a negative correlation between SDI and EAPC in ASMR ( r s = -0.57, P < 0.01) and ASDR ( r s = -0.59, P < 0.01) among 204 countries.@*CONCLUSION@#Heat-attributable CVD burden substantially increased in most developing countries and tropical regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hot Temperature , Temperature , Global Health , Global Burden of Disease
9.
Saúde Soc ; 32(3): e230486pt, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530386

ABSTRACT

Resumo A vacinação é um componente essencial da atenção primária à saúde e do enfrentamento de emergências em saúde. No entanto, apesar do progresso ocorrido nas últimas décadas, persistem importantes barreiras que resultam na queda de coberturas e disparidades entre os países no acesso a novas vacinas. Neste cenário, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) lançou, em 2020, a Agenda de Imunização para o decênio 2021-2030 (AI2030). Este artigo tem o objetivo de debater os principais fatores que afetam o acesso às vacinas e as estratégias para promoção da equidade no acesso a elas a nível global e nacional. Tais fatores são multisetoriais e precisam ser considerados em ambos os níveis, destacando-se as barreiras financeiras e geográficas, os desafios de infraestrutura, fatores socioeconômicos e culturais, políticas públicas e governança. O texto aponta a necessidade de remodelação da arquitetura global das cadeias produtivas e dos centros de pesquisa e inovação, criando e/ou fortalecendo as existentes em países de baixa e média renda. Além disso, é necessário estabelecer novos mecanismos e modelos de produção e comercialização de vacinas. As estratégias adotadas para acesso a vacinas e outras tecnologias em saúde estão no centro do debate da agenda de saúde global.


Abstract Vaccination is an essential component of primary health care and coping with health emergencies. However, despite the progress from the last decades, important barriers persist resulting in lower access and disparities between the countries in the access to new vaccines. In this scenario, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched, in 2020, the Immunization Agenda for the 2021-2030 decade (AI2030). This article aims to discuss the main factors that affect access to vaccines and strategies to promote equity in access to them at global and national levels. These factors are multi-sectoral and need to be considered in both levels, with emphasis on financial and geographic barriers, infrastructure challenges, socioeconomic and cultural factors, public policies, and governance. The text points the need to remodel the global architecture of production chains and research and innovation centers, creating and/or strengthening existing ones in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, establishing new mechanisms and models for the production and commercialization of vaccines is necessary. The strategies adopted for accessing vaccines and other health technologies are at the center of the global health agenda debate.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30(supl.1): e2023053, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520975

ABSTRACT

Resumo Entrevista com Deisy Ventura, professora titular da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, que discute a dimensão política da pandemia de covid-19 no Brasil. A pesquisadora se tornou uma das principais referências no assunto por seu amplo conhecimento de direito internacional com foco em saúde. Na entrevista, ela apresenta reflexões relacionadas à saúde global, além de discutir a gestão da pandemia no país e suas implicações para os direitos humanos. De acordo com a pesquisadora, houve no Brasil uma política governamental sistemática de disseminação do vírus, e a pandemia deveria ser tratada como uma questão de memória, verdade e justiça.


Abstract This interview with Deisy Ventura, professor at the Faculty of Public Health of the Universidade de São Paulo, discusses the political dimension of the covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. She has become a leading reference on the subject due to her extensive knowledge of international law, with a focus on health. In this interview, Deisy Ventura offers some reflections on global health and discusses the handling of the pandemic in Brazil and its human rights implications. According to Ventura, the Brazilian government had a systematic policy for the spread of the virus, and the pandemic should be treated as a matter of memory, truth, and justice.


Subject(s)
Politics , Global Health , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil , History, 21st Century , Human Rights
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30(supl.1): e2023040, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506288

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo aborda a resposta do governo brasileiro à pandemia da covid-19, enfatizando o sistema de vigilância em saúde e de inteligência epidemiológica. Retoma a evolução da vigilância em resposta às normas do Regulamento Sanitário Internacional, no contexto da saúde global. Analisa os atos do Executivo publicados no Diário Oficial da União e se detém nos atores e grupos formados para o enfrentamento da pandemia da covid-19 de janeiro de 2020 até março de 2022. Parte da premissa de que a inteligência epidemiológica deve estar a serviço da saúde pública. Constata-se que certo tensionamento burocrático e a transferência de protagonismo entre grupos marcam o desmonte dos mecanismos de inteligência.


Abstract This article addresses the Brazilian government's response to the covid-19 pandemic, particularly the public health surveillance and epidemic intelligence system. It traces the evolution of disease surveillance as a response to the International Health Regulations in the context of global health. Executive orders published in the official gazette, Diário Oficial da União, are analyzed, as well as the actors and groups formed to tackle the pandemic between January 2020 and March 2022. The founding assumption is that epidemic intelligence must be placed at the service of public health. Bureaucratic tension and changes in protagonism among different groups can be observed as these intelligence mechanisms were dismantled.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Epidemiology , Executive , Public Health Surveillance , Public Health Services , Brazil , History, 21st Century
12.
Saúde Soc ; 32(1): e230228pt, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442159

ABSTRACT

Resumo No contexto da globalização, é recorrente a menção às crises contemporâneas da democracia, da ciência, econômico-sociais, sanitárias e ambientais. No Brasil, essas crises se agravam em função da estrutura histórico-social que carrega profundos problemas não resolvidos, bem como em função de governos que têm desgastado as instituições nacionais que foram arduamente reconstruídas no processo de redemocratização do país. Neste editorial, refletimos sobre o contexto de crise nacional experimentado no Brasil nos últimos anos, situando retrocessos sociais resultantes de políticas neoliberais e conservadoras levadas à cabo pelos últimos dois mandatários do governo federal, e posicionando alguns desafios a serem enfrentados pelo país, a partir de um movimento de retomada da democracia.


Abstract In the context of globalization, mentioning contemporary democracy, science, social-economic, sanitary, and environmental crises is recurrent. In Brazil, these crises have worsened due to historical-cultural structures that carry deep unresolved problems and due to governments that have worn down the national institutions that were reconstructed with hard work during its re-democratization process. In this editorial, we reflect on the national crisis context experienced in Brazil in the last years, situating social regressions resulting from neoliberal and conservative policies carried out by the last two heads of the federal government and placing some challenges to be faced by the country beginning by a movement to retrieve democracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Policy , Global Health , Democracy , Pandemics , Health Policy
13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 657-661, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985542

ABSTRACT

Four organizations, including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Environment Programme, WHO, and the World Organization for Animal Health, recently launched a new One Health Joint Plan of Action (2022-2026) which was the first time that the Quadripartite had issued a joint action plan on One Health. The action plan aimed to address the health challenges in the human, animal, plant, and environment, focusing on improving capabilities in six action tracks including One Health capacities, emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, neglected tropical and vector-borne diseases, food safety, antimicrobial resistance and environment. This introduction will give an overview and brief translation of the background, content, and the plan's value, to help readers understand the joint action plan quickly.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Agriculture , Global Health , One Health , United Nations , Zoonoses/prevention & control
14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 575-580, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985529

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the global epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 2020. Methods: The incidence and mortality data of RCC in the cooperative database GLOBOCAN 2020 of International Agency for Research on Cancer of WHO and the human development index (HDI) published by the United Nations Development Programme in 2020 were collated. The crude incidence rate (CIR), age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), crude mortality rate (CMR), age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and mortality/incidence ratio (M/I) of RCC were calculated. Kruskale-Wallis test was used to analyze the differences in ASIR or ASMR among HDI countries. Results: In 2020, the global ASIR of RCC was 4.6/100 000, of which 6.1/100 000 for males and 3.2/100 000 for females and ASIR was higher in very high and high HDI countries than that in medium and low HDI countries. With the rapid increase of age after the age of 20, the growth rate of ASIR in males was faster than that in females, and slowed down at the age of 70 to 75. The truncation incidence rate of 35-64 years old was 7.5/100 000 and the cumulative incidence risk of 0-74 years old was 0.52%. The global ASMR of RCC was 1.8/100 000, 2.5/100 000 for males and 1.2/100 000 for females. The ASMR of males in very high and high HDI countries (2.4/100 000-3.7/100 000) was about twice that of males (1.1/100 000-1.4/100 000) in medium and low HDI countries, while the ASMR of female (0.6/100 000-1.5/100 000) did not show significant difference. ASMR continued to increase rapidly with age after the age of 40, and the growth rate of males was faster than that of females. The truncation mortality rate of 35-64 years old was 2.1/100 000, and the cumulative mortality risk of 0-74 years old was 0.20%. M/I decreases with the increase of HDI, with M/I as 0.58 in China, which was higher than the global average of 0.39 and the United States' 0.17. Conclusion: The ASIR and ASMR of RCC presented significant regional and gender disparities globally, and the heaviest burden was in very high HDI countries.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/epidemiology , Incidence , Databases, Factual , China , Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology , Global Health
15.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 667-673, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985459

ABSTRACT

Objective: The direction and intensity of population aging on the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in China from 1990 to 2019 were analyzed, and the burden of NCDs in 2050 was predicted. Methods: The disease-specific disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) in the Chinese population from 1990 to 2019 were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study.The differences in indicators from 1990 to 2019 were attributed to the contribution of age structure, population size, and all other causes. The Bayesian age-time-cohort models were used to predict DALYs from NCDs to 2050. Results: The absolute level of DALYs caused by NCDs increased by 7.460 million from 1990 to 2019, and the age structure contributed 186.0% (95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs): 178.4%-193.6%), population size contributed 77.0% (95% UIs: 69.5%-80.8%), all other causes contributed -163.0% (95% UIs:-163.1%- -159.3%). DALYs caused by NCDs consist of 2.527 million YLLs and 4.934 million YLDs, in which the contribution of age structure to YLLs and YLDs was 414.6% (95% UIs: 396.2%-432.5%) and 69.1% (95% UIs: 66.7%-71.4%), respectively. From 2019 to 2050, the diseases with increased DALYs due to changes in age structure are cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, chronic respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, sense organ diseases, diabetes and kidney diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, digestive diseases, mental disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases in descending order. Conclusions: From 1990 to 2019, except for skin and subcutaneous diseases, the burden of other NCDs attributable to population aging increased, mainly due to disability. By 2050, the burden of NCDsattributable to population aging will continue to rise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Life Expectancy , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Global Health , China/epidemiology , Aging , Global Burden of Disease
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1497-1503, dic. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421827

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Dental morphology (DM) is the first introduction of dental graduates towards the identification of tooth; hence it is an important component of the dental curriculum. Traditionally, it is taught by manual carving of wax blocks, but the limitations of this method have been highlighted. There is a need to adopt innovative teaching methodologies to invigorate the concepts of dental anatomy (DA) and reduce the stress in teaching and learning with a proposal in standardization of training methodologies worldwide. Methods: A three-phased project was designed with an aim to collect global data related to teaching dental morphology within the dental curriculum. One dental professional actively involved in university teaching of DM subject was invited from 11 countries. The present study involved compilation of data from phase 1 questionnaire responses, followed by its discussion and analysis, and generation of preliminary report. Results: It is universally acknowledged that acquiring dental morphology knowledge by dentists is a prerequisite before they commence clinical practice. Our data points that no uniformity in DA course modules exists throughout the world and globally the subject requires curriculum redesigning. Conclusions: Consensus should be achieved amongst academicians in DM teaching and learning context. Innovative and standardized DM modules with component of computer-based and remote learning techniques should also be introduced.


La morfología dental (MD) es el primer contacto de los estudiantes de odontología con la identificación del diente; por lo tanto, es un componente importante del plan de estudios de la carrera. Tradicionalmente, se enseña mediante el tallado manual de bloques de cera, pero se han destacado las limitaciones de este método. Existe la necesidad de adoptar metodologías de enseñanza innovadoras para dinamizar los conceptos de anatomía dental (AD) y reducir el estrés en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje con una propuesta de estandarización de metodologías de formación, a nivel mundial. Métodos: Se diseñó un proyecto de tres fases con el objetivo de recopilar datos globales relacionados con la enseñanza de la morfología dental dentro del plan de estudios dental. Se invitó a un profesional de la odontología de cada uno de 11 países que participa activamente en la enseñanza universitaria de la MD. Esto incluyó la recopilación de datos de las respuestas a un cuestionario en la fase 1, seguida de su discusión y análisis, y la generación de un informe preliminar. Resultados: Se reconoce universalmente que la adquisición de conocimientos de morfología dental por parte de los odontólogos es un requisito previo antes de comenzar la práctica clínica. Nuestros datos indican que no existe uniformidad en los módulos del curso de AD en todo el mundo, por lo que el tema requiere un rediseño del plan de estudios. Conclusiones: Debe lograrse consenso entre los académicos en el contexto de enseñanza y aprendizaje de MD. También se deben introducir módulos innovadores y estandarizados de MD con componentes de aprendizaje remoto y de base digital.


Subject(s)
Tooth/anatomy & histology , Curriculum , Education, Dental , Global Health
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 350-366, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399116

ABSTRACT

Introdução: No final do ano de 2019 surgiu na China uma doença infectocontagiosa de característica respiratória e alto grau de disseminação até então desconhecida. No Brasil o primeiro caso de Covid-19 foi confirmado no final de fevereiro de 2020 e a primeira morte em meados de março. Segundo dados da plataforma Coronavírus Brasil, em 17 de março de 2021, houve registro de 11.603.535 casos confirmados e 282.127 óbitos. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil de pessoas que morreram tendo como causa básica do óbito a Covid-19, em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná, entre os anos de 2020 e 2021. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo, documental de caráter quantitativo que foi realizado na prefeitura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Houve prevalência de óbitos em pacientes do sexo masculino, idosos, com presença de alguma comorbidade associada, sendo hipertensão a mais citada (50,8%). Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram tosse (74,4%), dispneia (56,3%) e saturação < 95% (48,3%), necessitando ainda de hospitalização em algum período da doença (94,1%), sendo os leitos de Sistema Único de Saúde os mais procurados (74,4%). Quanto à taxa de ocupação 49,6% dos casos necessitou apenas de leitos de enfermaria e 42% unidades de terapia intensiva. Discussão: Diversas pesquisas apontam que o sexo masculino é o mais acometido por condições graves de saúde, devido à demora na busca de assistência médica. No que se refere à idade, neste estudo, a prevalência de óbitos se deu entre 71 e 75 anos (15,1%) o que justifica que o envelhecimento é um fator de risco elevado para complicações da doença. Durante a análise dos dados, notou- se que grande parte dos pacientes que tiveram como desfecho o óbito, possuíam algum fator associado, dentre os mais citados, verificou-se a Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (50,8%) Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), doenças cardiovasculares (23,9%) e obesidade (14,7%). No que diz respeito à hospitalização, nesse estudo notou-se que 74,4% da amostra foram hospitalizadas em leitos de SUS, 18,5% em hospitais particulares e 7,1% não possuíam essa informação. Conclusão: É possível observar a importância do estudo epidemiológico para identificar o perfil da população em risco, podendo auxiliar no planejamento do atendimento, rastreamento e controle da doença, além de conhecer a evolução da patologia, a fim de buscar ações adequadas para seu enfrentamento.


Introduction: At the end of 2019, a previously unknown infectious disease with respiratory characteristics and a high degree of dissemination emerged in China. In Brazil the first case of Covid-19 was confirmed in late February 2020 and the first death in mid-March. According to data from the Coronavirus Brazil platform, as of March 17, 2021, 11,603,535 confirmed cases and 282,127 deaths were recorded. Objective: To describe the profile of people who died with Covid-19 as the underlying cause of death in a city in southwestern Paraná between the years 2020 and 2021. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, documental, quantitative study carried out at the Francisco Beltrão City Hall. Results: There was a prevalence of deaths in male patients, elderly, with the presence of some associated comorbidity, hypertension being the most cited (50.8%). The most prevalent symptoms were cough (74.4%), dyspnea (56.3%) and saturation < 95% (48.3%), requiring hospitalization in some period of the disease (94.1%), and the Unified Health System beds were the most sought (74.4%). As for the occupancy rate, 49.6% of the cases required only ward beds and 42% intensive care units. Discussion: Several studies show that men are the most affected by serious health conditions, due to the delay in seeking medical assistance. Regarding age, in this study, the prevalence of deaths was between 71 and 75 years (15.1%), which justifies that aging is a high risk factor for disease complications. During data analysis, it was noted that most patients who died had some associated factor, among the most cited were systemic arterial hypertension (50.8%), diabetes mellitus (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (23.9%) and obesity (14.7%). Regarding hospitalization, in this study it was noted that 74.4% of the sample were hospitalized in SUS beds, 18.5% in private hospitals, and 7.1% did not have this information. Conclusion: It is possible to observe the importance of the epidemiological study to identify the profile of the population at risk, which can help in planning care, tracking and control of the disease, besides knowing the evolution of the pathology in order to seek appropriate actions for its confrontation


Introducción: A finales del año 2019 apareció en China una enfermedad infecto- contagiosa de característica respiratoria y alto grado de diseminación desconocida hasta entonces. En Brasil se confirmó el primer caso de Covid-19 a finales de febrero de 2020 y la primera muerte a mediados de marzo. Según los datos de la plataforma Coronavirus Brasil, hasta el 17 de marzo de 2021, había 11.603.535 casos confirmados y 282.127 muertes. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de las personas fallecidas con Covid-19 como causa subyacente de muerte en una ciudad del sudoeste de Paraná entre los años 2020 y 2021. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, documental de carácter cuantitativo que se realizó en la prefectura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Hubo una prevalencia de muertes en pacientes masculinos, de edad avanzada, con presencia de alguna comorbilidad asociada, siendo la hipertensión la más citada (50,8%). Los síntomas más prevalentes fueron la tos (74,4%), la disnea (56,3%) y la saturación < 95% (48,3%), requiriendo hospitalización en algún periodo de la enfermedad (94,1%), siendo las camas del Sistema Único de Salud las más solicitadas (74,4%). En cuanto a la tasa de ocupación, el 49,6% de los casos sólo necesitaban camas de sala y el 42% unidades de cuidados intensivos. Discusión: Varias investigaciones señalan que el género masculino es el más afectado por las condiciones de salud graves, debido al retraso en la búsqueda de asistencia médica. En cuanto a la edad, en este estudio, la prevalencia de muertes se produjo entre los 71 y los 75 años (15,1%), lo que justifica que el envejecimiento sea un factor de riesgo elevado para las complicaciones de la enfermedad. Durante el análisis de los datos, se observó que la mayoría de los pacientes que fallecieron tenían algún factor asociado, entre los más citados estaban la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (50,8%), la Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), las enfermedades cardiovasculares (23,9%) y la obesidad (14,7%). En lo que respecta a la hospitalización, en este estudio se observó que el 74,4% de la muestra estaba hospitalizada en camas del SUS, el 18,5% en hospitales privados y el 7,1% no tenía esta información. Conclusión: Es posible observar la importancia del estudio epidemiológico para identificar el perfil de la población en riesgo, pudiendo ayudar en la planificación de la atención, el rastreo y el control de la enfermedad, además de conocer la evolución de la patología, con el fin de buscar las acciones adecuadas para su enfrentamiento.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death , Unified Health System , Aged , Aging/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cough , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Oxygen Saturation , Hospitalization , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Obesity
18.
Geneve; WHO; Sept. 15, 2022. 181 p. tab, ilus. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Clinical/2022.2).
Non-conventional in English | BIGG, LILACS | ID: biblio-1393163

ABSTRACT

The WHO COVID-19 Clinical management: living guidance contains the Organization's most up-to-date recommendations for the clinical management of people with COVID-19. Providing guidance that is comprehensive and holistic for the optimal care of COVID-19 patients throughout their entire illness is important. The latest version of this living guideline is available in pdf format (via the 'Download' button) and via an online platform, and is updated regularly as new evidence emerges. No further updates to the previous existing recommendations were made in this latest version. This updated (fifth) version contains 16 new recommendations for the rehabilitation of adults with post COVID-19 condition (see Chapter 24), which includes: strong recommendation that exertional desaturation and cardiac impairment following COVID-19 should be ruled out and managed before consideration of physical exercise training


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , COVID-19/complications , Palliative Care , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Shock, Septic , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Breast Feeding , Pregnancy , Global Health , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Masks
19.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(5): 290-292, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392738

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: evaluar la incidencia de la desnutrición global en el Departamento de externos del Hospital de Enseñanza de Kerbala y los factores asociados que incluyen el sexo de los pacientes, el empleo paterno y el tipo de alimentación. Métodos: mediante el uso de M.U.A.C, que es una prueba antropométrica de detección simple para la desnutrición. El estudio transversal aleatorizado de 1000 niños entre los 6-59 meses había tomado en el estudio. Del Departamento de Outpatiente del Hospital de Enseñanza de Kerbala. Datos registrados con respecto al género de pacientes, empleo paternal y tipo de alimentación en aquellos menos de 2 años. Pacientes viejos. Resultados: La incidencia general de desnutrición global fue del 6,9% en el Departamento de Overpatismo del Hospital de Enseñanza de Kerbala. Existe una fuerte asociación entre la desnutrición y el tipo de alimentación durante los primeros 2 años y hubo alguna asociación entre el empleo de padres y la desnutrición.


Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of global malnutrition in outpatient department of Kerbala teaching hospital and the associated factors which include sex of patients, paternal employment and type of feeding. Methods: By using M.U.A.C which is simple screening anthropometric test for malnutrition. Randomized Cross sectional study of 1000 child between the age of 6-59 months had taken in the study. From outpatient department of Kerbala teaching hospital. Data recorded regarding gender of patients, paternal employment and type of feeding in those less than 2 yrs. old patients. Results: Overall incidence of global malnutrition was 6.9% in outpatient department of Kerbala teaching hospital. There is strong association between malnutrition and type of feeding during first 2 years and there was some association between employment of parents and malnutrition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Socioeconomic Factors , Anthropometry , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Malnutrition/etiology
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 294-303, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407796

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad COVID-19 es una patología de origen infeccioso causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 y fue declarada pandemia por la OMS el 11 de marzo 2020. A la fecha se registran más de 500 millones de personas infectadas y más de 6 millones de fallecidos en todo el mundo. Las personas que pertenecen a grupos de riesgo más vulnerables, particularmente aquellos que se encuentran en los extremos de la vida, con comorbilidades crónicas o inmunocomprometidas, son especialmente susceptibles a presentar un eventual mayor riesgo de infección, de gravedad y de mortalidad por esta enfermedad. Las personas que viven con VIH, especialmente aquellos en precarias condiciones inmunológicas o aquellas que aún no inician terapia antiretroviral, pueden ser un grupo especialmente susceptible de presentar complicaciones relacionadas a esta y otras enfermedades de origen infeccioso. Con esta revisión se pretende determinar la magnitud del impacto del virus SARS-CoV-2 en personas viviendo con VIH en Chile.


Abstract The COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. To date, more than 500 million people have been infected and it has caused over 6 million deaths worldwide. People that belong to the most vulnerable risk groups, such as those at the extremes of life, patients with chronic comorbidities and those with severe immunosuppression, are especially susceptible to developing a severe form of COVID-19 infection and death. Subjects living with HIV, especially those in precarious immunological conditions or those in whom antiretroviral therapy is yet to be started, may be at risk of developing complications related to COVID-19, as observed with other infectious diseases. This review aims to determine the magnitude of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on people living with HIV in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chile/epidemiology , Global Health , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control
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