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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(2): 257-264, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Research and identification of Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) and other microorganisms in deeptissue samples collected in clean shoulder surgeries of patients who did not undergo any previous invasive joint procedure and who had no clinical history of infection. Methods We analyzed the results of cultures of intraoperative deep tissue samples from 84 patients submitted to primary clean shoulder surgery. Tubes containing culture medium were used for storage and transport of anaerobic agents, prolonged incubation time, and mass spectrometer for diagnosis of bacterial agents. Results Bacteria growth was evidenced in 34 patients (40.4%) of the 84 included in the study. Of these, 23 had growth of C. acnes in at least one sample of deep tissue collected, corresponding to 27.3% of the total patients. The second most common agent was Staphylococcus epidermidis, present in 7.2% of the total individuals included. We showed a higher relationship between sample positivity and males, a lower mean age, absence of diabetes mellitus, ASA I score, and antibiotic prophylaxis in anesthetic induction with cefuroxime. Conclusions A high percentage of isolates of different bacteria was found in shoulder tissue samples of patients undergoing clean and primary surgeries, who had no history of previous infection. Identification of C. acnes was high (27.6%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis was the second most frequent agent (7.2%).


Resumo Objetivo Pesquisa e identificação de Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) e de outros microrganismos em amostras de tecidos profundos coletados em cirurgias limpas de ombro em pacientes que não foram submetidos a nenhum procedimento invasivo articular prévio e que não possuíam antecedentes clínicos de infecção. Métodos Foram analisados os resultados das culturas de amostras de tecidos profundos intraoperatórias de 84 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia limpa primária do ombro. Foram utilizados tubos contendo meio de cultivo para armazenamento e transporte de agentes anaeróbicos, tempo prolongado de incubação e espectrômetro de massa para diagnósticos de agentes bacterianos. Resultados Foi evidenciado o crescimento de bactérias em 34 pacientes (40,4%) dos 84 incluídos no estudo. Desses, 23 apresentavam crescimento de C. acnes em pelo menos uma amostra de tecido profundo coletada, correspondendo a 27,3% do total de pacientes. O segundo agente mais encontrado foi o Staphylococcus epidermidis, presente em 7,2% do total de indivíduos incluídos. Evidenciamos maior relação da positividade de amostras com o gênero masculino, uma média de idade inferior, a ausência de diabetes mellitus, o escore ASA I e a profilaxia antibiótica na indução anestésica com cefuroxima. Conclusões Verificou-se um elevado percentual de isolados de diferentes bactérias em amostras de tecidos de ombros de pacientes submetidos a cirurgias limpas e primárias e sem histórico de infecção anterior. A identificação de C. acnes foi elevada (27,6%) e o Staphylococcus epidermidis foi o segundo agente mais frequente (7,2%).


Subject(s)
Humans , Shoulder/physiopathology , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
2.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 707-715, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Gram-positive cocci is the main pathogen responsible for early infection after liver transplantation (LT), posing a huge threat to the prognosis of liver transplant recipients. This study aims to analyze the distribution and drug resistance of Gram-positive cocci, the risk factors for infections and efficacy of antibiotics within 2 months after LT, and to guide the prevention and treatment of these infections.@*METHODS@#In this study, data of pathogenic bacteria distribution, drug resistance and therapeutic efficacy were collected from 39 Gram-positive cocci infections among 256 patients who received liver transplantation from donation after citizens' death in the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2019 to July 2022, and risk factors for Gram-positive cocci infection were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Enterococcus faecium was the dominant pathogenic bacteria (33/51, 64.7%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (11/51, 21.6%). The most common sites of infection were abdominal cavity/biliary tract (13/256, 5.1%) and urinary tract (10/256, 3.9%). Fifty (98%) of the 51 Gram-positive cocci infections occurred within 1 month after LT. The most sensitive drugs to Gram-positive cocci were teicoplanin, tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin. Vancomycin was not used in all patients, considering its nephrotoxicity. Vancomycin was not administered to all patients in view of its nephrotoxicity.There was no significant difference between the efficacy of daptomycin and teicoplanin in the prevention of cocci infection (P>0.05). Univariate analysis indicated that preoperative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score >25 (P=0.005), intraoperative red blood cell infusion ≥12 U (P=0.013) and exposure to more than 2 intravenous antibiotics post-LT (P=0.003) were related to Gram-positive cocci infections. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative MELD score >25 (OR=2.378, 95% CI 1.124 to 5.032, P=0.024) and intraoperative red blood cell transfusion ≥ 12 U (OR=2.757, 95% CI 1.227 to 6.195, P=0.014) were independent risk factors for Gram-positive cocci infections after LT. Postoperative Gram-positive cocci infections were reduced in LT recipients exposing to more than two intravenous antibiotics post-LT (OR=0.269, 95% CI 0.121 to 0.598, P=0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Gram-positive cocci infections occurring early after liver transplantation were dominated by Enterococcus faecalis infections at the abdominal/biliary tract and urinary tract. Teicoplanin, tigecycline and linezolid were anti-cocci sensitive drugs. Daptomycin and teicoplanin were equally effective in preventing cocci infections due to Gram-positive cocci. Patients with high preoperative MELD score and massive intraoperative red blood cell transfusion were more likely to suffer Gram-positive cocci infection after surgery. Postoperative Gram-positive cocci infections were reduced in recipients exposing to more than two intravenous antibiotics post-LT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Daptomycin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Cocci , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Tigecycline/therapeutic use , End Stage Liver Disease/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
3.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 690-694, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013156

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the characteristics of bacterial meningitis after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. From January 2016 to December 2022, 64 children diagnosed with post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis based on positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture in Department of Neurosurgery of Shanghai Children's Medical Center were selected as the study population. The clinical characteristics, onset time, routine biochemical indexes of cerebrospinal fluid before anti infection treatment, bacteriology characteristics and sensitivity to antibiotics of bacteria cultured from cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed. Based on the CSF culture results, the patients were divided into the Gram-positive bacteria infection group and the Gram-negative bacteria infection group. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared using t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and chi-square tests. Results: There were 64 children,42 boys and 22 girls, with onset age of 0.83 (0.50, 1.75) years. Seventy cases of post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis occurred in the 64 children, of which 15 cases (21%) in spring, 23 cases (33%) in summer, 19 cases (27%) in autumn, and 13 cases (19%) in winter. The time of onset was 3.5 (1.0, 10.0) months after surgery; 15 cases (21%) occurred within the first month after the surgery, and 55 cases (79%) occurred after the first month. There were 38 cases (59%) showing obvious abnormal clinical manifestations, fever 36 cases (56%), vomiting 11 cases (17%). Forty-eight cases (69%) were caused by Gram-positive bacteria, with Staphylococcus epidermidis 24 cases; 22 cases (31%) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, with Acinetobacter baumannii the prominent pathogen 7 cases. The Gram-positive bacterial infection was more common in summer than the Gram-negative bacterial infection (20 cases (42%) vs. 3 cases (14%), χ2=5.37, P=0.020), while the Gram-negative bacterial infection was more in autumn and within the first month after surgery than the Gram-positive bacterial infection (11 cases (50%) vs. 8 cases (17%), 15 cases (67%) vs. 5 cases (33%), χ2=8.48, 9.02; P=0.004, 0.003). Gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to polymyxin were not found. However, Acinetobacter baumannii showed only 45% (10/22) susceptibility to carbapenem antibiotics. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis in children is atypical. Gram-positive bacteria are the main pathogens causing post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis; Gram-negative bacterial meningitis are more likely to occur in autumn and within the first month after surgery. Acinetobacter baumannii has a high resistance rate to carbapenem antibiotics, which should be taken seriously.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , China/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Carbapenems , Retrospective Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21077, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429974

ABSTRACT

Abstract Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic commonly used to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections in the clinic. The aim of this study was to provide a therapeutic reference for the clinical application and dosage regimen adjustment of teicoplanin by identifying factors associated with its plasma trough concentration (Ctrough). A retrospective study was performed on patients with suspected or documented Gram-positive infections who were hospitalized from November 2017 to January 2020 and treated with teicoplanin while undergoing routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). A total of 112 Ctrough trough measurements were obtained from 72 patients were included in this study. SPSS software was used for correlation analysis and receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. The Ctrough for teicoplanin showed statistically significant relationships (P<0.05) with PLT, Scr, CLcr, eGFR, BUN and Cys-C. ROC curve analysis revealed that CLcr and eGFR were more sensitive and specific for Ctrough compared to the other factors. These findings should be considered in the clinical application of teicoplanin and for its dosage adjustment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Patients/classification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Teicoplanin/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Monitoring/instrumentation , Creatinine/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 606-611, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aimed to identify bacterial agents in shoulder surgery specimens from patients with no history of previous shoulder infection or surgery. Methods Tendon, bursa, and bone specimens were collected during surgery, stored in sterile dry bottles, and sent to a hospital-associated laboratory for culture growth analysis in media for aerobic and anaerobic agents. Findings from 141 samples from 47 shoulders were analyzed. Results The cultures were negative in 46 cases (97.8%) and in 140 samples (99.2%). The culture was positive in a single patient, with growth of Staphylococcus hominis from one of three specimens collected. Conclusions The rates of bacterial growth were not consistent with the international literature, indicating the low effectiveness of laboratory methods used in Brazil.


Resumo Objetivo Identificar agentes bacterianos em amostras de cirurgias do ombro de pacientes sem histórico de infecção e de cirurgias prévias no ombro. Métodos Amostras de tendão, bursa e osso foram coletadas no intraoperatório, armazenadas em frascos estéreis a seco e enviadas para análise de crescimento de cultura em meios para agentes aeróbios e anaeróbios no laboratório credenciado ao hospital. Foram analisados os resultados de 141 amostras de 47 ombros. Resultados Obtivemos resultados de culturas negativas em 46 casos (97,8%) e em 140 amostras (99,2%). Apenas um paciente apresentou resultado positivo, com crescimento bacteriano do Staphylococcus hominis em uma das três amostras coletadas. Conclusões Não evidenciamos taxas de crescimento bacteriano condizentes com a literatura internacional, alertando para a baixa eficácia dos métodos laboratoriais utilizados no nosso país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shoulder/surgery , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-8, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468424

ABSTRACT

The ability of pathogenic bacteria acquire resistance to the existing antibiotics has long been considered a dangerous health risk threat. Currently, the use of visible light has been considered a new approach to treat bacterial infections as an alternative to antibiotics. Herein, we investigated the antimicrobial effect of two range of visible light, blue and red, on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two pathogenic bacterial commonly found in healthcare settings-acquired infections and responsible for high rate of morbidity and mortality. Bacterial cultures were exposed to blue or red light (470 nm and 660 nm) provided by light-emitting diodes - LED. The fluencies and irradiance used for blue and red light were 284.90 J/cm², 13.19 mW/cm² and 603.44 J/cm², 27.93 mW/cm² respectively. Different experimental approaches were used to determine the optimal conditions of light application. Only exposure to blue light for 6 hours was able to inhibit about 75% in vitro growth of both bacterial species after 24 hours. The surviving exposed bacteria formed colonies significantly smaller than controls, however, these bacteria were able to resume growth after 48 hours. Blue light was able to inhibit bacterial growth upon inoculation in both saline solution and BHI culture medium. We can conclude that blue light, but not red light, is capable of temporarily retarding the growth of gram negative and gram positive bacteria.


A capacidade das bactérias patogênicas adquirirem resistência aos antibióticos existentes há muito tempo é considerada uma ameaça perigosa à saúde. Atualmente, o uso da luz visível tem sido considerado uma nova abordagem no tratamento de infecções bacterianas como alternativa aos antibióticos. Neste trabalho, investigamos o efeito antimicrobiano de duas faixas de luz visível, azul e vermelha, em Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, duas bactérias patogênicas comumente encontradas em infecções adquiridas em instituições de saúde e responsáveis por alta taxa de morbimortalidade. As culturas bacterianas foram expostas à luz azul ou vermelha(470 nm e 660 nm) fornecida por diodos emissores de luz - LED. As fluências e irradiâncias utilizadas para luz azule vermelha foram 284,90 J/cm², 13,19 mW/cm² e 603,44 J/cm², 27,93 mW/cm², respectivamente. Várias abordagens experimentais foram utilizadas para determinar as condições ótimas de aplicação da luz. Apenas a exposição à luz azul por 6 horas foi capaz de inibir cerca de 75% o crescimento in vitro de ambas as espécies bacterianas após24 horas. As bactérias expostas sobreviventes formaram colônias com um tamanho significativamente menor do que os controles, contudo, essas bactérias conseguiram retomar o crescimento normal após 48 horas. A luz azul foi capaz de inibir o crescimento das bactérias após sua inoculação em solução salina ou no meio de cultura rico em nutrientes BHI. Podemos concluir que a luz azul mas não a luz vermelha é capaz de retardar temporariamente o crescimento de bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positivas.


Subject(s)
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Products with Antimicrobial Action , Electromagnetic Radiation
7.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 136-145, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977481

ABSTRACT

Aims@#The microbial pigment can be the best promising alternative to replace synthetic colorant. However, due to the high cost of synthetic medium for microbial pigment production, there is a need to develop a new low-cost medium of bacterial pigment production. This study aims to investigate the potential of banana and papaya peels as alternative lowcost substrates for a carotenoid-producing bacterium, B12 strain (bacteria strain isolated from Holothuria (Lessonothuria) pardalis).@*Methodology and results@#B12 strain identified as an aerobic bacterium with non-motile, diplobacilli shaped and Grampositive bacteria. The fermentation was optimized with different parameters included the effect of temperature, time, concentrations, pHs, carbon and nitrogen sources to find the optimum relative pigment concentration produced by B12. The results showed that the B12 strain produced the highest relative pigment concentration measured at 450 nm when the strain was cultivated at 37 °C and pH 7 in the culture medium incorporated with the combination of dried papaya peels and banana peels (100% v/v with ratio 1:1) at 72 h of incubation. Lactose, peptone and yeast were observed as the best carbon and nitrogen sources to increase the pigment concentration of B12 strain. Stability of the pigment was studied at different physiochemical stress, and it showed the pigment obtained from dried papaya and banana substrates can tolerate and stable under stress condition.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#This can be concluded that the combination of dried papaya and banana peels worked well as substrate and can be utilized as a fermentation medium to replace the synthetic medium which is more expensive and uneconomical for industry application. Besides, it also helps in managing waste and solving the pollution problem due to the increasing of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).


Subject(s)
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Holothuria , Carica , Musa
9.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(3): 178-183, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357268

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Colombia es un país endémico para tuberculosis (TB), con una prevalencia de 26 casos por millón. Sin embargo, no se cuenta con datos recientes y claros respecto a la prevalencia de tuberculosis latente (TBL) en la población con artritis reumatoide (AR) candidata a terapia biotecnológica. Metodología: Estudio de corte transversal con componente analítico para determinar la pre-valencia de TBL en pacientes con AR candidatos a terapia biotecnológica. Resultados: La prevalencia de TBL en pacientes con AR candidatos a terapia biotecnológica es alta, del 18,3% (IC 95% 14,7-21,9), y en los cruces exploratorios se encontró una relación entre TBL y la variable género masculino (p ≤ 0,001), hallazgos anormales en la radiografía de tórax (p = 0,039) y el tabaquismo (p = 0,028). Conclusión: La prevalencia de TBL en pacientes con AR candidatos a terapia biotecnológica es alta. Se requieren estudios prospectivos para evaluar la incidencia de TB en este grupo de pacientes y así corroborar su asociación.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Although tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Columbia, with a prevalence of 26 cases per million, there are no recent and clear data regarding the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (LBT) in the population with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), candidates for biotechnological therapy. Methodology: A cross-sectional study with an analytical component to determine the prevalence of LBT in patients with RA who are candidates for biotechnological therapy. Results: The prevalence of LTB in RA patients who are candidates for biotechnological therapy is high, 18.3% (95% CI: 14.7-21.9). In the exploratory analysis, a relationship between LBT and male gender was found (P ≤ .001), as well as abnormal findings on chest radiography (P = .039), and smoking (P = .028). Conclusion: The prevalence of LTB in patients with RA who are candidates for biotechnological therapy is high. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the incidence of TB in this group of patients and corroborate this association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Bacterial Infections and Mycoses , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Latent Tuberculosis , Infections
10.
Infectio ; 25(3): 200-204, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250094

ABSTRACT

Abstract Streptococcus constellatus is a member of the group now called Streptococcus anginosus. This microorganism is part of the normal oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiota. However, it may cause serious infections such as pharyngitis, bacteremia and invasive pyogenic infections in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case in Colombia of an adult male with no relevant medical history and with an unusual presentation of infection by S. constellatus and whose laboratory results showed an important systemic inflammatory response and radiographic evidence of abdominal involvement with poor response to medical and surgical management. Since there are few reports in international medical journals about intra-abdominal infection by S. constellatus and taking into consideration the need of a multidisciplinary intervention, this report may be of interest for both clinical and surgical practitioners.


Resumen Streptococcus constellatus es un miembro del grupo ahora llamado Streptococcus anginosus. Este microorganismo es parte de la microbiota orofaríngea, gastrointestinal y genitourinaria normal. Sin embargo, puede causar infecciones graves como faringitis, bacteriemia e infecciones piógenas invasivas en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Presentamos el primer caso en Colombia de un hombre adulto sin antecedentes médicos relevantes y con una presentación inusual de infección por S. constellatus, dada por una gran respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y evidencia radiográfica de afectación abdominal con mala respuesta al tratamiento médico y quirúrgico. Dado que hay pocos informes en revistas médicas internacionales sobre la infección intraabdominal por S. constellatus y teniendo en cuenta la necesidad de intervenciones multidisciplinarias, este reporte puede ser de interés tanto para los médicos clínicos como para los quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Streptococcus anginosus , Streptococcus constellatus , Intraabdominal Infections , Shock, Septic , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Abdominal Abscess , Infections
11.
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 13-21, ene.-feb- 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152240

ABSTRACT

Existe una creciente preocupación sobre el tema de la infección cruzada en clínicas y laboratorios dentales. El laboratorio odontológico debe seguir normas de bioseguridad que garanticen a todo el equipo de salud la prevención de estas infecciones. Los técnicos que allí laboran corren el riesgo de exponer su cara a salpicaduras, así como a rocíos de sangre y saliva. Este estudio fue diseñado para saber si los laboratorios a los que recurrimos cumplen con estas normas de bioseguridad, y qué tan confiados podemos estar de la desinfección por parte de ellos, ya que las prótesis deberían estar desinfectadas correctamente antes de colocarlas en boca (AU)


There is growing concern about the issue of cross infection in dental clinics and laboratories. The dental laboratory must follow biosafety standards that guarantee the prevention of these infections to the entire health team. The technicians who work there run the risk of exposing their face to splashes and spray of blood and saliva. This study was designed to find out if the laboratories we use comply with these biosafety standards, and how confident we can be of their disinfection by them, since the prostheses should be properly disinfected before placing them in the mouth (AU)


Subject(s)
Disinfection , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Dental Prosthesis/adverse effects , Infection Control, Dental/methods , Laboratories, Dental , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Dental Offices/standards , Culture Techniques
12.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-081080, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147043

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Gardnerella vaginalis facilita a infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV). Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre anormalidades citológicas e presença de Gardnerella vaginalis nos esfregaços cervicovaginais encaminhados ao Laboratório Clínico da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) estratificadas por faixa etária. Método: Estudo transversal realizado no LAC/PUC Goiás entre janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2015. Para análises estatísticas, a variável idade foi categorizada em ≤39 anos e >40 anos, utilizando o programa IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 2.0, 2011®) para o teste de qui-quadrado (X²), com intervalo de confiança de 95% e valor p<0,05. Resultados: Foram analisados 4.558 exames citopatológicos, a maioria com presença de Lactobacillus spp. (46,97%). A prevalência dos agentes patogênicos foi a Gardnerella vaginalis (79,6%), seguida de Candida spp. (16,8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (2,2%), Herpes simplex (0,4 %) e Chlamydia trachomatis (0,1%). As anormalidades citológicas foram observadas em 9,1%, sendo atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 2,57%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 1,78%, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) 3,52%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1,08%, atypical endocervical cells, favor neoplastic (AGC-NEO) 0,22% e carcinoma 0,02%. Houve uma associação significante entre anormalidades citológicas graves e mulheres ≥40 anos, OR 3,01 (IC 95% 2,0-4,58) (p<0,0001). Mulheres ≤40 anos mostraram significância à presença de Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0,0004). Conclusão: Uma elevada prevalência de Gardnerella vaginalis foi encontrada associada com as anormalidades citológicas, principalmente em mulheres sexualmente ativas.


Introduction:Gardnerella vaginalis facilitates human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Objective: To verify the association between cytological abnormalities and the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis in cervicovaginal smears sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Pontifical Catholic University of Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) stratified by age range. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out at LAC/PUC Goiás from January 2013 to December 2015. For statistical analysis, the variable age was categorized as ≤39 years and >40 years, using the IBM SPSS Statistics program (Version 2.0, 2011®) for the chi-square test (X²), with a 95% confidence interval and p<0.05. Results:4,558 cytopathological exams were analyzed, most of them with the presence of Lactobacillus spp (46.97%). The prevalence of pathogens was Gardnerella vaginalis (79.6%), followed by Candida spp. (16.8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (2.2%), Herpes simplex (0.4%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (0.1%). Cytological abnormalities were observed in 9.1%, being atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 2.57%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 1.78%, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) 3.52%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1.08%, atypical endocervical cells, neoplastic favor (AGC-NEO) 0.22% and carcinoma 0.02%. There was a significant association between severe cytological abnormalities and women >40 years old OR 3.01 (95% CI 2.0-4.58) (p<0.0001). Women ≤40 years old showed the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0.0004). Conclusion:A high prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis was found and its association with cytological abnormalities, especially in sexually active women.


Introducción:Gardnerella vaginalis facilita la infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Objetivo: Verificar la asociación entre anormalidades citológicas y la presencia de Gardnerella vaginalis en frotis cervicovaginales enviadas al Laboratorio Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) estratificadas por grupo de edad. Método: Estudio transversal realizado en LAC/PUC Goiás desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2015. Para el análisis estadístico, la edad variable se clasificó como ≤39 años y >40 años, utilizando el programa IBM SPSS Statistics (Versión 2.0, 2011®) para la prueba de chi-cuadrado (X²), con un intervalo de confianza del 95% y p <0,05. Resultados: Se analizaron 4.558 exámenes citopatológicos. La prevalencia de Lactobacillusspp. con 46,97%. Los patógenos como Gardnerella vaginalis fueron 79,6%, Candidaspp. 16,8%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2,2%, Herpes simplex 0,4%, y Chlamydia trachomatis 0,1%. Se observaron anormalidades citológicas en 9,1%, con células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASC-US) 2,57%, lesión intraepitelial escamosa de bajo grado (LSIL) 1,78%, células escamosas atípicas de significación indeterminada no pueden excluir lesión intraepitelial (ASC-H) 3,52%, lesión intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado (HSIL) 1,08%, células endocervicales atípicas, favor neoplásico (AGC-NEO) 0,22% y carcinoma 0,02%. Hubo una asociación significativa entre anormalidades citológicas severas y mujeres >40 años OR 3,01 (IC 95% 2,0-4,58) (p<0,0001). Las mujeres ≤40 años mostraron la presencia de Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0,0004). Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de Gardnerella vaginalis y su asociación con anomalías citológicas, especialmente en mujeres sexualmente activas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vaginal Smears , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolation & purification , Vaginosis, Bacterial/pathology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Papanicolaou Test , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-14, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247345

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: A Monitorização Terapêutica de Fármacos (MTF) é uma importante ferramenta na otimização da terapia com vancomicina, utilizada no tratamento de infecções graves causadas por bactérias Gram-positivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi implementar um protocolo de monitoramento terapêutico de vancomicina em um hospital e descrever as características clínicas, laboratoriais e de uso deste medicamento após sua implementação. Métodos: Para o desenvolvimento do protocolo, foram utilizados os consensos internacionais sobre MTF de vancomicina. Os dados dos pacientes adultos foram coletados dos prontuários e das estimativas do software farmacocinético. Resultados: O protocolo de vancomicina foi implementado na instituição hospitalar e disponibilizado ao corpo clínico. Foram avaliados 49 pacientes. A vancomicina foi indicada principalmente para tratar pneumonia 15 (30,6%). Entre os microrganismos identificados, Staphylococcus aureus foi o mais presente ­ 8 (50%), e 9 (56,3%) das culturas eram resistentes à oxacilina. Média de uso de vancomicina foi 10,6 (± 6,6) dias, e dose de ataque foi administrada em 33 (67,3%) dos pacientes. Apresentaram insuficiência renal aguda 5 (11,1%) pacientes. O monitoramento das concentrações mínimas no vale (Cmin) de vancomicina ocorreu em 43 (87,8%) pacientes. Na primeira medição, 16 deles (37,2%) apresentaram Cmin inferiores a 10 mcg/dL, e 11 (25,6%), superiores a 20 mcg/dL, dados considerados fora da faixa terapêutica. Conclusão: A elaboração de um protocolo de MTF para a vancomicina orienta o uso racional e seguro desse antibiótico. Formação continuada em recursos humanos e investimento em softwares farmacocinéticos para ajustes de doses podem contribuir para a otimização da terapia com vancomicina.(AU)


Background and objectives: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an important tool in optimizing vancomycin therapy, a drug used to treat serious infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this study was to implement a protocol for the therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in hospitals and to describe the clinical, laboratory and use characteristics of this drug after its implementation. Methods: The international consensus on vancomycin TDM was used for protocol development. Patient data were collected from medical records and pharmacokinetic software estimates. Results: The vancomycin protocol was implemented at a hospital and made available to the clinical staff. We evaluated 49 patients. Vancomycin was prescribed mainly to treat pneumonia 15 (30.6%). Among the identified microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common with 8 cases (50%), and 9 (56.3%) patients were resistant to oxacillin. The average use of vancomycin was 10.6 (± 6.6) days and the loading dose was administered in 33 (67.3%) patients. A total of 5 (11.1%) patients had acute renal failure. Monitoring of Minimal Concentrations in the vancomycin valley (Cmin) occurred in 43 (87.8%) patients. In the first measurement, 16 of them (37.2%) presented Cmin below 10 mcg/dL and 11 (25.6%) above 20 mcg/dL, data considered outside the therapeutic range. Conclusion: The elaboration of an MTF protocol for vancomycin guides the rational and safe use of this antibiotic. Continued training in human resources and investment in dose-adjusting pharmacokinetic software may contribute to the optimization of vancomycin therapy.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: La monitorización terapéutica de medicamentos (MTF) es una importante herramienta para optimizar la terapia con vancomicina, utilizada para tratar infecciones graves causadas por bacterias grampositivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue implementar un protocolo de MTF de vancomicina en el hospital y describir las características clínicas, de laboratorio y de uso de vancomicina después de su implementación. Métodos: El consenso internacional sobre vancomicina MTF se utilizó para el desarrollo del protocolo. Los datos de los pacientes adultos se obtuvieron de los registros médicos y las estimaciones del software farmacocinético. Resultados: El protocolo se implementó en el hospital y se puso a disposición al personal clínico. Se evaluaron 49 pacientes. La vancomicina fue indicada para pneumonía 15 (30,6%). Entre los microorganismos identificados, Staphylococcus aureus fue el más presente 8 (50%) y 9 (56,3%) de los cultivos fueron resistentes a oxacilina. El promedio del uso de vancomicina fue de 10,6 (± 6,6) días, y la dosis de ataque se administró en 33 (67,3%) pacientes. La insuficiencia renal aguda se encontró en 5 (11,1%) pacientes. El monitoreo de concentraciones mínimas en el valle de vancomicina (Cmin) ocurrió en 43 (87,8%) pacientes. En la primera medición, 16 de ellos (37,2%) presentaron Cmin por debajo de 10 mcg/dL, y 11 (25,6%), por encima de 20 mcg/dL, datos considerados fuera del rango terapéutico. Conclusión: La elaboración de un protocolo de MTF para vancomicina guía el uso racional y seguro de ese antibiótico. La capacitación continua en recursos humanos y la inversión en softwares farmacocinéticos de ajuste de dosis pueden contribuir a la optimización de la terapia con vancomicina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin , Clinical Protocols , Drug Monitoring , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
14.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
15.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(2): e017, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1119286

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la contaminación bacteriana de los conos de gutapercha de tipo beta (ß) en los tiempos 0, 24, 47 y 72 horas de las diferentes proveedurías de la Clínica Odontológica de la Universidad Científica del Sur (Lima, 2020). Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvo 16 conos de gutapercha tipo beta (ß) de empaques cerrados bajo medidas asépticas, los cuales fueron colocados en viales con 2 ml de caldo BHI y, posteriormente, fueron sembrados en agar BHI, así como en medios selectivos agar manitol salado y agar MacConkey. Pasadas las 24 horas de incubación a 37 °C, se realizó la lectura de las placas y el conteo de UFC. El mismo procedimiento se realizó para los tiempos 24, 48 y 72 horas, lo que dio un total de 64 conos de gutapercha tipo ß. Resultados: Se observó que el nivel de contaminación bacteriana fue el mismo tanto entre las distintas proveedurías como a las 0, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Solo se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,044) entre los distintos tiempos de la proveeduría número 5. Finalmente, todas las muestras sometidas a la prueba de la coagulasa arrojaron resultados negativos. Conclusión: Los conos de gutapercha de tipo beta (ß) se contaminaron por igual producto de su almacenamiento y manipulación, independientemente de la proveeduría en la que permanecieron. (AU)


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determinate the bacterial contamination of Beta (ß) gutta-percha cones at 0, 24, 47 and 72 hours of the different supplies of the Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima 2020. Materials and Methods: 16 ß-type gutta-percha cones were obtained of sealed packages under aseptic measurements, they were placed in vials with 2ml BHI and subsequently planted in BHI agar plates as well as in selective medias as Salted mannitol agar and MacConkey agar after 24 hours of incubation at 37 ° the plates were read and count in CFU, the same procedure was performed for the other times evaluated 24, 48 and 72 hours, giving a total of 64 ß-type gutta-percha cones. Results: It was observed that the level of bacterial contamination was the same among the different supplies in all the establish times of in this study 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Therefore, there were no significant differences in the level of bacterial contamination between the supplies. On the other hand, only statistically significant differences (p = 0.044) were found between the different times of the supply number 5. Finally, all the samples submitted to the coagulase test had a negative result. Conclusion: The gutta-percha cones of type ß were contaminated equally regardless of the supply in which they were stored or manipulated. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Coagulase , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Gutta-Percha
16.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 298-306, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130892

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The increasingly frequent use of dermoscopy makes us think about the possibility of transfer of microorganisms, through the dermatoscope, between doctor and patients. Objectives: To identify the most frequent gram-positive cocci in dermatoscopes and smartphone adapters, as well as the resistance profile, and to evaluate the factors associated with a higher risk of bacterial contamination of the dermatoscopes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 118 dermatologists from Porto Alegre/Brazil between September 2017 and July 2018. Gram-positive cocci were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and habits of use of the dermatoscope were evaluated through an anonymous questionnaire. Results: Of the dermatoscopes analysed, 46.6% had growth of gram-positive cocci on the lens and 37.3% on the on/off button. The microorganisms most frequently found were S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. warneri. Attending a hospital, using the dermatoscope at the hospital, with inpatients and in the intensive care unit were significantly associated with colonisation by gram-positive cocci. The highest resistance rates were observed for penicillin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Study limitations: The non-search of gram-negative bacilli, fungi and viruses. Moreover, the small number of adapters did not make it possible to better define if the frequency differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Coagulase-negative staphylococci were frequently identified. S. aureus was detected only on the lens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/isolation & purification , Dermoscopy/instrumentation , Smartphone , Dermatologists/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/growth & development , Gram-Positive Cocci/drug effects , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 281-286, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132589

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Clinicians rely on clinical presentations to select therapeutic agents for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are common in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae require different antibiotics. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between clinical features of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Sixty-four patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Clinical features including nasal obstruction, discolored discharge, facial pain, smell disturbance, fever and laboratory findings of patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis were collected. The bacterial cultures of endoscopic middle meatal swabs were used as a reference. Results: Serum C-reactive protein level elevation correlated with the bacterial species (p = 0.03), by which was increased in 80.0% of Haemophilus influenzae rhinosinusitis and 57.1% of Streptococcus pneumoniae rhinosinusitis. The elevated C-reactive protein was the significant predictor for Haemophilus influenzae rhinosinusitis with the Odds Ratio of 18.06 (95% CI 2.36-138.20). The sensitivity of serum C-reactive protein level elevation for diagnosing Haemophilus influenzae rhinosinusitis was 0.80 (95% CI 0.49-0.94). Conclusion: Elevation of serum C-reactive protein level was associated with and predicted acute bacterial rhinosinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae.


Resumo: Introdução: Os médicos se baseiam nas características clínicas para a escolha dos agentes terapêuticos para o tratamento da rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae são agentes comuns na rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae resistentes a antibióticos requerem medicamentos diferentes. Objetivo: Avaliar as associações entre as características clínicas da rinossinusite bacteriana aguda e bactérias patogênicas. Método: O estudo incluiu 64 pacientes com rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. Foram coletadas e registradas as características clínicas, inclusive obstrução nasal, secreção com cor alterada, dor facial, distúrbios do olfato, febre e achados laboratoriais de pacientes com rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. As culturas bacterianas obtidas por swab endoscópico do meato médio foram usadas como referência. Resultados: A elevação do nível sérico de proteína C-reativa estava correlacionada com a espécie bacteriana (p = 0,03); ela estava aumentada em 80,0% das rinossinusites por Haemophilus influenzae e em 57,1% das rinossinusites por Streptococcus pneumoniae. A proteína C-reativa elevada foi um significativo fator preditor de rinossinusite por Haemophilus influenzae, com razão de probabilidade de 18,06 (IC 95% 2,36-138,20). A sensibilidade da elevação dos níveis séricos de proteína C-reativa para o diagnóstico de rinossinusite por Haemophilus influenzae foi de 0,80 (IC 95% 0,49 ± 0,94). Conclusão: A elevação dos níveis séricos de proteína C-reativa é um preditor de rinossinusite bacteriana aguda causada por Haemophilus influenzae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sinusitis/microbiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 52(2): 51-60, jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155696

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacillus cereus is a gram positive microorganism commonly involved in gastrointestinal infection but capable of causing severe infections and bacteremia. We describe here a case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a previously healthy young woman admitted to the intensive care unit following emergency surgery due to a penetrating abdominal stab wound and subsequent hepatic lesion. She developed fever during admission and cultures were taken. B. cereus was isolated in blood and hepatic fluid collection cultures. Treatment was adjusted according to the isolate, with good clinical results. It is important to highlight the pathogenic potential of this microorganism and not underestimate it as a contaminant when it is isolated from blood samples.


Resumen Bacillus cereus es un microorganismo gram positivo comúnmente involucrado en infecciones gastrointestinales, pero capaz de causar infecciones graves y bacteriemia. Presentamos un caso de bacteriemia por B. cereus en una mujer joven previamente sana que ingresa en la unidad de cuidados intensivos luego de una cirugía de emergencia, debido a una herida abdominal por arma blanca con lesión hepática. La paciente desarrolla fiebre durante la internación, por lo que se toman cultivos. Se aísla B. cereus en hemocultivos y material de colección hepática. Se ajusta el tratamiento según los hallazgos, con buena evolución clínica. Esta comunicación ilustra una fuente poco común de bacteriemia por B. cereus. Asimismo, destaca el potencial patogénico de este microorganismo, cuyo hallazgo en muestras de sangre no siempre debe conducir a su rápida desjerarquización como contaminante.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Wounds, Stab/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Abdominal Injuries/microbiology , Wounds, Stab/blood , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacteremia/blood , Abdominal Injuries/blood
20.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 732-742, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the functional pathways enriched and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis.@*METHODS@#Dataset GSE9960 obtained from NCBI GEO database containing PBMC samples from 16 non-infectious systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients, 17 gram-positive septic patients and 18 gram-negative septic patients were included in the study. Functional pathway annotations were conducted by gene set enrichment analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis. DEGs were filtered and master DEGs were then validated in PBMCs of gram-positive septic, gram-negative septic and non-infectious SIRS patients.@*RESULTS@#The enriched gene sets in gram-positive sepsis and gram-negative sepsis were significantly different. The results indicated the opposite co-expression networks in SIRS and gram-negative sepsis, and the entirely different co-expression networks in gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis. Furthermore, we validated that @*CONCLUSIONS@#The results indicate that there are differences in the mechanism and pathogenesis of gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis, which may provide potential markers for sepsis diagnosis and empirical antimicrobial therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/physiopathology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/physiopathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Sepsis/physiopathology
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