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1.
Med. infant ; 31(1): 44-50, Marzo 2024. Ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1553048

ABSTRACT

El uso de antirretrovirales (ARV) en el embarazo, el parto y el recién nacido y la aplicación de tratamientos combinados en los niños se han asociado con una disminución del sida en pediatría y el aumento de la sobrevida. La introducción de los inhibidores de integrasa en una dosis diaria ha eliminado barreras para la adherencia, pero los medicamentos orales diarios continúan planteando problemas de privacidad y estigma. Las nuevas tecnologías de administración de los medicamentos y las nuevas drogas junto con la combinación de ARV y los anticuerpos ampliamente neutralizantes (bNAb), ofrecen un potencial de opciones futuras para el tratamiento pediátrico del HIV. Los bNAb son anticuerpos que pueden reconocer diferentes tipos de HIV, bloquear su entrada en las células sanas y ayudar a destruir las células ya infectadas, pueden administrarse por vía parenteral y constituyen un enfoque novedoso y seguro con potencial para el tratamiento y la prevención del HIV, incluida la transmisión vertical. En los lactantes que contraen HIV, los bNAb podrían ofrecer ventajas terapéuticas al reducir el reservorio del virus, mejorar la inmunidad adquirida y, en el futuro, proporcionar un camino hacia la cura funcional. Dentro de los ARV inyectables de acción prolongada, cabotegravir/ rilpivirina se ha incorporado en las guías internacionales de adultos y adolescentes tanto para el tratamiento como para la prevención. A medida que el tratamiento del HIV en adultos va evolucionando, es fundamental asegurar que los neonatos, lactantes, niños y adolescentes tengan acceso a las mejores opciones de tratamiento y prevención a lo largo de su vida (AU)


The use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) during pregnancy, delivery, and in the newborn and the use of combination therapy in children have been associated with a decrease in pediatric AIDS and increased survival. The introduction of once-daily integrase inhibitors has removed barriers to adherence, but daily oral medications continue to pose privacy and stigma issues. New drug delivery technologies and new drugs along with the combination of ARVs and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) offer potential future options for pediatric HIV treatment. bNAbs are antibodies that can recognize different types of HIV, block their entry into healthy cells and help destroy already infected cells, can be delivered parenterally, and represent a novel and safe approach with potential for the treatment and prevention of HIV, including mother-to-child transmission. In infants who contract HIV, bNBAs could offer therapeutic advantages by reducing the viral reservoir, enhancing acquired immunity and, in the future, providing a pathway to a functional cure. Within the long-acting injectable ARVs, cabotegravir/rilpivirine has been incorporated into international guidelines for adults and adolescents for both treatment and prevention. As adult HIV treatment evolves, it is critical to ensure that newborns, infants, children and adolescents have access to the best treatment and prevention options throughout their lives (AU)


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Drug Compounding
2.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 35(1): 18-23, mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551674

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La sífilis es una infección sexualmente transmisible sistémica crónica que afecta a docenas de millones de personas al año. A nivel anorrectal, su manifestación polimórfica obliga al diagnóstico diferencial con enfermedades anorrectales benignas y malignas. Objetivo: Describir las diferentes presentaciones de la sífilis anorrectal a propósito de 5 casos clínicos. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron VIH positivos en edad sexual activa. Las manifestaciones registradas, al igual que las reportadas en la bibliografía fueron las fisuras, úlceras perianales y pseudotumores. Conclusiones: La sífilis es considerada "la gran simuladora". En la localización anorrectal se requiere una alta sospecha diagnóstica para diferenciarla de presentaciones similares de otras enfermedades anales benignas, la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y el cáncer anorrectal, con el fin de evitar el consiguiente riesgo de sobretratamiento. (AU)


Background: Syphilis is a chronic systemic sexually transmitted infection that affects tens of millions of people annually. At the anorectal level, its polymorphic manifestation requires differential diagnosis with benign and malignant anorectal diseases. Objective: To review the presentation of anorectal syphilis from 5 clinical cases. Methods: Observational, retrospective, descriptive study. Results: Most of the patients were HIV positive in sexually active age. The manifestations recorded and reported in the literature were fissures, perianal ulcers, and pseudotumors. Conclusions: Syphilis is considered "the great pretender". In anorectal syphilis, a high diagnostic suspicion is needed to differentiate it from similar presentations due to other anal conditions, inflammatory bowel disease, and anorectal cancer, to avoid the consequent risk of overtreatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Penicillin G Benzathine/administration & dosage , Rectal Diseases/diagnosis , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , Risk Groups , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Comorbidity , HIV Infections , Retrospective Studies , Fissure in Ano
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202302992, feb. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525290

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antirretrovirales (ARV) es un problema de salud pública. Con el uso de inhibidores de la integrasa (INSTI) en pediatría, también comienzan a aparecer resistencias. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir 3 casos con resistencia a los INSTI. Se describen 3 pacientes pediátricos con transmisión vertical del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Iniciaron ARV de lactantes y preescolares, con mala adherencia al tratamiento, cursaron con diferentes planes secundarios a comorbilidades asociadas y fallas virológicas por resistencia. Los 3 casos clínicos describen la rápida aparición de resistencia frente a la falla virológica y el compromiso de los INSTI. La adherencia debe ser supervisada para detectar precozmente el aumento de la viremia. La falla virológica en un paciente tratado con raltegravir obliga a un rápido cambio de esquema ARV, ya que continuar utilizándolo podría favorecer nuevas mutaciones y resistencia a los INSTI de segunda generación.


Antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance is a public health issue. Resistance has also been observed in the case of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) used in pediatrics. The objective of this article is to describe 3 cases of INSTI resistance. These are the cases of 3 children with vertically-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They were started on ARVs as infants and preschoolers, with poor treatment adherence, and had different management plans due to associated comorbidities and virological failure due to resistance. In the 3 cases, resistance developed rapidly as a result of virological failure and INSTI involvement. Treatment adherence should be monitored so that any increase in viremia can be detected early. Virological failure in a patient treated with raltegravir forces to a rapid change in ARV therapy because its continued use may favor new mutations and resistance to second-generation INSTIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Uruguay , Raltegravir Potassium/therapeutic use , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , Mutation
4.
Femina ; 52(1): 41-48, 20240130. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532476

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Nos últimos anos, a epidemia de HIV tem incidido consideravelmente e de forma silenciosa na população de mulheres gestantes, sobretudo devido à subnotificação, ao diagnóstico tardio e à negligência quanto à realização de teste anti-HIV pelas infectadas. Diante disso, este estudo tem por objetivo descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico de gestantes que vivem com HIV na Macrorregião Sul de Saúde de Santa Catarina. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, ana- lítico, retrospectivo, com base em dados secundários retirados das plataformas Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan) e Sistema de Monitora- mento Clínico das Pessoas Vivendo com HIV/AIDS (SIMC), acerca de gestantes que vivem com HIV na Macrorregião Sul de Saúde de Santa Catarina, no período entre 2019 e 2022. Resultados: A partir dos dados sociodemográficos, obteve-se um perfil epidemiológico prevalente de mulheres com idade entre 30 e 49 anos, brancas, com baixo nível de escolaridade e entre 1 a 13 semanas de gestação no momento da notificação de infecção por HIV. O perfil clínico apontou para a prevalência de mulheres em uso de terapia antirretroviral, com carga viral acima de 1.000 cópias/ mL e contagem de linfócitos T-CD4+ superior a 350 células/mm3. Conclusão: Apesar do baixo nível de escolaridade e da elevada carga viral, o resultado foi positivo para a população selecionada, uma vez que foi demonstrada boa adesão ao tra- tamento e alta contagem de linfócitos, sendo esses bons preditores de evolução clínica para o HIV.


Objective: In recent years, the HIV epidemic has significantly and silently affected the population of pregnant women, mainly due to underreporting, late diagnosis, and neglect of HIV testing among infected individuals. In light of this, the aim of this study is to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of pregnant women living with HIV in the Southern Health Macroregion of Santa Catarina. Methods: This is an ecological, analytical, retrospective study based on secondary data retrieved from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sinan) and the Clinical Monitoring System for People Living with HIV/ AIDS (SIMC), regarding pregnant women living with HIV in the Southern Health Macroregion of Santa Catarina from 2019 to 2022. Results: Based on sociodemographic data, a prevalent epidemiological profile was identified, with women aged 30 to 49 years, white, with low educational level, and between 1 to 13 weeks of gestation at the time of HIV infection notifica- tion. The clinical profile revealed a prevalence of women on antiretroviral therapy, with a viral load above 1,000 copies/ mL and a T-CD4+ lymphocyte count above 350 cells/mm3. Conclusion: Despite the low educational level and high viral load, the outcome was positive for the selected population, as good treatment adherence and high lymphocyte count were demonstrated, both of which are good predictors of clinical progression for HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Health Profile , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Delayed Diagnosis , Health Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , HIV Testing
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0013, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We present an interesting case of a 62-year-old black female, presented to the ophthalmological hospital with a little "nevus" on the left eye previously visualized at the mirror, with one month of development. Physical examination with slit lamp (biomicroscopy) showed a group of painless veins, with vascular redness, and a mass nodular aspect in the mid temporal bulbar conjunctiva, of approximately 2mmx4mm.


RESUMO Apresentamos o interessante caso de uma mulher negra de 62 anos, que deu entrada no hospital oftalmológico com um pequeno nevo no olho esquerdo previamente visualizado ao espelho, com 1 mês de evolução. O exame físico com lâmpada de fenda (biomicroscopia) mostrou um grupo de veias indolor e vermelhidão vascular, com uma massa de aspecto nodular na conjuntiva bulbar temporal média, de aproximadamente 2mmx4mm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Eye Neoplasms/diagnosis , Eye Neoplasms/etiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/surgery , Treponemal Infections/diagnosis , Biopsy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Seropositivity , Eye Neoplasms/surgery , Slit Lamp Microscopy
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527678

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue describir los niveles de resistencia transmitida de VIH-1 en adultos atendidos en Unidades de Atención Integral de Guatemala. El estudio incluyó registros de 185 pacientes adultos VIH-1 positivo, de reciente diagnóstico sin antecedente de uso de TAR, de noviembre del 2019 a noviembre del 2020. El análisis se realizó en el software DeepChek® v2.0, para la clasificación de la resistencia se siguió el algoritmo de Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022). Se encontró 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistencia general a alguna familia de ARVs. Se evidenció 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistencia individual a la familia de INNTR afectando principalmente a NVP y EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) de resistencia a INTR, mayormente a FTC/3TC; y 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistencia intermedia y baja los IP NFV y LPV/r. Tres casos presentaron resistencia múltiple a los INTR + INNTR. Las mutaciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) y M46I (5.9%). La elevada resistencia transmitida del VIH-1 en pacientes atendidos en distintas Unidades de Atención Integral del VIH, demuestra la importancia de analizar periódicamente la tendencia de la resistencia en personas que no han estado expuestas a ARVs, lo cual a su vez es un marcador indirecto de presencia de resistencia adquirida en el país, datos que evidencian la necesidad de acciones e intervenciones prontas y efectivas dado su impacto en la salud pública.


The objective of this study was to describe the levels of transmitted HIV-1 resistance in patients with a recent HIV diagnosis before starting ART, treated in Comprehensive Care Units in Guatemala during the years 2019 and 2020. The study included records of 185 HIV-positive adult patients, recently diagnosed with HIV without a history of ART use. The analysis was carried out in the DeepChek® v2.0 software, the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) was followed to classify resistance. 18.4% (95% CI 13.1 - 24.7%) of general resistance to some family of ARVs was found. There was evidence of 15.1% (95% CI 10.3 - 21.1%) of individual resistance to the NNRTI family, mainly affecting NVP and EFV; 2.2% (95% CI 0.6 - 5.4%) resistance to INTR, mostly to FTC/3TC; and 2.7% (95% CI 0.9 - 6.2%) of intermediate and low resistance IP NFV and LPV/r. Three cases presented multiple resistance to NRTIs + NNRTIs. The most frequently found mutations were K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) and M46I (5.9%). The high transmitted resistance of HIV-1 in patients treated in different Comprehensive HIV Care Units demonstrates the importance of periodically analyzing the trend of resistance in people who have not been exposed to ARVs, which in turn is an indirect marker. of the presence of acquired resistance in the country, data that demonstrate the need for prompt and effective actions and interventions given its impact on public health.


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os níveis de resistência transmitida ao HIV-1 em adultos tratados em Unidades de Cuidados Integrais na Guatemala. O estudo incluiu prontuários de 185 pacientes adultos HIV-1 positivos, recentemente diagnosticados sem histórico de uso de TARV, no período de novembro de 2019 a novembro de 2020. A análise foi realizada no software DeepChek® v2.0, para classificação da resistência, O algoritmo Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) foi seguido. Foi encontrada 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistência geral a alguma família de ARVs. Houve evidência de 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistência individual à família de NNRTI, afetando principalmente NVP e EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) resistência ao INTR, principalmente ao FTC/3TC; e 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistência intermediária e baixa ao IP NFV e LPV/r. Três casos apresentaram resistência múltipla a NRTIs + NNRTIs. As mutações mais frequentemente encontradas foram K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) e M46I (5.9%). A elevada resistência transmitida do HIV-1 em pacientes atendidos em diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Integrados ao HIV demonstra a importância de analisar periodicamente a tendência de resistência em pessoas que não foram expostas aos ARVs, o que por sua vez é um marcador indireto da presença de ARVs adquiridos. resistência no país, dados que demonstram a necessidade de ações e intervenções rápidas e eficazes dado o seu impacto na saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , HIV Infections/genetics , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Guatemala/epidemiology , Mutation
7.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 28: e20230043, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1534453

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo construir e validar conteúdo de instrumento para avaliação socioestrutural e comportamental associado à infecção pelo HIV em jovens. Método estudo metodológico, desenvolvido em duas etapas: elaboração do instrumento; e validação de conteúdo. Os itens que compuseram o instrumento foram selecionados através de revisão literária, tendo como referencial os domínios multiníveis do Modelo Social Ecológico Modificado, categorizados em componentes socioestruturais e comportamentais. O conteúdo foi avaliado por especialistas em duas rodadas conduzidas pela técnica Delphi, admitindo-se um índice de concordância de, no mínimo, 80%. Resultados a primeira versão do instrumento continha 52 itens, distribuídos em três domínios. Na primeira rodada, 19 itens (36,5%) obtiveram Índice de Validade de Conteúdo inferior a 0,80, dois itens foram excluídos e os demais foram reformulados. Na segunda rodada, 2 itens foram excluídos e 3 foram incorporados como subitem, totalizando 45 itens. O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo do Instrumento foi de 95%. Conclusão e implicações para a prática as recomendações dos especialistas contribuíram para a qualificação do instrumento Avaliação Socioestrutural e Comportamental-HIV, possibilitando a reorganização do conteúdo. O instrumento é válido para a identificação de fatores socioestruturais e comportamentais associados à infecção pelo HIV em jovens, com potencial para constituir planejamento de cuidados preventivos.


RESUMEN Objetivo construir y validar el contenido de un instrumento de evaluación socioestructural y conductual asociada a la infección por VIH en jóvenes. Método estudio metodológico, desarrollado en dos etapas: elaboración del instrumento; y validación de contenido. Los ítems que conformaron el instrumento fueron seleccionados a través de una revisión literaria, tomando como referencia los dominios multinivel del Modelo Ecológico Social Modificado, categorizados en componentes socioestructurales y conductuales. El contenido fue evaluado por expertos en dos rondas realizadas mediante la técnica Delphi, suponiendo una tasa de acuerdo de al menos el 80%. Resultados la primera versión del instrumento contuvo 52 ítems, distribuidos en tres dominios. En la primera ronda, 19 ítems (36,5%) tuvieron un Índice de Validez de Contenido inferior a 0,80, dos ítems fueron excluidos y el resto fueron reformulados. En la segunda ronda, se excluyeron 2 ítems y se incorporaron 3 como subítems, totalizando 45 ítems. El Índice de Validez de Contenido del Instrumento fue del 95%. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica las recomendaciones de los expertos contribuyeron para la calificación del instrumento Evaluación Socioestructural y del Comportamiento-VIH, permitiendo la reorganización del contenido. El instrumento es válido para identificar factores socioestructurales y conductuales asociados a la infección por VIH en jóvenes, con potencial para constituir una planificación de atención preventiva.


ABSTRACT Objective to construct and validate the content of an instrument for sociostructural and behavioral assessment associated with HIV infection in young people. Method a methodological study developed in two steps: instrument elaboration; and content validity. The items that made up the instrument were selected through a literary review using the Modified Social Ecological Model multilevel domains as a reference, categorized into sociostructural and behavioral components. Content was assessed by experts in two rounds conducted using the Delphi technique, assuming an agreement rate of at least 80%. Results the first version of the instrument contained 52 items, distributed across three domains. In the first round, 19 items (36.5%) had a Content Validity Index lower than 0.80, two items were excluded and the rest were reformulated. In the second round, 2 items were excluded and 3 were incorporated as subitems, totaling 45 items. The Instrument Content Validity Index was 95%. Conclusion and implications for practice experts' recommendations contributed qualifying the Sociostructural and Behavioral Assessment-HIV instrument, enabling content reorganization. The instrument is valid for identifying socio-structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection in young people, with the potential to constitute preventive care planning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV , Adolescent Health , Vulnerable Populations , Social Determinants of Health , Multilevel Analysis
8.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE02572, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1533330

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Mapear a produção científica sobre as estratégias educativas e os conteúdos abordados na educação de pessoas vivendo com HIV. Métodos Esta é uma revisão de escopo em que a seleção dos artigos foi realizada em abril de 2021 e atualizada em outubro de 2022 em dez fontes de dados; a revisão seguiu os pressupostos estabelecidos pelo Joanna Briggs Institute e o checklist dos Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. Os resultados foram analisados descritivamente e sintetizados em um quadro. Resultados Foram selecionados 17 estudos com publicação predominante em 2017; Estados Unidos da América e Brasil foram os países com a maior quantidade de produções. A maioria dos estudos buscou avaliar o impacto e a eficácia das estratégias e desenvolver ou validar instrumentos de educação em saúde e atividades de prevenção. Em relação ao conteúdo abordado pelas estratégias, foram formadas cinco categorias: orientação inicial sobre HIV/AIDS, cuidados gerais, vida saudável, saúde sexual e suporte emocional. As estratégias educativas que se destacaram em relação à maior adesão dos pacientes ao tratamento estão relacionadas com o desenvolvimento de sistemas, programas e multimídia. As cartilhas promoveram empoderamento e autonomia de pessoas vivendo com HIV. Conclusão Foram mapeadas as principais estratégias educativas, com destaque para cartilhas, material impresso, recursos multimídia, sistemas, formulários e oficinas/workshops, abordando orientação inicial sobre HIV/AIDS, tratamento farmacológico, cuidados gerais, vida saudável, saúde sexual e suportes social e emocional.


Resumen Objetivo Mapear la producción científica sobre las estrategias educativas y los contenidos abordados en la educación de personas que viven con el VIH. Métodos Esta es una revisión de alcance, cuya selección de artículos se realizó en abril de 2021 y se actualizó en octubre de 2022 en diez fuentes de datos. La revisión siguió las premisas establecidas por el Joanna Briggs Institute y la checklist de los Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. Los resultados fueron analizados descriptivamente y sintetizados en un cuadro. Resultados Se seleccionaron 17 estudios con publicación predominante en 2017. Estados Unidos de América y Brasil fueron los países con mayor cantidad de producciones. La mayoría de los estudios buscó evaluar el impacto y la eficacia de las estrategias y elaborar o validar instrumentos de educación para la salud y actividades de prevención. Con relación al contenido abordado por las estrategias, se formaron cinco categorías: instrucciones iniciales sobre VIH/SIDA, cuidados generales, vida saludable, salud sexual y apoyo emocional. Las estrategias educativas que se destacaron con relación a una mayor adhesión de los pacientes al tratamiento están relacionadas con el desarrollo de sistemas, programas y multimedia. Las cartillas promovieron empoderamiento y autonomía de personas que viven con el VIH. Conclusión Se mapearon las principales estrategias educativas, con énfasis en cartillas, material impreso, recursos multimedia, sistemas, formularios y talleres/workshops, que abordaron instrucciones iniciales sobre VIH/SIDA, tratamiento farmacológico, cuidados generales, vida saludable, salud sexual y apoyo social y emocional. Open Science Framework (OSF): https://osf.io/754uk/?view_only=6491865a3d12424d81af2c4099c112c3


Abstract Objective To map the scientific production on educational strategies and the content covered in the education of people living with HIV. Methods This is a scoping review in which the selection of articles was carried out in April 2021 and updated in October 2022 in ten data sources; the review followed the assumptions established by the Joanna Briggs Institute and the checklist of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. The results were descriptively analyzed and summarized in a chart. Results A total of 17 studies were selected, predominantly published in 2017; The USA and Brazil were the countries with the largest number of productions. Most studies sought to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of strategies and develop or validate health education instruments and prevention activities. Concerning the content covered by the strategies, five categories were formed: initial guidance on HIV/AIDS, general care, healthy living, sexual health, and emotional support. The educational strategies that stood out concerning greater patient adherence to treatment are related to the development of systems, programs, and multimedia. The booklets promoted empowerment and autonomy for people living with HIV. Conclusion The main educational strategies were mapped, with emphasis on booklets, printed material, multimedia resources, systems, forms, and workshops, covering initial guidance on HIV/AIDS, pharmacological treatment, general care, healthy living, sexual health, and social and emotional support. Open Science Framework (OSF): https://osf.io/754uk/?view_only=6491865a3d12424d81af2c4099c112c3


Subject(s)
Humans , Teaching , HIV Infections , Health Education , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Educational Technology/education , Medication Adherence , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , COVID-19
9.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 62-67, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525511

ABSTRACT

Background:Human immunodeficiency virus/ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), has remained a disease of public health concern, with the largest burden being found in sub Saharan Africa. The advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced the mortality of the disease, thereby transforming it to a chronic disorder, with significant co-morbid psychiatric sequalae.Objectives:To determine the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity among PLWHAattending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano.Materials and methods:This was a cross sectional study of adult patients with HIV/AIDS attending outpatient clinic at the S.S. Wali Virology Centre of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital who gave informed consent. Systematic random sampling technique was used.Patients aged 18years and above who had been on ARVdrugs for at least one year were included, while those who had a medical emergency and needed immediate attention were excluded.Socio demographic characteristics were obtained using a socio-demographic questionnaire and psychiatric morbidity was assessed with the MINI International Neuropsychiatry Interview.Results:Atotal of 420 participants were recruited in the study with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 and mean age of 40.4±10.0 years. The prevalence of a psychiatric disorder was 22.1% out of whom 5.0% had more than one psychiatric diagnosis. Major depression was the most common (11%) psychiatric disorder. Generalized Anxiety disorder, substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse accounted for 7.6%, 5.5%, 2.4% and 1.7% of psychiatric disorders respectively.Conclusion:Psychiatric disorders are common in PLWHA, with major depression being the commonest.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1551650

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite measures put in place to combat teenage pregnancy, the rate remains high. Community health workers (CHWs) are a cadre of health workers that can help put measures in place to reduce teenage pregnancy in the communities in which they live and work. Aim: This article aims to gain a deeper understanding of CHWs' perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy in the rural districts of Limpopo province. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study approach was employed to collect data from CHWs in two rural districts of Limpopo. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used to choose 81 CHWs. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were organised, and audio recorded to collect data from participants. The discussions were 2­3 h long and conducted in English, and data saturation was attained by the fifth FGDs. Results: An eight-step tech's content analysis approach was employed to deductively code, analyse and summarise data into themes. Three themes emerged: the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in rural villages, factors contributing to teenage pregnancy and challenges faced by CHWs when dealing with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: The study's findings revealed that CHWs face challenges in their communities when offering appropriate teen pregnancy services and CHWs believe that teen pregnancy numbers remain high. There is a significant barrier in combating teenage pregnancy; if contraceptives are not acceptable to the community, the only solution and option for combating teenage pregnancy is abstinence. Contribution: The CHWs presented their insights of teenage pregnancy in rural communities. The outcomes of this study could help clinical practise, schools, communities, youth-friendly services, policymakers and other non-governmental organisations reduce teenage pregnancy.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Community Health Workers , Pregnancy in Adolescence
11.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(2): 139-144, 2024. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1555642

ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome undergoes high rate of mutation, which results in generation of genetically diverse HCV isolates. There is paucity of data on mutations in the nonstructural 5b (NS5b) gene of circulating HCV and their implications in the Nigerian population. Here, we identified clinically-important mutations in HCV isolates, which may influence response to therapy and disease prognosis. Methodology: HCV RNA was extracted from a total of 301 blood samples collected from 99 symptomatic treatment-naïve hepatitis patients, 125 HIV-infected individuals and 77 asymptomatic blood donors in Ibadan, Nigeria. The RNA was reverse­transcribed to complimentary DNA and HCV NS5B gene amplified by nested PCR. The amplified products of 42 HCV were sequenced and sequences were aligned with those from GenBank and HCV databases in MEGA 7.0. Nucleotide sequences were translated to amino acids while substitutions in the amino acids were analyzed with reference to H77 prototype strain of HCV. Results: A total of 10 amino acid polymorphisms were observed from the 42 sequenced NS5B gene, with the major clinically-important amino acid mutations being S15G in 28 (66.7%) participants, T7N (24, 57.1%), G61R (23, 54.8%), S54L (22, 52.4%), G89E (14, 33.3%), T79M (12, 28.6%), and T711 (11, 26.2%). Others were Q67R (7, 16.7%), Q47H (7, 16.7%) and S84F (2, 4.8%). S15G/A/V mutations were more predominant in patients with HIV (76.9%, 10/13) followed by patients with clinical hepatitis (75.0%, 12/16) and blood donors (46.1%, 6/13). Q67R and T71I mutations were not predominant in patients with clinical hepatitis as they were detected in only 31.3% (5/16) and 43.8% (7/16) participants respectively, compared to S15G (75.0%, 12/16), S54L (68.8%, 11/16), G61R/E (68.8%, 11/16) and T7N/S (56.3%, 9/16). There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of each of the 10 amino acid polymorphisms detected within patients with symptomatic clinical hepatitis (x 2=9.311, p=0.409), HIV-infected patients (x 2=13.431, p=0.1440) and asymptomatic blood donors (x 2=3.775, p=0.9256). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the distribution between the 3 categories of the study participants except for T79M mutation, which was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients (61.5%, 8/13) compared to patients with clinical hepatitis (18.8%, 3/16) and asymptomatic blood donors (7.7%, 1/13) (x 2=10.456, p=0.0054). Conclusion: Mutations in the NS5B gene could be associated with worse prognosis of the disease or antiviral failure due to viral resistance in patients undergoing therapy. The absence of Q47H mutations in majority of the study participants in our study implies that they will not respond well to daprevir and mericitabine. Screening of patients for pre-existing resistant mutations before commencement of therapy and monitoring during and after therapy are recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepacivirus , HIV Infections
12.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3720, Jan.-Dec. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424045

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to analyze the use of the Practical Approach to Care Kit as a technology adopted in nurses' clinical practice for HIV management in Primary Health Care. Method: an exploratory and descriptive research study anchored in the methodological framework of the Constructivist Grounded Theory. The participants were defined through initial sampling, with 12 nurses, and theoretical sampling, with five managers, totaling 17 participants. The data were collected by means of intensive interviews and documentary analysis, and they were analyzed in two stages: 1) Initial coding; and 2) Focused coding. Results: the professionals identified the Practical Approach to Care Kit as a technological innovation that contributed to expanding the clinical practice and to empowering nurses in the clinical management of HIV infection. They also highlighted its importance as a tool for guiding the different responsibilities and duties while sharing care, contributing to the provision of evidence-based practices. Conclusion: The Practical Approach to Care Kit is a technological innovation that has transformed nurses' clinical practice in HIV management, expanding their scope of activities in carrying out the diagnosis, assessing the health condition and counseling, evaluating adherence to the treatment, adverse effects and prescription of exams, medications, and immunobiological.


Resumo Objetivo: analisar a utilização do Practical Approach to Care Kit como uma tecnologia adotada na prática clínica dos enfermeiros no manejo do HIV na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método: pesquisa exploratória e descritiva, ancorada no referencial metodológico da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados Construtivista. A definição dos participantes foi realizada por amostragem inicial, com 12 enfermeiros, e amostragem teórica, com cinco gestores, totalizando 17 participantes. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas intensivas e análise documental, e foram analisados em duas etapas: 1) codificação inicial; e 2) codificação focalizada. Resultados: os profissionais identificaram o Practical Approach to Care Kit como uma inovação tecnológica que contribuiu para a ampliação da prática clínica e empoderamento do enfermeiro no manejo clínico da infecção por HIV. Também destacaram sua importância como ferramenta para orientação das diferentes responsabilidades e atribuições no compartilhamento do cuidado, contribuindo para a prestação de práticas baseadas em evidências. Conclusão: o Practical Approach to Care Kit é uma inovação tecnológica que transformou a prática clínica do enfermeiro no manejo do HIV, ampliando seu escopo de atividades na realização do diagnóstico, avaliação da condição de saúde e aconselhamento, avaliação da adesão ao tratamento, efeitos adversos e prescrição de exames, medicamentos e imunobiológicos.


Resumen Objetivo: analizar el uso del Practical Approach to Care Kit como tecnología adoptada en la práctica clínica de los enfermeros en el manejo del VIH en la Atención Primaria de la Salud. Método: investigación exploratoria y descriptiva, basada en el marco metodológico de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos Constructivistas. La definición de los participantes fue realizada por muestreo inicial, con 12 enfermeros, y muestreo teórico, con cinco gestores, fueron 17 participantes en total. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas intensivas y análisis de documentos, y fueron analizados en dos etapas: 1) codificación inicial; y 2) codificación enfocada. Resultados: los profesionales identificaron el Practical Approach to Care Kit como una innovación tecnológica que contribuyó a la expansión de la práctica clínica y al empoderamiento de los enfermeros en el manejo clínico de la infección por VIH. También destacaron su importancia como herramienta para orientar las diferentes responsabilidades y obligaciones en la distribución de la atención de los pacientes, contribuyendo a la prestación de prácticas basadas en evidencia. Conclusión: el Practical Approach to Care Kit es una innovación tecnológica que ha transformado la práctica clínica de los enfermeros en el manejo del VIH, ampliando su radio de acción para la realización del diagnóstico, evaluación del estado de salud y asesoramiento, evaluación de la adherencia al tratamiento, efectos adversos y prescripción de exámenes, medicamentos e inmunobiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Nursing , Professional Practice , HIV Infections/therapy , Practice Guideline , Disease Management , Nursing, Team
13.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 31: e70932, jan. -dez. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1444027

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: refletir sobre a estratégia da prevenção combinada do HIV como um novo paradigma de prevenção. Conteúdo: trata-se de uma análise reflexiva do documento norteador da resposta brasileira a epidemia do HIV: "Prevenção combinado do HIV: bases conceituais para profissionais, trabalhadores(as) e gestores(as) de saúde", proposta pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, à luz do referencial de Thomas Kuhn em sua obra, "A estrutura das revoluções científicas". O "novo" paradigma, a prevenção combinada, não evidencia mudanças estruturais nas estratégias de prevenção, apenas realiza incorporações de novas tecnologias em sua política. Considerações finais: a prevenção combinada do HIV não se apresenta como um novo paradigma de prevenção na resposta brasileira à epidemia, mas como uma reorganização das estratégias de prevenção dos paradigmas já vigentes(AU)


Objective: to reflect on the combined HIV prevention strategy as a new prevention paradigm. Content: this is a reflective analysis of the guiding document of the Brazilian response to the HIV epidemic: "Combined HIV prevention: conceptual bases for professionals, workers and health managers", proposed by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, in the light of Thomas Kuhn's reference in his work, "The structure of scientific revolutions". The "new" paradigm, combined prevention, does not show structural changes in prevention strategies, it only incorporates new technologies into its policy. Final considerations: combined HIV prevention is not presented as a new prevention paradigm in the Brazilian response to the epidemic, but as a reorganization of prevention strategies from existing paradigms(AU)


Objetivo: reflexionar sobre la estrategia combinada de prevención del VIH como nuevo paradigma de prevención. Contenido: se trata de un análisis reflexivo del documento orientador de la respuesta brasileña a la epidemia del VIH: "Prevención combinada del VIH: bases conceptuales para profesionales, trabajadores y gestores de salud", propuesto por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, a la luz de Referencia de Thomas Kuhn en su obra, "La estructura de las revoluciones científicas". El "nuevo" paradigma, de la prevención combinada, no muestra cambios estructurales en las estrategias de prevención, solo incorpora nuevas tecnologías a su política. Consideraciones finales: la prevención combinada del VIH no se presenta como un nuevo paradigma de prevención en la respuesta brasileña a la epidemia, sino como una reorganización de las estrategias de prevención a partir de los paradigmas existentes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV , Health Strategies , Disease Prevention , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control
15.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(113): 34-41, 20230000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1527380

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: El diagnóstico tardío de la infección por VIH y el acceso de los pacientes con enfermedad avanzada al sistema de salud afectan negativamente los beneficios in-dividuales y colectivos del tratamiento antirretroviral. A nivel mundial existe una alta prevalencia de diagnóstico tardío es-pecialmente en poblaciones vulnerables como los migrantes.Objetivos: Medir la prevalencia de diagnóstico tardío de infección por VIH entre migrantes internacionales y com-pararla con la de los argentinos.Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de personas mayores de 16 años asistidas en el Hospital General de Agudos Donación Francisco Santojanni que hubieran recibido diagnóstico de infección por VIH entre 01/1/2018 y el 31/12/2021. Se determinó la mediana de recuento de CD4 basal y la prevalencia de diagnóstico tar-dío. Aplicamos la prueba de la suma de rangos de Wilcoxon para la variable contínua y la prueba de Fisher para com-parar proporciones.Resultados: Incluimos 199 personas (52 migrantes, 147 argentinos). Los migrantes presentaron un nivel basal de linfocitos CD4 significativamente menor [Mediana (RIC 25-75) 248 (79-466) vs. 331 (166-532); p=0,044], mayor tasa de presentación tardía [69,2% vs. 54,4%; RR 1,27 (IC95 1,01-1,61); p=0,072] y con sida [44,2% vs. 30,6%; RR 1,44 (IC95 0,98-2,13); p=0,089] y una menor proporción de diagnós-ticos en etapa temprana [13,5% vs. 29,3%; RR 0,46 (IC95 0,22-0,96); p=0,026].Conclusiones: Los migrantes internacionales accedieron al diagnóstico en peor estado clínico que los argentinos. Conocer este dato es imprescindible para elaborar políti-cas tendientes a mejorar el acceso al diagnóstico de esta población vulnerable.


Introduction: The late diagnosis of HIV infection and the access of patients to health system with advanced disease negatively affect the individual and collective benefits of antiretroviral treatment. There is a worldwide high prevalence of late diagnosis, specially in vulnerable populations, such as migrants.Objectives: to measure the prevalence of late diagnosis of HIV infection among international migrants and compare it with the people born in Argentina.Material and methods: retrospective and observational study of people over 16 years old, assisted at the Donación Francisco Santojanni General Hospital, who had received a diagnosis of HIV infection between 01-01-2018 and 12-31-2021. The median baseline CD4 cell count and the prevalence of late diagnosis were determined. We applied the Wilcoxon rank sum test for the continuous variable and the Fisher test to compare proportions.Results: 199 subjects (52 migrants, 147 Argentinians) were included. Migrants presented a significantly lower baseline CD4 cell count [Median (IQR 25-75) 248 (79-466) vs 331 (166-532); p=0.044], a higher rate of late presentation [69.2% vs 54.4%; RR 1.27 (CI95 1.01-1.61); p=0.072], presentation with aids [44.2% vs 30.6%; RR 1.44 (CI95 0.98-2.13); p=0.089]; and a lower proportion of early stage presentation [13.5% vs 29.3%; RR 0.46 (CI95 0.22-0.96); p=0.026].Conclusions: international migrants accessed to the diagnosis in a worse clinical condition than Argentinians. Knowing this information is essential for the development of policies aimed to improve the access to diagnosis of this vulnerable population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transients and Migrants , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Prevalence , Vulnerable Populations , Delayed Diagnosis
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 514-528, oct. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521860

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida las neoplasias han jugado un papel preponderante, y con el advenimiento del tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR), la infección por VIH se ha transformado en una enfermedad crónica, siendo los tumores malignos una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. OBJETIVO: Describir las características demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio de las personas que viven con VIH (PVVIH) y han sido diagnosticadas con cáncer en Colombia y comparar los grupos de neoplasias definitorias y no definitorias de Sida. MÉTODOS: Revisión multicéntrica retrospectiva, en la que se recolectó y analizó datos relacionados con la infección por VIH y de diagnóstico de cáncer y tipo. Incluyó PVVIH diagnosticadas con neoplasias malignas atendidas en 23 centros de atención de pacientes con VIH en 11 ciudades de Colombia desde 1986 hasta 2018. RESULTADOS: En 23.189 pacientes, se identificaron 650 casos de malignidad (prevalencia de 2,8 % [IC de 95%: 2,6-2,9]). La neoplasia definitoria de Sida (NDS) sigue siendo el tipo de cáncer prevalente (71,1%), las neoplasias malignas más frecuentes fueron sarcoma de Kaposi (n: 330; 50,8%), linfoma no Hodgkin (n: 110; 16,9%), cáncer de piel (n: 48; 7,4%) y linfoma de Hodgkin (n: 25; 3,8%). Los pacientes con NDS tenían más probabilidades de ser HSH y estar en un estadio CDC 3, un recuento de linfocitos T CD4 < 200/μL y una carga viral del VIH ≥ 50 copias/mL al momento del diagnóstico de malignidad. Las personas con neoplasias no definitorias de Sida (NNDS) eran significativamente mayores y tenían más probabilidades de ser fumadores. CONCLUSIONES: Estos hallazgos son relevantes considerando la creciente carga de cáncer en las PVVIH que envejecen y las causas cambiantes de morbilidad y mortalidad. La presentación tardía a la atención del VIH y el retraso en el inicio del TAR son probablemente factores que contribuyen al cambio más lento hacia NNDS en comparación con las regiones de altos ingresos donde hay un acceso más rápido y temprano al TAR. El conocimiento de las tendencias epidemiológicas actuales y el perfil del cáncer en las PVVIH es fundamental para mejorar los esfuerzos de prevención y tratamiento del cáncer en el contexto de la atención integral del VIH.


BACKGROUND: In the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, neoplasms have played a preponderant role, and with the advent of antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV has become a chronic disease, with malignant tumors being an important cause of morbidity and mortality. AIM: To describe the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who have been diagnosed with cancer in Colombia and to compare the groups of AIDS-defining (ADC) and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms (NADC). METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter study that included people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) diagnosed with malignancies treated at 23 HIV care centers located in 11 Colombian cities from 1986 to 2018. Data related to HIV infection and cancer diagnosis were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Among 23,189 patients, 650 malignancy cases were identified (prevalence of 2.8% [95% CI 2.6-2.9]). AIDS-defining neoplasm remains the most prevalent type of cancer (71.1%), The most frequent individual malignancies were Kaposi sarcoma (n: 330; 50.8%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n: 110; 16.9%), skin cancer (n: 48; 7.4%), and Hodgkin lymphoma (n: 25; 3.8%). Compared people with NADC, with ADC were more likely to be MSM and have a CDC HIV stage 3, CD4 T cell count < 200/μL, and HIV viral load ≥ 50 copies/mL at the time of malignancy diagnosis. PLHIV and with NADC were significantly older and were more likely to be smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are relevant considering the increasing burden of cancer in the aging PLHIV and the changing causes of morbidity and mortality. Late presentation to HIV care and delayed ART initiation are likely factors contributing to the slower shift toward NADCs compared with high-income regions where access to ART is better. Knowledge of the current epidemiological trends and profile of cancer in PLWHA is critical to improve cancer prevention and treatment efforts in the context of comprehensive HIV care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Multicenter Study , Colombia/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis
18.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 274-280, Septiembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515976

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia del HIV a los antirretrovirales (ARVs) es una de las principales causas de fallo terapéutico en niños, niñas y adolescentes que conviven con el virus. Desde el año 2006, el Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus del Hospital Garrahan realiza el estudio genotípico de resistencia (ER) del HIV-1 a los ARVs a fin de identificar mutaciones que disminuyen la susceptibilidad del virus a los fármacos que componen el tratamiento ARV. Objetivos: El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el tipo y frecuencia de resistencia del HIV a los ARVs, a través de un análisis de 371 ER realizados entre los años 2006 y 2021 en niños, niñas y adolescentes con HIV-1 adquirido por transmisión vertical y con solicitud médica de ER por presentar fallo terapéutico. Resultados: Entre los años 2006 y 2013 la proporción de casos con resistencia a al menos una clase de fármaco ARV fue mayor al 90%, sugiriendo una asociación directa entre el fallo virológico y la disminución en la susceptibilidad del HIV-1 a uno o más componentes del TARV. A partir del año 2012, se observa una disminución progresiva del nivel de resistencia de HIV-1, llegando al 50% en 2021 (p<0.0001). La frecuencia de mutaciones de resistencia fue diferente para cada una de las clases de ARVs. Mientras que la resistencia a INNTR no sufrió cambios significativos a lo largo del período de estudio, oscilando entre 27% y 75%. La proporción de mutaciones a IPs en pacientes con fallo virológico disminuyó de 87% en 2006 a 17% en 2021 y para los INTR, disminuyó de 79% en 2006 a 45% en 2021. Conclusión: El nivel de resistencia a los ARVs ha disminuido de manera sustancial a lo largo de los últimos 16 años, probablemente por el uso de nuevos fármacos ARV con alta potencia que posibilitaron la intensificación de los tratamientos ARV y la implementación de criterios de fallo terapéutico más estrictos tanto a nivel clínico como virológico (AU)


Introduction: HIV resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs is one of the main causes of therapeutic failure in children and adolescents living with the virus. Since 2006, the Cell Biology and Retrovirus Laboratory of the Garrahan Hospital has been performing the genotypic study of HIV-1 resistance to ARV drugs in order to identify mutations that reduce the susceptibility of the virus to the drugs that constitute ARV treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the type and frequency of HIV resistance to ARV drugs through an analysis of 371 genotype studies performed between 2006 and 2021 in children and adolescents with HIV-1 acquired through motherto-child transmission and with medical request for genotype study due to therapeutic failure. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, the proportion of cases with resistance to at least one ARV drug class was greater than 90%, suggesting a direct association between virologic failure and decreased susceptibility of HIV-1 to one or more components of ART. From 2012 onwards, a progressive decrease in the level of HIV-1 resistance was observed, reaching 50% in 2021 (p<0.0001). The frequency of resistant mutations was different for each of the ARV classes, while resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) did not change significantly over the study period, ranging from 27% to 75%. The proportion of drug-resistant mutations to protease inhibitors (PI) in patients with virologic failure decreased from 87% in 2006 to 17% in 2021 and for NNRTIs from 79% in 2006 to 45% in 2021. Conclusion: The level of resistance to ARV drugs has decreased substantially over the last 16 years, probably due to the use of new ARV drugs with high potency that allowed the intensification of ARV treatments and the implementation of stricter criteria for therapeutic failure both clinically and virologically (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Mutation , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 206-215, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533880

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 was one of the most debated topics during the pandemic. Objectives. To analyze the clinical characteristics and evolution of people living with HIV/ AIDS and coinfection with cryptococcus and COVID-19 (group A) or without it (group B). Materials and methods. This is an analytical and retrospective study. We reviewed medical records of patients with meningeal cryptococcosis between April 2020 and May 2021. Results. We studied 65 people living with HIV/AIDS and with cryptococcosis infection diagnosed from April 2020 to May 2021. Fifteen patients with HIV/AIDS suffered from cryptococcosis and COVID-19, and out of these, 14 presented meningitis (group A), while 28 suffered from meningeal cryptococcosis, but did not have COVID-19 (group B). Conclusions. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups (A and B) considering: intracranial hypertension, presence of Cryptococcus antigens in cerebrospinal fluid, sensorium deterioration or mortality. The detection of Cryptococcus antigens in serum by lateral flow assay was highly effective to rapidly diagnose cryptococcosis in patients with HIV/AIDS who also developed COVID-19. Patients of both groups consulted for cryptoccocosis sometime after, in comparison with the pre-pandemic cases related to this infection.


Introducción. Las infecciones fúngicas en pacientes con COVID-19 fue uno de los temas más debatidos durante la pandemia. Objetivo. Analizar las características clínicas y la evolución de personas con VIH/SIDA que presentaron la asociación de criptococosis meníngea y COVID-19 (grupo A), y compararlas con aquellas personas con VIH/SIDA que padecieron criptococosis meníngea, pero sin infección de COVID-19 (grupo B). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio analítico y retrospectivo en el que se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes que padecieron criptococosis meníngea entre abril de 2020 y mayo de 2021. Resultados. Se estudiaron 65 pacientes con HIV/SIDA y con criptococosis, diagnosticados entre abril de 2020 y mayo de 2021 (63 habían desarrollado sida y 2 eran negativos para VIH). De estos, 15 de los pacientes con sida padecían criptococosis y COVID-19, y 14 presentaban meningitis (grupo A), mientras que 28 pacientes padecieron criptococosis meníngea, pero no tuvieron COVID-19 (grupo B). Conclusiones. No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, entre los dos grupos, respecto a la hipertensión intracraneal, la presencia de antígenos de criptoccoco en líquido cefalorraquídeo, el deterioro del sensorio o la mortalidad. La detección de antígenos de Cryptococcus en suero por ensayo de flujo lateral fue efectiva para diagnosticar rápidamente criptococosis en personas con VIH/sida y con infección de COVID-19. Se observó que los pacientes de ambos grupos consultaron tarde por criptococosis en comparación con los casos prepandémicos de esta infección.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , SARS-CoV-2 , Cryptococcus , Coinfection , COVID-19
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(4): 396-401, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521857

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: La viruela del mono (mpox) es una zoonosis que se ha extendido rápida y globalmente desde mediados de 2022 y ha afectado mayoritariamente a hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente la infección por el virus mpox en personas que viven con VIH (PVVIH). PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un análisis clínico y epidemiológico a PVVIH que consultaron por sospecha de mpox en el Policlínico de Infectología del Hospital Clínico San Borja Arriarán. Se reportan los casos confirmados por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) entre el 11/07/2022 y 21/10/2022. RESULTADOS: Se confirmó mpox en 35 pacientes, todos HSH y, la mayoría, en terapia antirretroviral. La mediana de edad fue 37 años. El promedio de días entre fase inicial sistémica inespecífica y eruptiva fue 1,7. Las lesiones fueron de tipo maculopapulares, costrosas y umbilicadas en las zonas genital, perianal, dorso y extremidades, mayoritariamente. Trece individuos presentaron complicaciones y dos requirieron hospitalización. De los con examen de VDRL solicitado, el 46,4% fue reactivo en títulos no residuales. CONCLUSIONES: Se detectó llegada de mpox en un centro de atención de VIH en HSH en todos los niveles de estado inmune. Mayormente, los casos fueron leves a moderados y autolimitados. El cuadro clínico ha sido similar a lo descrito globalmente.


BACKGROUND. Monkeypox (mpox) is a zoonosis that has spread rapidly and globally since mid-2022 and has mainly affected men who have sex with men (MSM). Aim: To characterize mpox clinically and epidemiologically in people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHOD: A clinical and epidemiological analysis was carried out on PLHIV who consulted for suspected mpox in the Infectious Disease clinic of the San Borja Arriarán Clinical Hospital. Cases confirmed by PCR are reported between 07/11/2022 and 10/21/2022. RESULTS: Mpox was confirmed in 35 patients, all MSM and on antiretroviral therapy. The median age was 37 years. The average number of days between the initial non-specific systemic and eruptive phase was 1.7. The lesions were maculopapular, crusted, and umbilicated, mainly in the genital, perianal, back, and extremity areas. Thirteen patients presented complications and two required hospitalizations. Of those with a requested VDRL test, 46.4% were reactive in non-residual titers. CONCLUSIONS: Arrival of mpox was detected at the HIV care center in MSM at all levels of immune status. Mostly, the cases were mild to moderate and self-limiting. The clinical picture has been similar to that described globally.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Mpox (monkeypox)/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Mpox (monkeypox)/diagnosis
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