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1.
J. nurs. health ; 13(1): 131 6361, abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1509610

ABSTRACT

O bjetivo: i dentificar o perfil sociodemográfico e de abortamento provocado por mulheres residentes em Marabá , Pará e os principais fatores e motivos associados. Método: es tudo quantitativo, do tipo transversal, por meio de questionários coletados de março a dezembro de 2020, envolvendo 394 mulheres residentes em Marabá, alfabetizadas e com idade maior ou igual a 18 anos. Resultados: 37 mulheres que já tiveram algum aborto estavam na faixa etária de 25 a 29 anos, com ensino superior, solteira, com renda familiar de um a dois salários - mínimos, católica e doméstica. Os principais motivos para abortar foram: falta de condições financeiras, não estar preparada para ser mãe e rel ação instável com o parceiro. Conclusão: o aborto provocado é reflexo de um paradigma socioeconômico desigual e sua criminalização traz impedimentos à assistência e reconhecimento do problema.(AU)


Objective: t o identify the sociodemographic and abortion profile of women residing in Marabá , Pará and the main associated factors and reasons. Method: quantitative, cross - sectional study, through questionnaires collected from March to December 2020, involving 394 women residing in Marabá, literate and aged 18 years or older. Results: t he results showed that the 37 women who had already had an abortion w ere aged between 25 and 29 years, with higher education, single, with a family income of one to two minimum wages, catholic and domestic. The main reasons for abortion were lack of financial conditions, not being prepared to be a mother and unstable relati onship with the partner. Conclusion: induced abortion reflects an unequal socioeconomic paradigm, and its criminalization brings obstacles to care and recognition of the problem.(AU)


Objetivo: i dentificar el perfil sociodemográfico y de aborto de las mujeres residentes en Marabá , Pará y los principales factores y motivos asociados. Método: estudio transversal, través de cuestionarios recolectados de marzo a diciembre de 2020, i nvolucrando a 394 mujeres residentes en Marabá, alfabetizadas y con 18 años o más. Resultados: 37 mujeres que ya habían abortado tenían entre 25 y 29 años, con estudios superiores, solteras, con ingreso familiar de uno a dos salarios mínimos, católicas y d omésticas. Los principales motivos del aborto fueron: falta de condiciones económicas, no estar preparada para ser madre y relación inestable en pareja. Conclusión: el aborto inducido es reflejo de un paradigma socioeconómico desigual y su criminalización trae obstáculos para la atención y reconocimiento del problema.(AU)


Subject(s)
Maternal Mortality , Health Surveys , Abortion, Induced , Abortion
2.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 28: 1-10, mar. 2023. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551616

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou verificar a prática de atividade física ao ar livre durante a pandemia da CO-VID-19 entre os professores da educação básica pública de Minas Gerais. Trata-se de um inquérito epidemiológico do tipo websurvey, realizado com professores da educação básica pública de Minas Gerais. A coleta de dados ocorreu de agosto a setembro de 2020 via formulário digital. A variável de-pendente foi a prática de atividade física ao ar livre durante a pandemia, categorizada em sim vs não. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a Regressão de Poisson, com variância robusta. O estudo contou com 15.641 participantes. Entre eles, 30,5% estavam realizando atividade física ao ar livre durante a pandemia. Houve maior prevalência entre os homens (RP = 1,15; IC95%: 1,09 - 1,22), aqueles que trabalhavam na zona rural (RP = 1,07; IC95%: 1,01 - 1,13), que não tiveram diminuição na renda familiar (RP = 1,08; IC95%: 1,03 - 1,13), que viviam com cônjuge (RP = 1,05; IC95%: 1,01 - 1,10), que não aderiram totalmente ao distanciamento social (RP = 1,23; IC95%: 1,17 - 1,29), que aumen-taram o desejo de cuidar da aparência física (RP = 1,47; IC95%: 1,40 - 1,55), com melhor padrão alimentar (RP = 1,45; IC95%: 1,39 - 1,52), que estavam realizando atividades de lazer (RP = 1,33; IC95%: 1,27 - 1,40), aqueles que não apresentaram excesso de peso corporal (RP = 1,05; IC95%: 1,01 - 1,10), que não estavam com muito medo da COVID-19 (RP = 1,07; IC95%: 1,02 - 1,12) e os que não faziam parte do grupo de risco para a COVID-19 (RP = 1,10; IC95%: 1,05 - 1,16). Os resultados indicaram, de modo geral, um perfil positivo com os cuidados em relação à saúde entre os praticantes de atividade física ao ar livre


this study aimed to verify the practice of outdoor physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic among public basic education teachers in Minas Gerais. This is a websurvey-type epidemiological survey, carried out with adults, public basic education teachers in the state of Minas Gerais. Data collection took place from August to September 2020 using a digital form. The dependent variable was the practice of outdoor physical activity during the pandemic, categorized as yes vs no, and those who practiced other types of exercise were not considered. For data analysis, Poisson regression was used, with robust variance. The study had 15,641 participants. Among them, 30.5% were performing physical activity outdoors during the pandemic. There was a higher prevalence among men (PR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.09 - 1.22), those who worked in rural areas (PR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.13), who had no decrease in family income (PR = 1.08; 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.13), who lived with a spouse (PR = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.10), who did not fully adhere to social distancing (PR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.17 - 1.29), which increased the desire to take care of physical appearance (PR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.40 - 1.55), with a better dietary pattern (PR = 1.45; 95%CI: 1.39 - 1.52), who were performing leisure activities (PR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.27 - 1.40) , those who were not overweight (PR = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.10), who were not very afraid of COVID-19 (PR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.12) and those who were not part of the risk group for COVID-19 (PR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.05 - 1.16). The results indicated, in general, a positive profile with regard to health care among practitioners of outdoor physical activity


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exercise , Public Health , Coronavirus , Health Surveys , Walking
3.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(3): 233-244, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521832

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de diagnóstico autorreportado de asma, comorbilidades, patrones de tratamiento y calidad de vida (CdV) autopercibida en la población chilena, utilizando datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS) de 2016-2017. Métodos: Se analizó la población de la ENS 2016-2017 con ≥ 15 años. Los individuos con asma fueron identificados por autorreporte. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas, CdV y salud (autopercepción y/o EQ-5D-3L), estado nutricional, comorbilidades y patrón de tratamiento. Resultados: La prevalencia de asma fue de 5,4% (IC 95%: 4,5-6,5). Se reportó una frecuencia casi 2 veces mayor de CdV autopercibida (6,3% [IC 95%: 3,4-11,3] frente a 3,6% [IC 95%: 2,8-4,5]) y de salud (16,4% [IC 95%: 11,4-23,1] frente a 7,7% [IC 95%: 6,6-8,9]) muy mala/mala/menos que regular en el grupo con asma en comparación con el total de individuos de la ENS. El grupo de asma tuvo mayor frecuencia de al menos algunos problemas en todos los dominios EQ-5D-3L. La comorbilidad más frecuente fue la sintomatología depresiva. El 63% de los encuestados que reconocían tener asma no recibían ningún tratamiento en el momento de la encuesta. Con mayor frecuencia el tratamiento para el asma fue prescrito por un médico general (62,4%/55,4%, medicación de rescate/controlador) y el acceso fue a través del sistema público (65,9%/82,5%, medicación de rescate/controlador). Alrededor de un tercio de la población utilizaba monoterapia con SABA (32,8%). Conclusión: La prevalencia de asma fue del 5,4% y los asmáticos relataron peor CdV y salud. Se observó una baja tasa de tratamiento y de los tratados la mayoría usaba solo medicación de rescate.


Objective: To describe diagnosed asthma prevalence, self-reported comorbidities, treatment patterns and self-perceived quality of life (QoL) in Chilean population, using National Health Survey (NHS) data from 2016-2017. Methods: 2016-2017 NHS population aged ≥ 15 years was analyzed. Asthma individuals were identified by self-report. Sociodemographic variables, QoL and health (self-perception and/or EQ-5D-3L), nutritional status, comorbidities and treatment pattern were evaluated. Results: Asthma prevalence was 5.4% (95% CI: 4.5-6.5). Compared with NHS total individuals, asthma group showed almost 2 times higher frequency of self-perceived QoL (6.3% [95% CI: 3.4-11.3] vs 3.6% [95% CI: 2.8-4.5]) and health (16.4% [95% CI: 11.4-23.1] vs 7.7% [95% CI: 6.6-8.9]) named as very bad/bad/less than regular. In addition, asthma group had a greater frequency of at least some problems in all EQ-5D-3L domains. Depressive symptoms were the most frequently observed comorbidity. 63% of respondents who acknowledged having asthma were not receiving any treatment at the time of the survey. Asthma treatment was most frequently prescribed by a general physician (62.4%/55.4%, rescue/controller medication) and the access occurs in the public system (65.9%/82.5%, rescue/controller medication). About one third of the population used SABA monotherapy (32.8%). Conclusion: Asthma prevalence was 5.4% and asthmatics reported worse QoL and health. A very low treatment rate was observed and those treated, most were under rescue medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Asthma/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Tobacco Use Disorder , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Health Surveys , Self Report , Sociodemographic Factors
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 88, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522870

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the process and epidemiological implications of georeferencing in EpiFloripa Aging samples (2009-2019). METHOD The EpiFloripa Aging Cohort Study sought to investigate and monitor the living and health conditions of the older adult population (≥ 60) of Florianópolis in three study waves (2009/2010, 2013/2014, 2017/2019). With an automatic geocoding tool, the residential addresses were spatialized, allowing to investigate the effect of the georeferencing sample losses regarding 19 variables, evaluated in the three waves. The influence of different neighborhood definitions (census tracts, Euclidean buffers, and buffers across the street network) was examined in the results of seven variables: area, income, residential density, mixed land use, connectivity, health unit count, and public open space count. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the differences between neighborhood definitions according to three variables: contextual income, residential density, and land use diversity. RESULT The losses imposed by geocoding (6%, n = 240) caused no statistically significant difference between the total sample and the geocoded sample. The analysis of the study variables suggests that the geocoding process may have included a higher proportion of participants with better income, education, and living conditions. The correlation coefficients showed little correspondence between measures calculated by the three neighborhood definitions (r = 0.37-0.54). The statistical difference between the variables calculated by buffers and census tracts highlights limitations in their use in the description of geospatial attributes. CONCLUSION Despite the challenges related to geocoding, such as inconsistencies in addresses, adequate correction and verification mechanisms provided a high rate of assignment of geographic coordinates, the findings suggest that adopting buffers, favored by geocoding, represents a potential for spatial epidemiological analyses by improving the representation of environmental attributes and the understanding of health outcomes.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o processo e as implicações epidemiológicas do georreferenciamento nas amostras do EpiFloripa Idoso (2009-2019). MÉTODO O estudo de coorte EpiFloripa Idoso buscou investigar e acompanhar as condições de vida e saúde da população idosa (≥ 60) de Florianópolis em três ondas de estudo (2009/2010, 2013/2014, 2017/2019). Com uma ferramenta de geocodificação automática, os endereços residenciais foram espacializados, permitindo a investigação do efeito das perdas amostrais do georreferenciamento em relação a 19 variáveis, avaliadas nas três ondas. A influência de diferentes definições de vizinhança (setores censitários, buffers euclidianos e buffers pela rede de ruas) foi examinada nos resultados de sete variáveis: área, renda, densidade residencial, uso misto do solo, conectividade, contagem de unidades de saúde, e contagem de espaços livres públicos. Coeficientes de correlação de Pearson foram calculados para avaliar as diferenças entre as definições de vizinhança de acordo com três variáveis: renda contextual, densidade residencial e diversidade de uso do solo. RESULTADO As perdas impostas pela geocodificação (6%, n = 240) não ocasionaram diferença estatística significativa entre a amostra total e a georreferenciada. A análise das variáveis do estudo sugere que o processo de geocodificação pode ter incluído uma maior proporção de participantes com melhor nível de renda, escolaridade e condições de vida. Os coeficientes de correlação evidenciaram pouca correspondência entre medidas calculadas pelas três definições de vizinhança (r = 0,37-0,54). A diferença estatística entre as variáveis calculadas por buffers e setores censitários ressalta limitações no uso destes na descrição dos atributos geoespaciais. CONCLUSÃO Apesar dos desafios relacionados à geocodificação, como inconsistências nos endereços, adequados mecanismos de correção e verificação propiciaram elevada taxa de atribuição de coordenadas geográficas. Os achados sugerem que a adoção de buffers, favorecida pela geocodificação, representa uma potencialidade para análises epidemiológicas espaciais ao aprimorar a representação dos atributos do ambiente e a compreensão dos desfechos de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health of the Elderly , Health Surveys , Geographic Information Systems , Environment and Public Health , Geographic Mapping , Spatial Analysis , Cohort Studies
5.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515546

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare the profile and prevalence of hospitalizations in Brazil based on estimates from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013 and 2019. METHODS A cross-sectional study that used data from the 2013 PNS and the 2019 PNS. The outcome was having been hospitalized for 24 hours or more in the last 12 months. We calculated the proportion of the population in different categories of age group, presence or absence of chronic diseases, and perception of health status. We estimated the total number of hospitalizations and the proportion corresponding to each category of age group, chronic disease, and perceived health status. We calculated the prevalence of hospitalization according to geographic, socioeconomic, and health conditions. We compared the estimates of two editions of the PNS using Student's t-test for independent samples. We considered significant differences when the p-value was less than 0.01. And finally, we compared hospitalization estimates with administrative data to assess data consistency. RESULTS We observed that the proportion of chronically ill people in the population increased from 15.04% to 31.48%. This group was responsible for 36.76% of the total number of hospitalizations in 2013 and 57.61% in 2019. The prevalence of hospitalizations increased significantly between the two surveys and the increases were higher in the Southeast region and among people who have private health insurance. A discrepancy was found between administrative data and survey estimates. Obstetric hospitalizations and health insurance hospitalizations were underestimated. CONCLUSION There was an increase in overall hospitalization rates in the period between the PNS 2013 and PNS 2019, especially among people with better access to health services. The hospitalization profile also changed—in the 2013 PNS, hospitalizations of people without chronic diseases predominated. This was reversed in PNS 2019.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Comparar o perfil e a prevalência das hospitalizações no Brasil com base nas estimativas da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), 2013 e 2019. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal seriado que utilizou os dados das PNS 2013 e PNS 2019. O desfecho foi ter ficado internado por 24 horas ou mais nos últimos 12 meses. Calculamos a proporção da população nas diversas categorias de faixa etária, de presença ou ausência de doenças crônicas e de percepção do estado de saúde. Estimamos o número total de hospitalizações e a proporção correspondente a cada categoria de faixa etária, de doença crônica e de percepção do estado de saúde. Calculamos a prevalência de internação segundo fatores geográficos, socioeconômicos e condições de saúde. Comparamos as estimativas das duas edições da PNS utilizando o teste t de Student para amostras independentes. Consideramos as diferenças significativas quando o valor de p foi menor que 0,01. E finalmente comparamos as estimativas de hospitalização com os dados administrativos para avaliar a consistência dos dados. RESULTADOS Observamos que a proporção de doentes crônicos na população passou de 15,04% para 31,48%. Este grupo foi responsável por 36,76% do total de internações em 2013 e de 57,61% em 2019. A prevalência de hospitalizações aumentou significativamente entre os dois inquéritos e os incrementos foram maiores na região Sudeste e entre pessoas que possuem plano de saúde privado. Foi encontrada uma discrepância entre os dados administrativos e as estimativas dos inquéritos. As internações obstétricas e as internações por plano de saúde foram subestimadas. CONCLUSÃO Houve um aumento nas taxas globais de hospitalização no período compreendido entre as PNS 2013 e 2019, especialmente entre as pessoas com melhor acesso aos serviços de saúde. O perfil de hospitalização também mudou - na PNS 2013 predominaram internações de pessoas sem doenças crônicas. Isto se inverteu na PNS 2019.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hospital Statistics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Status , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
6.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432156

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between negative self-perception of hearing and depression in older adults in Southern Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted with data from the third wave of the EpiFloripa Idoso 2017/19 study, a population-based cohort of older adults (60+). A total of 1,335 older adults participated in this wave. The dependent variable was self-reported depression, and the main exposure was self-perception of hearing (negative; positive). For both the crude (bivariate) and adjusted analysis, the odds ratio (OR) was used as a measure of association and estimated by means of binary logistic regression analysis. The exposure variable was adjusted by sociodemographic and health covariates. A p value < 0.05 was adopted as statistically significant. RESULTS The prevalence of negative self-perception of hearing and depression was 26.0% and 21.8%, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, the older adults with negative self-perception of hearing were 1.96 times more likely to report depression when compared to the ones with positive self-perception of hearing (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION The association between negative self-perception of hearing and depression reflects the importance of reviewing health care actions for older adults, incorporating hearing-related issues, to ensure comprehensive care for this growing segment of the population.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a associação entre a autopercepção negativa da audição e a depressão em idosos do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com dados da terceira onda do estudo EpiFloripa Idoso 2017/19, de coorte de base populacional de idosos (60+). Participaram desta onda 1.335 idosos. A variável dependente foi a depressão autorreferida e a exposição principal foi a autopercepção auditiva (negativa; positiva). Tanto para a análise bruta (bivariada) quanto para a ajustada, a odds ratio (OR) foi utilizada como medida de associação e estimada por meio da análise de Regressão Logística Binária. A variável de exposição foi ajustada pelas covariáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde. Adotou-se o valor de p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS A prevalência da autopercepção negativa da audição e depressão foi de 26,0% e 21,8%, respectivamente. Na análise ajustada, idosos com autopercepção negativa da audição apresentaram 1,96 vezes mais chance de referirem depressão quando comparados aos idosos com autopercepção positiva da audição (p = 0,002). CONCLUSÃO A associação encontrada entre a autopercepção negativa auditiva e a depressão reflete a importância de rever as ações de atenção à saúde do idoso, incorporando questões relacionadas à audição para a garantia da atenção integral a esta parcela crescente da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Presbycusis , Self Concept , Aged , Health Surveys , Depression , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Hearing Loss
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450399

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with poor access to health services for the depression treatment in Brazil. METHODS This study used data from the Brazilian National Survey of Health, conducted in the years 2019 and 2020. The sample consisted of 8,332 individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of depression, and poor access to healthcare was identified from the question "what is the main reason for you to not visit the physician/health service regularly for your depression?" From which poor access was identified by the affirmative answer reporting distance of health services or difficulties with transportation; waiting time at the health service; financial difficulties; opening hours of the health service; Not being able to schedule a consultation via health insurance; does not know who to look for or where to go, among others. Sociodemographic aspects and health conditions were analyzed. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson Regression. RESULTS The prevalence of poor access to health services for depression treatment was 14.9% (95%CI: 13.6-16.2), relating to individuals aged 15-29 years (PR = 1.52) and 30-59 years old (PR = 1.22), without education (PR = 1.43), who rate their health as regular/poor/very poor (PR = 1.26), who have some limitation in their usual activities (PR = 2.71), who had the last consultation within 6 months of less than 2 years (PR = 2.63) and for more than 2 years (PR = 2.25) and who do not undergo psychotherapy (PR = 4.28). CONCLUSION Poor access to health services for depression treatment was associated with individual factors and health conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Health Surveys , Depression , Health Status Disparities , Health Services Accessibility
8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 55, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515541

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To compare the coverage of cervical cancer screening in Brazil in 2013 and 2019, investigating the factors associated with having the test performed and the reasons given for not doing it. Additionally, a comparison is made concerning the time taken to receive the test result in SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde) and in the private health services. METHODS Using data from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), prevalence rates and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated to determine the frequency of recent cervical cancer screenings among women aged between 25 and 64 years old in Brazil, for both 2013 and 2019. Poisson regression models were employed to compare the prevalence of the outcome according to sociodemographic characteristics. The reasons for not having the test and the time between performing and receiving the result were also analyzed. RESULTS The findings revealed an increase in the coverage of preventive cervical cancer exams in Brazil from 78.7% in 2013 to 81.3% in 2019. Additionally, there was a decline in the proportion of women who had never undergone the exam, from 9.7% to 6.1%. Prevalence of test uptake was higher among white women, those with higher levels of education and income, and those residing in the South and Southeast regions of the country. The most commonly cited reasons for not taking the test were the impression it was unnecessary (45% in both 2013 and 2019) and never having been asked to undergo the test (20.6% in 2013 and 14.8% in 2019). CONCLUSIONS Despite the high coverage of screening achieved in the country, there is great inequality in access to the test, and a non-negligible number of women are at greater risk of dying from a preventable disease. Efforts must be made to structure an organized screening program that identifies and captures the most vulnerable women.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Comparar a cobertura do rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil em 2013 e 2019, investigar os fatores associados à realização do exame e os motivos informados para não ter realizado, além de comparar o tempo do recebimento do resultado do exame no SUS e na rede privada. MÉTODOS A partir de dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) foram calculadas as prevalências e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de realização do exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero há menos de três anos, em mulheres de 25 a 64 anos, em 2013 e 2019. Modelos de regressão de Poisson foram utilizados para comparar as prevalências do desfecho segundo características sociodemográficas. Também foram analisados os motivos para não ter feito o exame e o tempo entre a realização e o recebimento do laudo. RESULTADOS Houve aumento na cobertura do exame preventivo no Brasil entre 2013 (78,7%) e 2019 (81,3%) e redução na proporção de mulheres que nunca fizeram o exame de 9,7% para 6,1%. A prevalência de realização do exame foi maior em mulheres brancas, melhor escolaridade e renda mais alta, residentes nas regiões Sul e Sudeste. Os motivos mais frequentes para não realizar o exame foram achar desnecessário (45% em 2013 e em 2019) e nunca ter sido orientada a fazê-lo (20,6% em 2013 e 14,8% em 2019). CONCLUSÕES Apesar das elevadas coberturas de rastreamento alcançadas pelo país, há grande desigualdade no acesso ao exame, e uma parcela não desprezível de mulheres está sob maior risco de morrer por uma doença que pode ser evitada. Esforços devem ser feitos para a estruturação de um programa de rastreamento organizado que identifique e capte as mulheres mais vulneráveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cervix Uteri , Mass Screening , Health Surveys , Papanicolaou Test , Health Services Accessibility , Neoplasms
9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 6, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432147

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of reported symptoms of flu-like syndrome (FS) among HCW and compare HCW and non-HCW on the chance of reporting these symptoms, this study analyzed data of a population-based survey conducted in Brazil. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with self-reported data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD Covid-19) from May 2020. The authors analyzed a probability sample of 125,179 workers, aged 18 to 65, with monthly income lower than US$ 3 500. The variable HCW or non-HCW was the covariate of interest and having reported FS symptoms or not was the outcome variable. Authors tested interactions of HCW with other covariates. A logit model - when controlling for sociodemographic, employment, and geographic characteristics - investigated the chance of HCW reporting FS compared to non-HCW. RESULTS HCW have a significant effect (odds ratio of 1.369) on reporting FS symptoms when compared to non-HCW. HCW account for 4.17% of the sample, with a higher frequency of FS (3.38%) than observed for non-HCW (2.43%). Female, non-white and older individuals had higher chance to report FS. CONCLUSIONS The HCW had a higher chance of reporting symptoms than non-HCW aged over 18 years in the labor force. These results emphasize guidelines for preventive measures to reduce workplace exposures in the healthcare facilities. The prevalence is disproportionately affecting HCW women and HCW non-whites. In the regions North and Northeast the steeper progression is consistent with the hypothesis of socioeconomic factors, and it explains the greater prevalence in HCW and non-HCW living in those territories.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Patient Care Team , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Surveys
10.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e203, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420115

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en marzo de 2020, en Uruguay se decretó la emergencia sanitaria al detectarse los primeros casos de infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). El confinamiento domiciliario voluntario fue una de las medidas de salud pública adoptadas en el control de la pandemia. Objetivo: describir el efecto del confinamiento sobre los hábitos de sueño, alimentación y actividad física de adolescentes de Montevideo y Canelones durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Metodología: encuesta elaborada ad hoc, voluntaria, anónima, online y autoadministrada a adolescentes de 12 a 19 años, usuarios de CASMU, CRAMI, COMECA y Asociación Española, entre el 1 de junio y el 1 de julio de 2020. Se aplicaron cuestionarios validados para evaluar sueño, alimentación y actividad física. Resultados: se encuestaron 465 adolescentes, 70,1% mujeres y 48,2% de adolescencia media. Refirieron permanecer más de 6 horas al día conectados a internet y al celular 58,3% y 42,4%, respectivamente. La convivencia durante el confinamiento resultó agradable en la mayoría. El 76% refirió dormir menos de 9 horas/día. Señaló un consumo adecuado de frutas 6%, verduras 5,8% y lácteos 32,2%. El porcentaje de adolescentes activos descendió de 30,7% previo a la pandemia a 19,7% durante la misma. A la pregunta "¿cuál es la primera palabra que te viene a la mente cuando escuchas pandemia de COVID-19?" la mayoría brindó respuestas negativas. Conclusiones: las medidas de confinamiento no se asociaron con problemas importantes en la convivencia familiar en este grupo de adolescentes. Se observó una profundización de los problemas en los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física, sueño que favorecen el "ambiente obesogénico" y el riesgo de desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Resulta relevante considerar el impacto negativo del confinamiento y planificar las medidas preventivas tendientes a mitigar sus efectos.


Introduction: in March 2020, a Health Emergency was decreed in Uruguay when the first cases of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19) infection were detected. Voluntary home confinement was one of the public health measures adopted in theto control the pandemic. Objectives: describe the effects of confinement on sleep, eating and exercise habits of adolescents assisted by private health providers in Montevideo and Canelones during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: ad hoc, voluntary, anonymous, online and self-administered survey to adolescents of 12 to 19 years of age, users of CASMU, CRAMI, COMECA and Asociación Española HMOs, between June 1 and July 1, 2020. Validated questionnaires were applied to assess sleep, diet and exercise habits. Results: 465 adolescents were surveyed, 70.1% women and 48.2% in mid-adolescence. They reported having been connected to Internet and cell phone more than 6 hours a day, 58.3% and 42.4%, respectively. Coexistence during confinement was mostly pleasant. 76% reported sleeping less than 9 hours/day. They reported an appropriate consumption of fruit 6%, vegetables 5.8% and dairy 32.2%. The percentage of active adolescents fell from 30.7% before the pandemic to 19.7% during the pandemic. To the question, What is the first word that comes to mind when you hear about the COVID-19 pandemic? most gave negative responses. Conclusions: confinement measures were not linked to important problems regarding coexistence with relatives in this group of adolescents. We observed a worsening of the eating, exercise and sleep habits, which may favor the "obesogenic environment" and increase the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases. It is relevant to consider the negative impact of confinement and plan preventive measures aimed at mitigating its effects.


Introdução: em março de 2020, a Emergência Sanitária foi decretada no Uruguai quando foram detectados os primeiros casos de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19). O confinamento domiciliar voluntário foi uma das medidas de saúde pública adotadas para controlar a pandemia. Objetivo: descrever o efeito do confinamento nos hábitos de sono, alimentação e atividade física de adolescentes em Montevidéu e Canelones durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Metodologia: inquérito ad hoc, voluntário, anônimo, online e autoadministrado a adolescentes de 12 a 19 anos de idade atendido pelas prestadoras CASMU, CRAMI, COMECA e Associação Espanhola, entre 1 de junho e 1 de julho de 2020. Foram aplicados questionários validados para avaliar os seus hábitos de sono, alimentação e atividade física. Resultados: foram pesquisados 465 adolescentes, 70,1% mulheres e 48,2% na adolescência média. 58,3% e 42,4%, respectivamente, relataram ficar mais de 6 horas por dia conectados à internet e ao celular. A convivência durante o confinamento foi agradável para a maioria. 76% relataram dormir menos de 9 horas/dia. 6% deles indicou consumo adequado de frutas, vegetais 5,8% e laticínios 32,2%. O percentual de adolescentes ativos caiu de 30,7% antes da pandemia para 19,7% durante ela. Quando perguntados: Qual é a primeira palavra que vem à mente quando você ouve a pandemia do COVID-19? a maioria forneceu respostas negativas. Conclusões: as medidas de confinamento não estiveram associadas a problemas importantes na vida familiar neste grupo de adolescentes. Observou-se aprofundamento dos problemas nos hábitos alimentares, de exercício físico e de sono que favorecem o "ambiente obesogênico" e o risco de desenvolver doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. É relevante considerar o impacto negativo do confinamento e planejar medidas preventivas visando mitigar seus efeitos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Health Behavior , Quarantine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Affect , Age and Sex Distribution , Family Relations , Cell Phone Use/statistics & numerical data , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
11.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 40: e0241, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449683

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inspired by the POLYMOD study, an epidemiological survey was conducted in June 2021 in one of the most densely populated and socially vulnerable sectors of Belo Horizonte (Brazil). A sample of 1000 individuals allowed us to identify, within a 24-hour period, the rates of social contacts by age groups, the size and frequency of clique in which respondents participated, as well as other associated sociodemographic factors (number of household residents, location of contact, use of public transportation, among others). Data were analyzed in two phases. In the first one, results between two SIR models that simulated an eight-day pandemic process were compared. One included parameters adjusted from observed contact rates, the other operated with parameters adjusted from projected rates for Brazil. In the second phase, by means of a log-lin regression, we modeled the main social determinants of contact rates, using clique density as a proxy variable. The data analysis showed that family size, age, and social circles are the main covariates influencing the formation of cliques. It also demonstrated that compartmentalized epidemiological models, combined with social contact rates, have a better capacity to describe the epidemiological dynamics, providing a better basis for mitigation and control measures for diseases that cause acute respiratory syndromes.


Resumo Inspirado no estudo POLYMOD, foi realizado, em junho de 2021, um survey epidemiológico num dos setores de maior densidade populacional e vulnerabilidade social de Belo Horizonte (Brasil). Uma amostra de 1.000 domicílios permitiu identificar, num período de 24 horas, as taxas de contatos sociais por faixas etárias, o tamanho e a frequência de cliques do qual participou o respondente, assim como outros fatores sociodemográficos associados (número de moradores do domicílio, local do contato, uso do transporte público, entre outros). Os dados foram analisados em duas fases. Na primeira, foram comparados os resultados entre dois modelos SIR que simularam um processo pandêmico de oito dias. Um incluiu parâmetros ajustados a partir das taxas de contatos observadas. O outro operou com parâmetros ajustados a partir de taxas projetadas para o Brasil. Na segunda fase, mediante uma regressão log-lin, modelamos os principais determinantes sociais das taxas de contato, utilizando o adensamento de cliques como uma variável proxy. A análise dos dados mostrou que o tamanho da família, a idade e os círculos sociais são as principais covariáveis que influenciam a formação dos cliques. Também demonstrou que modelos epidemiológicos compartimentais, combinados com taxas de contato social, têm melhor capacidade de descrever a dinâmica epidemiológica, fornecendo uma melhor base para medidas de mitigação e controle de doenças que causam síndromes respiratórias agudas.


Resumen Con inspiración en el estudio POLYMOD, se hizo una encuesta epidemiológica, en junio de 2021, en uno de los sectores más densamente poblados y socialmente vulnerables de Belo Horizonte (Brasil). Una muestra de mil hogares permitió identificar, en un período de 24 horas, el tamaño y la frecuencia de los cliques en los que participó el encuestado, las tasas de contactos sociales por grupos de edad, así como otros factores sociodemográficos asociados (número de residentes en el hogar, lugar de contacto, uso del transporte público, entre otros). Los datos se analizaron en dos fases. En la primera, se compararon los resultados entre dos modelos SIR que simularon un proceso pandémico de ocho días. Uno incluyó parámetros ajustados a partir de tasas de contacto observadas; el otro operó con parámetros ajustados a partir de tasas proyectadas para Brasil. En la segunda, mediante una regresión log-lin, se modelaron los principales determinantes sociales de las tasas de contacto, utilizando la densificación de cliques como una variable proxy. El análisis de los datos mostró que el tamaño de la familia, la edad y los círculos sociales son las principales covariables que influyen en la formación de camarillas. También demostró que los modelos epidemiológicos compartimentados, combinados con tasas de contacto social, son más capaces de describir la dinámica epidemiológica, proporcionando una mejor base para las medidas de mitigación y control de las enfermedades causantes de síndromes respiratorios agudos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Groups , Health Surveys , Health Services Research , Communicable Disease Control , Disease , Population Forecast
12.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e220174, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529129

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dentists' income and to identify associated factors in one of the poorest Brazilian states. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study including dentists who volunteered to answer an electronic questionnaire in Maranhão. Hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, estimating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) (alpha=5%). Results: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the professionals´ income negatively [55.44% (50.26-60.52%)] and also positively [6.9% (4.55-9.94%)]. The negative impact on income was greater among male dentists (OR=2.54; 95%CI: 1.16-5.53), over 30 years of age (OR=3.03; 95%CI: 1.34-6.87), with family income below two minimum wages (OR=4.63; 95%CI: 1.50-14.30), who worked in the continent instead of in the capital island (OR=2.21; 95%CI: 1.14-4.29) and in the private sector (OR=31.43; 95%CI: 11.59-85.22). Moreover, those who had been tested for COVID-19, with a negative result, had a 21.3-fold greater chance of having an increased household income when compared to those who had not been tested. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the dentists' income in Maranhão, especially the older, males, with lower incomes, and who worked in the private sector, living far from the capital. The SUS played an important role in the social protection of dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic, mitigating the economic impacts on the public sector working class.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Unified Health System , COVID-19/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys
13.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 28: e2677, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447433

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar a prevalência da perda auditiva autorreferida em relação à idade, sexo e regiões do Brasil e estimar a expectativa de vida com perda auditiva no Brasil, ao nascer e aos 60 anos, em ambos os sexos. Métodos foi utilizado o Método de Sullivan, combinando a tábua de vida e as prevalências de perdas auditivas no período, assim como a adoção de dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2013 e Tábuas de Vida Completas, por sexo, publicadas pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Resultados no Brasil, em 2013, a prevalência da perda auditiva aumentou gradativamente a partir dos 60 anos de idade, em ambos os sexos, sendo o masculino o mais afetado pela deficiência auditiva. A expectativa de vida ao nascer era de 71 anos e 2 meses para os homens e de 78 anos e 6 meses para as mulheres. Destes anos de vida, 3,4% (para homens) e 2,8% (para mulheres) eram com perda auditiva. Já aos 60 anos, essa diferença permanece, com expectativa de mais 19,9 anos para os homens e 21,7 anos para as mulheres. Nessa faixa etária, os homens apresentavam taxa de 2,2 anos (11,3%) com perdas auditivas, enquanto, para as mulheres, a taxa era 2,1 anos (9,7%). Conclusão no Brasil, com base nos dados de 2013, observou-se um aumento gradativo da prevalência de perda auditiva a partir dos 60 anos de idade para ambos os sexos. As mulheres apresentam maior expectativa de vida, maior expectativa de vida livre de perdas auditivas e vivem menor parcela de suas vidas com perdas auditivas, quando comparadas aos homens, independentemente da idade. A avaliação da expectativa de vida com perdas auditivas ao nascer e aos 60 anos pode auxiliar na compreensão das necessidades da população, o que permite o melhor planejamento de políticas públicas relacionadas à saúde auditiva dos indivíduos.


ABSTRACT Purpose to analyze the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss in relation to age, gender and regions of Brazil and to estimate life expectancy with hearing loss in Brazil, at birth and at age 60, for both sexes. Methods the Sullivan method was used, combining the life table and the prevalence of hearing loss in the period, as well as the adoption of data from the 2013 National Health Survey and Complete Life Tables, by sex, published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Results in Brazil, in 2013, the prevalence of hearing loss gradually increased from the age of 60, in both genders, with males being more affected by hearing loss. Life expectancy at birth was 71.2 years for men and 78.5 years for women. Of these years of life, 3.4% (for men) and 2.8% (for women) were with hearing loss. At age 60, this difference remains, with an expectation of another 19.9 years for men and 21.7 years for women. In this age group, men had a rate of 2.2 years (11.3%) with hearing loss, while for women the rate was 2.1 years (9.7%). Conclusion in Brazil, based on data from 2013, there was a gradual increase in the prevalence of hearing loss from the age of 60 for both genders. Women had higher life expectancy, greater life expectancy free of hearing loss and live a smaller portion of their lives with hearing loss than men, regardless of age. The assessment of life expectancy with hearing loss at birth and at age 60 can help to understand the needs of the population, which allows for better planning of public policies related to the hearing health of individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Surveys , Life Expectancy , Age and Sex Distribution , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Unified Health System , Brazil/epidemiology , Life Tables , Health Policy
14.
Med. j. Zambia ; 50(4): 296-306, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1555277

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Anaemia is one of the major public health concerns in many developing countries including Zambia. Unless it is acute, the consequences of anaemia are not immediate but have long-term debilitating effects such as growth and intellectual retardation and as such it does not receive the necessary attention it deserves. This study set out to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anaemia in under-five children in Zambia. Methods:This study was a secondary analysis of the 2021 Malaria Indicator Survey. We extracted data from the data sets at the National Malaria Elimination Centre after obtaining permission from the Ministry of Health. The extracted data was analysed in STATA14, summarised in frequencies, cross-tabulations between independent variables and the outcome and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between variables and anaemia. Findings:The prevalence of anaemia was found to be 53.8%. Anaemia was found to be associated more with children below one year compared to older children, children whose household heads had no or only have primary education compared to those with secondary or tertiary education and in the northern parts of the country such as Luapula and Northern provinces compared to the southern province. Further anaemia was more common in those with malaria than those without malaria and those with febrile illnesses than those without febrile illnesses. In addition, anaemia was less common in those who slept under insecticide-treated nets. Conclusion: Anaemia in Zambia has been found to be higher than the average in Southern Africa, it is associated with younger age groups, poverty conditions and where diseases like malaria and other febrile illnesses are more common than where they are not. The use of interventions like insecticide-treated nets is associated with reduced prevalence of anaemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Health Surveys , Malaria , Parasitic Diseases , Disease Eradication , Anemia , National Health Programs
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1057-1066, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The prevalence of hypertension is high among Chinese adults, thus, identifying non-hypertensive individuals at high risk for intervention will help to improve the efficiency of primary prevention strategies.@*METHODS@#The cross-sectional data on 9699 participants aged 20 to 80 years were collected from the China National Health Survey in Gansu and Hebei provinces in 2016 to 2017, and they were nonrandomly split into the training set and validation set based on location. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to develop the diagnostic prediction model, which was presented as a nomogram and a website with risk classification. Predictive performances of the model were evaluated using discrimination and calibration, and were further compared with a previously published model. Decision curve analysis was used to calculate the standardized net benefit for assessing the clinical usefulness of the model.@*RESULTS@#The Lasso regression analysis identified the significant predictors of hypertension in the training set, and a diagnostic model was developed using logistic regression. A nomogram with risk classification was constructed to visualize the model, and a website ( https://chris-yu.shinyapps.io/hypertension_risk_prediction/ ) was developed to calculate the exact probabilities of hypertension. The model showed good discrimination and calibration, with the C-index of 0.789 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.768, 0.810) through internal validation and 0.829 (95% CI: 0.816, 0.842) through external validation. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the model was clinically useful. The model had a higher area under receiver operating characteristic curves in training and validation sets compared with a previously published diagnostic model based on Northern China population.@*CONCLUSION@#This study developed and validated a diagnostic model for hypertension prediction in Gansu Province. A nomogram and a website were developed to make the model conveniently used to facilitate the individualized prediction of hypertension in the general population of Han and Yugur.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Asian People , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Hypertension/epidemiology , Nomograms , Ethnicity
16.
Arq. odontol ; 59: 3-13, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1433963

ABSTRACT

Aim: To verify changes in the frequency of oral hygiene among basic education teachers in Minas Gerais during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to gender. Methods: This is a web survey, epidemiological study. Data collection took place from August to September 2020 through digital form. The dependent variable was the frequency of oral hygiene during the pandemic, categorized as: remained the same, increased, and decreased. Multinomial Logistic Regression was performed. Results: In this study, 15,641 teachers participated, 81.9% of whom were women. Regarding the frequency of oral hygiene, 73.4% reported that it remained the same, 20.1% increased, and 6.5% decreased, with no significant difference between genders. The chances of a decrease in the frequency of oral hygiene were greater in women under 60 years of age, those without children, those who tested positive for COVID-19, those with a worsening health during the pandemic, those with an increased body weight during the pandemic, and those who were sad or depressed during the pandemic. Among men, the chances of reduction were greater among those who did not live with a spouse, those with a worsening health during the pandemic, those who were sad or depressed during the pandemic, and among smokers or ex-smokers. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of changes in the frequency of oral hygiene in the pandemic did not differ between men and women, the factors related to the increase and decrease in frequency were different for each sex.


Introdução: Cuidar da higiene bucal é fundamental para a manutenção da saúde. Objetivo: Verificar as mudanças na frequência de higienização bucal entre professores durante a pandemia da COVID-19, segundo sexo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, do tipo websurvey, realizado com professores da educação básica pública de Minas Gerais. A coleta de dados ocorreu em 2020. A variável dependente foi a frequência de higiene bucal durante a pandemia. Foi realizada Regressão Logística Multinomial. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 15.641 professores, sendo 81,9% mulheres. Em relação à frequência de higiene bucal, 73,4% relataram que permaneceu a mesma, 20,1% aumentou e 6,5% diminuiu, sem diferença significativa entre os sexos. As chances de diminuição da frequência de higienização bucal foram maiores em mulheres com menos de 60 anos, sem filhos, que testaram positivo para a COVID-19, com piora da saúde durante a pandemia, com aumento de peso corporal durante a pandemia e aquelas que estavam tristes ou deprimidas durante a pandemia. Entre os homens, as chances de redução foram maiores entre aqueles que não moravam com cônjuge, com piora da saúde durante a pandemia, aqueles que estavam tristes ou deprimidos durante a pandemia e entre os fumantes ou ex-fumantes. Conclusão: A frequência de higienização bucal na pandemia não apresentou diferenças significativas entre os sexos, no entanto, observou-se, em ambos os sexos, que variáveis referentes às características sociodemográficas, hábitos de vida e condições de saúde, foram associados ao aumento e diminuição da frequência de higienização bucal na pandemia.


Subject(s)
Oral Hygiene , Oral Health , Health Surveys , Occupational Health , Coronavirus
17.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1447208

ABSTRACT

El año 2020 será recordado por el comienzo de la pandemia de COVID-19, la que ha generado trágicas consecuencias para la salud personal y social. Además de los fallecimientos, contagios y el temor a estos, se redujo considerablemente la interacción social debido al confinamiento. Trabajos realizados en distintos países demostraron que la pandemia ha generado importantes trastornos del sueño. Con el objetivo de explorar si la pandemia afectó el sueño de los uruguayos, del 16 al 20 mayo del 2020 se realizó una encuesta anónima vía Web, a mayores de 18 años residentes en Uruguay (n =1137). Esta consistió en el Índice de Calidad de Sueño de Pittsburgh (ICSP), que es el cuestionario auto administrado más utilizado para este fin. El ICSP explora 7 dimensiones de sueño (calidad subjetiva, latencia, duración, eficiencia, perturbaciones, medicación y disfunción diurna), con un rango de puntaje de 0 a 21 (mayor puntuación, menor calidad de sueño), donde un ICSP mayor a 5 se considera una mala calidad de sueño. Los resultados mostraron que el ICSP promedio fue de 7,4 ± 4,0, presentando 63% de los encuestados un ICSP > 5. El ICSP fue mayor en mujeres (8,2 ± 4,0) que en hombres (6,4 ± 3,8; P < 0.001). El ICSP junto con otros parámetros relevados, sugieren que los residentes en Uruguay presentaron una mala calidad de sueño al comienzo de la pandemia.


The year 2020 will be remembered for the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has generated tragic consequences for personal and social health. In addition to deaths, infections and the fear of these, social interaction was considerably reduced due to confinement. Studies carried out in different countries showed that the pandemic has generated significant sleep disorders. With the aim of exploring whether the pandemic affected the sleep of Uruguayans, from May 16 to 20, 2020, an anonymous survey was carried out via the Web, to residents over 18 years of age in Uruguay (n = 1137). This consisted of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which is the most widely used self-administered questionnaire for this purpose. The PSQI explores 7 dimensions of sleep (subjective quality, latency, duration, efficiency, disturbances, medication, and daytime dysfunction), with a score range from 0 to 21 (higher score, lower sleep quality), where an ICSP greater than 5 it is considered a poor quality of sleep. The results showed that the average ICSP was 7.4 ± 4.0, with 63% of the respondents presenting an ICSP > 5. The ICSP was higher in women (8.2 ± 4.0) than in men (6.4 ± 3.8, P < 0.001). The ICSP, together with other parameters collected, suggest that residents of Uruguay had poor sleep quality at the beginning of the pandemic.


O ano de 2020 será lembrado pelo início da pandemia do COVID-19, que gerou consequências trágicas para a saúde pessoal e social. Além das mortes, das infecções e do medo destas, o convívio social foi consideravelmente reduzido devido ao confinamento. Trabalhos realizados em diferentes países mostraram que a pandemia gerou distúrbios significativos do sono. Com o objetivo de explorar se a pandemia afetou o sono dos uruguaios, de 16 a 20 de maio de 2020, foi realizada uma pesquisa anônima via Web, para maiores de 18 anos residentes no Uruguai (n = 1137). Este consistiu no Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh (ICSP), que é o questionário autoaplicável mais utilizado para esse fim. O ICSP explora 7 dimensões do sono (qualidade subjetiva, latência, duração, eficiência, distúrbios, medicação e disfunção diurna), com uma escala de pontuação de 0 a 21 (maior pontuação, menor qualidade do sono), onde um ICSP maior que 5 é considerado uma má qualidade de sono. Os resultados mostraram que o ICSP médio foi de 7,4 ± 4,0, com 63% dos entrevistados apresentando ICSP > 5. O ICSP foi maior nas mulheres (8,2 ± 4,0) do que nos homens (6,4 ± 3,8, P < 0,001). O ICSP, juntamente com outros parâmetros coletados, sugere que os residentes do Uruguai tinham má qualidade de sono no início da pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Quality , Uruguay/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Sex Distribution , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sociodemographic Factors
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431253

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to verify the prevalence of breastfeeding and the children's nutritional status of indigenous origin up to two years of age in the triple frontier region: Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Methods: data from the Sistema de Vigilância Nutricional e Alimentar Indígena (Indigenous Food and Nutrition Surveillance System) were analyzed, being a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The survey was carried out in 2018, with data referring to 2017. Registrations of indigenous children of both sexes,aged zero to two years old were included. Data were extracted from the indigenous children's follow-up map. The prevalence of breastfeeding and complementary feeding was evaluated. Results: the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in children under six months of age was 93.4% and complementary breastfeeding was 6.5%. The prevalence of complementary breastfeeding after six months was 71.6% and exclusive breastfeeding after six months was 28.3%. Regarding social benefits, 30.3% of the families accumulated two types of social benefits. Conclusions: the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was high and surpassed the national prevalence in the first semester of life, there was no early weaning.


Resumo Objetivos: verificar a prevalência do aleitamento materno e estado nutricional de crianças de origem indígena até dois anos de idade na região de tríplice fronteira: Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai. Métodos: foram analisados dados do Sistema de Vigilância Nutricional e Alimentar Indígena, sendo um estudo transversal e descritivo. A pesquisa foi realizada em 2018, com dados referentes à 2017. Foram incluídos registros de crianças indígenas de zero a dois anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram extraídos do mapa de acompanhamento de crianças indígenas. Foi avaliada a prevalência do aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar. Resultados: a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo em menores de seis meses foi de 93,4% e do aleitamento materno complementado foi de 6,5%. A prevalência do aleitamento materno complementado após seis meses foi de 71,6% e do aleitamento materno exclusivo após seis meses foi de 28,3%. Com relação à classificação de peso para a idade, 80,5% dos registros mostraram crianças com peso adequado para a idade. Em relação aos benefícios sociais, 30,3% das famílias acumulavam dois tipos de benefícios sociais. Conclusões: a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi alta e superam prevalência nacional no primeiro semestre de vida, não houve desmame precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Status , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Infant Nutrition , Indigenous Peoples , Paraguay/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Weaning , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
19.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20220169, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431255

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to estimate the prevalence of perceived stress and verify the associated factors in pregnant women assisted by Family Health teams in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais - Brazil. Methods: epidemiological, cross-sectional, and analytical study, nested in a population-based cohort. Sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics and physical and mental health conditions were assessed. The stress level was estimated by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14). Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted, followed by the Poisson Regression model with robust variance. Results: a total of 1,279 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of high-stress levels was 23.5% (CI95%=20.8%-26.2%). The outcome was more prevalent among pregnant women aged above 35 years (PR=1.38; CI95%=1.09-1.74) and less than or equal to 19 (PR=1.41; CI95%=1.13-1.77); without a partner (PR=1.33; CI95%=1.09-1.62); with low social support (PR=1.42; CI95%=1.18-1.70); multiparous (PR=1.30; CI95%=1.02-1.66); with current unplanned pregnancy (PR=1.23; CI95%=1.00-1.52); urinary tract infection (PR=1.35; CI95%=1.12-1.62); high level of anxiety symptoms (PR=1.42; CI95%=1.18-1.71); severe (PR=4.74; CI95%=3.60-6.26) and moderate (PR=3.19; CI95%=2.31-4.39) symptoms of depression; and neurological complaints (PR=1.77; CI95%=1.27-2.47). Conclusions: there was a significant prevalence of high perceived stress among pregnant women, an outcome associated with sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric, and emotional factors, which demonstrates the need for comprehensive care of pregnant women's health.


Resumo Objetivos: estimar a prevalência de estresse percebido e verificar os fatores associados em gestantes assistidas por equipes da Saúde da Família de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais - Brasil. Métodos: estudo epidemiológico, transversal e analítico, aninhado a uma coorte de base populacional. Avaliaram-se características sociodemográficas, obstétricas, condições de saúde física e mental. O nível de estresse foi estimado pela Escala de Estresse Percebido (Perceveid Stress Scale, PSS-14). Foram conduzidas análise descritiva e bivariada, seguidas do modelo de Regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: participaram 1.279 gestantes. A prevalência do nível de estresse elevado foi de 23,5% (IC95%=20,8%-26,2%). O desfecho foi mais prevalente entre gestantes com idade acima dos 35 anos (RP=1,38; IC95%=1,09-1,74) e menor ou igual a 19 (RP=1,41; IC95%=1,13-1,77); sem companheiro(a) (RP=1,33; IC95%=1,09-1,62); com baixo apoio social (RP=1,42; IC95%=1,18-1,70); multíparas (RP=1,30; IC95%=1,02-1,66); com gravidez atual não planejada (RP=1,23; IC95%=1,00-1,52); infecção urinária (RP=1,35; IC95%=1,12-1,62); alto nível de sintomas de ansiedade (RP=1,42; IC95%=1,18-1,71); sintomas graves (RP=4,74; IC95%=3,60-6,26) e moderados (RP=3,19; IC95%=2,31-4,39) de depressão; e queixas neurológicas (RP=1,77; IC95%=1,27-2,47). Conclusões: houve expressiva prevalência de elevado estresse percebido entre gestantes, desfecho associado a fatores sociodemográficos, clínicos, obstétricos e condições emocionais, o que demonstra a necessidade de atenção integral à saúde da gestante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Stress, Physiological , Mental Health , Comprehensive Health Care , Pregnant Women/psychology , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Sociodemographic Factors
20.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20220225, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431257

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to characterize the profile of pregnant women and newborns accompanied at a reference center for infectious-parasitic diseases, after the exposure of T. gondii, establishing comparisons with a previous study, in the same location, ten years ago. Methods: this is a retrospective cohort study, with a follow-up of four years (2016 to 2019), using the previous study carried out from 2002 to 2010 as a comparative for the variables assessed. Mothers who presented tests suggestive of seroconversion for the disease during prenatal care and their respective concepts, followed up over a year, were included. The chi-square test was used, assuming a significance level of 5% for the comparison of the groups in the two periods. Results: during the period from 2016 to 2019, 79 binomials were studied, whereas 58 binomials were accompanied in the previous period. Comparing both periods, the findings showed lower proportions of adolescents (p<0.001), with low schooling (p<0.001), with low serological testing (p<0.001) and with late or postnatal diagnosis (p<0.001). As to the children, the findings showed fewer changes in fundoscopy (p<0.001), strabismus (p=0.002), hepatomegaly (p=0.026) and any sequelae (p<0.001). Conclusion: a positive advance was observed regarding the care provided for the mother-child binomial affected by T. gondii, with a reduction in negative outcomes for the child. However, there are still challenges concerning the diagnosis and proper management of the disease.


Resumo Objetivos: caracterizar o perfil de gestantes e neonatos acompanhadas em um centro de referência em doenças infecto-parasitárias, após exposição ao Toxoplasma gondii, estabelecendo comparações em relação a estudo prévio, no mesmo local, há dez anos. Métodos: trata-se de estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com seguimento de quatro anos (2016 a 2019), servindo o estudo prévio realizado de 2002 a 2010 como comparativo para as variáveis estudadas. Foram incluídas mães que apresentaram durante o pré-natal exames sugestivos soroconversão para a doença e seus respectivos conceptos, acompanhados ao longo de um ano. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado, assumindo-se nível de significância de 5% para a comparação dos grupos nos dois períodos. Resultados: durante o período de 2016 a 2019, foram estudados 79 binômios, enquanto no período anterior foram acompanhados 58 binômios. Comparando-se os dois períodos, em relação às mães, registraram-se menores proporções de adolescentes (p<0,001), de baixa escolaridade (p<0,001), baixa realização de testes sorológicos (p<0,001) e com diagnóstico tardio ou pós-natal (p<0,001). Em relação às crianças, verificaram-se menores proporções de alterações de fundoscopia (p<0,001), estrabismo (p=0,002), hepatomegalia (p=0,026) e qualquer sequela (p<0,001). Conclusão: observou-se um avanço em relação aos cuidados para o binômio mãe-filho acometido pelo T. gondii, com redução de desfechos negativos sobre a criança. Todavia, ainda existem desafios para o diagnóstico e adequado manejo da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prenatal Care , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Health Surveys
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