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1.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 698-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986197

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand ten-year changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns of chronic hepatitis B in China. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection:demographic, virologic, hematologic, blood biochemistry, and antiviral treatment data were extracted from the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database between 2012 and 2022 for descriptive statistics and change trend analysis. Multiple group comparisons were conducted using the Kruskal Wallis H test, while counting data was compared between groups using χ (2) test. Results: A total of 180 012 patients with chronic HBV infection were included, with a median age of 40 years old, and a male proportion accounting for 60.2%. The HBeAg positive rate was 43.3%. Over time, the median age of new patients each year increased from 39 to 47 years, while the HBeAg positive rate decreased from 51.3% to 32.8%. The initial diagnosis of patients was mainly CHB (71.4%), followed by hepatitis B cirrhosis (11.8%), inactive HBsAg carrier status (10.6%), and chronic HBV carrier status (6.2%). Among the newly registered patients every year from 2012 to 2022, the proportion of hepatitis B cirrhosis remained stable, but after 2019, the proportion of CHB increased and the proportion of other diagnoses decreased. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis increased with age in different age groups, with 3.5%, 19.3%, and 30.4% in the < 40, 40-69, and≥70 age groups, respectively. The proportion of women in patients with cirrhosis also increased with age, from 16.1% in those < 30 years old to 44.3% in those≥80 years old. From 2012 to 2022, the proportion of patients receiving first-line nucleos(t)ide analog antiviral treatment increased year by year, from 51.0% in 2012-2013 to 99.8% in 2022. Conclusion: The CR-HepB registration data reflect the changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns in patients with chronic HBV infection in China over the past ten years and can thus provide a reference to promote hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment practice, as well as scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis A , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Registries , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , DNA, Viral
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 692-697, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986196

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the occurrence of recompensation conditions in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis after entecavir antiviral therapy. Methods: Patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis with ascites as the initial manifestation were prospectively enrolled. Patients who received entecavir treatment for 120 weeks and were followed up every 24 weeks (including clinical endpoint events, hematological and imaging indicators, and others) were calculated for recompensation rates according to the Baveno VII criteria. Measurement data were compared using the Student t-test or Mann-Whitney U test between groups. Categorical data were compared by the χ (2) test or Fisher's exact probability method between groups. Results: 283 of the 320 enrolled cases completed the 120-week follow-up, and 92.2% (261/283) achieved a virological response (HBV DNA 20 IU/ml). Child-Pugh and MELD scores were significantly improved after treatment (8.33 ± 1.90 vs. 5.77 ± 1.37, t = 12.70, P < 0.001; 13.37 ± 4.44 vs. 10.45 ± 4.58, t = 5.963, P < 0.001). During the 120-week follow-up period, 14 cases died, two received liver transplants, 19 developed hepatocellular cancer, 11 developed gastroesophageal variceal bleeding, and four developed hepatic encephalopathy. 60.4% (171/283) (no decompensation events occurred for 12 months) and 56.2% (159/283) (no decompensation events occurred for 12 months and improved liver function) of the patients had achieved clinical recompensation within 120 weeks. Patients with baseline MELD scores > 15 after active antiviral therapy achieved higher recompensation than patients with baseline MELD scores ≤15 [50/74 (67.6%) vs. 109/209 (52.2%), χ (2) = 5.275, P = 0.029]. Conclusion: Antiviral therapy can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis. The majority of patients (56.2%) had achieved recompensation. Patients with severe disease did not have a lower probability of recompensation at baseline than other patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Treatment Outcome , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/complications , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
3.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 649-652, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986186

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health concern, as approximately 3.5% of the world's population is currently chronically infected. Chronic HBV infection is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and deaths related to liver disease globally. Studies have found that in HBV infection, viruses can directly or indirectly regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative stress, respiratory chain metabolites, and autophagy, thereby altering macrophage activation status, differentiation types, and related cytokine secretion type and quantity regulations. Therefore, mitochondria have become an important signal source for macrophages to participate in the body's immune system during HBV infection, providing a basis for mitochondria to be considered as a potential therapeutic target for chronic hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/physiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Mitochondria , Liver Neoplasms , Macrophages
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 608-613, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986178

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of entecavir combined with Biejiajian pills and its influence on TCM syndrome scores during the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with hepatic fibrosis and blood stasis syndrome by prospective, randomized and controlled study. Methods: Patients with chronic hepatitis B with hepatic fibrosis and blood stasis syndrome were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. Entecavir plus Biejiajian pills or entecavir plus a simulant of Biejiajian pills were given for 48 weeks. The changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and TCM syndrome scores before and after treatment were compared between the two groups to analyze the correlation. The data between groups were analyzed by t-test/Wilcoxon rank sum test or χ(2) test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between TCM syndrome scores and LSM values. Results: After 48 weeks of treatment, the LSM values of the two groups were significantly lower than those of the baseline (P < 0.001), liver fibrosis was significantly improved, and the LSM values of the treatment group were lower than those of the control group [(8.67 ± 4.60) kPa and (10.13 ± 4.43) kPa, t = -2.011, P = 0.049]. After 48 weeks of treatment, the TCM syndrome scores of the two groups were significantly reduced compared with the baseline (P < 0.001), and the clinical symptoms were significantly relieved, and the total effective rates of the improvement of the TCM syndrome scores in the two groups were 74.19% and 72.97%, respectively, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant (χ(2) = 0.013, P = 0.910). Correlation analysis showed that there was no obvious trend between TCM syndrome scores and LSM values. There were no serious adverse reactions associated with the drug during the observation period of this study. Conclusion: Based on antiviral treatment with entecavir, regardless of whether it is combined with the Biejiajian pill, it can effectively reduce the LSM value, improve liver fibrosis, reduce TCM syndrome scores, and alleviate symptoms in patients with chronic hepatitis B with liver fibrosis and blood stasis syndrome. Compared with entecavir alone, the combined Biejia pill has greater efficacy in improving liver fibrosis and a favorable safety profile, meriting its implementation and widespread application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 601-607, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986177

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the clinical and pathological features of children with chronic viral hepatitis B combined with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (CHB-MAFLD) and chronic viral hepatitis B alone (CHB alone), and to further explore the effect of MAFLD on the progression of hepatic fibrosis in CHB. Methods: 701 initially treated CHB children confirmed by liver biopsy admitted to the Fifth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from January 2010 to December 2021 were collected continuously. They were divided into CHB-MAFLD and CHB-alone groups according to whether they were combined with MAFLD. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. CHB-MAFLD was used as the case group, and 1:2 propensity score matching was performed with the CHB alone group according to age and gender, including 56 cases in the CHB-MAFLD group and 112 cases in the CHB alone group. The body mass index (BMI), metabolic complications, laboratory indicators, and pathological characteristics of liver tissue were compared between the two groups. The related factors affecting liver disease progression in CHB were analyzed by a binary logistic regression model. The measurement data between groups were compared using the t-test and rank sum test. The χ (2) test was used for the comparison of categorical data between groups. Results: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.032) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.003) levels were lower in the CHB-MAFLD group than those in the CHB alone group, while BMI (P < 0.001), triglyceride (TG, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.016) and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (P < 0.001) were higher in the CHB alone group. There were no statistically significant differences in HBsAg quantification or HBV DNA load between the two groups (P > 0.05). Histologically, the proportion of significant liver fibrosis (S2-S4) was higher in the CHB-MAFLD group than that in the CHB alone group (67.9% vs. 49.1%, χ (2) = 5.311, P = 0.021). Multivariate regression results showed that BMI (OR = 1.258, 95% CI: 1.145 ~ 1.381, P = 0.001) and TG (OR = 12.334, 95% CI: 3.973 ~ 38.286, P < 0.001) were the risk factors for hepatic steatosis occurrence in children with CHB. MAFLD (OR = 4.104, 95% CI: 1.703 ~ 9.889, P = 0.002), liver inflammation (OR = 3.557, 95% CI: 1.553 ~ 8.144, P = 0.003), and γ-glutamyl transferase (OR = 1.019, 95% CI: 1.001 to 1.038, P = 0.038) were independent risk factors for significant hepatic fibrosis in children with CH. Conclusion: MAFLD occurrence is related to metabolic factors in children with CHB. Additionally, the combination of MAFLD may promote liver fibrosis progression in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Hepatitis B, Chronic/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Case-Control Studies , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Risk Factors
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 545-550, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986167

ABSTRACT

The resolution of the hepatitis C issue has raised expectations for a chronic hepatitis B cure, driving the industry to expand investment in research and development efforts to strengthen functional cure strategies. These strategies have a wide variety of types, and the published research findings are heterogeneous. The theoretical analysis of these strategies is of great significance for determining prioritized research orientations as well as sensibly allocating research and development resources. However, due to a paucity of necessary conceptual models, current theoretical analysis has not been able to unify various therapeutic strategies into a proper theoretical framework. In view of the fact that the decrease in the quantity of cccDNA is an inevitable core event accompanied by the process of functional cure, this paper intends to analyze several chronic hepatitis B cure strategies using cccDNA dynamics as a framework. Furthermore, there are currently few studies on the dynamics of the cccDNA field, hoping that this article can promote recognition and research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Virus Replication , DNA, Circular/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 489-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986158

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the role of transient elastography technology in the assessment of disease staging and treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Patients who were clinically diagnosed with chronic HBV infection at Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021 was collected. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) examination was performed more than once by transient elastography. The count data were expressed as cases (%) and the χ (2) test was made. Fisher's exact test was used with theoretical frequency less than 5. The measurement data between two groups was compared by t-test. Multiple groups were compared with an analysis of variance. Results: 1 055 patients were included in this study, including 669 (63.4%) males and 386 (36.6%) females. 757 (71.8%) patients were untreated. Among the untreated patients, the LSM value in the immune clearance (10.2 ± 3.8) kPa (187 cases, 40.4%), and the reactivation stages (9.1 ± 3.4) kPa (114 cases, 24.6%) was significantly higher than that in the immune tolerance (8.7 ± 3.6) kPa (78 cases, 16.8%) and immune control stages (8.4 ± 3.5) KPa (84 cases, 18.1%), and the difference between the four groups was statistically significant (F = 5.31 and P = 0.03). With ALT (male: 30 U/L, female: 19 U/L) as defined the normal value, the LSM value in the immune tolerance and the immune control stages were (5.8 ± 0.9) kPa and (7.1 ± 2.5) kPa, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of patients in the immune tolerance and immune control stages, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There were 294 (38.8%) patients with uncertain period, excluding patients with fatty liver. Patients with uncertain periods were divided into four gray zone (GZ) groups: immune tolerance stage: LSM (5.1 ± 1.3) kPa was significantly lower than GZ-A (6.5 ± 2.4) kPa, t = 2.06, P = 0.03, and the difference was statistically significant; immune control stage: LSM was (5.6 ± 1.5) kPa, which was also lower than GZ-C (6.8 ± 1.3) kPa, t = 3.08, P = 0.02, and the difference was statistically significant; immune clearance stage: LSM > 8.0 kPa. LSM values showed a year-by-year reduction in patients with expanded indications who started antiviral treatment and were followed up for three years. Conclusion: The LSM value is significantly lower after the decrease of the defined high-normal ALT value in patients with the immune tolerance and immune control stages of chronic HBV infection. The LSM values of GZ-A and GZ-C in the uncertain periods of chronic HBV infection are higher than those of patients in the immune tolerance and immune control stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Liver/pathology
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 483-488, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986157

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the hepatic pathological characteristics and factors influencing an alanine transaminase value below twice the upper limit of normal in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and further explore the optimal ALT threshold strategy for initiating antiviral therapy. Methods: Clinical data of treatment-naïve CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies from January 2010 to December 2019 were retrospectively collected. Multiple regression models were used to explore the ALT levels and significant risk of hepatic histological changes (≥G2/S2). Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the value of different models in diagnosing liver tissue inflammation≥G2 or fibrosis ≥ S2. Results: A total of 447 eligible CHB patients, with a median age of 38.0 years and 72.9% males, were included. During ALT normalization, there was significant liver inflammation (≥G2) and fibrosis (≥S2) in 66.9% and 53.0% of patients, respectively. With an ALT rise of 1-2×ULN, the proportions of liver inflammation≥G2 and fibrosis≥S2 were 81.2% and 60.0%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, higher ALT levels (> 29 U/L) were found to be associated with significant liver inflammation (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.11 ~ 4.77) and fibrosis (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 3.09). After the measurement of glutamyltransferase-platelet ratio (GPR), the proportion of CHB patients with≥G2/S2 was significantly reduced under different treatment thresholds of ALT standards, and in particular, the erroneous evaluation of liver fibrosis≥S2 was significantly improved (33.5% to 57.5%). Conclusion: More than half of CHB patients have a normal ALT or one within 2 × ULN, regardless of whether or not there is apparent inflammation and fibrosis. GPR can significantly improve the precise assessment of different conditions of treatment thresholds for the ALT value in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Alanine Transaminase , Retrospective Studies , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Hepatitis B e Antigens
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 422-427, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986146

ABSTRACT

Objective: T lymphocyte exhaustion is an important component of immune dysfunction. Therefore, exploring peripheral blood-exhausted T lymphocyte features in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure may provide potential therapeutic target molecules for ACLF immune dysfunction. Methods: Six cases with HBV-ACLF and three healthy controls were selected for T-cell heterogeneity detection using the single-cell RNA sequencing method. In addition, exhausted T lymphocyte subpopulations were screened to analyze their gene expression features, and their developmental trajectories quasi-timing. An independent sample t-test was used to compare the samples between the two groups. Results: Peripheral blood T lymphocytes in HBV-ACLF patients had different differentiation trajectories with different features distinct into eight subpopulations. Among them, the CD4(+)TIGIT(+) subsets (P = 0.007) and CD8(+)LAG3(+) (P = 0.010) subsets with highly exhausted genes were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. Quasi-time analysis showed that CD4(+)TIGIT(+) and CD8(+)LAG3(+) subsets appeared in the late stage of T lymphocyte differentiation, suggesting the transition of T lymphocyte from naïve-effector-exhausted during ACLF pathogenesis. Conclusion: There is heterogeneity in peripheral blood T lymphocyte differentiation in patients with HBV-ACLF, and the number of exhausted T cells featured by CD4(+)TIGIT(+)T cell and CD8(+)LAG3(+) T cell subsets increases significantly, suggesting that T lymphocyte immune exhaustion is involved in the immune dysfunction of HBV-ACLF, thereby identifying potential effective target molecules for improving ACLF patients' immune function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/pathology , Hepatitis B, Chronic , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Receptors, Immunologic
10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 385-388, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986142

ABSTRACT

Chinese Society of Hepatology and Chinese Society of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Medical Association update the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (version 2022) in 2022. The latest guidelines recommend more extensive screening and more active antiviral treating for hepatitis B virus infection. This article interprets the essential updates in the guidelines to help deepen understanding and better guide the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Gastroenterology
11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 868-876, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985489

ABSTRACT

Objective: This article investigated the clinical characteristics and distribution of drug resistance mutation sites in HBV RT region of hepatitis B infected patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made on 1 948 patients with HBV infection, who had been tested for NAs resistance mutation and had a medical history of NAs in the Laboratory Department of the Fifth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021. Basic clinical information and drug resistance related mutation information were recorded. Meanwhile, the serological index data of hepatitis B were collected. Drug resistance gene mutant group and non-mutated group were grouped according to whether the drug resistance genes had a mutation in HBV RT region, and the clinical characteristics and genotype distribution of the two groups were statistically analyzed. The pattern of drug resistance gene mutation, number of mutation sites, drug resistance type and mutation of NAs resistance-related sites were analyzed in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region. χ2 Inspection was used for counting data. Meanwhile, two independent samples t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for measurement data. Results: Among the 1 948 patients with chronic HBV infection, 917 patients had drug resistance gene mutation in RT region (47.07%). The proportion of patients with acute hepatitis B and CHB in HBV RT resistance gene mutant group was lower than that in the non-mutated group, while the proportion of patients with HBV-related cirrhosis was higher than that in the non-mutated group, these differences were statistically significant. Compared with the non-mutated group in HBV RT region, the age, the positive rates of HBeAg and HBV DNA, and HBV DNA load of these patients were increased in drug resistance gene mutant group, these differences were statistically significant. Genotypes of patients in both groups were dominated by C, followed by B and D. The proportion of patients with genotype C in HBV RT drug resistance gene mutant group was higher than that of non-mutated group, the difference was statistically significant. There were 53 gene mutation patterns in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region, and the main pattern was rtL180M+rtM204V+rtS202G (9.70%). The mutation sites were dominated by 3 (20.74%). There were 5 types of drug resistance, LAM+Ldt (21.25%) was the most. Among the 18 sites that were clearly associated with LAM, ADV, ETV and Ldt resistance in the HBV RT region, 14 sites were mutated, and the most common mutation sites were rtL180M, rtM204V, rtM204 and rtS202G. what's more, the proportion of patients with NAs drug resistance was LAM>Ldt>ETV>ADV. Conclusion: In order to prevent adverse consequences of this study such as disease recurrence or disease progression caused by HBV drug resistance, HBV infected patients, who have long-term use of NAs antiviral therapy, should monitor the level of HBV DNA and drug resistance genes in HBV RT region in order to optimize the treatment plan in time or guide individualized treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Mutation , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Lamivudine/therapeutic use
12.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 42-48, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970950

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the demographic characteristics and clinical influencing factors which associates with the occurrence probability of persistent or intermittent hypoviremia (LLV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed on patients with CHB who received outpatient NAs therapy for≥48 ± 2 weeks. According to the serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load at 48±2 weeks treatment, the study groups were divided into LLV (HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml and < 2 000 IU/ml) and MVR group (sustained virological response, HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml). Demographic characteristics and clinical data at the start of NAs treatment (considered as baseline) were retrospectively collected for both patient groups. The differences in the reduction of HBV DNA load during treatment was compared between the two groups. Correlation and multivariate analysis were further conducted to analyze the associated factors influencing the LLV occurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent samples t-test, c2 test, Spearman analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, or area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 509 cases were enrolled, with 189 and 320 in the LLV and MVR groups, respectively. Compared to patients with MVR group at baseline: (1) the demographics characteristics of patients showed that LLV group was younger in age (39.1 years, P = 0.027), had a stronger family history (60.3%, P = 0.001), 61.9% received ETV treatment, and higher proportion of compensated cirrhosis (20.6%, P = 0.025) at baseline; (2) the serum virological characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had higher HBV DNA load, qHBsAg level, qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive rate, and the proportion of genotype C HBV infection but decreased HBV DNA during treatment (P < 0.001) at baseline; (3) the biochemical characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had lower serum ALT levels (P = 0.007) at baseline; (4) the noninvasive fibrosis markers of patients showed that LLV group were characterized by high aspartate aminotransferase platelet ratio index (APRI) (P = 0.02) and FIB-4 (P = 0.027) at baseline. HBV DNA, qHBsAg and qHBeAg were positively correlated with LLV occurrence (r = 0.559, 0.344, 0.435, respectively), while age and HBV DNA reduction were negatively correlated (r = -0.098, -0.876, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that ETV treatment history, high HBV DNA load at baseline, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive, low ALT and HBV DNA level were independent risk factors for patients with CHB who developed LLV with NAs treatment. Multivariate prediction model had a good predictive value for LLV occurrence [AUC 0.922 (95%CI: 0.897 ~ 0.946)]. Conclusion: In this study, 37.1% of CHB patients treated with first-line NAs has LLV. The formation of LLV is influenced by various factors. HBeAg positivity, genotype C HBV infection, high baseline HBV DNA load, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, high APRI or FIB-4 value, low baseline ALT level, reduced HBV DNA during treatment, concomitant family history, metabolic liver disease history, and age < 40 years old are potential risk factors for developing LLV in patients with CHB during the therapeutic process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B e Antigens , DNA, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Demography
13.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 79-86, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970676

ABSTRACT

This study aims to clarify host factors of IFN treatment in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients by screening the differentially expressed genes of IFN pathway CHB patients with different response to interferon (IFN) therapy. Three cases were randomly selected in IFN-responding CHB patients (Rs), non-responding CHB patients (NRs) and healthy participants, respectively. The human type I IFN response RT 2 profiler PCR array was used to detect the expression levels of IFN-related genes in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) from healthy participants and CHB patients before and after Peg-IFN-α 2a treatment. The results showed that more differentially expressed genes appeared in Rs group than NRs group after IFN treatment. Comparing with healthy participants, IFNG, IL7R, IRF1, and IRF8 were downregulated in both Rs and NRs group before IFN treatment; CXCL10, IFIT1, and IFITM1 were upregulated in the Rs; IL13RA1 and IFI35 were upregulated in the NRs, while IFRD2, IL11RA, IL4R, IRF3, IRF4, PYHIN1, and ADAR were downregulated. The expression of IL15, IFI35 and IFI44 was downregulated by 4.09 ( t = 10.58, P < 0.001), 5.59 ( t = 3.37, P = 0.028) and 10.83 ( t = 2.8, P = 0.049) fold in the Rs group compared with the NRs group, respectively. In conclusion, IFN-response-related gene array is able to evaluate IFN treatment response by detecting IFN-related genes levels in PBMC. High expression of CXCL10, IFIT1 and IFITM1 before treatment may suggest satisfied IFN efficacy, while high expression of IL13RA1, IL15, IFI35 and IFI44 molecules and low expression of IFRD2, IL11RA, IL4R, IRF3, IRF4, PYHIN1 and ADAR molecules may be associated with poor IFN efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-15 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Nuclear Proteins , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/methods , Interferons/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 698-706, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Long-term hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause recurrent inflammation in the liver, and then develop into liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The hepatic pathological change is one of the important criteria for guiding antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Due to the limitations of liver biopsy, it is necessary to find valuable non-invasive indicators to evaluate the hepatic pathological changes in CHB patients and guide the antiviral therapy. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of different pathological changes in CHB patients, and to explore the factors influnencing the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT).@*METHODS@#This retrospective study was conducted on 310 CHB patients. Liver biopsy was performed in all these patients. The clinical data of the patients were collected. The liver biopsy pathological results were used as the gold standard to analyze the relationship between clinical indicators and liver pathological changes. Then CHB patients with normal ALT were screened, and the independent factors influencing the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis were explored.@*RESULTS@#Among the 310 patients with CHB, there were 249 (80.3%) patients with significant liver inflammation [liver inflammation grade (G) ≥2] and 119 (38.4%) patients with significant liver fibrosis [liver fibrosis stage (S) ≥2]. The results of univariate analysis of total samples showed that the ALT, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and HBV DNA were related to the significant liver pathological changes. Among the 132 CHB patients with normal ALT, the patients with liver pathology G/S≥2, G≥2, and S≥2 were 80.3% (106/132), 68.2% (90/132), and 43.2% (57/132), respectively. The results showed that the independent influencing factor of significant liver inflammation was HBV DNA>2 000 U/mL (OR=3.592, 95% CI 1.534 to 8.409), and the independent influencing factors of significant liver fibrosis were elevated alkaline phosphatase level (OR=1.022, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.043), decreased platelet count (OR=0.990, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.998), and positive in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) (OR=14.845, 95% CI 4.898 to 44.995). According to the multivariate analysis, a diagnostic model for significant liver fibrosis in CHB patients with normal ALT was established, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.844 (95% CI 0.779 to 0.910).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The liver pathological changes should be evaluated in combination with different clinical indicators. A considerable number of CHB patients with normal ALT still have significant liver pathological changes, which need to be identified and treated with antiviral therapy in time. Among them, HBV DNA>2 000 U/mL suggests the significant liver inflammation, and the diagnostic model for significant liver fibrosis based on alkaline phosphatase, platelet count, and HBeAg can help to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B e Antigens/therapeutic use , Alkaline Phosphatase , DNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase
15.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 389-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981866

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus biomarkers are mainly used in clinical practice to diagnose infection, monitor disease progression, evaluate response to chronic hepatitis B treatment, and evaluate the efficacy of novel antiviral drugs in clinical trials. In combination with the recent research progress of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B and the actual needs of clinical diagnosis and treatment, the expert consensus was formulated by the Cooperative Group of Basic Research and Experimental Diagnosis of Liver Diseases, Chinese Society of Hepatology, Chinese Medical Association. It summarized the evidence and recommended the key points for the clinical application of classic and novel hepatitis B virus related biomarkers in order to guide the standardized and reasonable clinical application for these biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Consensus , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
16.
South Sudan med. j. (Online) ; 16(3): 87-92, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1452131

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem affecting 400 million people worldwide, and is a common cause of chronic liver failure (cirrhosis) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Sixty-eight percent of infected people are from the African and Pacific regions. Vertical transmission from mother to newborn baby is one of the mechanisms by which chronic hepatitis virus infection spreads, besides infections from contaminated needles and syringes and sexual contact. Hepatitis B chronic infection is endemic in many poor countries, especially in Africa. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2021. Pregnant women attending the antenatal care (ANC) in Bor State referral hospital, South Sudan, were interviewed to collect information on their socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for hepatitis B infection. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B chronic infection through blood testing. Prevalence ratios for certain risk factors were calculated. Results: Two hundred pregnant women were enrolled. The Prevalence Rate for chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, diagnosed using the rapid immune-chromatographic assay for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), was 8.5%. (95% CI; 4.7% - 12.3%). None of the suspected risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with testing positive for HBV, except for a history of previous jaundice. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV chronic infection among pregnant women in Bor, Jonglei State, is high hence there is a need for established public health interventions that can lead to a reduction of HBV vertical transmission. Treatment of pregnant women with HBV chronic infection using anti-viral medications during pregnancy might curb the vertical transmission rates.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Risk Factors , Chromatography, Affinity , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B, Chronic
17.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 9-15, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414325

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the twelfth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of worldwide cancer related death. Chronic hepatitis B infection, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to aflatoxins is fundamental in the formation of HCC in developing countries. This review of scientific publications aims to establish the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and highlights the correlation between aflatoxin and hepatitis B viral-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Research has shown a significant increase in the occurrence of HCC in HBV-infected individuals exposed to fungal toxins. HBV demonstrates the ability to integrate and bind to p53 protein in the host DNA and propagate hepatocyte vulnerability through carcinogenic aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) damage. Although there has been clear evidence about the synergistic interaction of exposure to AFB1 and HBV infection in the induction of HCC, other literature has shown otherwise, mainly because incomplete and vague findings and hypotheses were made in regions where AFB1 and HBV pose a public health risk. Vaccination against hepatitis B and measures such as robust food safety systems to avoid hepatotoxicity and hepatocellular carcinogenesis induced by AFB1 is the most effective methods in the prevention of HCC induced by HBV and AFB1


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Vaccination , Aflatoxin B1 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Aflatoxins , Hepatitis
18.
Hepatología ; 3(1): 72-86, 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396261

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cirrosis hepática continúa siendo una enfermedad frecuente en nuestro medio, con una mortalidad elevada. Su descompensación se puede asociar a la falla de uno o más órganos, llevando a una falla hepática aguda sobre crónica (ACLF), confiriéndoles a estos pacientes un pronóstico diferente asociado a una alta mortalidad. El objetivo de este artículo es reportar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes que cursaron con ACLF en un hospital de alta complejidad, así como realizar una revisión de la literatura de acuerdo con las definiciones actuales, sobre las diferentes escalas para la evaluación de su pronóstico. Metodología. Estudio descriptivo tipo retrospectivo de series de casos. La población estuvo constituida por la totalidad de los pacientes atendidos en el periodo entre diciembre del 2005 a enero del 2020, mayores de 18 años, y con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, que cumplieran los criterios diagnósticos para ACLF. Resultados. Se incluyó una serie de casos de 19 pacientes con diagnóstico de ACLF, el 47,36% correspondía a hombres con una mediana de edad de 53 años, la clasificación de la cirrosis fue Child C para todos, la etiología fue de origen alcohólico en el 42,10%, autoinmune en el 21,05%, virus de la hepatitis B en el 10,52%, y virus de la hepatitis C, esteatohepatitis no alcohólica y cirrosis biliar primaria en el 5,26% de los casos. Los precipitantes de la ACLF fueron alcoholismo activo en el 42,10% de los casos, no se identificó evento en el 26,31%, y las infecciones y sangrado variceal se presentaron en el 15,78%. Ladistribución de la clasificación fue ACLF 1 15,78%, ACLF 2 26,31% y ACLF 3 36,84%. La supervivencia acumulada en los pacientes que recibieron trasplante hepático fue mayor en relación a los que no, 80% versus 33,3%. Conclusión. La ACLF es un proceso dinámico y potencialmente reversible con una mortalidad elevada a corto plazo. En nuestra serie encontramos una mayor supervivencia en los pacientes trasplantados, lo que confiere una mejoría en la sobrevida a corto y largo plazo, por lo que este continúa siendo el tratamiento óptimo en la actualidad.


Introduction. Liver cirrhosis continues to be a common disease in our setting, with high mortality. Its decompensation can be associated with the failure of one or more organs, leading to acute-onchronic liver failure (ACLF), giving these patients a different prognosis associated with higher mortality. The objective of this article is to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with ACLF in a high-complexity hospital, as well as to carry out a review of the literature about the different scores for evaluating their prognosis. Methodology. This is a descriptive, retrospective case series study. The population included all the patients during December 2005 to January 2020, over 18 years old, with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, who met the diagnostic criteria for ACLF. Results. We included a case series of 19 patients with a diagnosis of ACLF, 47.36% were men with a median age of 53 years, all of them with Child C cirrhosis, the etiology was alcoholic in 42.10%, autoimmune in 21.05%, hepatitis B virus in 10.52%, and hepatitis C virus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis in 5.26% of the cases. The precipitants of ACLF were active alcoholism in 42.10% of the cases, no event was identified in 26.31%, and variceal infections and bleeding occurred in 15.78%. Classification was ACLF 1 in 15.78%, ACLF 2 in 26.31% and ACLF 3 in 36.84%. Cumulative survival in patients who received liver transplantation was higher in relation to those who did not, 80% versus 33.3%. Conclusion. ACLF is a dynamic and potentially reversible process with high short-term mortality. In our series, we found a longer survival in transplant patients, which improves survival rates at short and long term, so as of today, this continues to be the optimal treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Failure , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191111, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394026

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study is to validate the specific questionnaire for Hepatitis B HBQOL (Hepatitis B Quality of Life Instrument, version 1.0) for the Brazilian version, in addition to testing its applicability in patients with hepatitis B under treatment and comparing the quality of life between patients using first-line drugs (tenofovir and entecavir). For the validation, the back-translation technique was used in a sample of 47 patients. Factor analysis was performed between the items in each domain of the questionnaire and the internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's α coefficient. In assessing the applicability of the validated questionnaire, interviews were carried out with 124 patients. Sociodemographic and treatment data were collected to characterize the sample and perform correlation analyzes. The results demonstrate that the Brazilian version of the questionnaire was successfully validated. In the analysis carried out among the 124 patients, the domains psychological well-being and stigma obtained the highest scores in quality of life and the lowest level of education conferred better results in these two domains. The comparison between tenofovir and entecavir showed no significant difference in patients' quality of life. The use of this validated instrument can make therapeutic decisions more rational


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patients/classification , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hepatitis B, Chronic/pathology , Validation Study , Therapeutics/statistics & numerical data , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Methods
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 429-438, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928467

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains to be the major cause of chronic liver diseases in China. Since the nucleos(t)ide analogues and pegylated interferon-alpha do not directly target the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of HBV-infected hepatocytes, those standard-of-care medications cannot efficiently cure the infected hepatocytes and rarely achieve the functional cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, new antiviral drugs targeting distinct steps of HBV replication and immunotherapeutics reinvigorating antiviral immune responses are urgently needed for the functional cure of CHB. Based on the extensive discussion of the biological and clinical significance of new virologic biomarkers and distinct mechanism of drug candidates currently in clinical development, we propose that the selection of virologic and immunological biomarkers for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy as well as setting the therapeutic endpoints in the clinical trials should be based on the mode of action of investigational drugs. In addition, due to the complexity of CHB pathogenesis, selection of specific subpopulation of CHB patients for the clinical trials of drugs with a specific mode of action should also be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , DNA, Circular , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Virus Replication
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