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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00462020, 2022. tab, mapas
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1383683

ABSTRACT

The present objective was to investigate the presence of anti-equine viral encephalomyelitis (EVE) antibodies and the possible risk factors for its dissemination in horses raised in the East and West Potiguar mesoregions of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Serological diagnosis for neutralizing antibodies against Eastern (EEEV), Western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV). Equine viral encephalomyelitis was performed using a seroneutralization technique on 811 blood samples from horses from ninety properties and sixteen municipalities between July 2018 and February 2019. Factors associated with EVE were evaluated using an investigative epidemiological questionnaire, and the data were statistically analyzed using the Epi Info 3.5.2 software with a confidence level of 95%. The seroprevalence of anti-EVE antibodies was 14.2% (115), with 10.36% (84) for EEEV, 6.9% (56) for WEEV, and null for EVE. When analyzing risk factors, it can be concluded that horses raised in properties that do not clean installations and/or rent out their pasture are more likely to have anti-EVE antibodies. These results show evidence that horses raised in the East and West Potiguar mesoregions were exposed to EEEV and WEEV, thus reinforcing the importance of vaccination and serological survey of nonvaccinated horses as a means of monitoring the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Encephalomyelitis, Equine/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses/virology , Brazil , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Encephalitis, Viral/veterinary
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 132-137, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363925

ABSTRACT

Hematúria é uma grave manifestação clínica de doença do sistema urinário, ocorrendo sob as formas micro ou macroscópica. Neste artigo relatam-se dois casos de hematúria macroscópica associada à infecção por Leptospira interrogans sorogrupo Canicola. O exame clínico inicial revelou hematúria macroscópica, taquicardia, taquipneia, febre, elevação do tempo de perfusão capilar, hipomotilidade intestinal, além de icterícia da mucosa oral. Leucocitose, proteinúria, glicosúria, piúria e azotemia foram achados comuns aos dois casos. Teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica foi realizado para titulação de anticorpos contra Leptospira interrogans. Tratamento incluiu medidas terapêuticas de suporte (fluidoterapia), controle da hematúria e antibioticoterapia. Sete dias após manifestação dos sinais clínicos iniciais, ambos animais receberam alta hospitalar após remissão dos sinais clínicos.


Haematuria is a serious clinical manifestation of urinary system disease, occurring in micro or macroscopic forms. In this article two cases of macroscopic haematuria associated with Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicolainfection are related. The initial clinical examination revealed macroscopic haematuria, tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, increased capillary perfusion time, intestinal hypomotility, in addition to jaundice of the oral mucosa. Leukocytosis, proteinuria, glycosuria, pyuria and azotemia were common findings in both cases. Microscopic serum agglutination test was performed for titration of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans. Treatment included supportive therapeutic measures (fluid therapy), hematuria control and antibiotic therapy. Seven days after the manifestation of the initial clinical signs, both animals were discharged from the hospital without complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hematuria/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Urologic Diseases/veterinary
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e027720, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288691

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in equines in the Ilhéus-Itabuna microregion (BA), and identify possible factors associated with infection. The presence of sporocysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. was also verified in Didelphis spp. A total of 669 serum samples were collected from equines in 56 properties located in 12 municipalities in the region. Indirect fluorescent antibody test was performed with slides containing merozoites of the S. neurona, using a cut-off titer of 1:80. Occurrence of 7.92% of anti-S. neurona antibodies was observed in the sampled equines. The purposes trade and work were significantly associated with the presence of antibodies (p<0.05), and being used for the purpose of work (21.6%) was considered a risk factor, while being used for the purpose of trade (3.6%) was a protective factor. A total of 25 Didelphis spp. was captured for research on sporocysts/oocysts in stool samples and intestinal scrapings, being all negative. Didelphis spp. were all negative for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. and this circumstance does not change the fact that seroprevalence of S. neurona has been observed in horses raised in the southern Bahia.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado na microrregião de Ilhéus-Itabuna, Bahia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a soroprevalência de anticorpos contra Sarcocystis neurona em equinos da microrregião Ilhéus-Itabuna (BA) e identificar possíveis fatores associados à infecção. A presença de esporocistos/oocistos de Sarcocystis spp. também foi pesquisada em Didelphis spp. Foram coletadas 669 amostras de soro de equinos em 56 propriedades localizadas em 12 municípios da região. Foi utilizada a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), utilizando-se lâminas confeccionadas com merozoítos de Sarcocystis neurona (cepa SN138) e ponto de corte na diluição de 1:80. A ocorrência de anticorpos anti- S. neurona, nos equinos amostrados, foi de 7,92%. As finalidades dos animais - comércio e trabalho - apresentaram-se significativas (p<0.05), sendo que a finalidade trabalho (21,6%) foi considerada fator de risco, enquanto a finalidade comércio (3,6%) foi considerada fator de proteção. Foram capturados 25 Didelphis spp., para pesquisa de esporocistos/oocistos em amostras de fezes e raspado de mucosa intestinal. Todos os Didelphis spp. foram negativos para a presença de Sarcocystis spp., mesmo assim essa circunstância não alterou o fato da ocorrência de S. neurona ter sido observada em cavalos criados na mesorregião do sul da Bahia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sarcocystis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Didelphis , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Opossums , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Horses
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e026220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288692

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a common tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Horses are the primary hosts of the main vector, Amblyomma sculptum, and are considered efficient sentinels for circulation of Rickettsia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii antigens in horses from a non-endemic area in the north-central region of Bahia state, Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 70 horses from the municipalities of Senhor do Bonfim, Antônio Gonçalves, Pindobaçu, and Campo Formoso. The sera obtained were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect anti-Rickettsia antibodies. Overall, 5.7% (4/70) of the horses reacted to R. rickettsii antigens. Ticks were collected from 18.6% (13/70) of the horses and were identified as A. sculptum and Dermacentor nitens. Despite being a non-endemic area, seropositive animals were identified in our study, suggesting circulation of rickettsial agents in the region. This is the first serological survey of this agent in horses from the north-central region of Bahia, and further studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of BSF in these locations.


Resumo A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma importante zoonose causada por Rickettsia rickettsii, sendo seu vetor o Amblyomma sculptum. Cavalos são os principais hospedeiros desse carrapato e considerados sentinelas eficientes para detectar a circulação de Rickettsia. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar anticorpos reativos a antígenos de R. rickettsii em cavalos de uma área não-endêmica na região Centro-Norte da Bahia, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue e carrapatos de 70 cavalos nos municípios de Senhor do Bonfim, Antônio Gonçalves, Pindobaçu e Campo Formoso. Os soros obtidos foram testados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta para detectar anticorpos anti-Rickettsia. No geral, 5,7% (4/70) dos cavalos reagiram sorologicamente para antígenos de R. rickettsii. Os carrapatos foram coletados em 18,6% (13/70) dos cavalos e foram identificados como A. sculptum e Dermacentor nitens. Embora seja uma área não endêmica, foram observados animais soropositivos, sugerindo a circulação de riquétsias na região estudada. Este é o primeiro estudo de levantamento sorológico desse agente em cavalos do Centro-Norte da Bahia. São necessários mais estudos para compreender a epidemiologia da FMB nesses locais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rickettsia rickettsii , Ticks/classification , Ticks/microbiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Horse Diseases/microbiology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138086

ABSTRACT

Abstract A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Resumo Um estudo transversal foi realizado, na Jordânia, em uma amostra de 379 cavalos, para determinar a soroprevalência de Neospora spp., usando-se o teste de anticorpos fluorescentes indiretos. Cinco variáveis: localidade (n=10), zona climática (n=4), grupo etário (n=3), sexo e raça, foram testadas como fatores de risco para soropositividade para Neospora-imunoglobulina (Ig)G, considerando-se quatro pontos de corte (1:50, 1:200, 1:400 e 1:800) por meio de análises de regressão logística univariada e multivariada. Um total de 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) amostras de soros apresentaram anti-Neospora-IgG, utilizando-se como ponto de corte o título de 1:50. Cavalos de três localidades apresentaram aumento da soropositividade para Neospora-IgG (Madaba, Zarka e Petra) o que foi associado às seguintes variáveis: clima temperado fresco; idade >14 anos; e sexo feminino. Os cavalos de Madaba apresentaram soropositividade em todos os títulos utilizados como ponto de corte; os cavalos de Zarka em títulos >1:200; e os cavalos de Petra em títulos <1:200. O clima temperado fresco foi associado aos títulos <1:400. Cavalos com idade >14 anos estiveram associados à soropositividade nos títulos ≥1:200. O sexo feminino esteve associado à alta soropositividade nos títulos >1:800.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora/immunology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses , Jordan/epidemiology
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 685-691, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057966

ABSTRACT

Abstract Equine piroplasmosis, an economically important disease in horses, has so far not been reported in Pernambuco state, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-Babesia caballi and anti-Theileria equi antibodies based on the detection of these agents in equine blood and in ticks on horses in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were drawn from 393 horses and sera were examined by ELISA. The presence of tick infestations was evaluated, and 101 ticks were subjected to DNA amplification for the detection of Babesia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No parasites were detected in the blood smears. Anti-B. caballi and anti-T. equi antibodies were found in 27.2% (107/393) and 34.8% (137/393) horses, respectively. Infestation by Dermacentor nitens was detected in 4.3% (17/393) of the horses. There was no DNA amplification of the agents in ticks. The risk factors for the presence of anti-T. equi antibodies (P < 0.05) were: purebred (P < 0.001), animals older than 156 months (P = 0.014), and the presence of ticks (P = 0.001). No risk factors for B. caballi were identified. This study confirmed the circulation of agents of equine piroplasmosis in the municipality of Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Brazil.


Resumo Piroplasmose equina é uma doença economicamente importante em equinos e não possui relatos no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-B. caballi e anti-T. equi pela detecção destes agentes no sangue e carrapatos de equinos no município de Petrolina, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de sangue de 393 equinos foram coletadas e submetidas ao esfregaço sanguíneo e ELISA. A presença de infestação por carrapatos foi avaliada, e 71 carrapatos foram submetidos à Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) para Babesia spp. Nenhum parasito foi detectado na análise de esfregaços de sangue. Anticorpos anti-B. caballi e anti-T. equi foram verificados em 27,2% (107/393) e 34,8% (137/393) dos equinos, respectivamente. A infestação por Dermacentor nitens foi verificada em 4,3% (17/393) dos equinos. Não houve amplificação do DNA dos agentes nos 71 carrapatos submetidos à PCR. Os fatores de risco para presença de anticorpos anti-T. equi (P < 0,05) foram: raça definida (P < 0,001), animais > de 156 meses (P = 0,014) e presença de carrapatos (P = 0,001). Nenhum fator de risco foi identificado para B. caballi. Esse estudo permitiu a confirmação da presença de agentes da piroplasmose equina no município de Petrolina, Pernambuco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Ticks/microbiology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Babesia/genetics , Babesia/immunology , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Prevalence , Risk Factors , DNA, Protozoan/blood , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 298-302, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042507

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection by Sarcocystis neurona in horses and identify potential risk factors. Were analyzed 427 samples from 36 farms in 21 municipalities in the Alagoas State, Brazil. Presence of anti-S. neurona antibodies was diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and was confirmed using the immunoblot test. Risk factors were assessed through investigative questionnaires on animal management on the farms. The prevalence of anti-S.neurona antibodies was 2.8% (confidence interval, CI: 1.5-4.9%) from IFAT and 1.6% (CI:0.8-3.34%) from immunoblot, and there were positive horses on 16.6% of the studied farms. None of the variables studied presented associations with serological status for S. neurona. This is the first report on infection by S. neurona in horses reared in Alagoas, Brazil showing a low exposure to S. neurona in this region, but with significant numbers of foci.


Resumo Objetivou-se neste estudo determinar a prevalência e os fatores de risco associados à infecção por Sarcocystis neurona em equinos. Foram analisadas 427 amostras de 36 propriedades localizadas em 21 municípios do estado de Alagoas. O diagnóstico de anticorpos anti-S. neurona foi realizado pela técnica de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI) e confirmada por immunoblot. O estudo dos fatores de risco foi realizado a partir de questionários investigativos sobre o manejo dos animais nas propriedades. A prevalência de anticorpos anti-S. neurona foi de 2,8% (I.C. 1,5-4,9%) na IFI e de 1,6% (I.C. 0,8-3,34%) no immunoblot com equinos positivos em 16,6% das propriedades estudadas. Nenhuma variável estudada apresentou associação com o status sorológico para S. neurona. Este é o primeiro relato da infecção por S. neurona em equinos criados no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil, confirmando que os animais desta região têm baixa exposição a S. neurona, mas com significativo número de focos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Sarcocystis/immunology , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoblotting , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 161-163, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neospora spp. are intracellular protozoa with worldwide distribution and closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect a variety of mammals including horses. From September 2013 to June 2014, 185 horses from northern, central and southern parts of mainland Portugal were randomly sampled and tested for detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to Neospora spp. using an indirect multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial test (ID Screen® Neospora caninum Indirect Multi-species; ID.vet Innovative Diagnostics, Grabels, France). Two horses (1.1%; CI: 0.1-3.8%), one male and one female, were found to be seropositive for Neospora spp. Both seropositive animals were horses housed indoors but with access to outdoors, used for leisure activities and were apparently healthy, with good body condition and with no alterations at physical examination. This was the first serologic survey of antibodies to Neospora spp. carried out in horses from Portugal.


Resumo Neospora spp. são protozoários intracelulares com distribuição mundial e estreitamente relacionados com Toxoplasma gondii, que podem infectar uma variedade de mamíferos, incluindo cavalos. De setembro de 2013 a junho de 2014, 185 cavalos de áreas do Norte, Centro e Sul de Portugal continental foram aleatoriamente amostrados e testados para a detecção de anticorpos imunoglobulinas (Ig) G anti-Neospora spp., utilizando-se um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) indireto multi-espécies comercial (ID Screen® Neospora caninum Indirect Multi-species; ID.vet Innovative Diagnostics, Grabels, France). Dois cavalos (1,1%; IC: 0,1-3,8%), um macho e uma fêmea, foram detectados como seropositivos para Neospora spp. Ambos os animais seropositivos eram cavalos mantidos em cocheiras mas com acesso aos piquetes, eram utilizados para atividades de lazer e estavam aparentemente saudáveis, com boa condição corporal e sem alterações ao exame físico. Essa é o primeiro rastreio de anticorpos para Neospora spp. realizado em cavalos de Portugal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora/microbiology , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses/parasitology , Portugal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Horse Diseases/parasitology
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 47-58, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990810

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated to Babesia caballi, Theileria equi and Trypanosoma evansi in naturally infected equids from the northeast Brazil. Blood samples from 569 equids (528 horses, 8 mules, and 33 donkeys) were collected and tested for the presence of DNA of each of these protozoan parasites by PCR. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate risk factors associated with the infection. The frequency of T. equi infection was 83.5% (475/569) - 84.3% in horses, and 73.2% in donkeys and mules. The results of the final model indicated that age (senior group) and animal species (mule and donkey group) were protective factors against this pathogen. The frequency of B. caballi infection was 24.3% (138/569) - 23.5% in horses and 34.1% in donkeys and mules. Age (adult and senior group) was considered a protective factor against B. caballi infection whereas animal species (donkey and mule group) were considered a risk factor for the infection. Trypanosoma evansi infection was not detected in any of animals. Our results suggest that equids from the area studied may be infected earlier in life with the etiological agents of equine piroplasmosis and become asymptomatic carriers.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivos conhecer a frequência e os fatores associados à infecção por Babesia caballi, Theileria equi e Trypanosoma evansi em equinos naturalmente infectados do nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de sangue de 569 equídeos (528 equinos, 8 muares e 33 asininos) foram coletadas e testadas para a presença do DNA destes parasitos através da PCR. Modelos lineares generalizados foram utilizados na avaliação dos fatores associados às infecções. A frequência de infecção por T. equi foi de 83,5% (475/569) -84,3% (445/528) em eqüinos e 73,2% (30/41) em asininos e muares. Os resultados do modelo final indicam idade (sênior) e espécie (muar e asinina) como possíveis fatores de proteção para este patógeno. A frequência de infecção por B. caballi foi de 24,3% (138/569) - 23,5% (124/528) em eqüinos e 34,1% (14/41) em asininos e muares. As faixas etárias (adulto e sênior) foram identificadas como possíveis fatores de proteção, e a espécie (asinina e muar) como risco para ocorrência de infecção por B. caballi. Infecções por Trypanosoma evansi não foram detectadas. Estes resultados indicam que os equídeos na região estudada se infectam precocemente com agentes da piroplasmose equina tornando-se portadores assintomáticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Theileriasis/epidemiology , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Theileriasis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses/parasitology
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 464-472, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977927

ABSTRACT

Abstract We evaluated the distribution of piroplasmids in equids from the Mato Grosso state in Midwestern Brazil using molecular methods and the interspecific genetic diversity. For this, 1,624 blood samples of equids from 973 farms were examined by PCR, using primer pairs that amplify a fragment of the genes rap-1 and ema-1 of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, respectively. For molecular characterization and phylogenetic studies, 13 and 60 sequences of the rap-1 and ema-1 genes, respectively, were used to build a dendogram using maximum parsimony. B. caballi and T. equi were detected in 4.11% and 28.16% of the farms, respectively, and molecular prevalence was 2.74% for B. caballi and 25.91% for T. equi. The location of the farms and animals raised in the Pantanal ecoregion influence the probability of equids testing positive for B. caballi and T. equi . Moreover, age and herd purpose were variables significantly associated with T . equi infection. The sequences of B. caballi presented 1.95% intraspecific variability, contrasting with 2.99% in T. equi. Dendrograms for both species demonstrated the presence of subgroups with high values of support of branches. However, it is not possible to associate these groups with geographic origin and/or ecoregion.


Resumo Foi avaliada a distribuição de piroplasmídeos em equídeos do Estado de Mato Grosso, no Centro-Oeste do Brasil, utilizando-se métodos moleculares e a diversidade genética interespecífica. Para isso, 1.624 amostras de sangue de equídeos de 973 fazendas foram examinadas pela PCR, usando pares de oligonucleotídeos que amplificam um fragmento dos genes rap-1and ema-1 de Babesia caballi e Theileria equi, respectivamente. Para caracterização molecular e estudos filogenéticos, foram utilizadas 13 e 60 sequências dos genes rap-1 e ema-1, respectivamente, para construção de um dendograma utilizando máxima parcimônia. B. caballi e T . equi foram detectados em 4,11% e 28,16% das fazendas, respectivamente, e a prevalência molecular foi de 2,74% para B. caballi e 25,91% para T. equi. A localização das fazendas e animais criados na ecorregião do Pantanal influenciam a probabilidade de equídeos serem positivos para B. caballi e T. equi. Além disso, idade e propósito do rebanho foram variáveis, significativamente, associadas à infecção por T. equi. As sequências de B . caballi apresentaram variabilidade intraespecífica de 1,95%, contrastando com 2,99% em T. equi. Dendrogramas para ambas as espécies demonstraram a presença de subgrupos com altos valores de sustentação dos ramos. No entanto, não é possível associar esses grupos com origem geográfica e/ou ecorregião.


Subject(s)
Animals , Theileriasis/epidemiology , Babesia/genetics , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Theileria/genetics , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Species Specificity , Theileriasis/diagnosis , Theileriasis/parasitology , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 167-172, Jan.-Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839354

ABSTRACT

Abstract Borreliosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called Lyme disease in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Lyme-like or Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome in Brazil. However, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in Brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. Brazilian Lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. Thus, domestic animals can serve as key carriers in pathogen dissemination. This zoonosis has been little studied in horses in Brazil. The first survey was performed in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and this Brazilian Borreliosis exhibits many differences from the disease widely described in the Northern Hemisphere. The etiological agent shows different morphological and genetic characteristics, the disease has a higher recurrence rate after treatment with antibiotics, and the pathogen stimulates intense symptoms such as a broader immune response in humans. Additionally, the Brazilian zoonosis is not transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus complex. With respect to clinical manifestations, Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome has been reported to cause neurological, cardiac, ophthalmic, muscle, and joint alterations in humans. These symptoms can possibly occur in horses. Here, we present a current panel of studies involving the disease in humans and equines, particularly in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Lyme Disease/microbiology , Lyme Disease/epidemiology , Borrelia burgdorferi/genetics , Borrelia burgdorferi/immunology , Horse Diseases/microbiology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Lyme Disease/diagnosis , Lyme Disease/transmission , Zoonoses , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/transmission , Horses , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(4): 1033-1038, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-759239

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos deste experimento foram identificar e associar alterações radiográficas do aparato podotoclear de equinos do Regimento de Cavalaria Alferes Tiradentes da Policia Militar do estado de Minas Gerais sem histórico e sinais clínicos de doença do osso navicular. Foi avaliado um total de 33 equinos, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 10 e 20 anos. Os dígitos torácicos foram radiografados de forma padronizada nas projeções lateromedial (LM), dorsoproximal palmarodistal 65º (DPPD) e palmaroproximal palmarodistal (SK). A radiopacidade medular aumentada em projeção SK foi a principal alteração radiográfica detectada. Essa alteração foi associada a maior número de invaginações sinovais, a maior espessura de cortical em relação à medular em exposição SK e a maior relação corticomedular em exposição LM (P<0,05). Esses achados indicam uma predisposição da população equina para desenvolver a síndrome do osso navicular, possivelmente associada ao trauma repetitivo promovido pelo constante trabalho em piso duro.


The aims of this study were to identify and associate radiographic changes of podotoclear apparatus in horses from the Tiradentes Calvary Regiment of the Military Police of Minas Gerais State without history and clinical signs of navicular disease. 33 horses from both sexes, aged between 10 and 20 years were evaluated. The thoracic digits were radiographed in a standardized manner in lateralmedial (LM), palmaroproximal-distodorsal 65o(DPPD) and palmaroproximal-distopalmar (SK) projections. The increased medullary radiopacity in SK projection was the main radiological change detected and was associated with a higher number of synoval invaginations, increased cortical thickness in relation to medulla in SK exposure and increased corticomedullar in LM exposure (P < 0.05). These findings indicate a predisposition of this population to develop navicular syndrome, which is possibly associated with repetitive trauma promoted by constant work on hard floors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intermittent Claudication/veterinary , Horses , Radiography/veterinary , Tarsal Bones , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Radiology
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(6): 473-476, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725803

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02) and flooding (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study.


Introdução: Cavalos carroceiros são uma população reemergente empregada para transportar materiais recicláveis em cidades. Métodos: Em área endêmica para leptospirose humana foram amostrados 62 cavalos. Soroaglutinação microscópica e reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real foram empregadas. Resultados: Observou-se soropositividade em 75,8% com sorovar Icterohaemorrhagiae em 80,8% cavalos. Amostras de sangue e urina foram negativas no qPCR. Observou-se correlação positiva entre SAM e pluviosidade (p = 0,02) e alagamentos (p = 0,03). Conclusão: Embora cavalos possam estar constantemente expostos a Leptospira spp. no ambiente, principalmente por chuvas e inundações, leptospiremia e leptospiruria não foram encontradas neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Leptospira , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Agglutination Tests/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Horses , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Urban Population
14.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(6): 487-492, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725807

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.


A prevalência de anticorpos para o vírus da Influenza Equina (VIE) no município de Poconé, MT. foi determinada em 529 equídeos pela técnica de Inibição da hemaglutinação utilizando como antígeno a variante H3N8 (SP/1/85). A distribuição da positividade e possíveis associações entre os animais e as propriedades foram avaliadas pelo teste do Qui-quadrado e pelos modelos espacial autoregressivo misto e de regressão linear múltipla. A prevalência de anticorpos para o VIE no município de Poconé foi estimada em 45,2% (IC 95% 30,2 - 61,1%) com títulos variando entre 20 e 1280UIH. Das fazendas analisadas 23 (92,0%) apresentaram animais soropositivos. Animais de fazendas não alagadas (66,5%) e negativos para Anemia Infecciosa Equina (AIE) (61,7%) foram associados a soropositividade. Não houve correlação espacial entre as fazendas estudadas, entretanto aquelas localizadas nas áreas não alagadas foram associadas à infecção. Observou-se correlação negativa entre a prevalência de anticorpos para o VIE e a presença de animais positivos para AIE nas propriedades. A elevada prevalência de anticorpos para o VIE detectada neste estudo sugere circulação viral ativa entre os animais, e as análises estatísticas indicam que o trânsito e aglomeração animal são fatores associados à transmissão do vírus na região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , /immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Horses , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(4): 414-417, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722307

ABSTRACT

Introduction Arboviruses are an important public health problem in Brazil, in especially flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and the Rocio virus (ROCV), are especially problematic. These viruses are transmitted to humans or other vertebrates through arthropod bites and may cause diseases with clinical manifestations that range from asymptomatic infection, viral hemorrhagic fever to encephalitis. Methods A serological survey of horses from various regions of Brazil using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant SLEV domain III peptides and ROCV E protein as antigens. Results Overall, 415 (55.1%) of the 753 horses that were screened were seropositive for flavivirus and, among them, monotypic reactions were observed to SLEV in 93 (12.3%) and to ROCV in 46 (6.1%). These results suggested that these viruses, or other closely related viruses, are infecting horses in Brazil. However, none of the studied horses presented central nervous system infection symptoms. Conclusions Our results suggest that SLEV and ROCV previously circulated among horses in northeast, west-central and southeast Brazil. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/immunology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/veterinary , Flavivirus Infections/veterinary , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Encephalitis, St. Louis/diagnosis , Encephalitis, St. Louis/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/diagnosis , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Horses , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(3): 280-286, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716403

ABSTRACT

Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT). Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43), Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64), and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26) monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42) of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64) of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26) of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23) of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/immunology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Monkey Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/diagnosis , Encephalitis, St. Louis/epidemiology , Horses , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/virology , Monkey Diseases/diagnosis , Monkey Diseases/virology , Platyrrhini , Prevalence
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(3): 191-195, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710407

ABSTRACT

Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.


Os equinos são susceptíveis aos vírus respiratórios, como o vírus influenza, e também tem sido citado o vírus parainfluenza. Doenças respiratórias têm impactado a economia em todo mundo. Este estudo intencionou determinar a presença dos vírus influenza e parainfluenza em equinos não vacinados de certas regiões do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os soros coletados de 72 equinos, de diferentes cidades deste Estado, foram submetidos ao teste de Inibição da Hemaglutinação (IH) com objetivo de detectar anticorpos contra os referidos vírus, usando antígenos correspondentes. Cerca de 98,8% (72) e 97,2% (70) desses equinos responderam com títulos protetores (≥ 80 UIH/25µL) para os subtipos H7N7 e H3N8 de vírus influenza, respectivamente. Todos equinos (72) responderam com títulos protetores (≥ 80 UIH/25µL) contra o vírus parainfluenza 3. A diferença entre as médias de anticorpos contra o vírus influenza A não foi estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05). As médias de títulos dos vírus influenza e parainfluenza, por outro lado, demonstraram diferença estatisticamente significante (p < 0,001). Esses resultados indicam melhor resposta de anticorpos pelos equinos ao vírus parainfluenza 3 do que ao vírus da influenza equina. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada nas respostas contra os vírus da influenza equina A (H7N7 e H3N8) e parainfluenza 3, com relação ao gênero (fêmeas e machos) e grupo etário (≤ 2 até 20 anos) nos equinos avaliados. Este estudo fornece evidência da presença concomitante dos dois subtipos vírus influenza A (H7N7 e H3N8) e do parainfluenza 3 em cavalos no Brasil. Portanto, é aconselhável a vacinação dos cavalos contra esses vírus respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Horse Diseases/virology , /immunology , /immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Horses , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 21(1): 12-18, 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491555

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) tem importância relevante na rotina clínica e cirúrgica de equinos e o diagnóstico dessa neoplasia é baseado nos exames clínico e histopatológico. Como a terapia conservativa raramente apresenta resultados satisfatórios,a intervenção cirúrgica tem-se mostrado mais vantajosa, constituindo, em algumas situações, como única alternativa para evitar o comprometimento morfofuncional da estrutura anatômica ou mesmo o óbito do paciente. Este estudo objetivou estabelecer o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de CCE genital em equinos, descrever o tratamento cirúrgico empregando sutura captonada como alteração da técnica convencional e avaliar os procedimentos pós-operatórios. Foram utilizados dois animais do sexo masculino,com cerca de 20 anos, um mestiço Apaloosa e outro pônei. Após o diagnóstico clínico foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico mediante anestesia geral e colheita de material para exames citológico e histopatológico. O resultado do exame histopatológico confirmou a suspeita diagnóstica de CCE. Concluiu-se que os exames clínicos e histopatológicos são fundamentais para se estabelecer o diagnóstico do CCE genital em equinos do sexo masculino, porém, para evitar dois procedimentos anestésicos subsequentes e minimizar possíveis complicações decorrentes da anestesia, a colheita de material para avaliação laboratorial deve ser realizada durante o tratamento cirúrgico.


Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has relevant importance in the clinical and surgery of equines and the diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological exams. The conservative therapy rarely gives satisfactory results while the surgical intervention is more advantageous, constituting, in some situations, the only alternative to avoid compromising anatomical structure or eventhe death of the patient. This study aimed to establish the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of genital SCC, describing the quilled suture as changing the conventional technique and evaluating post operative procedures. Were used two male animals, about 20 years old, a half-breed appaloosa and other pony. After the clinical diagnosis, underwent surgery under general anesthesia and collection of material for histopathological examination. The results of this examination confirmed the suspected diagnosis. It was concluded that the clinical and histopathological tests are essential to establish the diagnosis of genital SCC in male horses, however. To avoid two subsequent anesthesia and minimize possible complications during the proceeding, material for laboratoryevaluation should be collected during surgery.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Carcinoma/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Male/veterinary , Cytological Techniques/veterinary , Suture Techniques/veterinary
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(6): 697-699, June 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680781

ABSTRACT

From a cross-sectional observational study with convenience samples, 347 blood samples from horses were collected from different physiographic regions, as follows: Santa Catarina Plateau (Santa Catarina State - SC), Médio Paraíba do Sul (São Paulo State - SP and Rio de Janeiro State RJ), Mountainous and Metropolitan regions (Rio de Janeiro State - RJ). Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies (IgG) anti Neorickettsia risticii by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The frequency obtained in this study corroborates with the ones obtained in the U.S.A., which refers to endemic regions. Fisher's exact test showed significant differences in the number of positive animals between regions, indicating that the probability of an animal becoming infected varies depending on the area. The CI 95% revealed no association between infection and geopolitical space. Moreover, Odds ratio test showed differences of an animal getting infected in different regions. This event could be influenced by the type of treatment used in each area, as the seasonal frequency of injury or even potential vectors. Therefore, there are seropositive animals for N. risticii in the studied areas, suggesting that this agent may be circulating in those regions. Future studies mainly based on molecular analyzes are needed to confirm these serological findings.


A partir de um delineamento observacional transversal com amostras de conveniência, 347 amostras de sangue foram coletadas de diferentes regiões fisiográficas: Planalto de Santa Catarina (Estado de Santa Catarina - SC), Região do Médio Paraíba do Sul (Estados de São Paulo - SP e Rio de Janeiro - RJ), Região Serrana e Metropolitana (ambas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - RJ). As amostras foram testadas para a presença de anticorpos (IgG) anti-Neorickettsia risticii por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI). A prevalência obtida no presente estudo corrobora com demais resultados obtidos nos Estados Unidos da América. O Teste Exato de Fisher demonstrou diferença significativa no número de animais positivos entre as regiões, indicando assim que a probabilidade de um animal se infectar varia dependendo da região. O intervalo de confiança (IC 95%) revelou não haver associação entre a infecção e o espaço geopolítico, este evento pode ser influenciado pelo tipo de tratamento em cada área, como sazonalidade do agravo ou frequência de potenciais vetores. Assim, a soropositividade ora encontrada sugere a circulação de N. risticii nas áreas estudadas. Estudos futuros baseados, principalmente, em análises moleculares serão importantes para a confirmação dos achados sorológicos no presente trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/veterinary , Fever/veterinary , Neorickettsia risticii/cytology , Neorickettsia risticii/pathogenicity
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