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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 248-256, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371822

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El seno dérmico cefálico es un tractotubular formado por una separación incompleta entre el ectodermo neural y el ectodermo epitelial;puede tener complicaciones infecciosas. Existen reportes aislados de esta patología. Objetivo: describir una serie de pacientescon seno dérmico craneal, las formas depresentación, el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y las complicaciones. Población y métodos. Estudio observacionaldescriptivo de una serie de pacientes pediátricos con seno dérmico cefálico atendidos en unhospital pediátrico de nivel III entre 2014 y 2019. Resultados. se incluyeron 18 pacientes. La clínicade presentación fue, en 12 casos, una lesión puntual en el cuero cabelludo, hipertensiónendocraneana en 4 casos, ataxia en 1 caso y lesión puntual con fístula en 1 caso. La mitad presentó síntomas de infección. La localización fue en la línea media sobre el hueso occipital en 13 casos, en la línea media sobre el hueso frontal en 3 casos y en la línea media interparietal en 2 casos. En 5 casos se encontró asociada una imagen extracraneana y, en 11 casos, una complicación intracraneana. Ningún paciente presentó recidiva de la lesión y en todos se realizó un solo procedimiento quirúrgico. Conclusiones. Los senos dérmicos en esta serie se presentaron como lesiones puntuales en cuerocabelludo. La localización más frecuente fue a nivel occipital sobre línea media y, en más de la mitad, atravesaba el hueso. El tratamiento de elección fue la exéresis completa del seno dérmicoy las lesiones asociadas. Ante la presencia de senos dérmicos sintomáticos o asociados alesiones intracraneanas, la cirugía se realizó de urgencia.


Introduction. A cranial dermal sinus is a tubular tract resulting from the incomplete separation of the epithelial ectoderm from the neuroectoderm which may lead to infectious complicationsThere have been isolated reports of this condition. Objective. To describe a series of patients with cranial dermal sinus, its presentation, diagnosis, management, and complications. Population and methods. Observational,descriptive study of a series of pediatric patients with cranial dermal sinus treated at a tertiary care children's hospital between 2014 and 2019. Results. A total of 18 patients were included. Theclinical presentation was a specific lesion on the scalp in 12 cases, intracranial hypertension in 4, ataxia in 1, and a specific lesion with fistula tract in 1. Half of patients had symptoms of infection. The lesion was located in the midline of the occipital bone in 13 cases; in the midline of the frontal bone in 3 cases; and in the interparietal midline in 2 cases. The dermal sinus was associated with anextracranial image in 5 cases and an intracranial complication in 11 cases. No patient hadrecurrence and only one surgery was performed in all of them. Conclusions. In this series, dermal sinusespresented as specific lesions on the scalp. The most common site was the occipital midline, and more than 50% of these extended through the bone. The treatment of choice was complete resection of dermal sinus and associated lesions. An emergency surgery was performed when the dermal sinus was symptomatic or associated with intracranial lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Spina Bifida Occulta/surgery , Spina Bifida Occulta/complications , Spina Bifida Occulta/diagnosis , Tertiary Healthcare , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Hospitals
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 257-263, Agosto 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371844

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las intoxicaciones pediátricas son un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las intoxicaciones pediátricas que fueron atendidas en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP) de un hospital en Chile. Población y métodos. Se revisaron las fichas clínicas de pacientes diagnosticados con intoxicación e ingresados a la UCIP entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados. Un total de 105 casos fueron identificados, lo que representa un 3 % del total de ingresos registrados en el período estudiado. La mediana de edad de los pacientes resultó ser de 10 años. El 73,3 % de los casos correspondieron a pacientes de sexo femenino. El 51 % de los casos se asociaron a intoxicaciones intencionales y el 83 % fue causado por exposición a medicamentos. Los medicamentos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron los antidepresivos (11,2 %), analgésicos no esteroides (10,7 %). La ingesta fue la vía de exposición más común (93 %). El promedio de estadía de los pacientes en UCIP fue de 1,3 días. Dos pacientes ingresaron en la UCI: uno requirió intubación y otro hemodiálisis. Se determinaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre el sexo del paciente y la circunstancia de exposición, y entre la condición psiquiátrica del paciente y el número de sustancias tóxicas ingeridas. Conclusión. La mayoría de las intoxicaciones atendidas en la UCIP fueron intencionales y correspondieron a pacientes de sexo femenino, a quienes se les asoció alguna patología psiquiátrica. Los grupos de medicamentos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron los antidepresivos y los antiinflamatorios no esteroides.


Introduction. Pediatric poisoning is a public health problem worldwide. The objective of this study was to establish the characteristics of pediatric cases of poisoning seen at the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a hospital in Chile. Population and methods. The medical records of patients diagnosed with poisoning and admitted to the PICU between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. Results. A total of 105 cases were identified, who account for 3% of all admissions recorded in the study period. Patients' median age was 10 years. In total, 73.3% of cases were female patients; 51% of cases were associated with intentional poisoning; and 83% were caused by drug exposure. The most common drugs identified were antidepressants (11.2%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (10.7%). Intake was the most frequent route of exposure (93%). The average length of stay in the PICU was 1.3 days. One patient required intubation and another required hemodialysis in the PICU. Statistically significant relationships were established between patient sex and the circumstance of exposure and between the patient's psychiatric condition and the number of toxic substances ingested. Conclusion. Most poisoning cases seen at the PICU were intentional and occurred in female patients, who had a psychiatric condition. The most common drugs identified were antidepressants and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Poisons , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antidepressive Agents
4.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(3): 43-45, 18-jul-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379488

ABSTRACT

Las intervenciones profesionales de los trabajadores sociales y los bibliotecarios durante la pandemia por COVID-19 convergieron en el empleo de las tecnologías de la información para satisfacer necesidades de información tanto de personal médico como de los pacientes y sus familias. La colaboración de estos dos profesionales reforzaría significativamente el equipo multidisciplinario de la salud a partir de la mejora de los canales de flujo de información que se llevan a cabo en el ámbito hospitalario, el fomento a la atención humanizada en salud y las acciones de inclusión social en las bibliotecas para brindar mayores y mejores oportunidades, así como recursos a población vulnerable.


The professional interventions of social workers and librarians during the COVID-19 pandemic converged in the use of information technologies to meet the information needs of both medical personnel and patients and their families. The collaboration of these two professionals would significantly strengthen the multidisciplinary health team by improving the information flow channels that are carried out in the hospital, promoting humanized health care and carrying out social inclusion actions in libraries to provide greater and better opportunities and resources for the vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Care Team , Social Work/trends , Librarians , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Information Technology , Social Workers , Health Services Needs and Demand , Occupational Groups , Vulnerable Populations , Social Inclusion , Hospitals , Libraries/trends , Library Science/methods
5.
Archiv. med. fam. gen. (En línea) ; 19(2): 15-23, jul. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391783

ABSTRACT

La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 puso de forma abrupta al sistema de salud en la agenda pública. Evidenciando sus problemas y requiriendo acciones de emergencia para poder dar cuenta del desafío de responder social y sanitariamente a esta crisis. La respuesta hospitalaria fue el eje y centro de atención de la pandemia, casi con exclusividad. Relegando las otras posibilidades o dispositivos asistenciales, como el primer nivel de atención y la salud comunitaria. Por lo tanto, nos proponemos reflexionar sobre esta organización sanitaria, tan arraigada en el modelo médico social y el marco del enfoque de derechos. Definiremos el hospital, describiremos sus antecedentes, sus características y propondremos como repensarlo críticamente para aportar a su crecimiento en el marco del enfoque de derechos. La salud como derecho es el marco legal, político y teórico que proponemos para abordar esta reflexión y al hospital, tanto como singularidad histórica como pluralidad o multiplicidad de organizaciones en función de cada contexto donde se desarrolla, como una organización social y sanitaria que formar parte de un conjunto de organizaciones y políticas destinadas a garantizar ese derecho (AU)


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic abruptly put the health system on the public agenda. Evidencing their problems and requiring emergency actions to be able to account for the challenge of responding socially and healthily to this crisis. The hospital response was the axis and center of attention of the pandemic, almost exclusively. Relegating the other possibilities or assistance devices, such as the first level of care and community health. Therefore, we intend to reflect on this health organization, so rooted in the social medical model and the framework of the rights approach. We will define the hospital, describe its background, its characteristics and propose how to rethink it critically to contribute to its growth within the framework of the rights approach. Health as a right is the legal, political and theoretical framework that we propose to address this reflection and the hospital, both as a historical singularity and as a plurality or multiplicity of organizations depending on each context where it is developed, as a social and health organization that is part of a set of organizations and policies aimed at guaranteeing that right (AU)


Subject(s)
Right to Health , Health Policy , Hospital Administration , Hospitals
6.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-14, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1371335

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer a produção de conhecimento sobre as quedas de pacientes no ambiente hospitalar nas publicações científicas entre os anos de 2009 a 2019. Métodos: revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados eletrônicas, Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos Estados Unidos da América (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Banco de Dados em Enfermagem (BDENF), utilizando-se as palavras-chave "Acidentes por quedas", "Pacientes internados" e "Hospital", a partir da análise temática. Resultados: a análise dos 17 estudos permitiu discutir temas como: segurança do paciente e quedas de pacientes no ambiente hospitalar. Conclusão: É de extrema importância identificar as características dos pacientes que sofrem quedas durante a internação hospitalar, caracterizando o perfil dos pacientes mais suscetíveis a esse agravo, além de estabelecer condutas preventivas para a ocorrência deste agravo.


Objetivo: conocer la producción de conocimiento sobre las caídas de pacientes en el ámbito hospitalario en publicaciones científi cas entre 2009 y 2019. Métodos: revisión integrativa realizada en las bases de datos electrónicas, Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina de los Estados Unidos de América (MEDLINE), Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS), Base de Datos de Enfermería (BDENF), utilizando las palabras clave "Accidentes por caídas", "Pacientes Internados" y "Hospital", basado en el análisis temático. Resultados: el análisis de los 17 estudios permitió discutir temas como: seguridad del paciente y caídas del paciente en el ámbito hospitalario. Conclusión: Es de suma importancia identifi car las características de los pacientes que sufren caídas durante la hospitalización, caracterizando el perfil de pacientes más susceptibles a esta condición, además de establecer medidas preventivas para la ocurrencia de esta condición.


Objective: to know the production of knowledge about the falls of patients in the hospital environment in scientific publications between 2009 and 2019. Methods: integrative review conducted in the electronic databases, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrievel System Online (MEDLINE), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Nursing Database (BDENF), using the keywords "Accidents due to falls", "Inpatients" and "Hospital", based on the thematic analysis. Results: the analysis of the 17 studies allowed to discuss topics such as: patient safety and patient falls in the hospital environment. Conclusion: It is extremely important to identify the characteristics of patients who suff er falls during hospitalization, characterizing the profile of patients most susceptible to this condition, in addition to establishing preventive measures for the occurrence of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Accidental Falls , Nurse's Role , Patient Safety , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Periodicals as Topic , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Risk Factors
7.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 24-31, jun, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1379281

ABSTRACT

Durante la pandemia del COVID-19, los médicos se enfrentaron a una admisión masiva sin precedentes de pacientes con neumonía atípica viral.. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las características clínicas de la primera y segunda ola de la pandemia. Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico de los pacientes con neumonía COVID-19 que ingresaron al Hospital Carrión de Huancayo, Perú ubicado a más de 3000 msnm. Se determinaron 2 periodos de estudio, el grupo uno representado por la primera ola caracterizado por la restricción masiva y cuarentena estricta y la segunda ola donde las actividades productivas ya se habían normalizado en gran proporción. De un total de 252 pacientes con COVID-19, la edad promedio fue 56 años en la primera ola y 52 años en la segunda ola, el sexo masculino fue más frecuente en ambos 74% y 57%, la mortalidad fue 27% y 23%, el tiempo de enfermedad fue 8 días y 10 días, respectivamente. Por otro lado, el porcentaje del uso de antibióticos, ivermectina e hidroxicloroquina fue más elevado en la primera ola. El uso de corticoides y la estancia hospitalaria prolongada fueron más frecuente en la segunda ola. La comparación de ambas olas muestra diferencias en la edad, mortalidad y tiempo de enfermedad, que puede deberse a las nuevas variantes moleculares del SARS-COV-2(AU)


During the COVID-19 pandemic, doctors faced an unprecedented mass admission of patients with viral atypical pneumonia. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical characteristics of the first and second waves of the pandemic. An analytical observational study was carried out on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to Hospital Carrión de Huancayo, Peru located at more than 3000 meters above sea level. Two study periods were determined, group one represented by the first wave characterized by massive restriction and strict quarantine and the second wave where productive activities had already normalized to a great extent. Of a total of 252 patients with COVID-19, the average age was 56 years in the first wave and 52 years in the second wave, the male sex was more frequent in both 74% and 57%, mortality was 27% and 23 %, the time of illness was 8 days and 10 days, respectively. On the other hand, the percentage of use of antibiotics, ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine was higher in the first wave. The use of corticosteroids and prolonged hospital stay was more frequent in the second wave. Comparison of both waves shows differences in age, mortality and time of illness, which may be due to the new molecular variants of SARS-COV-2(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Hospitals
8.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 32-38, jun, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1379293

ABSTRACT

Hay dos tipos principales de tejido adiposo; el subcutáneo, que es menos activo metabólicamente, y el tejido adiposo visceral, que secreta constantemente citocinas inflamatorias y está relacionado a enfermedades metabólicas y cardiovasculares. Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la asociación entre el exceso de grasa visceral y la severidad de enfermedad en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico que incluyó a pacientes con COVID-19 admitidos al Hospital Carrión de Huancayo, Perú. Se utilizó la balanza de bioimpedancia para cuantificar la composición corporal, la variable dependiente fue la severidad de enfermedad. Se utilizó el análisis de regresión logística para determinar la asociación de la grasa visceral y otros parámetros antropométricos con severidad de enfermedad. Se analizaron a 120 personas con COVID-19, la edad promedio fue 50 años, el sexo masculino fue 60%. De acuerdo a los valores de la composición corporal emitidos por el equipo de bioimpedancia: La grasa visceral > 15Kg (OR 7,31; p = 0,001); la grasa corporal total > 35% (OR 5,58; p = 0,009) y el exceso de peso > 20Kg (OR 6,96; p = 0,011) fueron los parámetros asociados a enfermedad severa por COVID-19. La relación positiva entre el perímetro abdominal y la cantidad de grasa visceral fue significativo (p = 0,01). En la composición corporal, el exceso de grasa visceral es el mayor parámetro asociado a enfermedad severa por COVID-19(AU)


There are two main types of adipose tissue; the subcutaneous, which is less metabolically active, and the visceral adipose tissue, which constantly secretes inflammatory cytokines and is related to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Our objetive was to identify the association between the excess of visceral fat and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. An analytical observational study was carried out which included patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Carrión Hospital in Huancayo, Peru. The bioimpedance balance was used to quantify the body composition; the dependent variable was the severity of the disease. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of visceral fat and other anthropometric parameters with the severity of the disease. Out of 120 people with COVID-19 were analyzed, the average age was 50 years, the male sex was 60%. According to the body composition values issued by the bioimpedance team: Visceral fat> 15Kg (OR 7.31; p = 0.001); Total body fat> 35% (OR 5.58; p = 0.009) and excess weight> 20Kg (OR 6.96; p = 0.011) were the parameters associated with severe disease due to COVID-19. The positive relationship between abdominal circumference and the amount of visceral fat was significant (p = 0.01). In body composition, excess visceral fat is the main parameter associated with severe COVID-19 disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/epidemiology , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Peru/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Regression Analysis , Hospitals
9.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 2-7, jun, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1379244

ABSTRACT

El SARS COV 2, tomó por sorpresa al mundo, con impacto en el sector salud, generándose una gran crisis sanitaria, golpeados por escasez de insumos, de equipos, de personal y capacidad instalada insuficiente para la atención de la contigencia. Ademas, la infodemia, el pánico y el miedo con sus respectivas consecuencias, se empodero de la sociedad civil, situación que no es ajena a sector salud, por ello, este relato de experiencia tuvo objetivo describir la gestión del servicio de medicina crítica de un hospital de Guayaquil- Ecuador durante la pandemia por el Coronavirus. En los centros asitenciales, el personal se enfrenta all desafío sanitario, principalmente en la gestión del servicio de medicina crítica. Al ser nombrado hospital centinela, con una capacidad instadala redujo de 494 a 200 camas, y se creó además el área de hospitalización de infectología; La interrelación de profesionales de la enfermería, médicos infectólogos, médicos neumólogos, servicios de terapia física y rehabilitación, servicios de nutrición, y los terapistas respiratorios, fue fundamental para afrontar la crisis, para vela por el bienestar del paciente, no solo en la parte física, sino psicología y de humanización. No obtante, el miedo a lo desconocido inherente a la especie humana, se transforma en pánico ante esta enfermedad provocando emociones, sentimientos, vivencias exacerbadas, y la inseguridad y desconfianza en que el sistema sanitario(AU)


SARS COV 2 took the world by surprise, with an impact on the health sector, generating a major health crisis, hit by a shortage of supplies, equipment, personnel and insufficient installed capacity for contingency care. In addition, the infodemic, panic and fear with their respective consequences, empowered civil society, a situation that is not unrelated to the health sector, therefore, this experience report aimed to describe the management of the critical medicine service of a Guayaquil-Ecuador hospital during the Coronavirus pandemic. In care centers, the staff faces the health challenge, mainly in the management of the critical medicine service. Being named a sentinel hospital, with an installed capacity it was reduced from 494 to 200 beds, and the infectious disease hospitalization area was also created; The interrelation of nursing professionals, infectious disease doctors, pulmonologists, physical therapy and rehabilitation services, nutrition services, and respiratory therapists, was essential to face the crisis, to ensure the well-being of the patient, not only in the physics, but psychology and humanization. However, the fear of the unknown inherent in the human species is transformed into panic in the face of this disease, causing emotions, feelings, exacerbated experiences, and insecurity and distrust in the health system(Au)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Ecuador/epidemiology
10.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 63-71, jun, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381296

ABSTRACT

La gestión de los residuos sanitarios requiere atención especial y todos los equipos sanitarios deben participar en la manipulación de los residuos. Se presta menos atención a la gestión de residuos sanitarios en países en vías de desarrollo y no hay evidencia sobre las prácticas de gestión de residuos sanitarios en algunas instituciones sanitarias. Este estudio se realizó para evaluar las prácticas de gestión de residuos sanitarios y los factores asociados en tres hospitales de Perú. Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo y de corte transversal basado en tres establecimientos de salud. Los datos se recopilaron mediante cuestionarios y listas de verificación de observación. El (66,67%) de los trabajadores conocían sobre el manejo de los desechos biológicos. La mayoría conocía los riesgos asociados con el manejo de los mismos (95,91%). Los participantes tenían el conocimiento de que pueden evitarse las infecciones. Nueve de cada diez de los trabajadores realizaron por lo menos dos capacitaciones en la gestión del manejo de los desechos biológicos. El 95,91% conocía los códigos de colores correctos de los contenedores para diferentes flujos de desechos. En cuanto a las actitudes, 161 (94,15 %) indicó que la gestión de los desechos biológicos era importante y 162 (94,74%) estuvo de acuerdo en que era necesaria una implementación estricta para la gestión adecuada de los mismos en el establecimiento de salud. Elementos clave para mejorar las prácticas de gestión de residuos sanitarios en hospitales: promover prácticas que reduzcan el volumen de residuos generados y aseguren una adecuada segregación de residuos(AU)


Healthcare waste management requires special attention and every healthcare teams should be involved in handling of wastes. However, less attention is paid to health care waste management in developing countries and there is no evidence on health care waste management practices in some institutions providing health services. This study was conducted to assess healthcare waste management practices and associated factors in three hospitals in Peru. It is a descriptive, quantitative and cross-sectional study based on three health establishments. Data were collected using questionnaire and observational checklists. The (66.67%) of the workers knew about the management of biological waste. The majority knew the risks associated with handling them (95.91%). Participants were aware that infections can be prevented. Nine out of ten of the workers completed at least two trainings in the management of biological waste. 95.91% knew the correct container color codes for different waste streams. Regarding attitudes, 161 (94.15%) indicated that the management of biological waste was important and 162 (94.74%) agreed that strict implementation was necessary for proper management of biological waste in the environment health facility. Key elements to improve healthcare waste management practices in hospitals: promote practices that reduce the volume of waste generated and ensure proper waste segregation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Occupational Risks , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Medical Waste Disposal , Waste Management/methods , Environmental Hazards , Peru , Health Personnel , Hospitals
11.
Hist. enferm., Rev. eletronica ; 13(1): 03, 20220601.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1373200

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o desenvolvimento dos saberes dos enfermeiros e da especialização assistencial tornaram necessária, nos finais do século XIX, a formação formal de enfermeiros e enfermagem em escolas. Objetivo: analisar as influências e linhas evolutivas das escolas de enfermeiros e de enfermagem, em Coimbra ­ Portugal, de 1881 a 2021. Metodologia: estudo qualitativo com análise histórica partindo de fontes publicadas, e do arquivo histórico da Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra, considerando os contextos e as linhas evolutivas de longa duração, construindo uma síntese interpretativa. Resultados: a primeira escola é criada em 1881, em linhas evolutivas até aos dias de hoje onde identificamos doze designações entre escolas públicas e privadas. Conclusão: as escolas pioneiras tem influência francesa, com interação entre as várias existentes, evoluindo no tempo para a concentração numa única escola atual robusta e de expressão nacional e internacional.


Introduction: the development of nurses' knowledge and care specialization made it necessary, in the late nineteenth century, to formally train nurses and nursing in schools. Objectives: to study the influences and evolutionary lines of nursing and nursing schools, in Coimbra ­ Portugal, from 1881 to 2021. Methodology: historical analysis based on published sources, and the historical archive of the Nursing School of Coimbra, considering the contexts and long-term evolutionary lines, building an interpretive synthesis. Results: the first school appears in 1881, along evolutionary lines until today, where we have identified twelve designations between public and private schools. Conclusion: the schools emerge from French influence, with interaction between the various existing ones, evolving over time to the concentration in a single robust school with national and international expression.


Introducción: el desarrollo del conocimiento y la especialización del cuidado de los enfermeros hizo necesaria, a fines del siglo XIX, la formación formal de enfermeros y enfermeras en las escuelas. Objetivo: analizar las influencias y líneas evolutivas de las escuelas de enfermeras y enfermería, en Coimbra - Portugal, desde 1881 hasta 2021. Metodología: estudio cualitativo con análisis histórico basado en fuentes publicadas y el archivo histórico de la Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra, considerando los contextos y líneas evolutivas de largo plazo, construyendo una síntesis interpretativa. Resultados: la primera escuela fue creada en 1881, en líneas evolutivas hasta la actualidad donde identificamos doce denominaciones entre escuelas públicas y privadas. Conclusión: las escuelas pioneras tienen una influencia francesa, con interacción entre las diversas existentes, evolucionando en el tiempo para enfocarse en una sola escuela robusta actual con expresión nacional e internacional.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Schools , History of Nursing , Public Assistance , Schools, Nursing , Education , Hospitals
12.
Rev. flum. odontol ; 2(58): 146-158, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391065

ABSTRACT

A odontologia hospitalar tem demonstrado maior preocupação com a abordagem integral do paciente, visto que o não tratamento ou agravamento de patologias da cavidade bucal podem impactar a saúde geral. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar, em caráter exploratório e com uma abordagem qualitativa, o conhecimento, as percepções e práticas da equipe de enfermagem sobre a saúde bucal em ambiente hospitalar. A amostra foi composta por 2 enfermeiras e 6 técnicas em enfermagem. A coleta de dados foi feita através de entrevista semi-estruturada e a análise do conteúdo foi realizada em 3 núcleos temáticos: práticas de higiene, conhecimentos sobre saúde bucal e significados dos cuidados em saúde. Diante dos dados obtidos, foi possível observar deficiência com relação ao conhecimento, percepção e prática quanto aos cuidados com a saúde bucal em ambiente hospitalar, bem como a necessidade de orientação e capacitação da equipe de enfermagem para executar tais cuidados. Concluiu-se que necessária a adoção de medidas voltadas a atenção a saúde bucal, com vista à promoção da saúde, reforçando a importância do cuidado com a saúde bucal como parte integrante do restabelecimento da saúde geral, de forma integral ao paciente hospitalizado.


The hospitalar dentistry has shown greater concern with the the integral approach of patients, since the non-treatment or deterioration of pathologies of the oral cavity can impact their general health. The aim of this study was to analyze, using a qualitative approach of an exploratory nature, the knowledge and practices of the nursing staff on oral health in a hospital. The sample consisted of 2 nurses and 6 nursing techniques. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews and the content analysis was performed on 3 thematic groups: practice and hygiene, oral health knowledge, meanings of health care. According to the obtained data, it was possible to observed the lack of attention regarding the oral health care in hospitals, as well as the need for guidance and training of nursing staff to perform such care. It could be concluded that it is necessary to adopt measures focused on oral health care, to promote health, reforcing the importance of oral health, in an integral part of reestablishment of general health, in full attention to hospitalized patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Oral Health , Health Promotion , Hospitals , Nursing Care
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 168-173, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374715

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Head and neck cancer has an impact on the global burden of diseases, representing an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil, as well as worldwide. Objective: To learn and describe the clinical, epidemiological and care configuration provided to patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx recorded in Brazil, diagnosed from 2007 to 2016. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, carried out using secondary hospital-based data, using the indirect documentation technique. Results: There were 52,799 hospital records of oral cavity cancer and 34,516 cases of oropharyngeal cancer in the assessed period. There was a predominance of male patients, aged 50-59 years, mostly Caucasians, and with a low level of schooling. Throughout the period there was a significant reduction in the positive history of alcohol and tobacco consumption, except for alcoholic beverages in oral cavity cancer. Most patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease (III or IV). Most patients with oral cavity cancer had no evidence of the disease on follow-up, while most patients with oropharyngeal cancer died. The first most frequent treatment offered to patients with oral cavity cancer was surgery, while for patients with oropharyngeal cancer it chemoradiotherapy predominated. Conclusion: Despite the fact that, in general, there was a reduction in the records of patient alcohol and tobacco consumption, the increase in the number of medical consultations, the predominantly late diagnosis and the patients' low level of schooling indicate the need for health education, primary prevention and early diagnosis of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx.


Resumo Introdução: O câncer de cabeça e pescoço impacta a carga global de doenças, representa importante causa de morbimortalidade no Brasil e no mundo. Objetivo: Conhecer e descrever a compleição clínica, epidemiológica e assistencial dos atendimentos a pacientes com câncer de cavidade oral e orofaringe registrados no Brasil, diagnosticados de 2007 a 2016. Método: Estudo transversal, feito a partir de dados secundários de base hospitalar, por meio de técnica de documentação indireta. Resultados: Houve 52.799 registros hospitalares de câncer de cavidade oral e 34.516 casos de câncer de orofaringe no período considerado. Predominaram pacientes do sexo masculino, da faixa etária de 50-59 anos, predominantemente branca, e de baixo nível de escolaridade. Ao longo do período houve redução expressiva do histórico positivo de consumo de bebida alcoólica e tabaco, exceto para bebida alcoólica no câncer de cavidade oral. A maioria dos pacientes foi diagnosticada em estágio avançado da doença (III ou IV). A maior parte dos pacientes de câncer de cavidade oral apresentava-se sem evidência da doença, enquanto que grande parte dos pacientes com câncer de orofaringe evoluiu a óbito. O primeiro tratamento mais frequente oferecido aos pacientes com câncer de cavidade oral foi cirurgia, enquanto para os pacientes com câncer de orofaringe foi a quimioradioterapia. Conclusão: Apesar de se observar, de maneira geral, redução dos registros do consumo de bebida e tabaco, o aumento do número de atendimentos, o diagnóstico tardio predominante e o baixo nível de escolaridade dos pacientes apontam para a necessidade da educação em saúde, de prevenção primária e do diagnóstico precoce do câncer de cavidade oral e orofaringe.


Subject(s)
Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospital Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals
15.
Medwave ; 22(2): e002513, mar.2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366386

ABSTRACT

Objetivo El COVID-19 atemoriza a profesionales sanitarios, pudiendo afectar su salud mental. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la percepción de riesgo a COVID-19 y la salud mental en trabajadores de un hospital peruano. Método Estudio transversal analítico, mediante encuesta virtual. Las variables dependientes fueron depresión, ansiedad y estrés. La variable independiente fue percepción de riesgo a COVID-19 y las covariables fueron datos sociodemográficos, familiares, laborales y clínicos. Se hallaron razones de prevalencia crudas y ajustadas con un intervalo de confianza al 95% y un nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados No hubo asociación entre percepción de riesgo y depresión (razón de prevalencia ajustado: 0,98; intervalo de confianza 95%: 0,89 a 1,08), ansiedad (razón de prevalencia ajustado: 0,94; intervalo de confianza 95%: 0,89 a 1,00), estrés (razón de prevalencia ajustado: 0,89; intervalo de confianza 95%: 0,76 a 1,04). En el análisis multivariado se encontró asociación entre depresión con contacto directo con paciente COVID-19 (razón de prevalencia ajustados: 2,06; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,14 a 3,70) y con tener una comorbilidad (razón de prevalencia ajustados: 2,56; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,52 a 4,30); entre ansiedad con número de hijos (razón de prevalencia ajustados: 1,09; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,00 a 1,18), con contacto directo con paciente COVID-19 (razón de prevalencia ajustados: 2,67; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,46 a 4,85) y con tener comorbilidad (razón de prevalencia ajustados: 2,00; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,40 a 2,86); entre estrés con contacto directo con paciente COVID-19 (razón de prevalencia ajustados: 2,86; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,20 a 6,83). Conclusiones No hubo asociación entre percepción de riesgo y depresión, ansiedad ni estrés. Hubo asociación entre depresión, ansiedad y estrés, cada uno con el contacto directo con pacientes COVID-19; entre ansiedad y depresión, cada uno con tener comorbilidades, y ansiedad con el número de hijos.


Introduction COVID-19 has caused great fear on health professionals and could affect their mental health, therefore it is important to determine the association between the perception of risk to COVID-19 and mental health in workers of a Peruvian hospital. Methods Analytical cross-sectional study, through virtual survey. The dependent variables were: depression, anxiety and stress; The independent variable was perception of risk to COVID-19 and the covariates: sociodemographic, family, work and clinical data. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were found with a 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5%. Results There was no association between risk perception and depression (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.98 95% confidence interval: 0.89 to 1.08), anxiety (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.94 95% confidence interval: 0.89 to 1.00), stress (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.89 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.04). In the multivariate analysis, an association was found between depression with direct contact with the COVID-19 patient (adjusted prevalence ratio: 2.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.14 to 3.70) and with having a comorbidity (adjusted prevalence ratio: 2.56 95% confidence interval: 1.52 to 4.30); likewise, between anxiety with number of children (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.09 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.18), with direct contact with COVID-19 patient (adjusted prevalence ratio: 2.67 95% confidence interval 1.46 to 4.85) and having comorbidity (adjusted prevalence ratio: 2.00 95% confidence interval: 1.40 to 2.86); finally, between stress with direct contact with the COVID-19 patient (adjusted prevalence ratio: 2.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.20 to 6.83). Conclusions No statistically significant association was found between risk perception and depression, anxiety, or stress. However, there was an association between depression, anxiety, and stress, each with direct contact with COVID-19 patients; between anxiety and depression, each with having comorbidities and, finally, anxiety with the number of children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Perception , Peru/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Hospitals
16.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 30(1): 82-93, jan.-mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376482

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo explora vantagens e possíveis desafios bioéticos do uso da inteligência artificial em hospitais. A partir da identificação de desafios no desenvolvimento de sistemas dotados de inteligência artificial (fase pré-hospitalar) e na implementação e capacitação de equipes de saúde (fase hospitalar), analisa-se o papel da abordagem bioética no enfrentamento dessa situação, sobretudo dos comitês de bioética hospitalar. Desse modo, mediante a identificação de desafios de ordem individual - referentes à autonomia, consentimento e privacidade dos pacientes - e coletiva - como a sociedade em geral deve se portar diante das novas tecnologias -, observa-se o papel do Estado na proteção da privacidade do paciente no contexto de utilização da inteligência artificial. Em conclusão, considerando a vulnerabilidade humana perante a tecnologia, entende-se que a regulamentação é um instrumento que, junto com os princípios bioéticos, tenta minimizar os desafios do uso da inteligência artificial em hospitais.


Abstract This paper explores advantages and possible bioethical challenges of using artificial intelligence in hospitals. By identifying challenges both in the development of artificial intelligence systems (pre-hospital phase), its adoption, and training of healthcare teams (hospital phase), it analyzes the role of the bioethical approach in addressing this situation, especially in hospital bioethics committees. Hence, by identifying individual - related to autonomy, consent and patient privacy -, and collective challenges - how society at large should behave before new technologies -, the paper examines the role of the state in protecting patient privacy in contexts where artificial intelligence is used. In conclusion, considering the human vulnerability before technology, regulation is a tool that, anchored in bioethical principles, aims to minimize the challenges concerning artificial intelligence in hospitals.


Resumen Este artículo explora las ventajas y los posibles desafíos bioéticos que plantea el uso de la inteligencia artificial en los hospitales. Con base en la identificación de los desafíos en el desarrollo de sistemas dotados de inteligencia artificial (etapa prehospitalaria) y en la implementación y capacitación de los equipos de salud (etapa hospitalaria), se analiza el papel del enfoque bioético en el enfrentamiento de esta situación, especialmente de los comités de bioética hospitalaria. Por lo tanto, mediante la identificación de los desafíos individuales -relativos a la autonomía, al consentimiento y a la privacidad de los pacientes- y colectivos -cómo debe actuar la sociedad en general ante las nuevas tecnologías-, se observa el papel del Estado en la protección de la privacidad del paciente en el contexto del uso de la inteligencia artificial. En conclusión, teniendo en cuenta la vulnerabilidad humana ante la tecnología, se entiende que la regulación es un instrumento que, junto con los principios bioéticos, trata de minimizar los desafíos del uso de la inteligencia artificial en los hospitales.


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , Technology , Bioethics , Artificial Intelligence , State , Hospitals , Human Rights
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 47-55, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362672

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da COVID-19 alterou os cenários do mundo todo, bem como as rotinas e as formas de viver. Os profissionais da saúde fazem parte da população atuante na linha de frente, e, por sua vez, tornam-se um grupo de risco, o que causa sentimentos como estresse e ansiedade, podendo chegar a apresentar sinais de depressão. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar a presença de indicativos de ansiedade, de estresse e de depressão, relacionando-os com habilidades sociais, em 70 profissionais da área da saúde de uma cidade do interior do Paraná. Para a avaliação de tais variáveis, foram utilizados a Escala HAD para avaliar sinais/sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, a Escala de Estresse Percebido (EPS-10) para avaliar a variável estresse e um questionário aberto adaptado (CABALLO, 2003) para as habilidades sociais. A partir dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que a grande maioria apresenta sinais indicativos de depressão (79,7%), bem como sinais de ansiedade (78,6%), além disso, apresentam elevados índices de estresse quando comparados à amostra normativa brasileira. Dessa forma, entende-se que os profissionais da saúde estão predispostos a apresentarem resultados elevados, visto que estão expostos a um contexto estressor e de risco, necessitando também de estratégias de cuidado. Ainda, é importante que haja mais estudos na área, uma vez que, o contexto da pandemia da COVID-19 é algo novo e requer novas formas de enfrentamento.


The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the world's scenarios as well as the routines and ways of living. Health professionals are part of the population acting in the front line, and in turn, they have become a risk group, which causes feelings such as stress and anxiety, with some may even showing signs of depression. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to characterize the presence of signs of anxiety, stress and depression and relate them to social skills in 70 health professionals in a city in Paraná. For the evaluation of such variables, the HAD Instrument Scale was used to evaluate signs/symptoms of anxiety and depression, with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) also being used to evaluate the stress variable, in addition to an adapted open questionnaire (CABALLO, 2003) for social skills. From the results obtained, it could be observed that the majority of the participants presents signs of depression (79.7%), as well as signs of anxiety (78.6%). Furthermore, they also present high levels of stress when compared to the Brazilian normative sample. Thus, it can be understood that health professionals are predisposed to presenting high results, since they are exposed to a stressful and high-risk context and are also in need of caring strategies. Furthermore, it is important to further expand studies in the area, given that the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is something new and therefore, requires new forms of confrontation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Mental Health , Health Personnel , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , Workplace , Depression/psychology , Emotions , Social Skills , Psychological Distress , Hospitals
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Mucocutaneous adverse events are common during anticancer treatment, with variable consequences for the patient and their therapeutic regimen. Objective: To evaluate the most common adverse events, as well as the drugs associated with their appearance and the consequences for cancer treatment. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out through the analysis of patients treated at the Clinical Dermatology Unit of a public oncologic hospital. Results: A total of 138 patients with 200 adverse events were evaluated. The most commonly identified adverse events were nail and periungual changes (20%), papulopustular eruptions (13%), acneiform eruptions (12%), hand-foot syndrome (6.5%), hand-foot skin reaction (6%), and xerosis (6%). The most frequently associated antineoplastic treatment groups were classical chemotherapy (46.2%), target therapy (32.3%), and other non-antineoplastic drugs used in neoplasia protocols (16.5%). Of the total number of patients, 17.4% had their treatment suspended or changed due to a dermatological adverse event. Study limitations: Retrospective study and analysis of patients who were referred for specialized dermatological examination only, not allowing the assessment of the actual incidence of adverse events. Conclusion: A wide variety of dermatological manifestations are secondary to antineoplastic treatment with several different drugs resulting, not rarely, in the interruption or modification of therapeutic regimens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Skin , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): 30-: I-38, VI, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353409

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las funciones del Comité de Ética Clínica (CEC) son educativas, normativas, consultivas, mediadoras y reflexivas. Como cualquier servicio de salud, las consultas de casos a un CEC deben ser sujetas a revisión y mejora de la calidad. Los objetivos fueron evaluar la factibilidad, la efectividad y la satisfacción de las recomendaciones ético-asistenciales dadas por el CEC, y evaluar su impacto en el equipo tratante y en la familia. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, cualicuantitativo, de casos clínicos presentados en el Comité de Ética Clínica del hospital desde el 1 de enero de 2013 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2017, según datos del libro de actas, historias clínicas, registros de la Oficina de Comunicación a Distancia y entrevistas semiestructuradas al equipo de salud. Resultados. Se analizaron 108 casos (106 pacientes), 73 casos con encuesta y registros, y 35 solamente con registros. Los motivos principales más frecuentes de consulta fueron los siguientes: adecuación del esfuerzo terapéutico (46/42,6 %), compromiso neurológico grave (15/13,9 %), calidad de vida del paciente (11/10,2 %), conflictos entre el paciente, la familia y el sistema de salud (7/6,5 %), y rechazo del tratamiento por la familia (6/5,6 %). Se hallaron niveles altos de satisfacción (> 95 %) y niveles moderados de factibilidad (> 74 %) y efectividad (> 85 %). Solo en 50/108 casos (46,3 %) quedó registro en la historia clínica de la consulta al CEC y el 44 % de los profesionales opinó que la consulta tuvo un impacto positivo en la familia y en el paciente. Conclusiones. Los resultados contribuyeron a descubrir oportunidades de mejora, especialmente en la documentación y en la comunicación en el proceso de consulta.


Introduction. A clinical ethics committee (CEC) has educational, regulatory, advisory, mediation, and reflexive functions. As any health care service, the consults with the CEC should be subjected to review and quality improvement. The study objectives were to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and satisfaction with the bioethical recommendations made by the CEC and assess their impact on the treating team and the patient's family. Population and methods. Descriptive, retrospective, qualitative, and quantitative study of clinical cases submitted to the hospital's CEC between January 1 st, 2013 and December 31, 2017 using data from the CEC minute book, medical records, registries from the Office for Remote Communication, and semi-structured interviews with health care team members. Results. A total of 108 cases (106 patients) were analyzed: 73 cases with survey and registries and 35 with registries only. The main most frequent reasons for consultation were adequacy of therapeutic effort (46/42.6%), severe neurological involvement (15/13.9%), patient's quality of life (11/10.2%), patient-family-health system conflict (7/6.5%), and family's refusal of treatment (6/5.6%). High levels of satisfaction (> 95%) and moderate levels of feasibility (> 74%) and effectiveness (> 85%) were observed. In only 50/108 cases (46.3%), the consultation with the CEC was registered in the medical record, 44% of health care providers stated that the consultation had a positive impact on the patient and their family. Conclusions. Results helped to establish improvement opportunities, especially in terms of documentation and communication in the consultation process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Personal Satisfaction , Ethics Committees, Clinical , Quality of Life , Feasibility Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Hospitals
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