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1.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 50-58, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353000

ABSTRACT

La identificación de un evento amenazante en el individuo desencadena comportamientos consecuentes. Se realizó un estudio no experimental, descriptivo y transversal en una población de 263 estudiantes de la carrera de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo, con el propósito de describir la percepción de setos ante el riesgo de contagio por COVID-19. Los datos relativos a las variables de interés se obtuvieron mediante la aplicación en línea de la encuesta de percepción de riesgo de COVID-19, elaborada por investigadores de la Universidad Europea. El 95,44% de los participantes eran menores de 26 años y el 49,05% se catalogó con un nivel medio de riesgo de contagio de Covid-19. Entre los alumnos involucrados predomina-ron los que dijeron sentir miedo estando fuera de sus casas y aquellos que utilizaban mascarilla y practicaban la higiene de manos como medidas de protección para evitar el contagio.


The perception of a threatening event in the individual produces consequent behaviors in this one. A non-experimental, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was carried out in a population of 263 nursing students at the National University of Chimborazo in order to describe the perception of hedges in the face of the risk of contagion by COVID-19. The data related to the variables of interest were obtained by applying the online adaptation of the COVID-19 risk perception survey, prepared by researchers from the European University. 95.44% of the participants were under 26 years of age and 49.05% were classified as having a medium level of risk of contagion from Covid-19. Among the students involved, those ones who said they felt fear being outside their homes and those ones who used a mask and practiced hand hygiene as protective measures to avoid contagion predominated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Perception , Students, Nursing , COVID-19 , Security Measures , Hygiene , Risk
2.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e57942, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367680

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyse microbiological organisms in different locations and regions for physical activity in the city of João Pessoa, Brazil. Samples were collected on various objects used, such as: mattresses, drinking fountains, gloves, cell phones and others. The samples were collected in João Pessoa-PB, following the Standard Operating Procedure-SOP/ Microbiology of a specialized laboratory. The collection took place in the five macro-regions: North, South, East, West and Center. Foreach region samples were collected in one public place (square), a private one (gym) and one school (public or private), totaling fifteen collected sites and 450 samples. The following microorganisms were studied in all analyzed surfaces: Bacillus sp, Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella sppor Enterobacter sppand Coag. Neg. Staphylococcus.All regions had a high contamination level by some microorganism. The highest rates were found in the western, central and northern regions -96, 94 and 93% respectively. The Coag. Neg.Staphylococcus presented the highest and lowest incidence rates in the South and East regions, with 43.33 and 6.67%, respectively, as well as Klebsiella sppor Enterobacter spp, which presented high levels. It is concluded that there is a microorganisms' contamination in the most varied places and regions where physical activity practices are developed, with a predominance of Coag. Neg.Staphylococcusand Klebsiella sppor Enterobacter spp. These results lead to a warning about the hygiene importance in places for physical activity practice, especially in pandemic times (COVID-19), since almost all the evaluated surfaces were contaminated.


Subject(s)
Hygiene , Fitness Centers/supply & distribution , COVID-19/pathology , Schools/supply & distribution , Bacillus/pathogenicity , Exercise/physiology , Biological Contamination , Enterobacter/pathogenicity , Environmental Microbiology , Escherichia/pathogenicity , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Klebsiella/pathogenicity , Noxae
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To protect the health and safety of healthcare workers (HCWs), it is essential to ensure the provision of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and standard precautions in healthcare facilities (HCF). The objectives of this short communication were 1) to assess the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs in seven provinces in Afghanistan before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) to elucidate the relevance of these patterns with the number of reported HCW infections from COVID-19 in the mentioned provinces.@*METHODS@#We analyzed secondary data from the 2018-19 Afghanistan Service Provision Assessment survey, which included 142 public and private HCFs in seven major provinces in Afghanistan. Data on COVID-19 cases were obtained from the Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health Data Warehouse. Weighted prevalence of WASH services and standard precautions were calculated using frequencies and percentages. ArcGIS maps were used to visualize the distribution of COVID-19 cases, and scatter plots were created to visualize the relevance of WASH services and standard precautions to COVID-19 cases in provinces.@*RESULTS@#Of the 142 facilities surveyed, about 97% had improved water sources, and over 94% had improved toilet for clients. Overall, HCFs had limited availability of hygiene services and standard precautions, which was lower in private than public facilities. More than half of the facilities had safe final disposal and appropriate storage of sharps and medical waste. Of the seven provinces, Herat province had the highest cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population and reported lower availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs compared to other provinces.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings show disparities in the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in public and private facilities. Private facilities had a lower availability of hygiene services and standard precautions than public facilities. Provinces with higher availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs had a lower cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population. Pre-pandemic preparation of adequate WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs could be potentially important in combating infectious disease emergence.


Subject(s)
Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sanitation , Water , Water Supply
5.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 20-31, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352757

ABSTRACT

En esta revisión de la literatura se describen aspectos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos, clínicos y terapéuticos sobre una presentación atípica y grave de escabiosis, la sarna costrosa o noruega. Esta presentación de escabiosis destaca por afectar principalmente a personas con condiciones de inmunodepresión o sociales que las hacen susceptibles de una alta carga parasitaria, además se asocia a un peor pronóstico y a riesgo de complicaciones. Desde el punto de vista terapéutico, sus estrategias difieren del manejo de la escabiosis clásica.(AU)


This literature review describes epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of an atypical and severe presentation of scabies, Norwegian or crusty scabies. This presentation of scabies stands out because it mainly affects people with immunosuppressive or social conditions that make them susceptibleto a high parasite load, it is also associated with a worse prognosis and risk of complications. From a therapeutic point of view, their strategies differ from the management of classic scabies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Scabies/physiopathology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/etiology , Immune System/pathology , Sarcoptes scabiei/pathogenicity , Scabies/diagnosis , Scabies/drug therapy , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Hygiene
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211060, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254621

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic bath and traditional brushing in the hygiene of complete dentures of dependent residents in long-term care institutions (LTCIs). Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical study was conducted in 17 maxillary complete denture wearers living in LTCIs. Cleaning protocols were brushing or ultrasonic bath, both applied with neutral liquid soap. Biofilm biomass were estimated by MTT reduction assay and specific microbial load (CFU) of Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. were quantified by selective and differential culture media. Results: Ultrasound method showed higher percentage reduction of biofilm biomass and specific microbial loads of Streptococcus spp. compared to brushing (p<0.01). Reduction of microbial loads of the other microorganisms were not different between cleaning methods (p>0.05). Conclusions: The ultrasonic bath proved to be a feasible alternative method for the mechanical cleaning of complete dentures in LTCIs


Subject(s)
Aged , Hygiene , Dentures , Biofilms , Health Services for the Aged
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339963

ABSTRACT

Resumen El desarrollo de la pandemia de la covid-19 ha motivado un renovado interés por la gripe de 1918-1919 para buscar elementos que facilitaran la comprensión de la experiencia presente, pero también como oportunidad para reevaluar la grave crisis sanitaria del siglo XX a la luz de lo que estamos viviendo. En este contexto y con ese objetivo se inserta esta reflexión histórica sobre estos dos fenómenos pandémicos, que muestra los paralelismos existentes y la necesidad de una toma de conciencia de que nuestro modelo de sociedad está en crisis y se requiere una transformación profunda.


Abstract The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , Influenza Vaccines/history , Hygiene/history , Denial, Psychological , World War I , Economics , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Military Personnel/history
8.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(3): 1-9, jun. 30, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390643

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the understanding and perception of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the undergraduate preclinical and clinical dental students within Pakistan. Material and Methods: An online survey was developed by the researchers and conducted amongst the undergraduate students at various dental colleges of Pakistan. A pretested questionnaire was used and distributed using social media platforms. The questionnaire consisted of demographics, health status, perception related to general hygiene, understanding and learning attitudes of dental students. Knowledge scores and the attitude responses were compared with the demographics using independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and chi-square, as appropriate. Results: A total of 800 undergraduate dental students responded to the survey, out of which 304(38%) were males and 496(62%) were female students. Students in pre-clinical years were 600(75%), while 200(25%) students were in the clinical years. The knowledge of clinical students regarding COVID-19 was statistically higher (4.71/6), compared to the students in pre-clinical years (4.49/6) (p=0.004). Both groups showed adequate knowledge regarding the route of transmission, symptoms and origin of COVID-19, and COVID-19 being a threat to life. Clinical students did not want to re-use the face mask (75%), compared to the preclinical students (68%) (p-0.048). Students in clinical years reported more awareness regarding the recommended hand washing technique during COVID-19 (p-<0.0 01). Conclusion: It can be concluded that dental students in clinical years have adequate knowledge regarding the COVID-19 as compared to the preclinical students. The study identifies all areas where preclinical and clinical students lack basic knowledge. This should be compensated by arranging different webinars and online courses to increase the understanding of both clinical and preclinical students during the pandemic.


Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la comprensión y la percepción de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) entre los estudiantes de pregrado de odontología clínica y preclínica en Pakistán. Material y Métodos: Los investigadores desarrollaron una encuesta en línea que se llevó a cabo entre los estudiantes de pregrado de varias facultades de odontología de Pakistán. Se utilizó y distribuyó un cuestionario, previamente probado, a través de plataformas de redes sociales. El cuestionario comprendía datos demográficos, estado de salud, percepción relacionada con la higiene general, comprensión y actitudes de aprendizaje de los estudiantes de odontología. Las puntuaciones de conocimiento y las respuestas de actitud se compararon con los datos demográficos mediante la prueba t independiente, ANOVA de una vía y chi-cuadrado, según corresponda. Resultados: Un total de 800 estudiantes de odontología de pregrado respondieron a la encuesta, de los cuales 304 (38%) eran hombres y 496 (62%) eran mujeres. Los estudiantes en los años preclínicos eran 600 (75%), mientras que 200 (25%) estaban cursando años clínicos. El conocimiento de los estudiantes de clínica sobre COVID-19 fue estadísticamente mayor (4.71/6), en comparación con los estudiantes en años preclínicos (4.49/6) (p=0.004). Ambos grupos mostraron un conocimiento adecuado sobre la vía de transmisión, síntomas y origen de COVID-19, y que COVID-19 es una amenaza para la vida. Los estudiantes en fase clínica no querían reutilizar la mascarilla (75%), en comparación con los estudiantes preclínicos (68%) (p-0.048). Los estudiantes en años clínicos informaron más conciencia sobre la técnica de lavado de manos recomendada durante COVID-19 (p<0,001). Conclusión: Se puede concluir que los estudiantes de odontología en años clínicos tienen un conocimiento adecuado sobre el COVID-19 en comparación con los estudiantes en años preclínicos. El estudio identifica todas las áreas donde los estudiantes clínicos y no clínicos carecen de conocimientos básicos. Esto debe compensarse organizando diferentes seminarios web y cursos en línea para aumentar la comprensión de los estudiantes clínicos y no clínicos durante la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Dental , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Pakistan , Perception , Awareness , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Knowledge
9.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 20(37): 63-75, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1283236

ABSTRACT

Es una mirada histórica, donde se reseña o muestra los esfuerzos por educar y transmitir los principios de higiene y salud. Específicamente se presenta un primer acercamiento descriptivo de la revisión de El Heraldo Médico. Guía de medicina práctica para el uso de las familias (1908, Tomo II), de la empresa editora "El Heraldo Médico", el cual menciona aspectos de higiene con potencial para la solución de los problemas cotidianos y las decisiones para mejorar la calidad de vida en el ámbito de la salud[AU]


Summary: it is a historical look, where the efforts to educate and transmit the principles of hygiene and health are reviewed or shown. Specifically, a first descriptive approach to the review of El Heraldo Médico is presented. Practical medicine guide for the use of families (1908, Volume II), by the publishing company "El Heraldo Médico", which mentions hygiene aspects with potential for solving daily problems and decisions to improve the quality of life in the field of health[AU]


é um olhar histórico, onde os esforços para educar e transmitir os princípios da higiene e saúde são revistos ou apresentados. Especificamente, é apresentada uma primeira abordagem descritiva da revisão do El Heraldo Médico. Guia prático de medicina para o uso das famílias (1908, Volume II), da editora "El Heraldo Médico", que menciona aspectos de higiene com potencial para resolver problemas cotidianos e decisões para melhorar a qualidade de vida no campo da saúde[AU]


Subject(s)
Hygiene , Public Health , Health Education , Guideline , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , History of Medicine , Quality of Life , Mexico
10.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2404, jan-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1252766

ABSTRACT

Ice cream is susceptible to contamination by handling and bad hygiene conditions during both the storage process and the fractioning for sale, and once contaminated, it can cause diseases. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the microbiological quality of ice cream sold in bulk, of pasty and soft types, offered for consuming. Thirty samples of pasty ice cream sold in bulk, and thirty samples of soft ice cream were analyzed through the counting of thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., and searching for the presence of Salmonella spp. During the study, a total of ten (33%) samples of pasty ice cream and five (16%) samples of soft ice cream were found to be beyond the limits established by the Brazilian law. Salmonella spp. was found in four samples (6.7%). These results are an alert for the need of greater attention to the microbiological quality of ice cream in order to ensure the safety of its consumers.(AU)


Os sorvetes são suscetíveis à contaminação pela manipulação e más condições higiênicas durante o processamento, armazenamento e do fracionamento para venda, uma vez contaminados podem causar doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de sorvetes, vendidos a granel, pastosos e expressos, oferecidos para consumo. Trinta amostras de sorvete pastoso, vendido a granel, e trinta amostras de sorvete expresso foram analisadas realizando-se contagem de coliformes termotolerantes, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-positiva e pesquisando-se a presença de Salmonella spp. Foram detectadas dez (33%) amostras de sorvete pastoso e cinco (16%) amostras de sorvete expresso fora dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Salmonella spp. foi encontrado em quatro amostras (6,7%). Esses resultados alertam para a necessidade de uma maior atenção à qualidade microbiológica dos sorvetes, a fim de garantir a segurança do consumidor.(AU)


Los helados son susceptibles a la contaminación por manipulación y malas condiciones higiénicas durante el procesamiento, almacenamiento y fraccionamiento para venta, una vez contaminados pueden causar enfermedades. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido evaluar la calidad microbiológica de helados vendidos a granel, pastosos y suaves, ofrecidos para el consumo. Se analizaron treinta muestras de helados pastosos vendidos a granel, y treinta muestras de helados suaves, realizándose el conteo de coliformes termotolerantes, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase positiva e investigándose la presencia de Salmonella spp. Se detectaron diez (33%) muestras de helado pastoso y cinco (16%) muestras de helado blando fuera de los límites establecidos por la legislación brasileña. Salmonella spp. se encontró en cuatro muestras (6,7%). Esos resultados destacan la necesidad de una mayor atención a la calidad microbiológica de los helados, con el fin de garantizar la seguridad del consumidor.(AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Staphylococcus , Total Quality Management , Coliforms , Ice Cream/microbiology , Hygiene , Coagulase/analysis
11.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 47-56, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248307

ABSTRACT

La adecuada higiene de manos puede reducir la incidencia de muchas enfermedades infecciosas respiratorias e intestinales, entre otras. Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, con el objetivo de implementar un programa educativo acerca de la higiene de manos en 45 niños de 4to grado de la Escuela Primaria Guerrillero Heróico, Cienfuegos, Cuba, durante los meses de octubre 2018 - diciembre 2019. El diseño de un conjunto de acciones respondió a las necesidades de aprendizaje identificadas, produciéndose un cambio significativo con un valor p<0,05. El 80% de los involucrados tuvo un nivel bajo de conocimientos teóricos sobre higiene de manos antes de la aplicación del programa educativo y solo un 6,6 % resultó calificado como bueno. Entre las razones declaradas por las que no se lavan las manos, los infantes señalaron la falta de recur-sos para eso y la insuficiente percepción del riesgo que conlleva esa conducta. La mayoría decla-ró que recibían información al respecto en el ambiente escolar y a través de la televisión.


Proper hand hygiene can reduce the incidence of many infectious respiratory and intestinal diseases, among others. A quasi-experimental study was carried out to implement an educational program on hand hygiene in 45 students of 4th level of the Guerrillero Heróico Elementary School, Cienfuegos, Cuba, during the months of October 2018 - December 2019. The design of a range of actions responded to the identified learning needs, producing a significant change with a value of p <0.05. In this study, the 80% had a low level of theoretical knowledge about hand hygiene before the application of the educational program and only 6.6% were rated as good. Among the reasons stated for not washing their hands, infants indicated the lack of resour-ces for it and the insufficient perception of the risk that this behavior entails. The majority stated that they had received information on the matter at school and on television.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Students , Hygiene , Hand , Schools , Disease , Learning
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 14-21, maio 5, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354767

ABSTRACT

Introdução: as parasitoses intestinais constituem-se um importante problema de saúde pública mundial. Estas infecções são mais prevalentes em regiões tropicais impactando na morbimortalidade e aumento nos custos para o sistema de saúde. Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência das enteroparasitoses e sua associação com as condições socioeconômicas, sanitárias, ambientais e hábitos de vida em uma comunidade costeira do Nordeste brasileiro. Metodologia: estudo epidemiológico, descritivo e transversal, realizado de modo não probabilístico entre março a junho de 2017, com 105 moradores da Ilha de Boipeba, localizada no Sul da Bahia. O exame parasitológico de fezes foi realizado pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea, Baermann-Moraes e FAUST. Um questionário foi aplicado para avaliar o perfil sociodemográfico da população. Resultados: do total de indivíduos avaliados, 52,4% eram do sexo feminino e 57,1% tinham entre 15 a 59 anos. Todos os indivíduos possuíam água encanada, porém não tratada, enquanto 91,4% referiu ingerir vegetais crus e 45,7% não higienizavam as mãos antes as refeições. Sintomas gastrointestinais foram relatados em 82,8% dos indivíduos e infecções enteroparasitárias foram diagnosticadas em 69,6%. Os parasitos mais frequentemente encontrados foram Ancilostomídeo (18,1%) e Entamoeba coli (43,8%). O principal fator de risco potencial para contrair a infecção por ancilostomídeos foi a não existência de poço artesiano na residência (RP=4,35), enquanto para Trichuris trichiura foi não dispor de pia no banheiro (RP=3,82). Conclusão: a comunidade analisada apresentou elevada prevalência de enteroparasitoses. Os hábitos precários de higiene e de acesso à água tratada, associados às condições ambientais e climáticas do local, podem ter contribuído para a elevada transmissão de geohelmintos observada.


Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections are an important public health problem worldwide. They are more prevalent in tropical regions impacting in morbidity and mortality and costs for the health system. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of enteroparasitosis and its association with socioeconomic, sanitary and environmental conditions and lifestyle habits in a coastal community in the Northeast Brazil. Methodology: This is an epidemiological, descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out in a non-probabilistic manner between March and June 2017, with 105 residents of Boipeba Island in the Southern Bahia. The parasitological examination of feces was carried out by the methods of spontaneous sedimentation, Baermann-Moraes and FAUST. A questionnaire was applied to assess the sociodemographic profile of the population. Results: Of the total of individuals evaluated, 52.4% were female and 57.1% were between 15 and 59 years old. All individuals had piped, but untreated water, while 91.4% reported eating raw vegetables and 45.7% did not wash their hands before meals. Gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 82.8% individuals and 69.6% were diagnosed with enteroparasitic infections. The most frequent parasites were the hookworm (18.1%) and Entamoeba coli (43.8%). The main potential risk factor for hookworm infection was the non-existence of an artesian well in the residence (PR=4.35) and Trichuris trichiura it was not having a sink in the toilet (PR=3.82). Conclusion: The analyzed community has a high prevalence of enteroparasitosis, in addition to environmental and climatic conditions that contribute to the transmission of these infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Parasitic Diseases , Sanitation , Epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Demography , Hygiene , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Sanitary Profiles , Entamoeba
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Food safety and hygiene are currently a global health apprehension especially in unindustrialized countries as a result of increasing food-borne diseases (FBDs) and accompanying deaths. This study aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices (KAP) of food safety among street-cooked food handlers (SCFHs) in North Dayi District, Ghana.@*METHODS@#This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 407 SCFHs in North Dayi District, Ghana. The World Health Organization's Five Keys to Safer Food for food handlers and a pretested structured questionnaire were adapted for data collection among stationary SCFHs along principal streets. Significant parameters such as educational status, average monthly income, registered SCFHs, and food safety training course were used in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models to calculate the power of the relationships observed.@*RESULTS@#The majority 84.3% of SCFHs were female and 56.0% had not attended a food safety training course. This study showed that 67.3%, 58.2%, and 62.9% of SCFHs had good levels of KAP of food safety, respectively. About 87.2% showed a good attitude of separating uncooked and prepared meal before storage. Good knowledge of food safety was 2 times higher among registered SCFHs compared to unregistered [cOR=1.64, p=0.032]. SCFHs with secondary education were 4 times good at hygiene practices of food safety likened to no education [aOR=4.06, p=0.003]. Above GHc1500 average monthly income earners were 5 times good at hygiene practices of food safety compared to below GHc500 [aOR=4.89, p=0.006]. Registered SCFHs were 8 times good at hygiene practice of food safety compared to unregistered [aOR=7.50, p<0.001]. The odd for good hygiene practice of food safety was 6 times found among SCFHs who had training on food safety courses likened to those who had not [aOR=5.97, p<0.001].@*CONCLUSIONS@#Over half of the SCFHs had good levels of KAP of food safety. Registering as SCFH was significantly associated with good knowledge and hygiene practices of food safety. Therefore, our results may present an imperative foundation for design to increase food safety and hygiene practice in the district, region, and beyond.


Subject(s)
Adult , Attitude , Cooking/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Safety , Ghana , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878373

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a preliminary subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative and to evaluate its reliability and validity.@*Methods@#The initial items of the scale were determined based on a review of policy documents and consultations with experts. The final items of the scale were confirmed through individual interviews with residents combined with the discretetrend method, critical ratio method, correlation coefficient method, and factor analysis method. Then, the dimensions of the scale were determined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The Cronbach's @*Results@#A scale containing five dimensions with 22 items was established, including urban lifestyle, governance, basic functions, environmental sanitation, and amenities. The Cronbach's @*Conclusion@#The preliminarily subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative demonstrates a high level of reliability and validity. Additional empirical studies should be carried out to further verify the value of the scale in terms of practical application.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Built Environment/psychology , China , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Personal Satisfaction , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Health , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922194

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly becoming a threat to global public health, not least in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where it is contributing to longer treatment for illnesses, use of higher generation drugs, more expenditure on antimicrobials, and increased deaths attributed to what should be treatable diseases. Some of the known causes of AMR include misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in both humans and animals, unnecessary use of antimicrobials in animals as growth promoters, and lack of awareness among the public on how to protect antimicrobials. As a result, resistant organisms are circulating in the wider environment, and there is a need to consider the One Health approach to minimise the continuing development of AMR. Environmental Health, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), waste management, and food hygiene and safety, are key components of One Health needed to prevent the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms particularly in LMICs and reduce the AMR threat to global public health. The key Environmental Health practices in the prevention of AMR include: (1) adequate WASH through access and consumption of safe water; suitable containment, treatment and disposal of human excreta and other wastewater including from health facilities; good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands with soap at critical times to prevent the spread of resistant microorganisms, and contraction of illnesses which may require antimicrobial treatment; (2) proper disposal of solid waste, including the disposal of unused and expired antimicrobials to prevent their unnecessary exposure to microorganisms in the environment; and (3) ensuring proper food hygiene and safety practices, such as sale and consumption of animal products in which adequate antimicrobial withdrawal periods have been observed, and growing vegetables on unpolluted soil. Environmental Health is therefore crucial in the prevention of infectious diseases that would require antimicrobials, reducing the spread of resistant organisms, and exposure to antimicrobial residues in LMICs. Working with other professionals in One Health, Environmental Health Practitioners have a key role in reducing the spread of AMR including health education and promotion, surveillance, enforcement of legislation, and research.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Environmental Health/standards , Food Safety , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Role , Sanitation/standards , Waste Management/standards
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200948, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340105

ABSTRACT

Abstract Appropriated denture hygiene is a predictive factor for longevity of rehabilitation treatment and maintenance of the oral mucosal health. Although, disinfectant solutions are commonly used as denture cleansers, the impact of these solutions on acrylic resin-based dentures remain unclear. Objective To evaluate, in vitro, the antibiofilm activity of complete denture hygiene solutions and their effects on physical and mechanical properties of acrylic resin. Methodology For antibiofilm activity measurement acrylic resin specimens were contaminated with Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Streptococcus mutans. After biofilm growth, the specimens were assigned to the hygiene solutions: Distilled water (Control); 0.2% Sodium hypochlorite (SH); Efferdent Power Clean Crystals (EPC) and 6.25% Ricinus communis (RC). The viability of microorganisms was evaluated by agar plate counts. In parallel, physical, and mechanical properties of the acrylic resin were evaluated after simulating a 5-year period of daily immersion in the previously mentioned solutions. The changes in surface roughness, color, microhardness, flexural strength, impact strength, sorption and solubility were evaluated. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Dunn test depending on the distribution (α=0.05). Results Regarding antibiofilm action, SH eliminated all microorganisms while EPC and RC exhibited moderate action against S. mutans (p=0.001) and C. glabrata (p<0.001), respectively. Relative to effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the acrylic resin, RC led to higher values of color change (p=0.030), hardness (p<0.001), surface roughness (p=0.006) and flexural strength (p<0.001). Moreover, RC induced the highest values of changes in solubility (p<0.001). EPC promoted greater changes in surface morphology, whereas immersion in SH retained the initial appearance of the acrylic resin surface. All hygiene solutions reduced the impact strength (p<0.05). Conclusion SH presented the most effective antibiofilm activity. In addition, changes on properties were observed after immersion in RC, which were considered within acceptable limits.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , Denture Cleansers/pharmacology , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Hygiene , Biofilms , Denture Bases , Denture, Complete
18.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347965

ABSTRACT

Pattern minas cheese is a product developed with pasteurized milk, fermented with mesophilic cultures, and with the final addition of rennet. This cheese undergoes an artisanal maturation process and possesses a firm shell of yellowish color and striking and acidic flavor. Our study objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of pattern minas cheese. We collected 40 samples from two micro regions (Uberlândia and Patos de Minas) of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba mesor regions of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The microbiological test results were recorded as counts of enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 35°C, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and Salmonella spp. In the Patos de Minas micro region, the results were 45%, 35%, 20%, and 20% higher than 103 CFU/g for the counts of enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 35°C, and Staphylococcus coagulase-positive, respectively. Five percent of the analyzed samples were positive for Salmonella spp. in the Uberlândia micro region. Based on the findings of the microbiota in the cheese analyzed from the micro regions (Uberlândia and Patos de Minas), we concluded that the hygiene conditions in the manufacturing, handling, transport, and storage stages were precarious, requiring the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) systems, including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP).(AU)


O queijo minas padrão é um produto elaborado com leite pasteurizado, fermentado com culturas mesófilas e adição de coalho. Esse queijo passa por um processo de maturação artesanal, possui uma casca firme de cor amarelada e sabor ácido. O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade microbiológica de queijo minas padrão comercializado em duas microrregiões (Uberlândia e Patos de Minas) da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram examinadas 40 amostras de queijo. Os ensaios microbiológicos foram contagens de enterobactérias, Escherichia coli, coliformes a 35 oC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e pesquisa de Salmonella spp. Na microrregião de Patos de Minas, os resultados foram de 45%, 35%, 20% e 20% superiores a 103 CFU/g para as contagens de enterobactérias, Escherichia coli, coliformes a 35oC e Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, respectivamente. Cinco por cento das amostras analisadas foram positivas à pesquisa de Salmonella spp. Considerando a microrregião analisada (Uberlândia e Patos de Minas), a conclusão obtida foi que na região estudada, as condições de higiene nas etapas de fabricação, manuseio, transporte e armazenamento do queijo minas padrão são precárias, sendo necessária a implementação de sistemas de Boas Práticas de Fabricação (GMP), incluindo Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (HACCP).(AU)


Subject(s)
Cheese/analysis , Cheese/microbiology , Hygiene , Staphylococcus , Escherichia coli
19.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 99(11): 762-772, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1343719

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate vaccine hesitancy leading to underimmunization and a measles outbreak in Rwanda and to develop a conceptual, community-level model of behavioural factors. Methods Local immunization systems in two Rwandan communities (one recently experienced a measles outbreak) were explored using systems thinking, human-centred design and behavioural frameworks. Data were collected between 2018 and 2020 from: discussions with 11 vaccination service providers (i.e. hospital and health centre staff); interviews with 161 children's caregivers at health centres; and nine validation interviews with health centre staff. Factors influencing vaccine hesitancy were categorized using the 3Cs framework: confidence, complacency and convenience. A conceptual model of vaccine hesitancy mechanisms with feedback loops was developed. Findings: A comparison of service providers' and caregivers' perspectives in both rural and peri-urban settings showed that similar factors strengthened vaccine uptake: (i) high trust in vaccines and service providers based on personal relationships with health centre staff; (ii) the connecting role of community health workers; and (iii) a strong sense of community. Factors identified as increasing vaccine hesitancy (e.g. service accessibility and inadequate follow-up) differed between service providers and caregivers and between settings. The conceptual model could be used to explain drivers of the recent measles outbreak and to guide interventions designed to increase vaccine uptake. Conclusion :The application of behavioural frameworks and systems thinking revealed vaccine hesitancy mechanisms in Rwandan communities that demonstrate the interrelationship between immunization services and caregivers' vaccination behaviour. Confidence-building social structures and context-dependent challenges that affect vaccine uptake were also identified.


Objectif Déterminer si une intervention au niveau de l'eau, de l'assainissement et de l'hygiène pourrait avoir une influence sur les comportements en la matière, considérés comme importants dans la lutte contre le trachome. Méthodes Nous avons mené un essai randomisé par grappes dans les régions rurales d'Éthiopie entre le 9 novembre 2015 et le 5 mars 2019. Nous avons réparti aléatoirement 20 échantillons où l'intervention consistait à développer les infrastructures d'assainissement et d'approvisionnement en eau et à promouvoir l'hygiène, et 20 échantillons n'ayant fait l'objet d'aucune intervention. Tous les échantillons du groupe d'intervention ont suivi une formation sur l'hygiène à l'école primaire, disposaient d'un point d'eau communautaire, d'un poste de lavage par ménage, de savon à domicile, et recevaient des visites de la part de travailleurs chargés d'enseigner les bonnes pratiques en matière d'hygiène. Nous avons évalué le niveau d'observance des mesures en effectuant des enquêtes annuelles au sein des foyers. Résultats En l'espace de 3 ans, le nombre de postes de lavage, de savons et de latrines dans les ménages a davantage augmenté dans le groupe d'intervention que dans le groupe de contrôle: la différence de risque s'élevait à 47 points de pourcentage (intervalle de confiance de 95%, IC: 41­53) pour les postes de lavage, à 18 points de pourcentage (IC de 95%: 12­24) pour le savon et à 12 points de pourcentage (IC de 95%: 5­19) pour les latrines. La proportion de gens déclarant se laver le visage au savon était plus grande dans le groupe d'intervention (différence de risque de 21 points de pourcentage; IC de 95%: 15­27 pour les enfants de 0 à 5 ans), tout comme celle mentionnant l'usage de latrines (différence de risque de 9 points de pourcentage; IC de 95%: 2­15 pour les enfants de 6 à 9 ans). Pour de multiples indicateurs, il a fallu attendre minimum un an après l'instauration du programme pour que les variations observées entre les groupes d'intervention et de contrôle deviennent statistiquement significatives; ces variations se sont ensuite maintenues lors des visites ultérieures. Conclusion Intervenir à l'école et au sein de la communauté a permis d'améliorer l'accès à l'hygiène et les comportements en la matière. Néanmoins, cette évolution prend du temps et plusieurs années d'intervention sont nécessaires.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Toilet Facilities , Sanitation , Trachoma , Hygiene , Ethiopia
20.
Rev. moçamb. ciênc. saúde ; 7(1): 8-9, Out. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1337783

ABSTRACT

A disseminação global do SARS-CoV-2 decorre a um ritmo veloz. Menos de um ano após a sua detecção pela primeira vez na China, já foram notificadas mais de 32 milhões de pessoas infectadas em cerca de 200 países e territórios.1 O impacto da COVID-19, a doença causada pelo SARS-CoV-2 em humanos, já é bem patente na morbilidade, na mortalidade, na economia global, assim como na maior parte dos outros sectores da sociedade. Em Moçambique, a COVID-19 parece ter, pelo menos por enquanto, um menor impacto directo na morbi-mortalidade...


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health , Sickness Impact Profile , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hygiene , Communicable Diseases , Basic Sanitation , Disease Prevention , Health Planning
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