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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 283-291, out.2022. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400238

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a via de nascimento tem sido considerada como um possível fator de risco para a ocorrência de doenças alérgicas em crianças e adolescentes, sendo este um dado preocupante, tendo em vista o aumento da prevalência dessas afecções no mundo.Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre o nascimento por cesárea e o desenvolvimento de doenças alérgicas em crianças e adolescentes. Metodologia: revisão sistemática com metanálise de estudos indexados nas bases de dados PubMed, Science Direct e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, com uso dos descritores em saúde: "cesarean section", "hypersensitivity", "allergic rhinitis", "asthma", "atopic dermatitis", "food allergy", "child", "adolescent". A qualidade dos estudos foi avaliada através da ferramenta Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies ­ (QATQS). Resultados: foram incluídos 23 trabalhos na revisão e 21 foram selecionados para metanálise. A prevalência de cesárea variou de 7,8% a 50,8% e a prevalência de doenças alérgicas esteve entre 0,77% e 42,5% na população nascida por essa via. Observou-se uma associação positiva entre parto por cesárea e presença de rinite alérgica (OR=1,30; IC95%: 1,18-1,43) e asma (OR=1,44; IC95%: 1,38-1,49), não sendo encontrada associação significante entre a cesariana e o desenvolvimento de dermatite atópica (OR=1,02; IC95%: 0,96-1,09) ou alergia alimentar (OR=0,99; IC95%: 0,82-1,19). Conclusão: o nascimento pela via de parto cirúrgico pode estar contribuindo com o aumento do número de casos de alergias na população pediátrica e, ainda que haja heterogeneidades entre os estudos analisados, existem riscos que devem ser levados em conta na análise dessa relação em futuros trabalhos que investiguem essa problemática.


Introduction: the route of birth has been considered as a possible risk factor for the occurrence of allergic diseases in children and adolescents, which is a worrying fact, given the increasing prevalence of these conditions in the world. Objective: to analyze the association between cesarean birth and the development of allergic diseases in children and adolescents. Methodology: systematic review with meta-analysis of studies indexed in the PubMed, Science Direct and Virtual Health Library databases, using the health descriptors: "cesarean section", "hypersensitivity", "allergic rhinitis", "asthma", "atopic dermatitis", "food allergy", "child", "adolescent". The quality of studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies ­ (QATQS). Results: 23 papers were included in the review, and 21 were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of cesarean sections varied from 7.8% to 50.8%, and the prevalence of allergic diseases was between 0.77% and 42.5% in the population born through this route. A positive association was observed between cesarean delivery and the presence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.18-1.43) and asthma (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.38-1,49), with no significant association between cesarean section and the development of atopic dermatitis (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.96-1.09) or food allergy (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.19). Conclusion: birth through surgical delivery may be contributing to the increase in the number of cases of allergies in the pediatric population and, although there are heterogeneities between the studies analyzed, there are risks that must be taken into account when analyzing this relationship in future works to investigate this issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cesarean Section , Child , Adolescent , Hypersensitivity , Asthma , Rhinitis, Allergic
2.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(2)ago. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386584

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim was to determine the prevalence and types of the allergies present among dental professionals in Costa Rica. We performed a cross-sectional study on 664 dentists who completed a self-reported questionnaire. A descriptive cross-sectional study with inferential analysis was carried out. Dentists reported allergies prior to studying dentistry in 39% of cases, 36% reported chronic illnesses, and 61% of the dentists reported first-degree relatives with some type of allergic reaction. Different allergies had a similar prevalence among the dental professionals (ranging between 19%-26%), all allergic manifestations occurred within the first 120 minutes after exposure. The average time of exposure to dentistry-related environments was 16 years (95% CI) among all the dentists surveyed. There is a positive correlation between the presence of a chronic illness and the predisposition to develop allergic reactions among dentists. In addition, there is a directly proportional relationship between age, time of exposure to dental environments, and the risk of developing allergic conditions to dental materials. The main adverse reactions reported due to exposure to dental materials, medicines and/or food were gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory problems.


Resumen El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y tipo de alergias presentes entre los odontólogos en Costa Rica. Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo en 664 dentistas que completaron un cuestionario, utilizando análisis inferencial para el procesamiento de los resultados. Los odontólogos reportaron alergias previo a estudiar odontología en un 39% de los casos, el 36% informó enfermedades crónicas y el 61% de los dentistas mencionó tener familiares en primer grado que habían presentado algún tipo de reacción alérgica. Diferentes tipos de alergias tuvieron una prevalencia similar entre los odontólogos (oscilando entre el 19% y el 26%), todas las manifestaciones alérgicas ocurrieron dentro de los primeros 120 minutos después de la exposición al alergeno. El tiempo medio de exposición a entornos relacionados con la odontología fue de 16 años (IC del 95%) entre todos los dentistas encuestados. Existe una correlación positiva entre la presencia de una enfermedad crónica y la predisposición a desarrollar reacciones alérgicas entre los dentistas. Además, existe una relación directamente proporcional entre edad, tiempo de exposición a entornos dentales, y el riesgo de desarrollar reacciones alérgicas a los materiales dentales. Las principales reacciones adversas notificadas posterior a la exposición a materiales dentales, medicamentos y/o alimentos fueron problemas gastrointestinales, cutáneos y respiratorios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Materials , Dentistry , Hypersensitivity , Occupational Health , Costa Rica
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 20220720. 107 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1379519

ABSTRACT

A hipersensibilidade dentinária (HD) é uma condição dolorosa que afeta negativamente a qualidade de vida dos indivíduos. Ainda não existe, contudo, um tratamento considerado padrão-ouro para mitigar a dor aguda gerada por esta condição. Sendo assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1. Verificar os efeitos de um biovidro experimental na permeabilidade dentinária (PD, por meio da condutância hidráulica) e na perda de superfície dentinária (PS, determinada com perfilometria óptica); 2. Analisar os efeitos da associação do biovidro com a terapia de fotobiomodulação na diferenciação funcional de células pulpares, indicando potencial para formação de dentina terciária e, assim, oclusão biológica dos túbulos dentinários. Para a primeira fase do estudo, 48 discos de dentina coronária (1 mm de espessura, n=12) foram usados para PD e 48 fragmentos de dentina radicular (3 mm × 3 mm, n=12) para PS, que foram avaliadas em 3 momentos: pós-EDTA (5 min em solução de EDTA 17%); pós-tratamento (C: água destilada; BV: pasta de biovidro experimental; NP: pasta de profilaxia Nupro; CXT: verniz Clinpro XT); e pós-ciclagem (solução de ácido cítrico 0,3% por 5 min, seguido de 60 min imersão em saliva humana, 4 ×/dia, 5 dias. A escovação foi realizada 2 ×/dia por 15 s, com 1,5 N e um dentifrício fluoretado padrão pasta - exposição total de 2 min). Imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, n=3) foram obtidas pós-tratamento e pós-ciclagem para análise qualitativa. Imagens adicionais do pó de biovidro e análise por espectroscopia por energia dispersiva (EDS) foram realizadas para caracterizar a partícula. Na segunda fase, os mesmos tratamentos foram testados, associados ou não à terapia de fotobiomodulação [PBM - laser de diodo de fosfeto de índio-gálio-alumínio, InGAlP, (660 nm, 0,028 cm2, 20 mW, 0,71 W/cm2, 5 J/cm2) 7 s, modo contínuo, pontual e em contato], quanto à diferenciação funcional de células da polpa dentária humana, utilizando o ensaio de vermelho de Alizarina. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística adequada, considerando =0,05. Para PD e PS, não houve diferença significativa pós-EDTA (p>0,05). Pós-tratamento, todos os grupos apresentaram PD menor do que C (p<0,05), sem diferir significativamente entre eles. Para PS, C, BV e NP não diferiram significativamente, apresentando valores menores que CXT (p<0,05). Após a ciclagem, C permaneceu com a maior PD (p<0,05). O CXT apresentou o menor PD, não diferindo do NP (p =0,86) que não diferiu de BV (p=0,193). Para C e BV, a PD foi maior pós-ciclagem do que pós-tratamento (p<0,05). Para NP e CXT, esses tempos experimentais não diferiram (p>0,05). Pós-ciclagem, os grupos C, BV e NP não diferiram significativamente quanto à PS, sendo maiores do que CXT (p<0,05). As imagens de MEV mostraram oclusão dos túbulos dentinários por meio da formação de uma camada sobre os espécimes de dentina após a aplicação dos tratamentos, com exceção do grupo controle. Pós-ciclagem, houve remoção parcial dessa camada. Em relação à formação de nódulos mineralizados, no tempo de 7 dias, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos experimentais (p=0,397). No tempo de 14 dias, o grupo BV apresentou maior potencial de mineralização, diferindo estatisticamente do controle negativo -MEM (p<0,05), mas não diferindo dos demais grupos. Após 21 dias, os grupos BV, Meio de Diferenciação (controle positivo), BV + PBM e CXT apresentaram maior potencial de mineralização, sem diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre si. Conclui-se que BV foi capaz de reduzir a permeabilidade dentinária após a aplicação, com um efeito reduzido após a ciclagem, mas não protegeu a dentina contra o desgaste dental erosivo. Além disso, o BV apresentou potencial de formação de nódulos mineralizados após 14 e 21 dias, porém a PBM não melhorou a sua performance.


Subject(s)
Hypersensitivity
4.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 285-291, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400223

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The home environment is one of the most favorable spaces for the development of mites because of its low light, humidity, and temperature. Thus, it contributes to the growing cases of allergies among atopic individuals. Objective: To investigate the faunal profile of house dust mites in the city of Rio de Janeiro and the allergenic potential in this region. Methods: Thirty dust samples were collected from homes in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and the species found were classified according to their morphology, family, and genus by classification key. For the collection region, the total protein level was assessed by the Lowry method and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions (SDSPAGE). Results: There was a predominance of Pyroglyphidae mites, accounting for 84.9% of samples; Tyrophagus putrescentiae accounted for 8%, Blomia tropicalis for 6%, Cheyletus malaccensis for 1%, and Acarus siro for 0.1%. The allergen protein content of the samples was the following: group 1 ­ 25 kDa (Der 1, Der p 1, and Blo t 1), group 2 ­ 15 kDa (Der f 2, Der 2, Tyr p 2, and Blo t 2), and group 3 ­ 29-30 kDa (Der f 3 and Blo t 3), which indicates that people in this region are susceptible to sensitization to these mites. Conclusion: Knowledge of the mite fauna in the region under study allows the guidance of health care professionals to perform skin tests for specific mites and conduct treatment according to the pool of mite extracts containing antigens, making immunotherapy more effective.


Introdução: O ambiente domiciliar é um dos espaços favoráveis para o desenvolvimento de ácaros, tendo em vista a baixa luminosidade, umidade e temperatura, o que contribui para os crescentes casos de alergias em indivíduos atópicos. Objetivo: Investigar o perfil faunístico dos ácaros na cidade do Rio de Janeiro e o potencial alergêncio para essa região. Métodos: Foram coletadas 30 amostras de poeira em residências na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, e as espécies encontradas foram classificadas quanto à morfologia, família e o gênero por chave de classificação. Para as regiões das coletas, a carga total de proteínas contendo os alérgenos foi determinada pelo método de Lowry e eletroforese em condições desnaturantes (SDS-PAGE). Resultados: Os resultados mostram a predominância de 84,9% de ácaros da família Pyroglyphidae; para os demais ácaros o percentual corresponde a 8% Tyrophagus putrescentiae, 6% Blomia tropicalis, 1% Cheyletus malaccensis, e 0,1% de Acarus siro. O conteúdo proteico alergêncio constituinte das amostras foram, grupo 1: 25 kDa (Der 1, Der p 1 e Blo t 1); grupo 2: 15 kDa (Der f 2, Der 2, Tyr p 2 e Blo t 2); e para o grupo 3: 29-30 kDa (Der f 3 e Blo t 3), o que indica uma região passível à sensibilização de indivíduos por estes ácaros. Conclusão: O conhecimento da acarofauna nas regiões em estudo permite orientar a comunidade médica quanto à realização de testes cutâneos, além da terapêutica a partir do pool de extratos de ácaros contendo os antígenos, a fim de tornar a imunoterapia mais eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyroglyphidae , Dust , Hypersensitivity , Mites , Therapeutics , Skin Tests , Allergens , Residence Characteristics , Diagnosis , Home Environment , Humidity , Immunotherapy
5.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 214-224, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400202

ABSTRACT

A urticária aguda é uma causa frequente de consulta com alergistas, caracterizada por urticas e/ou angioedema. Embora autolimitada e benigna, pode causar desconforto significativo e raramente representar uma doença sistêmica grave ou reação alérgica com risco de vida. Nesta revisão, elaborada pelo Departamento Científico de Urticária da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia, foram abordadas as principais questões referentes ao tema para auxiliar o médico especialista e generalista.


Acute urticaria is a frequent cause of consultations with allergists, being characterized by wheals and/or angioedema. Although self-limited and benign, it may cause significant discomfort and uncommonly represent a serious systemic disease or life-threatening allergic reaction. In this review prepared by the Urticaria Scientific Department of the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology, the main questions about this topic are addressed to help specialists and general practitioners.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urticaria , Epinephrine , Milk Hypersensitivity , Egg Hypersensitivity , Drug Hypersensitivity , Shellfish Hypersensitivity , Nut and Peanut Hypersensitivity , Histamine H1 Antagonists , Anaphylaxis , Spider Bites , Physicians , Societies, Medical , Therapeutics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Sweet Syndrome , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Schnitzler Syndrome , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Erythema , Angioedemas, Hereditary , Food Hypersensitivity , Allergists , Hypersensitivity , Angioedema
6.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 4-48, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400091

ABSTRACT

A alergia ocular, também conhecida como conjuntivite alérgica (CA), é uma reação de hipersensibilidade mediada por imunoglobulina E (IgE) do olho desencadeada por aeroalérgenos, principalmente ácaros da poeira doméstica e pólen de gramíneas. Os sintomas geralmente consistem em prurido ocular ou periocular, lacrimejamento e olhos vermelhos que podem estar presentes durante todo o ano ou sazonalmente. A alergia ocular tem frequência elevada, é subdiagnosticada e pode ser debilitante para o paciente. É potencialmente danosa para a visão, nos casos em que ocasiona cicatrização corneana grave, e na maioria dos pacientes associa-se a outros quadros alérgicos, principalmente rinite, asma e dermatite atópica. É classificada em conjuntivite alérgica perene, conjuntivite alérgica sazonal, ceratoconjuntivite atópica e ceratoconjuntivite vernal. O diagnóstico procura evidenciar o agente etiológico e a confirmação se dá pela realização do teste de provocação conjuntival. O tratamento baseia-se em evitar o contato com os desencadeantes, lubrificação, anti-histamínicos tópicos, estabilizadores de mastócitos, imunossupressores e imunoterapia específica com o objetivo de obter o controle e prevenir as complicações da doença.


Ocular allergy, also known as allergic conjunctivitis, is an immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction of the eye triggered by airborne allergens, primarily house dust mites and grass pollen. Symptoms usually consist of ocular or periocular itching, watery eyes, and red eyes that may be present year-round or seasonally. Ocular allergy has a high frequency, is underdiagnosed, and can be debilitating for the patient. It is potentially harmful to vision in cases of severe corneal scarring, and in most patients, it is associated with other allergic conditions, especially rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. It is classified as perennial allergic conjunctivitis, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Diagnosis seeks to identify the etiologic agent, and confirmation is given by conjunctival provocation testing. Treatment is based on avoiding contact with triggers, lubrication, topical antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, immunosuppressants, and specific immunotherapy with the aim of achieving control and preventing disease complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Diagnosis , Keratoconjunctivitis , Patients , Plants, Medicinal , Pruritus , Psychotherapy , Asthma , Signs and Symptoms , Societies, Medical , Vision, Ocular , Climate Change , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/complications , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Complementary Therapies , Immunoglobulin E , Serologic Tests , Skin Tests , Allergens , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Probiotics , Acupuncture , Pyroglyphidae , Dermatitis, Atopic , Environmental Pollution , Allergy and Immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Omalizumab , Mast Cell Stabilizers , Histamine Antagonists , Hypersensitivity , Immunosuppressive Agents , Immunotherapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Mites
7.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 49-57, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400098

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A incidência das doenças alérgicas cresceu nas últimas décadas. Na tentativa de conter o aumento da alergia alimentar (AA) ao longo dos anos, estratégias de prevenção vêm sendo implementadas. Para promover um melhor entendimento dos dilemas que permeiam a introdução alimentar no primeiro ano de vida, esse artigo trata de uma revisão bibliográfica narrativa sobre a introdução dos alimentos complementares no primeiro ano de vida e possíveis associações com a prevenção primária da alergia alimentar. Fonte dos dados: Publicações relevantes foram pesquisadas nas bases de dados Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Guidelines International Network, National Guidelines Clearinghouse e revisadas recomendações do guia e do consenso nacional de alergia alimentar. Resultados: Estudos observacionais diversos e ensaios clínicos randomizados estão disponíveis, bem como recomendações publicadas por organizações científicas; no entanto, de qualidade variável. Foram consideradas as recomendações de diretrizes de prática clínica classificadas como de alta qualidade e publicações recentes ainda não categorizadas de forma sistemática em sua qualidade, mas internacionalmente reconhecidas como relevantes para a atenção primária. Conclusão: Até o momento, não há evidências consistentes de que a introdução precoce, antes dos 6 meses, dos alimentos alergênicos, contribua para a prevenção de alergia a alimentos na população geral.


Objective: The incidence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades. In an attempt to contain the increase in food allergy (AA) over the years, prevention strategies have been implemented. To promote a better understanding of the dilemmas that permeate the introduction of food in the first year of life, this article deals with a narrative literature review on the introduction of complementary foods in the first year of life and possible associations with the primary prevention of food allergy. Data source: Relevant publications were searched in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Guidelines International Network, National Guidelines Clearinghouse, and revised recommendations from the national food allergy guide and consensus. Results: Several observational studies and randomized controlled trials are available, as well as recommendations. published by scientific organizations; however, of variable quality. Recommendations from clinical practice guidelines classified as high quality and recent publications not yet systematically categorized in their quality, but internationally recognized as relevant to primary care, were considered. Conclusion: To date, there is no consistent evidence that the early introduction, before 6 months, of allergenic foods contributes to the prevention of food allergy in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Food Hypersensitivity , Infant Food , Primary Health Care , Primary Prevention , Societies, Medical , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Incidence , MEDLINE , Health Strategies , Guidelines as Topic , PubMed , Alkalies , Allergy and Immunology , Food , Hypersensitivity
8.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 63-70, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400104

ABSTRACT

Os anestésicos locais são essenciais em diversos procedimentos médicos e odontológicos. Funcionam estabilizando as membranas neuronais e inibindo a transmissão de impulsos neurais, o que permite a realização desses procedimentos com mais segurança e sem dor. As reações adversas a drogas são definidas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde como todos os efeitos nocivos, não intencionais e indesejáveis de uma medicação, que ocorrem em doses usadas para prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento. As reações de hipersensibilidade são reações adversas do tipo B, imprevisíveis, que clinicamente se assemelham a reações alérgicas e podem ou não envolver um mecanismo imune. As reações de hipersensibilidade verdadeiras aos anestésicos locais são raras, apesar de superestimadas. Nesta revisão destacamos a necessidade de uma avaliação completa dos pacientes com suspeita de reação alérgica aos anestésicos locais, incluindo a investigação de outros possíveis alérgenos que tenham sido utilizados no procedimento, como analgésicos, antibióticos e látex. A estratégia de investigação e seleção de pacientes para testes deve se basear na história clínica. Dessa forma, poderemos fornecer orientações mais assertivas e seguras aos pacientes.


Local anesthetics are essential in many medical and dental procedures. They work by stabilizing neuronal membranes and inhibiting the transmission of neural impulses, which allows these procedures to be performed more safely and without pain. Adverse drug reactions are defined by the World Health Organization as all harmful, unintended and undesirable effects of a medication, which occur at doses used for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Hypersensitivity reactions are unpredictable type B adverse reactions that clinically resemble allergic reactions and may or may not involve an immune mechanism. True hypersensitivity reactions to local anesthetics are rare, although overestimated. In this review, we highlight the need for a thorough evaluation of patients with suspected allergic reaction to local anesthetics, including investigation of other possible allergens that may have been used in the procedure, such as analgesics, antibiotics and latex. The investigation strategy and patient selection for testing should be based on clinical history. In this way, we will be able to provide more assertive and safe guidelines to patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hypersensitivity , Anesthetics, Local , Patients , Safety , Therapeutics , Allergens , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Latex Hypersensitivity , Diagnosis, Differential , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 1-13, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360090

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent decades, an alarming increase in the number of sporotrichosis cases has been reported in southern and southeastern Brazil, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro, has been considered a long-term hyperendemic condition associated with feline transmission. According to phenotypic classifications, the Sporothrix species recovered from cats were classified as S. brasiliensis in 96.5% of the studied cases. This finding has also been demonstrated in humans, which confirms the zoonotic transmission associated with this predominant species in Brazil. The zoonotic transmission of the fungus and its important virulence in the context of the hyperendemic situation in Rio de Janeiro have changed the approach to the disease, which in its classic form was restricted to certain professional groups and very specific regions in the Brazilian territory, into a public health challenge of scientific interest. Its atypical manifestations and hypersensitivity reactions are increasingly frequent, constituting a new sporotrichosis aspect, which deserves attention from the medical community, as well as from other health professionals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporothrix , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity , Brazil/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939908

ABSTRACT

Pseudo-allergic reactions (PARs) widely occur upon application of drugs or functional foods. Anti-pseudo-allergic ingredients from natural products have attracted much attention. This study aimed to investigate anti-pseudo-allergic compounds in licorice. The anti-pseudo-allergic effect of licorice extract was evaluated in rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells. Anti-pseudo-allergic compounds were screened by using RBL-2H3 cell extraction and the effects of target components were verified further in RBL-2H3 cells, mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) and mice. Molecular docking and human MRGPRX2-expressing HEK293T cells (MRGPRX2-HEK293T cells) extraction were performed to determine the potential ligands of MAS-related G protein-coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2), a pivotal target for PARs. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and licorice chalcone A (LA) were screened and shown to inhibit Compound48/80-induced degranulation and calcium influx in RBL-2H3 cells. GA and LA also inhibited degranulation in MPMCs and increase of histamine and TNF-α in mice. LA could bind to MRGPRX2, as determined by molecular docking and MRGPRX2-HEK293T cell extraction. Our study provides a strong rationale for using GA and LA as novel treatment options for PARs. LA is a potential ligand of MRGPRX2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Degranulation , Glycyrrhiza , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Receptors, Neuropeptide/therapeutic use
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of blistering moxibustion on the expression levels of 5-hydroxytyptamine (5-HT) and its receptors of the colon tissue in the mice with visceral hypersensitivity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), so as to explore the effect mechanism of blistering moxibustion in treatment of IBS.@*METHODS@#Forty SPF-grade newborn Kunming mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, an antagonist group and a blistering moxibustion group, 10 mice in each one. Before modeling, the injection with 0.2 mL parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) was given on the lateral ventricle in the antagonist group. The endorectal glacial acetic acid stimulation combined with tail clipping was used to prepare the model of visceral hypersensitivity of IBS in the model group, the antagonist group and the blistering moxibustion group. After modeling, in the blistering moxibustion group, the intervention with blistering moxibustion was exerted at "Zhongwan" (CV 12), "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Zusanli" (ST 36), once herbal irritant plaster at each acupoint, for 2 h each time, once a week, consecutively for 3 weeks. Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of abdominal muscles were adopted to evaluate the visceral hypersensitivity. HE staining was applied to observe the morphological changes in colon tissue, and immunohistochemistry was to determine the expression levels of 5-HT and its receptors.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, EMG amplitude of abdominal muscles was increased under 20, 40 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) in the model group (P<0.05), AWR scores and EMG amplitude of abdominal muscles under 60, 80 mm Hg were all increased in the model group (P<0.05). In comparison with the model group, EMG amplitude of abdominal muscles was reduced under 20 mm Hg in the blistering moxibustion group (P<0.05), AWR scores were increased under 40 mm Hg in both the blistering moxibustion group and the antagonist group (P<0.05); AWR scores and EMG amplitude of abdominal muscles under 60, 80 mm Hg were all reduced in both the blistering moxibustion group and the antagonist group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, in the model group, the mucosa was slightly disturbed, while, the moderate inflammatory cells were visible in the submucosa. In comparison with the model group, the inherent glands of mucosa were regular in shape and a small number of inflammatory cells were visible in both the blistering moxibustion group and the antagonist group. In comparison with the normal group, the average positive staining area percentage (APSAP) of 5-HT and 5-HT3R of the colon tissue was increased, while, APSAP of 5-HT4R was reduced in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, APSAP of 5-HT and 5-HT3R was reduced in both the blistering moxibustion group and the antagonist group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Blistering moxibustion can relieve the visceral hypersensitivity of the mice with visceral hypersensitive IBS and the underlying mechanism is related to the regulation of the gut-brain axis mediated by 5-HT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Hypersensitivity , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Mice , Moxibustion , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Signal Transduction
12.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(2): 173-176, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1390595

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el ticagrelor es un medicamento antiagregante plaquetario utilizado como prevención secundaria en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo. Dentro de las reacciones adversas reportadas secundarias a su administración se encuentran hemorragias, cefalea, disnea, epistaxis, pausas ventriculares o bradicardia, hiperuricemia y elevación de la creatinina. No obstante, las reacciones de hipersensibilidad han sido raras. Presentación del caso: paciente masculino de 63 años con infarto agudo del miocardio, elevación de ST y documentándose en cateterismo cardíaco ectasia y enfermedad de flujos lentos. Requirió terapia de antiagregación dual con ácido acetilsalicílico (ASA) y ticagrelor, con posterior urticaria de origen medicamentoso según concepto de dermatología. Se manejó con esteroide tópico, antihistamínico oral y retiro de ticagrelor. Se considera un caso raro de reacción al antiagregante plaquetario descrito.


Introduction: ticagrelor is an antiplatelet therapy used for secondary prevention in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Adverse effects of ticagrelor are hemorrhage, headache, dyspnea, epistaxis, ventricular pauses or bradycardia, hyperuricemia and elevation of creatinine level. However, hypersensitivity reaction of ticagrelor is rarely recognized. Case report: we present a 63-year-old male patient diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation and ectasia and low blood flow disease documented by coronary angiogram. He required dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ticagrelor, developing drug-induced urticaria according to dermatology consultation. He was treated with topical steroids, oral antihistamines and ticagrelor discontinuation. This case is considered a rare case of reaction to the antiplatelet agent described herein.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Clopidogrel , Ticagrelor , Hypersensitivity
13.
Med. lab ; 26(3): 287-296, 2022. Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412413

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Pompe es un desorden neuromuscular autosómico recesivo de baja prevalencia, causado por la deficiencia total o parcial de la enzima alfa glucosidasa ácida (GAA), cuya única terapia de reemplazo enzimático disponible es la alglucosidasa alfa recombinante. Las reacciones adversas asociadas a la infusión se presentan con frecuencia. Se reportan dos casos de desensibilización exitosa con alglucosidasa alfa utilizando protocolos con dosis meta de 20 mg/kg, administrados quincenalmente; el primero de ellos, en una niña con historia de reacción adversa grave a los 15 meses de edad, en quien se utilizó un esquema con una dilución inicial de 1/10.000.000 de 28 pasos y una duración total de 13,1 horas. En el segundo caso, la paciente tuvo una reacción adversa grave a los 4 años de edad, se utilizó el protocolo de 22 pasos, concentración inicial de 1/1.000.000 y duración total de 7,2 horas. Se concluye que en pacientes con enfermedad de Pompe que presentan reacciones adversas durante la terapia de reemplazo enzimático, es posible realizar la desensibilización cada dos semanas con la dosis estándar de 20 mg/kg de forma exitosa, y progresivamente lograr la administración usual de la infusión


Pompe disease is a low prevalence autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder, caused by total or partial deficiency of the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme, and its only available enzyme replacement therapy is the recombinant alglucosidase alfa. Infusion-associated adverse reactions occur frequently. Two cases of successful desensitization with alglucosidase alfa using protocols with a target dose of 20 mg/kg administered biweekly are reported; the first was a girl who had a history of serious adverse reaction at the age of 15 months, and undergone to a scheme with an initial dilution of 1/10,000,000 with 28 steps and a total duration of 13.1 hours. In the second case, the patient had a severe adverse reaction at the age of 4 years, a 22-step protocol was used with an initial concentration of 1/1,000,000 and a total duration of 7.2 hours. In conclusion, in patients with Pompe disease who presented adverse reactions during enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa, it is possible to perform desensitization every two weeks with the standard dose of 20 mg/kg, and progressively achieve the usual administration of the infusion


Subject(s)
Glycogen Storage Disease Type II , Therapeutics , Desensitization, Immunologic , Enzymes , alpha-Glucosidases , Hypersensitivity
14.
Med.lab ; 26(4): 391-402, 2022. ilus, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412543

ABSTRACT

La alergia alimentaria se ha venido incrementando a nivel mundial, afectando alrededor del 1,5 % a 2,5 % de los adultos y 6 % de los niños, y tiene un gran impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes y sus cuidadores, debido a las dietas de restricción. Los alérgenos más prevalentes son la leche, el huevo, el trigo, la soja, los frutos secos, el maní, el pescado y los mariscos. Las leguminosas mejor estudiadas son el maní y la soja; otras leguminosas como las lentejas, garbanzos y arvejas representan la quinta causa de alergia alimentaria en el área mediterránea, en Turquía y en la India, siendo menos prevalentes en otras áreas geográficas. La alergia a las leguminosas es una entidad infrecuente en Colombia, se desconoce la prevalencia en el país. Describimos los primeros dos casos de anafilaxia por lentejas reportados en el país. Ambos pacientes menores de 18 años, con reacciones adversas tras la ingesta de leguminosas, en las cuales se demuestra alergia mediada por IgE a las lentejas y además sensibilización en el primer caso a las arvejas y garbanzos, y en el segundo caso a los frijoles. Diferentes datos sobre la prevalencia se han descrito en varias áreas geográficas, siendo mayor en países con dietas mediterráneas. Las reacciones mediadas por IgE suelen aparecer incluso con el alimento altamente cocido, debido a la termo-estabilidad de las proteínas. La reactividad cruzada más frecuente se relaciona con los garbanzos y las arvejas


Food allergy has been increasing worldwide. Affects around 1.5% to 2.5% of adults and 6% of children, and has a great impact on the quality of life of patients and their caregivers, due to restricted diets. The most prevalent allergens are milk, egg, wheat, soy, tree nuts, peanuts, fish and shellfish. The best studied legumes are peanuts and soybeans; other legumes such as lentils, chickpeas and peas represent the fifth cause of food allergy in the Mediterranean area, Turkey and India, being less prevalent in other geographical areas. Allergy to legumes is not common in Colombia, the prevalence in the country is unknown. We describe the first two cases of legumes anaphylaxis reported in the country. Both patients were under 18 years of age, with adverse reactions after ingesting legumes, in which IgE-mediated allergy was demonstrated; in the first case to lentils, peas and chickpeas, and in the second case, to lentils and beans. Different data on prevalence have been described in various geographical areas, being higher in countries with Mediterranean diets. IgE-mediated reactions usually appear even with highly cooked food, due to the thermo-stability of proteins. The most frequent cross-reactivity is related to chickpeas and peas


Subject(s)
Urticaria , Peas , Lens Plant , Food Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity , Anaphylaxis , Fabaceae
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363379

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la glositis migratoria benigna, también conocida como lengua geográfica, es una variante normal, que presenta zonas superficiales circulares. Según la literatura revisada, dentro de sus causas figuran los procesos alérgicos, en los que están las alergias alimentarias. Se decidió realizar esta investigación para determinar la prevalencia de las alergias alimentarias frecuentes en estos pacientes mediante pruebas cutáneas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 27 pacientes en el período de enero hasta agosto de 2018 en portadores de glositis migratoria benigna, a los cuales se les realizaron pruebas alérgicas de tipo cutáneas para la determinación de alergias alimentarias. Resultados: el 59,3 % fue mujer y el antecedente alérgico más frecuente fue la rinitis alérgica. El antecedente de alergia alimentaria más frecuente fue los lácteos. Respecto a los resultados de las pruebas para la leche y los mariscos, estas dieron positivas en la mayoría de los pacientes, seguidos por el pescado, los huevos y los frutos secos. La prevalencia de positividad para por lo menos una prueba fue de 85,2%. Discusión: actualmente no existe suficiente literatura que hable sobre las posibles etiologías de la glositis migratoria benigna. Dentro de los antecedentes alérgicos, la rinitis alérgica fue la más frecuente, seguida de la alergia alimentaria. Hasta ahora existen pocas investigaciones que estudien esta prevalencia de alergias alimentarias en los pacientes de forma específica. Conclusión: la lengua geográfica no tiene factor epidemiológico predominante. El antecedente alérgico puede ser un factor predisponente, la alergia alimentaria puede ser desencadenante de la presentación de la lengua geográfica.


Introduction: The benign migratory glossitis, also known as geographic tongue, is a normal variant, which presents circular or irregular depapillated superficial areas. According to the literature reviewed, its causes include allergic processes, among these are food allergies. It was decided to carry out this investigation to determine the prevalence of frequent food allergies in these patients using skin tests. Materials and methods: A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective study was carried out. The sample consisted of 27 patients in the period January-August 2018, carriers of geographic tongue who underwent skin-type allergic tests to determine food allergies. Results: 59.3% were women without statistically significant predominance, the most frequent allergic history was allergic rhinitis. The most frequent history of food allergy was to dairy. Regarding the results of the tests for milk and shellfish, they were positive in 55.6%, followed by fish 14.8%, eggs and nuts with 11.1% respectively. The prevalence of positivity for at least one test was 85.2% with a statistically significant predominance over the negative result. Discussion: There is currently not enough literature that discusses the possible etiologies of benign migratory glossitis. Within the allergic history, allergic rhinitis was the most frequent, followed by food allergy. Until now there are few investigations that study this prevalence of food allergies in patients in a specific way. Conclusion: Geographic tongue does not have a predominant epidemiological factor, an allergic history can be a predisposing factor, food allergy can be a trigger for presentation of geographic language.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glossitis, Benign Migratory , Tongue, Fissured , Hypersensitivity , Mouth Abnormalities
16.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 63-80, 2022. Grafs, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370955

ABSTRACT

Las reacciones a medicamentos han aumentado con el tiempo, estas implican ahora una carga importante de enfermedad, principalmente en los servicios de hospitalización. Los agentes quimioterapéuticos y biológicos son fármacos utilizados con frecuencia en enfermedades reumatológicas y neoplasias de diferente orden. Las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a quimioterapéuticos y monoclonales impactan en la calidad de vida, el pronóstico y la mortalidad de los pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes y cáncer, es por eso que deben ser reconocidas y manejadas por un equipo de trabajo multidisciplinar. La desensibilización es una herramienta terapéutica que ofrece grandes beneficios a los pacientes con reacciones de hipersensibilidad, permitiéndoles la utilización de medicamentos de primera línea de manera segura y costoefectiva, con un impacto importante en la morbilidad y mortalidad de estos pacientes. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar la información y evidencia más reciente sobre las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a quimioterapéuticos y biológicos, y los datos sobre las opciones de desensibilización con estos medicamentos y su desenlace


Drug reactions have increased over time, they now imply a significant burden of disease mainly in hospital services. Chemotherapeutic and biological agents are drugs frequently used in different rheumatological diseases and neoplasms. Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic and monoclonal drugs impact the quality of life, prognosis and mortality of patients with autoimmune diseases and cancer, that is why they must be recognized and managed by a multidisciplinary team. Desensitization is a therapeutic tool that offers great benefits to patients with hypersensitivity reactions, allowing them to use first-line drugs in a safe and cost-effective manner, with a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article was to review the most recent information and evidence on hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutics and biologics, and data on desensitization options with these drugs and their outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Hypersensitivity , Biological Therapy , Desensitization, Immunologic , Hypersensitivity , Antineoplastic Agents
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate whether skin tests are suitable to predict the allergy reactions induced by Chinese herbal injections (CHIs).@*METHODS@#The skin tests including skin prick tests (SPT), intradermal tests (IDT) and provocation tests including subcutaneous tests and intravenous tests were administered to 249 healthy subjects and 180 allergic patients for 3 CHIs, including ginkgolide injection, diterpene ginkgolide meglumine injection and Salvianolate lyophilized injection. The results of the provocation tests were used as the "gold standard" to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the skin tests.@*RESULTS@#The results did not show any significant differences between the healthy and allergy groups in both skin tests and provocation tests (P>0.05). The specificities of SPT and IDT were 0.976 and 0.797, respectively, and the sensitivities of both SPT and IDT were 0.@*CONCLUSION@#Skin tests are insufficient to predict the likelihood of allergic reactions resulting from CHIs. (ChiCTR-CPC-15006921).


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Intradermal Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin Tests
18.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 371-384, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399791

ABSTRACT

Os betalactâmicos são a classe de drogas que mais causam reações de hipersensibilidade envolvendo um mecanismo imunológico específico, e são os principais desencadeantes entre os antimicrobianos. São representados pelas penicilinas, cefalosporinas, carbapenêmicos, monobactâmicos e inibidores da betalactamase. A estrutura química básica destes fármacos consiste na presença dos seguintes componentes: anel betalactâmico, anel adjacente e cadeias laterais, sendo todos potenciais epítopos. Os anticorpos da classe IgE e linfócitos T estão frequentemente envolvidos no reconhecimento desses epítopos. A reatividade cruzada depende da estabilidade dos produtos intermediários (determinantes antigênicos) derivados da degradação dos anéis betalactâmicos, anéis adicionais e da semelhança estrutural das cadeias laterais entre as drogas. Classicamente acreditava-se num grande potencial de reatividade cruzada dentro de cada classe e até entre as classes, mas estudos da última década mostraram que indivíduos alérgicos à penicilina (com testes cutâneos positivos) reagiam às cefalosporinas em aproximadamente 3% dos casos, aos carbapenêmicos em cerca de 1%, e praticamente não reagiam aos monobactâmicos. Essa reatividade ou tolerância parece estar vinculada ao grau de similaridade entre as cadeias laterais desses antibióticos. Nesta revisão, ressaltamos a importância da investigação sistematizada na confirmação ou exclusão de alergia aos betalactâmicos, descrevemos a prevalência da reatividade cruzada entre estes fármacos e sugerimos um algoritmo de abordagem desses pacientes baseados em sua estrutura química e nos dados publicados na literatura.


Beta-lactams are the drugs most commonly involved in hypersensitivity reactions mediated by a specific immune mechanism and are the main triggers among antibiotics. They include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams and beta-lactam inhibitors. The basic chemical structure of these drugs consist on the presence of the following components: betalactam ring, an adjacent ring and side chains, all of which are potential epitopes. IgE antibodies and T lymphocytes are often involved in recognizing those epitopes. Cross-reactivity depends on the stability of intermediate products (antigenic determinants) derived from the degradation of the beta-lactam ring, on the adjacent rings, and on the structural similarity of the side chains between drugs. Classically, it was believed that there was a great potential for cross-reactivity within each class and even between classes, but studies from the last decade showed that individuals allergic to penicillin (with positive skin tests) reacted to cephalosporins in approximately 3% of cases, to carbapenems in about 1%, and rarely reacted to monobactams. This reactivity or tolerance seems to be linked to the degree of similarity between the side chains of these antibiotics. In this review, we emphasize the importance of systematic investigation to confirm or exclude allergy to beta-lactams, we describe the prevalence of crossreactivity between these drugs and we suggest an algorithm for approaching these patients based on their chemical structure and on data published in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillins , Monobactams , Immunoglobulin E , T-Lymphocytes , Carbapenems , Cephalosporins , beta-Lactams , Hypersensitivity , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prevalence
19.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 395-408, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399798

ABSTRACT

Introdução: É necessário conhecer a situação de alergistas/ imunologistas nos diferentes cenários de atuação, identificando perfis e eventuais dificuldades. O conhecimento destes dados poderá servir de subsídio para fomentar a implementação de políticas que garantam a integralidade na atenção à saúde do paciente com doenças alérgicas e erros inatos da imunidade (EII). Objetivo: Verificar o perfil dos especialistas em Alergia e Imunologia no Brasil, em relação ao local de atuação, acesso a exames, terapias e o impacto da pandemia COVID-19 sobre o seu exercício profissional. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, com dados coletados por inquérito on-line, utilizando-se a ferramenta Google Forms. Todos os associados adimplentes da ASBAI foram convidados a participar. O questionário abordou aspectos sociodemográficos e profissionais. As informações foram analisadas no programa SPSS versão 20.0. Resultados: Quatrocentos e sessenta associados responderam ao questionário. Observou-se predomínio de mulheres (73%), com mediana de idade de 47 anos. A maioria dos participantes atua no setor privado (95%), e 47% no setor público. Aproximadamente 80% dos que atendem no setor público referiram ter acesso a algum exame diagnóstico para doenças alérgicas e EII. Apenas 35% dos especialistas do sistema público têm acesso a imunoterapia alérgeno específica, contra 96% dos que atuam no setor privado. Já aos medicamentos imunobiológicos, 53% e 72% dos especialistas que atuam no serviço público e privado, respectivamente, referiram acesso. Mais de 60% dos associados participantes da pesquisa tiveram redução no número de consultas em pelo menos 50%, e 56% tem realizado atendimento por teleconsulta durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Conclusão: Os associados da ASBAI têm incorporado na sua prática clínica os avanços na terapia das doenças imunoalérgicas, mas vários métodos diagnósticos ainda são pouco acessíveis. A presença do especialista em Alergia e Imunologia no SUS, também precisa ser ampliada. A pandemia do coronavírus trouxe a discussão da telemedicina como um método de atendimento clínico em nossa especialidade.


Introduction: It is necessary to know the situation of allergists/ immunologists in different scenarios of action, identifying profiles and possible difficulties. The knowledge of these data can serve as a subsidy to promote the implementation of policies that ensure comprehensive health care for patients with allergic diseases and inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Objective: To verify the profile of specialists in Allergy and Immunology in Brazil, concerning the place of work, access to tests, therapies, and the impact of the pandemic on their professional practice. Methods: Descriptive-exploratory study, with data collected through an online survey, using the Google Forms tool. All compliant ASBAI members were invited to participate. The questionnaire addressed sociodemographic and professional aspects. The information was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Four hundred and sixty associates answered the questionnaire. Women were predominant (73%), and the median age was 47 years. Most participants work in the private sector (95%) and 47% in the public sector. Approximately 80% of those who work in the public sector reported having access to some diagnostic tests for allergic diseases and IEI. Only 35% of specialists in the public system have access to specific allergen immunotherapy, against 96% of those working in the private sector. As for immunobiological drugs, 53% and 72% of specialists working in the public and private service, respectively, reported access. More than 60% of the members participating in the survey had a reduction in the number of consultations by at least 50% and 56% have been assisted by teleconsultation during the Covid19 pandemic. Conclusion: ASBAI associates have incorporated advances in the therapy of immune allergic diseases into their clinical practice, but several diagnostic methods are still inaccessible. The presence of specialists in Allergy and Immunology in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) also needs to be expanded. The coronavirus pandemic brought the discussion of telemedicine as a method of clinical care practice in our specialty.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 21st Century , Brazil , Comprehensive Health Care , Allergy and Immunology , Allergists , COVID-19 , Patients , Referral and Consultation , Societies, Medical , Therapeutics , Unified Health System , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Public Sector , Private Sector , Remote Consultation , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hypersensitivity , Immunity , Immunotherapy
20.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(3): 255-266, jul.set.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399345

ABSTRACT

A anafilaxia é uma reação alérgica mais grave e potencialmente fatal. Apresenta-se quase sempre com manifestações cutâneas, acompanhadas por acometimento dos sistemas respiratório, gastrointestinal, nervoso e cardiovascular. Indivíduos de todas as faixas etárias podem manifestar anafilaxia, e seu diagnóstico no primeiro ano de vida é difícil por ser o lactente incapaz de expressar de modo claro as sensações vividas durante o episódio agudo. Nessa faixa etária os alimentos são os agentes desencadeantes mais envolvidos, embora medicamentos e veneno de himenópteros também o sejam. Em pacientes submetidos a várias cirurgias e procedimentos médicos a alergia ao látex pode ocorrer. A adrenalina intramuscular é a primeira linha de tratamento da anafilaxia na fase inicial, mas continua sendo subutilizada. Além disso, medidas de suporte, tais como decúbito supino, reposição de fluidos, vias aéreas pérvias e oxigenação, devem ser instituídas. Após a alta, o paciente deve ser encaminhado à avaliação e seguimento por especialista visando à identificação do agente desencadeante, assim como educar responsáveis/cuidadores destes pacientes sobre a prevenção de novos episódios. É importante que esse paciente tenha consigo algum tipo de identificação que o aponte como tendo tido episódio de anafilaxia, sobretudo se tiver sido recorrente. A oferta de um plano escrito de como proceder diante de um novo episódio é fundamental.


Anaphylaxis is a serious and potentially fatal allergic reaction. Most frequently, it features cutaneous manifestations accompanied by involvement of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous, and/or cardiovascular systems. Individuals of all age groups may present with anaphylaxis, and its diagnosis in the first year of life is difficult because the infant is unable to clearly express the sensations experienced during the acute episode. In this age group, foods are the most common triggering agents, together with medications and Hymenoptera venom. In patients undergoing multiple surgeries and medical procedures, latex allergy may occur. Intramuscular epinephrine is the first line of treatment for early anaphylaxis, but it remains underutilized. In addition, supportive measures such as supine decubitus, fluid replacement, patent airways, and oxygenation should be instituted. After discharge, the patient should be referred for evaluation and follow-up by a specialist, with the purpose of identifying the triggering agent as well as educating the caregivers of these patients about the prevention of new episodes. This patient should always carry some type of identification that indicates that he/she has had any episode of anaphylaxis, especially if it has been recurrent. Providing a written plan of how to proceed in the face of a new episode is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Arthropod Venoms , Skin Manifestations , Epinephrine , Latex Hypersensitivity , Food Hypersensitivity , Anaphylaxis , Recurrence , Therapeutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , PubMed , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypersensitivity
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