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1.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3956, ene.-dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1450109

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir el proceso de diseño e implementación de un protocolo de atención para la primera hora de vida del recién nacido prematuro. Método: investigación participativa, que utilizó el marco de la ciencia de la implementación y los dominios del Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Estudio realizado en un hospital escuela del sureste de Brasil, con la participación del equipo multidisciplinario y de los gestores. El estudio se organizó en seis etapas, mediante del ciclo de mejora continua (Plan, Do, Check, Act): diagnóstico situacional; elaboración del protocolo; capacitaciones; implementación del protocolo; relevamiento de barreras y facilitadores; seguimiento y revisión del protocolo. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva y análisis de contenido. Resultados: el primer protocolo de la Hora Dorada de la institución fue organizado por el equipo multidisciplinario a partir de un enfoque colectivo y dialógico. El protocolo priorizó la estabilidad cardiorrespiratoria, la prevención de hipotermia, hipoglucemia e infección. Después de cuatro meses de capacitación e implementación, el protocolo fue evaluado como una intervención de calidad, necesaria para el servicio, de bajo costo y de poca complejidad. La principal sugerencia de mejora fue realizar actividades educativas frecuentes. Conclusión: la implementación generó cambios e inició un proceso de mejora de la calidad de la atención neonatal, es necesario que la capacitación sea continua para lograr mayor adherencia y mejores resultados.


Objective: describe the process of designing and implementing a care protocol for the first hour of life of premature newborns. Method: a participatory research study using an implementation science framework, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was employed to determine drivers and facilitators of implementation success of the Golden Hour protocol for newborns at a large university hospital in southeastern Brazil. A multi-professional team, including first line providers and managers participated in six stages of quality improvement: situational diagnosis; protocol elaboration; training protocol implementation; barrier and facilitator assessment; and protocol monitoring and review. Qualitative and monitoring data collected across these six stages were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Results: the institution's Golden Hour protocol was organized by the multi-professional team based on a collective and dialogical approach. The protocol prioritized the infant's cardiopulmonary stability, as well as prevention of hypothermia, hypoglycemia and infection. After four months of implementation, the care team was evaluated the protocol as a good quality intervention, necessary for the service, low-cost and not very complex. One suggested improvement recommended was to carry out refresher training to address staff turnover. Conclusion: implementation of the Golden Hour protocol introduced an appropriate and feasible neonatal care quality improvement process, which requires periodic refresher training to ensure greater adherence and better neonatal results.


Objetivo: descrever o processo de elaboração e implementação de protocolo assistencial para a primeira hora de vida do recém-nascido prematuro. Método: pesquisa participativa, que utilizou referencial da ciência da implementação e os domínios do Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Estudo realizado em hospital universitário no sudeste do Brasil, com participação da equipe multiprofissional e gestores. O estudo foi organizado em seis etapas, por meio do ciclo de melhoria contínua (Plan, Do, Check, Act): diagnóstico situacional; elaboração do protocolo; treinamentos; implementação do protocolo; levantamento de barreiras e facilitadores; monitoramento e revisão do protocolo. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Resultados: o primeiro protocolo Hora Ouro da instituição foi organizado pela equipe multiprofissional a partir de uma abordagem coletiva e dialógica. O protocolo priorizou a estabilidade cardiorrespiratória, prevenção de hipotermia, de hipoglicemia e de infecção. Após treinamento e implementação por quatro meses, o protocolo foi avaliado como uma intervenção de qualidade, necessária ao serviço, de baixo custo e pouco complexa. A principal sugestão de melhoria foi realizar ações educativas frequentes. Conclusão: a implementação provocou mudanças e iniciou um processo de melhoria da qualidade da assistência neonatal, sendo necessária a manutenção dos treinamentos para maior adesão e melhores resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brazil , Clinical Protocols , Neonatal Nursing , Implementation Science , Hypoglycemia , Hypothermia/prevention & control
2.
J. nurs. health ; 13(1): 1316623, abr. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1524516

ABSTRACT

Objective:to identify the knowledge and attitudes of school-agedchildren with diabetes facing acute complications.Method:exploratory study design with a qualitative approach, which used puppets as a data collection strategy. Children aged between seven and 12-years having experience with the disease for at least oneyear, followed-up at a Childhood Outpatient Clinic from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were interviewed. Analysis followed deductive content analysis. Results:participants demonstrated poor management of hyperglycemia episodes which could prevent diabetic ketoacidosis. The knowledge about hypoglycemia is higher due to its frequency; however, it has been the result of a deficient self-care with poor adult supervision. Conclusions:lack of understanding and inadequate management was evidenced, in especial, during the hyperglycemia and when the children are away from their parents. The nurses should promote education to immediate actions in acute complications. Educational materials focused on these clientele will contribute to enhance knowledge and abilities.


Objetivo:identificar conhecimentos e atitudes de crianças escolares com diabetes tipo 1 frente complicações agudas da doença. Método:estudo exploratório, qualitativo, que utilizou fantoches como estratégia de coleta de dados. Crianças entre 7 e 12 anos, com pelo menos um ano de diagnóstico, seguidas em ambulatório infantil de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foram entrevistadas. Análise de conteúdo dedutiva foi realizada. Resultados:participantes demonstraram pobre conhecimento e manejo dos episódios de hiperglicemia, o que poderia prevenir a cetoacidose diabética. Os conhecimentos sobre hipoglicemia são maiores, pois ocorrem com frequência, porém têm sido resultado de autocuidado deficiente com pobre supervisão de adultos. Conclusões:falta de entendimento e manejo inadequado das complicações foi evidenciado, em especial na hiperglicemia e quando longe dos cuidadores. O enfermeiro deve promover educação de crianças e famílias para ações imediatas e efetivas perante complicações agudas. Materiais educativos, direcionados a esta clientela, contribuirão para maior conhecimento e desenvolvimento de habilidades.


Objetivo:identificar conocimientos y actitudes de escolares con diabetes tipo 1 frente a las complicaciones agudas de la enfermedad. Método:estudio cualitativo exploratorio que utilizó títeres y fueron entrevistados niños entre 7 y 12 años, con al menos un año de diagnóstico, en una clínica infantil en Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se realizó un análisis de contenido. Resultados:hayescaso conocimiento y manejo de los episodios de hiperglucemia, lo que podría prevenir la cetoacidosis diabética. El conocimiento sobre la hipoglucemia es mayor, ya que ocurre con frecuencia, pero ha sido el resultado de un autocuidado deficiente con una supervisión adulta deficiente. Conclusiones:falta comprensión y manejo adecuado de las complicaciones, especialmente en la hiperglucemia y cuando está lejos de los cuidadores. El enfermero debe promover la educación de los niños y las familias para acciones inmediatas y eficaces frente a las complicaciones agudas. Los materiales educativoscontribuirán a esto.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Pediatric Nursing , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Qualitative Research , Hypoglycemia
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 60-73, mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427728

ABSTRACT

The incidence of obesity and overweight in the world has been increasing in recent years due to poor diet and lack of physical activity; people suffering obesity and overweight, related with malnutrition due to excess, often resort to calorie restriction diets that are usually not very effective. In this context, intermittent fasting (IF) has become popular due to the possibilities for weight loss that it offers. This diet consists of alternating periods of fasting with unrestricted eating; however, its effectiveness and consequences are unknown to most users. This narrative review analyzes whether intermittent fasting contributes to the improvement of body and metabolic composition. The purpose of the review was to examine the available data on the contribution of intermittent fasting to the improvement of body and metabolic composition, in order to provide information and to define the parameters that condition safe achievement of its benefits. IF dieting triggers adaptive cell responses that cause a decrease in lipid oxidative stress markers in individuals with obesity and prediabetes. Metabolic alterations have been found to go hand in hand with the alteration of circadian rhythms; if IF contributes to this effect, it may assist in treating and preventing obesity and associated diseases. However, there are also disadvantages, such as the loss of lean muscle mass by wasting, and increased hypoglycemia(AU)


La incidencia de obesidad y sobrepeso en el mundo ha ido en aumento en los últimos años debido a la mala alimentación y la falta de actividad física; Las personas que padecen obesidad y sobrepeso, relacionadas con la desnutrición por exceso, suelen recurrir a dietas de restricción calórica que suelen ser poco efectivas. En este contexto, el ayuno intermitente (AI) se ha popularizado debido a las posibilidades de pérdida de peso que ofrece. Esta dieta consiste en alternar períodos de ayuno con alimentación sin restricciones; sin embargo, su eficacia y consecuencias son desconocidas para la mayoría de los usuarios. Esta revisión narrativa analiza si el ayuno intermitente contribuye a la mejora de la composición corporal y metabólica. El objetivo de la revisión fue examinar los datos disponibles sobre la contribución del ayuno intermitente a la mejora de la composición corporal y metabólica, con el fin de aportar información y definir los parámetros que condicionan la consecución segura de sus beneficios. Se ha encontrado que las alteraciones metabólicas van de la mano con la alteración de los ritmos circadianos; si AI contribuye a este efecto, puede ayudar a tratar y prevenir la obesidad y las enfermedades asociadas. Sin embargo, también existen desventajas, como la pérdida de masa muscular magra por atrofia y el aumento de la hipoglucemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Weight Loss , Overweight , Intermittent Fasting/adverse effects , Obesity , Prediabetic State , Body Composition , Deficiency Diseases , Delivery of Health Care , Hypoglycemia
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255912, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529214

ABSTRACT

Pouco se sabe sobre a atuação do psicólogo no Brasil junto a pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os psicólogos brasileiros que trabalham com essa população e suas ações. Foram convidados a responder a um questionário online psicólogos que atuam ou atuaram junto a pessoas com diabetes. Participaram 79 psicólogos, principalmente da região Sudeste (59,5%). Todos declararam que haviam cursado pósgraduação. Na amostra, predominou o gênero feminino (89,9%), com idade entre 26 e 40 anos (46,8%). A maioria dos que atuam com diabetes declarou-se autônoma ou voluntária, e quase metade trabalhava menos do que 10 horas semanais. Entre aqueles que deixaram de trabalhar com diabetes, apenas uma minoria tinha vínculo empregatício. Além do trabalho com pessoas com diabetes, a maior parte declarou exercer outras atividades profissionais, como atendimentos clínicos em consultórios particulares, sugerindo que esta não é a atividade principal. Majoritariamente, os respondentes declararam não ter conhecimentos suficientes para o atendimento específico às pessoas com diabetes. Discute-se a qualidade da formação profissional dos psicólogos no Brasil, a necessidade de aprimoramento em relação à atuação com pessoas com diabetes e as condições de trabalho.(AU)


Little is known about the practice of psychologists in Brazil caring for people with Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this research was to identify the Brazilian psychologists who work with this population and describe their actions. Psychologists who work or have worked with people diagnosed with diabetes were invited to answer an online questionnaire. The 79 participants lived mainly in the Southeast Region (59.5%). All of them declared to have a graduate degree, most were female (89.9%), aged 26 to 40 years (46.8%). Most of those working with diabetes declared to be autonomous or voluntary, and almost half had a workload of less than 10 hours a week. Among those who stopped working with diabetes, only a minority had a formal employment contract. In addition, most of them stated that they had other professional activities related to clinical care in private offices, suggesting that working with diabetes is not their main activity. Mostly, respondents stated that they did not have enough knowledge to care for people with diabetes. The quality of professional education of psychologists in Brazil, the need for specific improvement in labor relations and conditions were discussed.(AU)


Son escasas las informaciones del trabajo de los psicólogos en Brasil con las personas con Diabetes Mellitus. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los psicólogos brasileños que trabajan con esta población y describir sus acciones. Se invitó a psicólogos que trabajan o hayan trabajado con personas con diabetes a responder un cuestionario en línea. Participaron 79 psicólogos, principalmente de la región Sureste de Brasil (59,5%). Todos declararon tener posgrado. En la muestra hubo una mayor prevalencia del género femenino (89,9%), de edades de entre 26 y 40 años (46,8%). La mayoría de los que trabajan con personas con diabetes se declararon autónomos o voluntarios, y casi la mitad trabajaba menos de 10 horas a la semana. Entre los que dejaron de trabajar con las personas con diabetes, solo una minoría tenía una relación laboral. Además de trabajar con personas con diabetes, la mayoría afirmó tener otras actividades profesionales, como la atención clínica en consultorios privados, lo que sugiere que esta no es su actividad principal. La mayoría de los encuestados afirmaron que no tenían los conocimientos suficientes para atender específicamente a las personas con diabetes. Se discuten la calidad de la formación profesional de los psicólogos en Brasil, la necesidad de mejora en relación con el trabajo con personas con diabetes y las condiciones laborales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychology , Acting Out , Diabetes Mellitus , Professional Training , Anxiety , Pain , Patient Care Team , Primary Health Care , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Research Personnel , Self Care , Self-Care Units , Self Concept , Social Sciences , Autoimmune Diseases , Specialization , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Transplantation , Volunteers , Wound Healing , Behavior , Body Composition , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Exercise , Weight Loss , Family , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Blindness , Cholesterol , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Episode of Care , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Cost of Illness , Continuity of Patient Care , Counseling , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Crisis Intervention , Health Law , Death , Diabetes Complications , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Emergencies , Disease Prevention , Bariatric Surgery , Fear , Binge-Eating Disorder , Epidemics , Chronic Pain , Insulins , Cognitive Dysfunction , Problem Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Global Burden of Disease , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Burnout, Psychological , Self-Neglect , Sadness , Diabulimia , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Glycemic Control , Sociodemographic Factors , Psychological Well-Being , Food, Processed , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Amputation, Surgical , Hospitalization , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Life Style , Mental Disorders , Metabolism , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 520-526, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985902

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically evaluate the correlation between prenatal steroid exposure and hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates. Methods: Eight databases in either Chinese or English, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP, were searched to extract the studies on the correlation between prenatal steroid exposure and hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates published from the establishment of each database to December 2022. The Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 14.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 9 studies were included in this Meta-analysis, including 6 retrospective cohort studies, 2 prospective cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) study, involving 9 143 premature infants. The Meta-analysis showed that prenatal steroid exposure increased the risk of late preterm neonatal hypoglycemia (RR=1.55, 95%CI 1.25-1.91, P<0.001). The similar correlation between prenatal steroid exposure and hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates was all found in the following subgroups: North America (RR=1.57, 95%CI 1.37-1.80, P<0.001), enrolling pregnant women with gestational diabetes (RR=1.62, 95%CI 1.26-2.08, P<0.001), A-grade literature quality (RR=1.43, 95%CI 1.14-1.79, P=0.002), criteria for hypoglycemia ≤40 mg/dl (1 mg/dl=0.056 mmol/L, RR=1.49, 95%CI 1.28-1.73, P<0.001), sample size of 501-1 500 (RR=1.69, 95%CI 1.19-2.40, P=0.003) and >1 500 (RR=1.65, 95%CI 1.48-1.83, P<0.001), steroid injection dosage and frequency of 12 mg 2 times (RR=1.66, 95%CI 1.50-1.84, P<0.001), the time interval from antenatal corticosteroid administration to delivery of 24-47 h (RR=1.98, 95%CI 1.26-3.10, P=0.003), unadjusted gestational age (RR=1.78, 95%CI 1.02-3.10,P=0.043) and unadjusted birth weight (RR=1.80, 95%CI 1.22-2.66, P=0.003). Meta-regression results showed that steroid injection frequency and dose were the main sources of high heterogeneity among studies (P=0.030). Conclusion: Prenatal steroid exposure may be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in late preterm neonates.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Infant, Premature , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Steroids/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
6.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 515-519, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985901

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the short-time efficacy of empagliflozin in the treatment of glycogen storage disease type Ⅰb (GSD Ⅰb). Methods: In this prospective open-label single-arm study, the data of 4 patients were collected from the pediatric department in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2020 to December 2022. All of them were diagnosed by gene sequencing and had neutropenia. These patients received empagliflozin treatment. Their clinical symptoms such as height and weight increase, abdominal pain, diarrhea, oral ulcer, infection times, and drug applications were recorded at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, and 15 months after treatment to assess the therapeutic effect. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to monitor the changes in 1, 5-anhydroglucitol (1, 5AG) concentration in plasma. At the same time, adverse reactions such as hypoglycemia and urinary tract infection were closely followed up and monitored. Results: The 4 patients with GSD Ⅰb were 15, 14, 4 and 14 years old, respectively at the beginning of empagliflozin treatment, and were followed up for 15, 15, 12 and 6 months, respectively. Maintenance dose range of empagliflozin was 0.24-0.39 mg/(kg·d). The frequency of diarrhea and abdominal pain decreased in cases 2, 3, and 4 at 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment, respectively. Their height and weight increased at different degrees.The absolute count of neutrophils increased from 0.84×109, 0.50×109, 0.48×109, 0.48×109/L to 1.48×109, 3.04×109, 1.10×109, 0.73×109/L, respectively. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was gradually reduced in 1 patients and stopped in 3 patient. Plasma 1, 5 AG levels in 2 children were significantly decreased after administration of empagliflozin (from 46.3 mg/L to 9.6 mg/L in case 2, and from 56.1 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L in case 3). All 4 patients had no adverse reactions such as hypoglycemia, abnormal liver or kidney function, or urinary system infection. Conclusion: In short-term observation, empagliflozin can improve the symptoms of GSD Ⅰb oral ulcers, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and recurrent infection, also can alleviate neutropenia and decrease 1, 5AG concentration in plasma, with favorable safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Prospective Studies , Glycogen Storage Disease Type I/drug therapy , Neutropenia , Abdominal Pain , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia
7.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1428092

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Insulinas análogas de liberação prolongada versus insulina NPH (protamina neutra de Hagedorn). Indicação: Tratamento de adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Pergunta: Há diferenças de efeito nos principais desfechos de eficácia e segurança entre insulinas análogas de liberação prolongada versus insulina NPH no tratamento de pacientes com DM2? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foi selecionada e incluída uma revisão sistemática. Conclusão: As insulinas análogas (glargina e detemir) não demonstraram superioridade nos desfechos de eficácia e segurança quando comparadas à insulina NPH, não demonstraram redução significativa em relação à mortalidade por todas as causas e complicações secundárias ao DM2. Quando comparadas à insulina NPH, foi observado redução na hipoglicemia confirmada e hipoglicemia noturna a favor das insulinas análogas e na hipoglicemia grave a favor da insulina detemir


Technology: Long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin (human isophane insulin). Indication: Treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Question: Are there effect differences in key efficacy and safety outcomes between long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin in the treatment of DM2 patients? Methods: Rapid review of evidence (overview) of systematic reviews, with a bibliographic survey carried out in the PUBMED database, using a structured search strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Results: A systematic review was selected and included. Conclusion: Analog insulins (glargine and detemir) did not demonstrate superiority in efficacy and safety outcomes when compared to NPH insulin, did not demonstrate a significant reduction in all-cause mortality and complications secondary to DM2. When compared to NPH insulin, a reduction in confirmed hypoglycemia and nocturnal hypoglycemia in favor of analogue insulins and in severe hypoglycemia in favor of insulin detemir was observed


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin Detemir/therapeutic use , Insulin Glargine/therapeutic use , Insulin, Isophane/therapeutic use , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Hypoglycemia/complications
8.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(3): 165-169, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423688

ABSTRACT

Introducción: 25% de personas con hiperinsulinismo desarrolla diabetes 3-5 años luego del primer diagnóstico y 70% lo hará en el resto de la vida. Intervenir los niveles de glicemia desde que se detecta hiperinsulinemia evita la progresión a diabetes y restaura el metabolismo glicémico. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de hiperinsulinismo patológico post-carga de glucosa (HPPG) y su relación con factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adultos 100 UI/ml a las 2 horas), sexo, hipertensión arterial, dislipidemia, malnutrición por exceso, sedentarismo, tabaquismo, ateromatosis e infarto miocárdico documentado. Con STATA 17 se calculó la prevalencia de variables en población general y según categoría de HPPG y se evaluó la significancia con prueba exacta de Fisher. Se compararon medias con ANOVA y t-test con nivel de significancia <0,05. Se usó regresión binomial para estimar Razón de Prevalencia e intervalos de confianza en variables cuantitativas y cualitativas. Resultados: la prevalencia de HPPG fue 41%. La edad promedio 37,5 años, el sexo masculino 52,9%, la hipertensión-arterial 40,5% y la dislipidemia 74,4%. Al comparar las poblaciones con y sin HPPG existieron diferencia estadísticamente significativa en las variables dislipidemia, hipertensión-arterial, malnutrición por exceso y sexo-masculino. La razón de prevalencia alcanzó a un 62%, 37%, 59% y 20% respectivamente. Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de HPPG. Los factores de riesgo asociados a ella fueron dislipidemia, hipertensión arterial, malnutrición por exceso y sexo masculino. Esto sugiere que encontrar HPPG puede ser de utilidad para detectar precozmente a la población con un mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular.


Introduction: 25% of people with hyperinsulinism develop diabetes 3-5 years after the first diagnosis and 70% will do so in the rest of their lives. To control glycemia levels as soon as hyperinsulinemia is detected, progression to diabetes is prevented and glycemic metabolism is restored. Aim: To determine the prevalence of post-glucose load pathological hyperinsulinism (HPPG) and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in adults 100 uIU/ ml at 2 hours), sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, excess malnutrition due to, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, documented atheromatosis and myocardial infarction. The prevalence of variables in the general population was calculated and, in relation to the HPPG category, significance is evaluated with Fisher's exact test. Finally means are compared with ANOVA and t-test. With significance level <0.05. Binomial regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio and confidence intervals in quantitative and qualitative variables. Statistical analysis was performed with the STATA 17 software. Results: HPPG prevalence was 41%, mean age 37.5 years, male sex 52.9%, arterial hypertension 40.5% and dyslipidemia 74.4%. Un relation to the presence of HPPG a statistically significant difference in the variables dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, malnutrition due to excess and male sex was found. The prevalence ratios were 62%, 37%, 59% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of HPPG was found. Risk factors associated to HPPG were dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, malnutrition due to excess and male sex. Thus, HPPG can play a role in the early detection of a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hyperinsulinism/etiology , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Hyperinsulinism/complications , Hypoglycemia
9.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 32(3): 334-342, 2 de diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411158

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La glucosa es el combustible energético cerebral, esta relación es establecida de manera integral en la inmensa mayoría de revisiones, debido al ávido consumo -y casi exclusivo - glucósico por parte del tejido neuronal. En esta esfera, la hipoglucemia se traduce por defecto en un conjunto de síntomas neurológicos, resultado del estado neuroglucopénico. Cuando la caída de estos niveles glicémicos es pronunciada desencadena alteraciones del estado sensorial, pudiendo llegar al coma con daños irreversibles de sostenerse en el tiempo. Propósito de la revisión: El objetivo de la revisión es presentar un caso de hipoglucemia severa sin sintomatología neuroglucopénica. Recientes hallazgos: Al ausencia de sintomatología neurológica se da debido al consumo del lactato ­ tradicionalmente producto anaerobiótico ­ como una vía metabólica energética alternativa al consumo de glucosa. La hipoglucemia puede ser compensada a nivel neurológico con sistemas lanzadores de lactato en el tejido neuronal, este puede sustituir a la glucosa como sustrato energético del cerebro. Conclusiones: La hipoglicemia sin síntomas adrenérgicos o neuroglucopénicos es un tema vinculado a pacientes oncológicos, y propone al lactato como combustible del tejido nervioso adicional a la glucosa. Por otra parte, la asociación lactato = hipoperfusión, es otra entidad que debe ser revisada y reanalizada por todo lo que implica el lactato dentro de la vía fisiopatológica metabólica corporal.


Introduction: Glucose is the cerebral energy fuel; this relationship is fully established in most re-views due to neuronal tissue's avid and almost exclusive glucose consumption. In this sphere, hypoglycemia is translated by default into a set of neurological symptoms resulting from the neuroglycopenic state. When the drop in these glycemic levels is pronounced, it triggers alterations in the sensory state, being able to reach a coma with irreversible damage if sustained over time. Purpose of the review: The objective is to present a case of severe hypoglycemia without neu-roglycopenic symptoms. Recent findings: The absence of neurological symptoms is due to the consumption of lactate ­ traditionally an anaerobic product ­ as an alternative energy metabolic pathway to glucosa consumption. Hypoglycemia can be compensated at the neurological level with lactate launching systems in neuronal tissue, replacing glucose as the brain's energy substrate. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia without adrenergic or neuroglycopenic symptoms is an issue linked to cancer patients, and lactate is proposed as fuel for nervous tissue in addition to glucose. On the other hand, the lactate-hypoperfusion association is another entity that must be reviewed and reanalyzed for everything that lactate implies within the body's metabolic pathophysiological pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Lactic Acid , Hypoglycemia , Medical Oncology , Brain Diseases, Metabolic , Pyruvic Acid , Anaerobiosis
10.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 232-238, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411266

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipoglicemia neonatal (HN) es una de las patologías metabólicas más frecuentes en el periodo neonatal, que aumentan la morbi-mortalidad en el recién nacido y que puede dejar secuelas de forma permanente; sin embargo, podría ser prevenida o diagnosticada y tratada tempranamente. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los factores asociados a hipoglicemia neonatal, en recién nacidos del servicio de neonatología en un hospital público Vicente Corral Mosco-so en Cuenca-Ecuador. Métodos: El presente estudio de casos y controles, realizado de enero del 2018 a diciembre del 2019. Pareados por edad gestacional, sexo y residencia materna. Ingresaron al estudio pacientes con HN durante los primeros 7 días de vida. Los controles no presentaron HN. La muestra se tomó por conveniencia. Las variables fueron: Diabetes gestacional, Diabetes Mellitus tipo II no controlada, Pequeño para la edad gestacional, Macrosómico, Síndrome de dificultad respiratoria, Restricción del crecimiento intrauterino. La asociación se cuantificó mediante Odds Ratio con un Intervalo de Confianza del 95%. Resultados: Fueron 101 casos y 202 controles homogéneos en edad gestacional, sexo y, residencia materna (P>0.05). Los factores asociados a hipoglicemia neonatal estadísticamente significativos fueron: pequeños para la edad gestacional (OR 2.54; IC 1.54-4.20; P<0.001) y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (OR 2,1; IC 1,29-3,54; P=0.003); mientras que diabetes gestacional (OR 1.2; IC 0.37-4.88; P=0.649), macrosomía (OR 1.2; IC 0.28-5.1; P=0.800) y, síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (OR 0.89; IC 0.54-1.47; P=0.672), no fueron estadísticamente significativos. Conclusión: La hipoglicemia neonatal está asociada a los factores como restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y pequeño para la edad gestacional.


Introduction: Neonatal hypoglycemia (NH) is one of the most frequent metabolic pathologies in the neonatal period. It increases morbidity and mortality in the newborn and can leave permanent sequelae; however, it can be prevented, diagnosed, and treated early. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with neonatal hypoglycemia in new-borns from the neonatology service at a Vicente Corral Moscoso public hospital in Cuenca-Ecuador. Methods: This case‒control study was conducted from January 2018 to December 2019. Matched by gestational age, sex, and maternal residence. Patients with NH entered the study during the first seven days of life, and the controls did not present NH. The sample was taken for convenience. The variables were gestational diabetes, uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus, small for gestational age, macrosomal, respiratory distress syndrome, and intrauterine growth restriction. The association was quantified using the odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95%. Results: A total of 101 cases and 202 controls were homogeneous in gestational age, sex, and maternal residence (P>0.05). The factors associated with statistically significant neonatal hypoglycemia were small for gestational age (OR 2.54; CI 1.54-4.20; P<0.001) and intrauterine growth restriction (OR 2.1; CI 1.29-3.54; P= 0.003), while gestational diabetes (OR 1.2; IC 0.37-4.88; P=0.649), macrosomia (OR 1.2; IC 0.28-5.1; P=0.800) and respiratory distress syndrome (OR 0.89; IC 0.54-1.47; P=0.672) were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with factors such as intrauterine growth restriction and small for gestational age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn , Risk Factors , Hypoglycemia , Glucose
11.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(10): 1334-1341, oct. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of glucose lowering agents with favorable weight profile is a growing practice in Diabetology. AIM: To characterize medication combinations in patients with type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and their effect on metabolic control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 249 outpatients with T2D with a median age of 66 years, cared for at a medical network. Clinical characteristics, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), details of Diabetes treatment (types of drugs or insulin), renal function, lipids and B12 vitamin levels were registered. RESULTS: The median disease duration was 16 years. The most recent HbA1c was 7.4%. No patient was using sulfonylureas, 45 were using Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, 113 were using Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2i) Inhibitors, 21 used Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (GLP1ra), 158 used basal insulin and 61 on basal plus bolus insulin. The use of SGLT2i or GLP1ra was associated with a metabolic control similar to those patients not using them, while patients on rapid insulin had a significantly worse metabolic control and a tendency to greater body mass index. The use of basal insulin and rapid insulin was significantly associated with more hypoglycemia events. CONCLUSIONS: The use of SGLT2i and GLP1ra in patients with T2D is associated with better metabolic control than rapid insulin with less risk of hypoglycemia. The use of these therapies should be prioritized in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Ambulatory Care , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycated Hemoglobin/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Insulin/adverse effects
12.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 53-59, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396867

ABSTRACT

En la hipoglucemia secundaria, el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus (DM) se define ante un valor de glucemia por debajo de 70 mg/dl, pudiendo manifestarse por síntomas autonómicos y neuroglucopénicos, con consecuencias a corto y largo plazo, como el deterioro de las funciones cognitivas y el aumento del riesgo cardiovascular, entre otras. La hipoglucemia en personas con DM1 es más frecuente que en aquellas con DM2. Los factores que incrementan su riesgo son: el retraso en la ingesta de comida, el alcohol, el ejercicio intenso, el ayuno y la neuropatía autonómica. Por otro lado, las hipoglucemias inadvertidas se asocian con un mayor riesgo de hipoglucemia grave. Los niños y adultos mayores son un grupo vulnerable a estos eventos que, en muchos casos, presentan síntomas difíciles de distinguir. A su vez, la hipoglucemia durante el embarazo se asocia con mayor riesgo de complicaciones. Otro grupo importante para detectar estos episodios son los pacientes hospitalizados a fin de disminuir la morbimortalidad asociada a los mismos. La calidad de vida está claramente afectada en los pacientes que sufren episodios de hipoglucemia, por lo cual resulta esencial instaurar estrategias de prevención como la educación, el monitoreo glucémico, realizar modificaciones en la dieta y el ejercicio, y ajustar la medicación. El tratamiento, en caso de no presentar pérdida de conciencia, será por vía oral, de lo contrario, se recurrirá a glucosa endovenosa o glucagón intramuscular.


Hypoglycemia due to treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined by a blood glucose value below 70 mg/dl, which can manifest itself by autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms, with short- and long-term consequences, such as impaired cognitive functions and increased cardiovascular risk, among others. Hypoglycemia in people with DM1 is more frequent than in those with DM2. Factors that increase its risk are: delayed food intake, alcohol, intense exercise, fasting and autonomic neuropathy. On the other hand, inadvertent hypoglycemia is associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycemia. Children and older adults are a vulnerable group to these events that, in many cases, present symptoms that are difficult to distinguish. Hypoglycemia during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of complications. Another important group to detect these episodes are hospitalized patients in order to reduce the morbimortality associated with them. Quality of life is clearly affected in patients who suffer episodes of hypoglycemia, so it is essential to implement prevention strategies such as education, glycemic monitoring, dietary and exercise modifications, and medication adjustment. Treatment, if there is no loss of consciousness, will be oral, otherwise, intravenous glucose or intramuscular glucagon will be used.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Therapeutics , Blood Glucose , Hypoglycemia
13.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 23-28, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396205

ABSTRACT

La última década se ha destacado por los importantes avances en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías para pacientes que viven con diabetes mellitus (DM). Las innovaciones han estado orientadas principalmente a: mejorar la calidad de vida, reducir el impacto que genera la ocurrencia de hipoglucemias y reducir la carga de la enfermedad colaborando en la toma diaria de decisiones1. El monitoreo continuo de glucosa (MCG) es una herramienta que ha experimentado un importante avance al aportar información dinámica del estado metabólico en los pacientes y permitir la toma de decisiones, demostrado por un control metabólico estable, menores excursiones glucémicas, y una reducción significativa en la aparición y gravedad de las hipoglucemias2-5. Las presentes recomendaciones tienen como objetivo brindar herramientas rápidas para la interpretación de datos metabólicos y la consiguiente toma de decisiones terapéuticas. A tal fin se realizó una exhaustiva revisión de las principales guías y recomendaciones vigentes; posteriormente, el Grupo de Trabajo adaptó esa información según una serie de preguntas con criterio clínico práctico. El avance de los MCG es innegable, no solo en el desarrollo tecnológico, sino que se han convertido en una herramienta educativa para las personas con DM, su entorno y el equipo de salud al posibilitar un ajuste dinámico del tratamiento, prevenir complicaciones agudas y mejorar la calidad de vida. En esta ecuación enfatizamos la importancia de la educación diabetológica continua de la persona con DM y su entorno, participando activamente en la toma de decisiones para, de esta manera, cumplir con los objetivos propuestos: mejorar la calidad de vida, reducir la carga de la enfermedad y disminuir las excursiones glucémicas agudas.


The last decade has been highlighted by important advances in the development of new technologies for patients living with diabetes. The innovations have been oriented above all to improve the quality of life, reduce the impact generated by the occurrence of hypoglycemia and reduce the burden of the disease by collaborating in daily decision-making1. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a tool that has undergone significant progress, providing dynamic information on the metabolic status of patients, allowing decision making, demonstrated by stable metabolic control, lower glycemic excursions and a significant reduction in the occurrence and severity of hypoglycemia2-5. The purpose of these recommendations, developed by members of the Innovation Committee of the Argentine Society of Diabetes, is to provide rapid tools for the interpretation of metabolic data and the subsequent therapeutic decisionmaking. To this end, an exhaustive review of the main current guidelines and recommendations has been carried out, later the working group adapted this information according to a series of questions with practical clinical criteria. The progress of CGMs is undeniable, not only in technological development, but it has become an educational tool for people with diabetes, their environment, and the health team, offering the possibility of a dynamic adjustment of treatment, prevention of acute complications and improving quality of life. In this equation, we emphasize the importance of continuous diabetes education for the person with diabetes and their environment, actively participating in decision-making, and in this way, meeting the proposed objectives: improving quality of life, reducing the burden of disease, and decreasing acute glycemic excursions.


Subject(s)
Hypoglycemia , Blood Glucose , Glycemic Index , Glycemic Control , Glucose
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 232-239, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371519

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipoglucemia neonatal es una complicación de la diabetes mellitus gestacional Son pocos los estudios que avalan la pesquisa sistemática en este grupo poblacional durante las primeras horas de vida. Objetivos. Evaluar la asociación entre tratamiento materno recibido (dieta versus insulina) y el desarrollo de hipoglucemia, e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados. Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo realizado en en las sedes de Buenos AIres y San Justo de un hospital general de tercer nivel entre el 1 de enero de 2017 y el 31 de diciembre de 2018. Se estimó la incidencia de hipoglucemia (≤47 mg/dl) en recién nacidos según el manejo de la diabetes materna y se realizó un análisis multivariable para evaluar factores asociados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 195 pacientes. No se encontró diferencia estadística en la incidencia de hipoglucemia según el tratamiento materno recibido (45,3 % versus 39,7 %; p = 0,45) ni se identificaron factores de riesgo asociados. Modificando el valor de corte a ≤40 mg/dl, tampoco se encontraron diferencias en la incidencia (23,4 % versus 19 %, p = 0,48); no obstante, los pacientes hipoglucémicos presentaron un hematocrito significativamente mayor y una menor prevalencia de lactancia exclusiva al egreso. El análisis multivariable mostró una asociación independiente entre alto peso al nacer con hipoglucemia que requiere corrección. Conclusiones. La incidencia de hipoglucemia neonatal en la población estudiada no presentó diferencia según el tratamiento materno recibido. El estudio realizado fundamenta el control de la glucemia en estos niños en la práctica diaria.


Introduction. Neonatal hypoglycemia is a complication of gestational diabetes mellitus. Few studies have been conducted to support a systematic screening in the first hours of life of this population group. Objectives. To assess the association between the treatment administered to the mother (diet vs. insulin) and the development of hypoglycemia, and to identify associated risk factors. Population and methods. Observational, analytical, and retrospective study carried out at the Buenos Aires and San Justo maternal centers of a general, tertiary care hospital between 01-01-2017 and 12-31-2018. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia (≤ 47 mg/dL) based on the management of maternal diabetes was estimated and a multivariate analysis was done to assess related factors. Results. A total of 195 patients were included. No statistical difference was found in the incidence of hypoglycemia based on the treatment administered to the mother (45.3% vs. 39.7%; p = 0.45) and no associated risk factors were identified. Once the cutoff point was changed to ≤ 40 mg/dL, no differences were found in the incidence either (23.4% versus 19%, p = 0.48); however, patients with hypoglycemia had a significantly higher hematocrit level and a lower prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge. Multivariate analysis showed an independent association between a high birth weight and hypoglycemia, requiring correction. Conclusions. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in the studied population did not vary based on the treatment received by the mother. This study supports the control of glycemia in these infants in daily practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Fetal Diseases , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/etiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Mothers
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 115-119, ene. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389609

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Insulin antibodies (IAs) induced by exogenous insulin rarely cause hypoglycemia. However, insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) can cause hypoglycemia. The typical manifestations of IAS are fasting or postprandial hypoglycemia, elevated insulin level, decreased C-peptide levels, and positive IAA. We report a 45-year-old male with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated with insulin analogues suffering from recurrent hypoglycemic coma and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). His symptoms were caused by exogenous insulin and were similar to IAS. A possible reason was that exogenous insulin induced IA. IA titers were 61.95% (normal: 300 mU/L and < 0.02 nmol/L when hypoglycemia occurred. Based on his clinical symptoms and other examinations, he was diagnosed with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia caused by IA. His symptoms improved after changing insulin regimens from insulin lispro plus insulin detemir to recombinant human insulin (Gensulin R) and starting prednisone.


Los anticuerpos contra la insulina (AI) inducidos por la insulina exógena raramente causan hipoglucemia. No obstante, los autoanticuerpos contra la insulina (AIA) en el síndrome autoinmune de insulina (SAI) pueden causar hipoglucemia. Las manifestaciones típicas del SAI son la hipoglucemia en ayunas o posprandial, niveles elevados de insulina, la disminución del nivel de péptido C y AIA positivos. Presentamos un paciente hombre de 45 años con diabetes mellitus de tipo 1 (DMT1) tratado con análogos de insulina, que sufría comas hipoglucémicos recurrentes y cetoacidosis diabética (CAD). Sus síntomas fueron causados por la insulina exógena y fueron similares al SAI. La posible razón fue que la insulina exógena indujo AI. El título de AI era del 61,95% (Normal: 300 mU/L y < 0,02 nmol/L cuando se producía la hipoglucemia. Basados en sus síntomas clínicos y otros exámenes, se le diagnosticó hipoglucemia hiperinsulinémica causada por la AI. Sus síntomas mejoraron después de cambiar el régimen de insulina de lispro más insulina detemir a insulina humana recombinante (Gensulin R) y de empezar a tomar prednisona.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , C-Peptide/therapeutic use , Coma , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Antibodies/therapeutic use
17.
Biol. Res ; 55: 37-37, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has glucose variability that is of such relevance that the appearance of vascular complications in patients with DM has been attributed to hyperglycemic and dysglycemic events. It is known that T1D patients mainly have glycemic variability with a specific oscillatory pattern with specific circadian characteristics for each patient. However, it has not yet been determined whether an oscillation pattern represents the variability of glycemic in T2D. This is why our objective is to determine the characteristics of glycemic oscillations in T2D and generate a robust predictive model. RESULTS: Showed that glycosylated hemoglobin, glycemia, and body mass index were all higher in patients with T2D than in controls (all p < 0.05). In addition, time in hyperglycemia and euglycemia was markedly higher and lower in the T2D group (p < 0.05), without significant differences for time in hypoglycemia. Standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and total power of glycemia were significantly higher in the T2D group than Control group (all p < 0.05). The oscillatory patterns were significantly different between groups (p = 0.032): the control group was mainly distributed at 2-3 and 6 days, whereas the T2D group showed a more homogeneous distribution across 2-3-to-6 days. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive model of glycemia showed that it is possible to accurately predict hyper- and hypo-glycemia events. Thus, T2D patients exhibit specific oscillatory patterns of glycemic control, which are possible to predict. These findings may help to improve the treatment of DM by considering the individual oscillatory patterns of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hypoglycemia , Blood Glucose , Glucose
18.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32112, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426464

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) é uma das doenças crônicas mais comuns da infância. O adequado controle do DM1 engloba uma ação multidisciplinar e envolve ambientes nos quais as crianças passam grande parte do tempo do seu dia, as escolas. Objetivos: Identificar a realidade vivenciada pelo aluno com diabetes no ambiente escolar sob a visão dos pais ou responsáveis. Métodos: Aplicado um questionário a 200 pais ou responsáveis por alunos com diabetes matriculados na educação infantil, nos ensinos fundamental e médio de escolas públicas e privadas de Belo Horizonte, compreendidos entre a faixa etária dos quatro aos dezoito anos. Resultados: A escolha da escola pelos pais foi influenciada pelo fato da criança ter diabetes em 16,5% dos casos. Houve negação inicial de matrícula. Foram necessárias explicações sobre o DM1 para os professores em 67,5% dos casos. Para 74,5% dos pais, os professores das escolas envolvidas não possuem o conhecimento necessário sobre diabetes. A maioria das crianças tem a permissão para realizar a glicemia capilar em sala de aula. Cerca de 54,5% dos alunos com diabetes fazem o uso de insulina na escola, entretanto, grande parte delas não oferecem um local específico para tal procedimento. A merenda escolar foi considerada inadequada. Houve relato de bullying. Alguns foram impedidos de participarem de excursões e até mesmo da educação física. Conclusão: Os alunos com DM1 vivenciam uma realidade inadequada no ambiente escolar. A maioria das escolas não está preparada do ponto de vista técnico e estrutural para receber estas crianças.


Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. Proper control of DM1 encompasses a multidisciplinary action and involves environments in which children spend much of their day, such as schools. Objectives: To identify the reality experienced by students with diabetes in the school environment from the perspective of parents or guardians. Methods: A questionnaire was applied for 200 parents or guardians of students with diabetes enrolled in early childhood education, in the elementary and high schools of public and private schools in Belo Horizonte, in the age group of four to eighteen years. Results: The parents' choice of school was influenced by the fact that the child had diabetes in 16.5% of cases. There was an initial denial of registration on school. Explanations about DM1 were needed for teachers in 67.5% of cases. For 74.5% of parents, school teachers do not have the necessary knowledge about diabetes. Most children are allowed to take capillary blood glucose in the classroom. About 54.5% of students with diabetes use insulin at school, however, in most of them there are not a specific place for such procedure. The school meal was considered inadequate. There was a bullying relationship. Some students were prevented from getting involved in extracurricular activities such as excursions and in physical education. Conclusion: Students with DM1 experience an inadequate reality in the school environment. Most schools are not technically and structurally prepared to receive these children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , School Health Services , Schools , School Feeding , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diet therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health , Parents , Students , School Teachers , Glycemic Control/methods , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 97 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1418590

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A literatura científica médica traz evidências que suportam a hipótese de que a hiperglicemia e o diabetes mellitus (DM) aumentam o risco de infecção e atraso na cicatrização da ferida após procedimentos cirúrgicos de grande porte. Muitos autores extrapolaram esse conceito para cirurgia menores, como as extrações dentárias. Estudos prospectivos têm sugerido que a taxa de complicações após exodontias é semelhante em pessoas com e sem DM. Objetivo: Comparar a frequência e o tipo de complicações após exodontias em pacientes com DM1 e DM2. Além disso, observar se há relação entre complicações pós-operatórias infecciosas e inflamatórias e a prescrição de antibióticos. Material e Métodos: Do total de 718 prontuários de pacientes com DM atendidos entre um período de 27 anos, 311 foram incluídos na pesquisa, uma vez que esses pacientes foram submetidos a pelo menos uma exodontia. Foram coletados dados demográficos, história médica pregressa e atual, dados relativos à(s) exodontia(s) realizada(s), complicações transoperatórias e pós-operatórias e antibioticoterapia. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino (164/311; 52,7%), cor de pele branca (230/311; 73,9%) e com média de idade de 51 anos. Sessenta e oito (21,9%) pacientes tinham DM1 e 243 (78,1%) DM2. Duzentos e vinte e sete (73,0%) tinham comorbidades associadas ao DM, sendo as doenças cardiovasculares as mais prevalentes (208/311; 66,9%). Nos 311 prontuários, havia registro de 895 intervenções de exodontias, das quais 192 (21,5%) foram realizadas em pacientes com DM1 e 703 (78,5%) em pacientes com DM2, elas foram adiadas em 29 prontuários (29/895; 3,2%). Complicações transoperatórias estavam registradas em 08 prontuários (08/895; 0,9%), sendo a hemorragia transoperatória a complicação mais frequente, em 3 dos 8 registros. Das 895 intervenções, encontramos 25 registros de complicações após as exodontias. Pacientes com DM1 exibiram 11 (11/192; 5,7%) registros de complicações após as exodontias, sendo eles: registro de edema (1), trismo (1), abscesso (1), atrasos na epitelização (2), sequestro de espícula óssea (3), alergia a medicamento (1) e alveolite (2). Nos pacientes com DM2, computamos 14 (14/703; 2%) registros de complicações, sendo eles: registros de dor (7), parestesia (1), abcesso (1), sequestro de espícula óssea (3) e alveolite (2). Os pacientes com DM1 exibiram mais complicações após exodontias que os pacientes com DM2 (5,7% versus 2%; p=0,011). Houve prescrição antibiótica para 26% dos pacientes com DM1 (50/192) e para 15% dos pacientes com DM2 (105/703). Não foi observada associação entre complicações pós-operatórias inflamatórias e infecciosas e a prescrição de antibiótico profilático. Conclusão: A prevalência de complicações após exodontias foi baixa e semelhante entre os pacientes com DM1 e DM2. É possível afirmar que o DM não aumenta o risco de complicações infecciosas e inflamatórias após exodontias.


Subject(s)
Tooth Extraction , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Infection Control, Dental , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia
20.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 19(1): 42-56, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362458

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipoglucemia inadvertida incrementa el riesgo de la hipoglucemia severa en pacientes con diabetes. Una medición objetiva de la misma requiere instrumentos como el HypoA-Q, que, a diferencia de otros, mide conciencia de episodios nocturnos; sin embargo, no se dispone de una versión en español. Objetivo: Traducir y adaptar culturalmente la escala HypoA-Q para la medición de conciencia de la hipoglucemia en pacientes colombianos con Diabetes Mellitus. Metodología: Estudio de Adaptación transcultural del instrumento Hy-poA-Q. Se obtuvo la autorización de la autora para su traducción y adaptación a la población colombiana. Se siguió la metodología de la European Organisation for Research and Treat-ment for Cancer (EORTC). Al respecto, se realizaron dos traducciones directas por hablantes nativos del español, una versión reconciliada, dos traducciones inversas por dos hablantes nativos del inglés y una prueba piloto en 15 pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes. Resulta-dos: Aunque las traducciones directas al español fueron similares, se hicieron ajustes para obtener una versión reconciliada con palabras más fáciles de comprender cambiando las uni-dades de mmol/L a mg/dl. Las traducciones inversas fueron similares al original en inglés. La prueba piloto, realizada en 15 pacientes, no requirió ajustar ningún ítem, pues la frecuencia de ítems con dificultades de comprensión, confusión o palabras ofensivas fue menor al 15%. Conclusiones: Se dispone de la versión en español para Colombia de la escala HypoA-Q. Se aconseja realizar un estudio de evaluación de sus propiedades psicométricas antes de ser usada en investigaciones o en la práctica clínica


Introdução: a hipoglicemia inadvertida incrementa o risco de hipoglicemia severa em pacientes com diabetes. Uma medição da mesma requer instrumentos como o HypoA-Q, que a diferença de outros, mede consciência de episódios noturnos; entretanto, não se dispõe de uma versão em espanhol. Objetivo: traduzir e adaptar culturalmente a escala HypoA-Q para mensurar a consciência de hipoglicemia em pacientes colombianos com Diabetes Mellitus. Materiais e métodos: estudo de adaptação transcultural do instrumento HypoA-Q. Obteve-se a autorização da autora para a sua tradução e adaptação à população colombiana. Seguiu-se a metodologia da European Organization for Research Treatment for Cancer (EORTC). Realizaram-se duas traduções diretas por falantes nativos de língua espanhola e uma versão conciliada, duas traduções inversas por falantes nativos da língua inglesa e uma prova piloto em 15 pacientes com diagnostico de diabetes. Resultados: Embora as traduções diretas ao espanhol foram semelhantes, foram feitos ajustes para obter uma versão conciliada com palavras mais simples de compreender substituindo as unidades de mmol/L para mg/dl. As traduções inversas foram semelhantes ao instrumento original em inglês. A prova piloto realizada não precisou ajustar nenhum item, devido a que os itens com dificuldade de compreensão, confusão ou palavras ofensivas foi inferior ao 15%. Conclusão: Dispõe-se da versão em espanhol para Colômbia da escala HypoA-Q. Aconselha-se realizar um estudo de avaliação das propriedades psicométricas antes de ser usada em pesquisa ou na prática clinica


Subject(s)
Validation Study , Surveys and Questionnaires , Conscience , Hypoglycemia
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