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1.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 83: 40020, 30 jan. 2024. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1556410

ABSTRACT

A resposta imunológica pelo SARS-CoV-2 após protocolos vacinais e infecção natural é pouco compreendida. Comparando indivíduos vacinados com esquema heterólogo que receberam um reforço vacinal (imunidade vacinal) com aqueles que apresentaram episódio leve de COVID-19 (imunidade híbrida) no mesmo período, verificamos níveis semelhantes de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2. Em culturas de células mononucleares, o estímulo com o antígeno viral induziu produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias nos dois grupos, entretanto, os níveis de IL-17 foram menores em indivíduos com imunidade vacinal. Nossos resultados sugerem que o reforço vacinal teve efeitos semelhantes à infecção natural pelo SARS-CoV-2 na resposta imunológica de indivíduos previamente vacinados. (AU)


The immune response generated by SARS-CoV-2 vaccination protocols and natural infection remains incompletely understood. We compared individuals who received a heterologous vaccination scheme with a booster shot (vaccine immunity) to those who experienced a mild COVID-19 episode (hybrid immunity) during the same timeframe. Our findings revealed similar levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in both groups. Stimulation by viral antigen in mononuclear cell cultures induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in both groups, while individuals with vaccine immunity exhibited lower IL-17. These results suggest that a vaccine booster can induce an immune response in previously vaccinated individuals comparable to that elicited by natural SARS-CoV-2 infection. (AU)


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Immunity , Antibodies
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0004, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535601

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report was aimed at presenting a case of neurotrophic keratitis and concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient who has recently undergone a corneal DALK transplant. One month after corneal transplantation with adequate corneal epithelialization, the patient presented neurotrophic keratitis with a torpid course of the corneal transplant coinciding with a SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an excessive host immune response. In addition, the patient presented a re-positivization of nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction of SARS-CoV-2 with past disease after starting treatment with autologous serum eye drops. The implications at the ophthalmological level of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be clarified as the time the illness progresses and we learn more about how it acts. In this case, the disparity of signs and symptoms, the antecedent of corneal surgery, and the possibility of a herpetic infection as a cause of the primary leukoma suggested neurotrophic keratitis. Nonetheless, the involvement of systemic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the process, triggering an excessive host immune response at the corneal level with an increase in inflammatory cytokines must be taken into account. No relationship was found between treatment with autologous serum and re-positivization of nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction, presenting the patient a favorable response to treatment.


RESUMO O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso de ceratite neurotrófica e infecção concomitante por SARS-CoV-2 em paciente submetido recentemente a transplante de córnea DALK. Um mês após o transplante de córnea com adequada epitelização da córnea, o paciente apresentou ceratite neurotrófica com curso tórpido do transplante de córnea, coincidindo com infecção por SARS-CoV-2, com resposta imune excessiva do hospedeiro. Além disso, o paciente apresentou repositivização da reação em cadeia da polimerase nasofaríngeo de SARS-CoV-2, com doença pregressa após iniciar tratamento com colírio de soro autólogo. As implicações a nível oftalmológico da infecção por SARS-CoV-2, podem ser esclarecidas à medida que a doença progride e aprendemos mais sobre sua forma de atuação. Neste caso, a disparidade de sinais e sintomas, o antecedente de cirurgia de córnea e a possibilidade de infecção herpética como causa do leucoma primário sugeriram ceratite neurotrófica. No entanto, deve-se levar em consideração o envolvimento da infecção sistêmica por SARS-CoV-2 no processo, desencadeando uma resposta imune excessiva do hospedeiro no nível da córnea, com aumento de citocinas inflamatórias. Não foi encontrada relação entre o tratamento com soro autólogo e a repositivização da reação em cadeia da polimerase nasofaríngea, apresentando ao paciente uma resposta favorável ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Corneal Ulcer/diagnosis , Corneal Ulcer/therapy , Corneal Transplantation , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications , Immune Adherence Reaction , Corneal Ulcer/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Azithromycin , Cefixime , Serum , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Slit Lamp Microscopy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunity , Keratitis
3.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 33 (2), 2023;33(2): 2-3, oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1517069

ABSTRACT

El contexto socio-cultural actual, con su vertiginoso indi¬vidualismo y cada vez más alejado de lo colectivo, nos exige ejercitar la bioética y reflexionar sobre la lógica inmunitaria y la teoría del sistema inmunitario. La división siempre fue igual: blanco/negro, el bien/el mal, anticuerpo/antígeno, normal/patológico, occidente/oriente, civilización/barbarie, gen/proteína, y la lista es inagotable. Desde la lógica inmunitaria estas asociaciones se sintetizan en el par dicotómico vertical lo propio/lo no propio, donde el cuerpo humano biologizado (o biomedicalizado) representaría lo propio, que debe protegerse de lo considerado no propio, como podría ser un microorganismo o un cáncer. ¿De qué hablamos cuando hablamos de inmunidad? Depende. En la sinopsis del libro de divulgación científica Qué es el sistema inmune, escrito por Gabriel Rabinovich y Jorge Geffner, se anuncia (2014): "Sin que nos demos cuenta, nuestro organismo es un territorio en el que día y noche se desarrollan batallas épicas. Se producen en la intimidad de nuestros tejidos, y con armas más versátiles y efectivas que ninguna de las diseñadas por la industria bélica. Las protagoniza el sistema inmune, que distingue lo propio de lo extraño, nos protege de microorganis¬mos patógenos y descarta errores en la cadena de producción de las células (1)". En otro sentido, en la solapa del libro Immunitas. Protec¬ción y negación de la vida de Roberto Espósito se lee (2009): "La inmunidad preserva la comunidad al tiempo que la debilita". La fisiología del sistema inmunológico obedece a una lógica contradictoria: "la vida busca afirmase en aquello que la niega" (2). Es decir, para sobrevivir, conservar, proliferar y potenciar lo propio, se necesita de lo extraño. ¿Quién se puede negar a proteger lo que es de uno (tu cuerpo, tu casa, tu renta, tu país)? "Lo no propio" representa la esencia de la categoría "enfermedad" y se establece como ejemplar predilecto del discurso inmunitario, habiendo evo¬lucionado en sentido común. El sentido común, la obviedad vacía, materializa las re¬presentaciones del vulgo y produce un ethos mediado por el discurso biomédico con el objetivo de cosificar y colocar a las personas bajo la órbita comercial, donde "lo no propio" y la "enfermedad" funcionan como dispositivo espectacular de valor agregado. En este sentido, Donna Haraway sostiene: "Dirijo mi atención principalmente hacia ese polimorfo y poderosos objeto de fe, conocimiento y práctica llamado sistema inmunitario. Mi tesis es que el Sistema Inmunitario es un elaborado ícono para sistemas clave de "diferenciación" simbólica y material en el capitalismo tardío. Preeminente¬mente un objeto del siglo veinte, el Sistema Inmunitario es un mapa dibujado para guiar el reconocimiento y el desconoci¬miento del sí mismo y del otro en la dialéctica de la política occidental (Haraway en Esposito, 2009)." Este rasgo esencial del Sistema Inmune (lo no propio) se encuadra en el hábito de designar a las instituciones y a los eventos culturales como conceptos médico-biológicos y calificarlos en términos de moralidad, siempre en pares dicotómicos verticales, donde lo "mejor/peor" o "superior/inferior" es el sustrato favorito para fabricar conceptos aso¬ciados a ellos, en este caso "lo propio/lo no propio" (3, 4). La naturaleza del mecanismo inmunitario es una teoría, devenida verdad, cuya atracción para el estudiantado y su facilidad para estudiarla y comprenderla proviene de la dicotomía axiológica "lo propio y lo no propio" y desde la metáfora bélica. El problema surge cuando ­televisión de por medio­ se produce el pasaje de verdades (conceptos) médicas a la comunidad, porque la sociedad y el espectáculo encuentran en el fascinante discurso médico su argumentación teórica (5). Ahora bien, imaginemos la siguiente definición: El Sistema Inmunitario se encarga de reconocer e incluir lo no propio, para interactuar con lo propio y fortalecerse. El contenido y el mecanismo fisiológico es el mismo; sólo cambió el discurso y, por ende, el significado. Lamentablemente, para que "la cosa funcione" el discurso inmunitario debe ser el de siempre: el de una batalla, y si es épica mejor.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Biological Science Disciplines , Medicine
5.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(1): 7-13, mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553739

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad desmielinizante que afecta el sistema nervioso central. A pesar de los avances en materia de diagnóstico y tratamiento, se desconocen aún muchos aspectos de su etiopatogenia y fisiopatología. La EM es una de las principales causas de discapacidad neurológica y, por los elevados costos de los tratamientos inmunomoduladores e inmunosupresores, tiene un gran impacto económico en la salud pública. Por ello, se intentaron diversos tratamientos preventivos, como la utilización de la vitamina D. Debido a la acción de la vitamina D sobre el sistema inmune, ha sido prescripta en sujetos de riesgo. Sin embargo, hasta el momento actual, los estudios sobre sus efectos no resultaron concluyentes y persisten las dudas acerca de sus posibles beneficios en materia de prevención. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica es realizar una puesta al día y destacar los aspectos controversiales en relación al uso de la vitamina D como tratamiento preventivo de la esclerosis múltiple. (AU)


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, many aspects of its etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology remain unknown. MS is one of the main causes of neurological disability and, due to the high costs of modern immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive treatments, it has a great economic impact on public health. Therefore, numerous efforts have been made in the search for preventive treatments. For this reason, various preventive treatments were tried, such as the use of vitamin D. Due to its action on the immune system, it has been used in subjects at ME risk. However, these studies have been inconclusive to date, and its possible benefits in terms of prevention are still being questioned. The objective of this bibliographic review is to update and highlight the controversial aspects in relation to the use of vitamin D as a preventive treatment of multiple sclerosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Immune System/drug effects , Immunity , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology
6.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 559-571, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate, but the treatment of lung cancer still lacks low toxicity and efficient anti-tumor drugs. Polysaccharide from radix tetrastigme has development value in anti-tumor treatment methods. This study was to observe the effect of polysaccharide from radix tetrastigme on immune response of Lewis lung cancer mice and explore its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Lewis lung cancer mouse models were established and randomly grouped. The spleen polypeptide group was intragastric with 50 mg/kg spleen polypeptide, and the radix tetrastigme polysaccharide low, medium and high dose groups were intragastric with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg radix tetrastigme polysaccharide, respectively, and the model group and the control group were intragastric with equivolume normal saline. Tumor formation and metastasis were compared. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of tumor cells. Macrophage phagocytosis, apoptosis, M1/M2 polarization, T cell subsets and cytokine levels in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. The proliferation activity of macrophages was detected by methyl thiazolyldiphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Dendritic cell (DC) antigen presenting function was detected by chlorophenol red-β-D-galactopyranoside (CPRG) method. Tumor tissue differentiation antigen cluster 47 (CD47) mRNA and protein expression and macrophage signal regulatory protein α (SIRRP α) expression were detected by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot (WB).@*RESULTS@#The tumor inhibition rates and anti-metastasis rates in the 3-dose radix tetrastigme polysaccharide group and the spleen polypeptide group were higher than those in the model group, and the pathological injury of tumor tissue were severer, and the positive rate of phagocytosis of ink by macrophages and the efficiency of phagocytosis of tumor cells were increased; the apoptosis rate of macrophages was decreased; the proliferation activity of macrophages, polarization ratio of macrophages to M1 type, DC antigen presenting ability, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ levels were increased; the level of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and the expression of tumor tissue CD47, macrophage SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2), and phosphorylation signal regulatory protein α (p-SIRPα) were decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the above indexes between low-dose radix tetrastigme polysaccharide group and spleen polypeptide group (P>0.05), and the effects of radix tetrastigme polysaccharide were dose-dependent.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Radix tetrastigme polysaccharide can inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and immune response in Lewis lung cancer mice, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting SIRP/CD47 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , CD47 Antigen/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cytokines/genetics , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Immunity , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
7.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1157-1164, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of moxibustion at "Mingmen" (GV 4) and "Guanyuan" (CV 4) on immune function and intestinal flora in healthy rats, thereby investigating the underlying mechanism of moxibustion on immune function.@*METHODS@#Twenty 8-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into a young blank group and a young moxibustion group, with 10 rats in each group. Similarly, twenty 8-month-old SD rats were randomly divided into a middle-aged blank group and a middle-aged moxibustion group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the two moxibustion groups received moxibustion at "Mingmen" (GV 4) and "Guanyuan" (CV 4), 15 min per session, once daily, five times a week, for a total of four months. The rats in the two blank groups were fed under normal conditions. After the intervention, thymus and spleen indexes were calculated; the morphology of thymus and spleen tissues was observed using HE staining; the flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of CD and CD T lymphocytes and the CD/CD ratio was calculated; ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-17 (IL-17); 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the intestinal flora. Additionally, the correlation between the relative abundance of intestinal flora and serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the young blank group, the young moxibustion group exhibited an increase in the cortical area of thymus tissue with tighter lymphocyte arrangement; compared with the middle-aged blank group, the middle-aged moxibustion group showed an increase in thymus index (P<0.05) and an increase in the cortical area of thymus tissue. There were no significant differences in spleen index between the 2 moxibustion groups and the 2 blank groups (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the expression of CD, CD, and CD/CD ratio between the 2 moxibustion groups and the corresponding blank groups (P>0.05). Compared with the young blank group, the young moxibustion group had elevated IL-6 level (P<0.05); compared with the middle-aged blank group, the middle-aged moxibustion group had decreased IL-10 and IL-17 levels (P<0.05). Compared with the young blank group, the young moxibustion group exhibited increased Sobs index, Ace index, and Chao index (P<0.01, P<0.05), as well as increased relative abundance of Spirochaetota, Treponema, Turicibacter, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group (P<0.05), and decreased relative abundance of Dubosiella (P<0.05). Compared with the middle-aged blank group, the middle-aged moxibustion group had increased relative abundance of Spirochaetota, Treponema, norank_f_Peptococcaceae (P<0.05), and decreased relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Allobaculum, and Faecalibaculum (P<0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that relative abundance of Eubacterium_xylanophilum_group and unclassified _f_Lachnospiraceae was negatively correlated with serum TNF-α level (r=-0.39, P=0.03; r=-0.24, P=0.04), while relative abundance of norank_f_norank_o_Clostridia_UCG-014 and Lactobacillus was positively correlated with serum TNF-α level (r=0.37, P=0.04; r=0.43, P=0.02). The relative abundance of Roseburia and Monoglobus was negatively correlated with serum IFN-γ level (r=-0.40, P=0.02; r=-0.44, P=0.01), while relative abundance of Lactobacillus was positively correlated with serum IL-10 level (r=0.43, P=0.02).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could improve immune function in healthy rats, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of relative abundance of intestinal flora.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Moxibustion , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-17 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Interferon-gamma , Immunity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010579

ABSTRACT

Aeriscardovia aeriphila, also known as Bifidobacterium aerophilum, was first isolated from the caecal contents of pigs and the faeces of cotton-top tamarin. Bifidobacterium species play important roles in preventing intestinal infections, decreasing cholesterol levels, and stimulating the immune system. In this study, we isolated a strain of bacteria from the duodenal contents of broiler chickens, which was identified as A. aeriphila, and then evaluated the effects of A. aeriphila on growth performance, antioxidant functions, immune functions, and gut microbiota in commercial broiler chickens. Chickens were orally gavaged with A. aeriphila (1×109 CFU/mL) for 21 d. The results showed that A. aeriphila treatment significantly increased the average daily gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio (P<0.001). The levels of serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were significantly increased following A. aeriphila treatment (P<0.05). Blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were decreased, whereas glucose and creatinine levels increased as a result of A. aeriphila treatment. Furthermore, the levels of serum antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (P<0.01), superoxide dismutase (P<0.001), and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.05) were enhanced following A. aeriphila treatment. A. aeriphila treatment significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) (P<0.05), IgG (P<0.01), IgM (P<0.05), interleukin-1 (IL-1) (P<0.05), IL-4 (P<0.05), and IL-10 (P<0.05). The broiler chickens in the A. aeriphila group had higher secretory IgA (SIgA) levels in the duodenum (P<0.01), jejunum (P<0.001), and cecum (P<0.001) than those in the control group. The messenger RNA (mRNA) relative expression levels of IL-10 (P<0.05) and IL-4 (P<0.001) in the intestinal mucosa of chickens were increased, while nuclear factor-‍κB (NF‍-‍κB) (P<0.001) expression was decreased in the A. aeriphila group compared to the control group. Phylum-level analysis revealed Firmicutes as the main phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes, in both groups. The data also found that Phascolarctobacterium and Barnesiella were increased in A. aeriphila-treated group. In conclusion, oral administration of A. aeriphila could improve the growth performance, serum antioxidant capacity, immune modulation, and gut health of broilers. Our findings may provide important information for the application of A. aeriphila in poultry production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chickens , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Immunity , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis , Dietary Supplements/analysis
9.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515284

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La síntesis intratecal de anticuerpos contra algunos virus neurotrópicos como sarampión, rubéola y virus varicela zoster en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple, con una frecuencia muy superior a la esperada, llevó a la introducción de la reacción sarampión-rubéola-varicela. La presencia de anticuerpos específicos detectados en el líquido cefalorraquídeo contra dos o más de estos virus apoyó el diagnóstico no solo de la esclerosis múltiple, sino de otras enfermedades autoinmunes que involucran al sistema nervioso central. Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de respuesta inmune intratecal poliespecífica en pacientes pediátricos con proceso neuroinflamatorio independiente del agente biológico involucrado. Presentación de caso: Se estudiaron ocho niños a los cuales, mediante inmunodifusión radial simple y por ensayo inmunoenzimático, se les cuantificaron las concentraciones de inmunoglobulina G y albúmina en suero, y líquido cefalorraquídeo, lo que permitió determinar la síntesis intratecal de inmunoglobulinas. Por métodos inmunoenzimáticos se cuantificaron las concentraciones de IgG específica contra los virus estudiados en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo, con lo cual se determinó el índice de anticuerpo específico. La reacción sarampión-rubéola-varicela fue positiva en cinco pacientes y los valores medios de este índice se encontraron por encima de 1,5 para citomegalovirus y virus herpes simple. Conclusiones: Se identificaron repuestas neuroinmune antiviral poliespecífica en pacientes pediátricos con proceso neuroinflamatorio(AU)


Introduction: The intrathecal synthesis of antibodies against some neurotropic viruses such as measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus in patients with multiple sclerosis, with a frequency much higher than expected, led to the introduction of the measles-rubella-varicella reaction. The presence of specific antibodies detected in cerebrospinal fluid against two or more of these viruses supported the diagnosis not only of multiple sclerosis, but also of other autoimmune diseases involving the central nervous system. Objective: To identify the presence of polyspecific intrathecal immune response in pediatric patients with neuroinflammatory process independent of the biological agent involved. Case presentation: Eight children were studied and their serum and cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G and albumin concentrations were quantified by simple radial immunodiffusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis. The concentrations of specific IgG against the viruses studied in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, thus determining the specific antibody index. The measles-rubella-varicella reaction was positive in five patients and the mean values of this index were found to be above 1.5 for cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. Conclusions: Polyspecific antiviral neuroimmune antiviral responses were identified in pediatric patients with neuroinflammatory process(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/cerebrospinal fluid
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508231

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ejercicio mejora muchos aspectos de la salud humana, incluso, regula el sistema inmune. Se ha comprobado que el ejercicio moderado y regular ejerce efectos antiinflamatorios. Al mejorar las funciones inmunitarias, reduce la incidencia de enfermedades no transmisibles y la susceptibilidad a infecciones virales. Objetivo: Describir los efectos de la actividad física sobre el sistema inmune innato y adaptativo. Método: Para este manuscrito se usó la base de datos PubMed y Google Académico. Se utilizaron los términos ejercicios físicos, inmunidad, macrófago, neutrófilos, linfocitos e inmunoglobulinas, según el descriptor de Ciencias de la Salud. Se incluyeron 53 artículos en la revisión. Conclusiones: El ejercicio agudo (intensidad moderada a vigorosa, menos de 150 min) se considera un inmunoestimulante porque mejora la actividad antimicrobicida de los macrófagos e incrementa la síntesis de citocinas antiinflamatorias. Además, favorece el tráfico de neutrófilos, células NK, células T citotóxicas y células B inmaduras(AU)


Introduction: Exercise improves many aspects of human health, including, regulating the immune system. Moderate training has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. By improving immune functions, it reduces the incidence of non-communicable diseases and susceptibility to viral infections. Objective: To describe the effects of physical activity on the innate and adaptive immune system. Methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were used. The terms physical exercise, immunity, macrophage, neutrophils, lymphocytes and immunoglobulins were used, according to the Health Sciences descriptor (DeCS). Eighty-six articles were included in the review. Conclusions: Acute exercise (moderate to vigorous intensity, less than 150 min) is considered an immunostimulant because it enhances the antimicrobicidal activity of macrophages and increases the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it favors the movement of neutrophils, NK cells, cytotoxic T cells and immature B cells(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immunity , Macrophages/immunology
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21769, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Currently, mucosal vaccine administration has stood out as an easier and non-invasive application method. It can also be used to induce local and systemic immune responses. In the COVID-19 pandemic context, nasal and oral vaccines have been developed based on different technological platforms. This review addressed relevant aspects of mucosal vaccine administration, with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccinations, in addition to the importance of using nanotechnology-based delivery systems to enable these strategies.


Subject(s)
Vaccines/analysis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Immunity/immunology
12.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-10, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1413422

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in China in 2019 and later ignited a global pandemic. Contrary to expectations, the effect of the pandemic was not as devastating to Africa and its young population compared to the rest of the world. To provide insight into the possible reasons for the presumed immune sufficiency to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Africa, this review critically examines literature published from 2020 onwards on the dynamics of COVID-19 infection and immunity and how other prevalent infectious diseases in Africa might have influenced the outcome of COVID-19. Studies characterising the immune response in patients with COVID-19 show that the correlates of protection in infected individuals are T-cell responses against the SARSCoV-2 spike protein and neutralising titres of immunoglobin G and immunoglobin A antibodies. In some other studies, substantial pre-existing T-cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in many people from diverse geographical locations without a history of exposure. Certain studies also suggest that innate immune memory, which offers protection against reinfection with the same or another pathogen, might influence the severity of COVID-19. In addition, an initial analysis of epidemiological data showed that COVID-19 cases were not severe in some countries that implemented universal Bacillus Calmette­Guerin (BCG) vaccination policies, thus supporting the potential of BCG vaccination to boost innate immunity. The high burden of infectious diseases and the extensive vaccination campaigns previously conducted in Africa could have induced specific and non-specific protective immunity to infectious pathogens in Africans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccination , Coronavirus , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Communicable Diseases , Pandemics , Immunity
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of breastfeeding on immune function in infants with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 135 infants with HCMV infection who were admitted to Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from January 2021 to May 2022, and all these infants received breastfeeding. According to the results of breast milk HCMV-DNA testing, the infants were divided into two groups: breast milk HCMV positive (n=78) and breast milk HCMV negative (n=57). According to the median breast milk HCMV-DNA load, the infants in the breast milk HCMV positive group were further divided into two subgroups: high viral load and low viral load (n=39 each). Related indicators were compared between the breast milk positive and negative HCMV groups and between the breast milk high viral load and low viral load subgroups, including the percentages of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells), CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IgG, IgM, IgA, and urine HCMV-DNA load.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the percentages of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IgG, IgM, IgA, and urine HCMV-DNA load between the breast milk HCMV positive and HCMV negative groups, as well as between the breast milk high viral load and low viral load subgroups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Breastfeeding with HCMV does not affect the immune function of infants with HCMV infection.


Subject(s)
Female , Child , Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Cytomegalovirus Infections , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Retrospective Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Milk, Human , Cytomegalovirus , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 586-602, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970393

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for material degradation and recycling in eukaryote cells, and plays important roles in growth, development, stress tolerance and immune responses. ATG10 plays a key role in autophagosome formation. To understand the function of ATG10 in soybean, two homologous GmATG10 genes, namely GmATG10a and GmATG10b, were silenced simultaneously by bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) induced gene silencing. The carbon starvation induced by dark treatment and Western blotting analysis of GmATG8 accumulation level indicated that concurrent silencing GmATG10a/10b resulted in the impairment of autophagy in soybean; disease resistance and kinase assays demonstrated that GmATG10a/10b participated in the immune responses by negatively regulating the activation of GmMPK3/6, indicating that GmATG10a/10b plays a negative regulatory role in immune response in soybean.


Subject(s)
Glycine max/genetics , Immunity
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of moxibustion on the stem cell factor (SCF)/tyrosine kinase receptor (c-kit) signaling pathway and immune function in rats with diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore the mechanism of moxibustion for IBS-D.@*METHODS@#Among 52 young rats born from 6 healthy pregnant SPF rats, 12 rats were randomly selected into the normal group, and the remaining 40 rats were treated with the three-factor combination method of maternal separation, acetic acid enema and chronic restraint stress to establish the IBS-D rat model. Thirty-six rats with successful IBS-D model were randomly divided into a model group, a moxibustion group, and a medication group, 12 rats in each group. The rats in the moxibustion group were treated with suspension moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37); the rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of rifaximin suspension (150 mg/kg). All the treatments were given once a day for 7 consecutive days. The body mass, loose stool rate (LSR), the minimum volume threshold when abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scored 3 were measured before acetic acid enema (35 days old), after modeling (45 days old), and after intervention (53 days old). After intervention (53 days old), HE staining was used to observe the morphology of colon tissue, and spleen and thymus coefficients were measured; ELISA method was used to detect serum inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor a [TNF-a], interleukin [IL]-10, IL-8), T-lymphocyte subsets (CD+4, CD+8, CD+45), value of CD+4/CD+8 and immune globulin (IgA, IgG, IgM); real-time PCR method and Western blot method was used to detect the expression of SCF, c-kit mRNA and protein in colon tissue; immunofluorescence staining method were used to detect positive expression of SCF and c-kit.@*RESULTS@#After intervention, compared with the normal group, in the model group, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 were decreased (P<0.01), LSR, spleen and thymus coefficients, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, CD+4, CD+45, CD+4/CD+8, IgA, IgG, IgM were increased (P<0.01), serum IL-10 level and protein and mRNA expression of SCF and c-kit in colon tissue were decreased (P<0.01), and the positive expression of SCF and c-kit was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the moxibustion group and the medication group, the body mass and the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), LSR, spleen and thymus coefficients, serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, CD+4, CD+8, CD+45, CD+4/CD+8, IgA, IgG, IgM were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), serum IL-10 level and protein and mRNA expression of SCF and c-kit in colon tissue were increased (P<0.01), and the positive expression of SCF and c-kit was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, in the moxibustion group, the level of serum CD+4 was decreased (P<0.05), the value of CD+4/CD+8 was increased (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference in other indexes (P>0.05). The expression of SCF and c-kit mRNA was positively correlated with the minimum volume threshold when AWR scored 3 and IL-10 (P<0.01), and negatively correlated with remaining indexes (P<0.01, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could reduce visceral hypersensitivity, improve symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhea in IBS-D rats, and its mechanism may be related to up-regulation of the expression of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway and improvement of IBS-D immune function.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Moxibustion/methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-8 , Maternal Deprivation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Diarrhea , Signal Transduction , Homeostasis , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Immunity , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin M
16.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 504-508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986160

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of combined blockade of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and inducible co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS) on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver fibrosis and imbalance of T helper lymphocyte subsets in mice. Methods: There were 40 BALB/c mice in each model and control group. Flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells in the splenic lymphocyte suspension of mice, the expression levels of interferon γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in the splenic lymphocyte suspension of liver fibrosis mice after combined blockade of IL-33 and ICOS, and the pathological changes of liver histopathology in mice with liver fibrosis. Two independent sample t-test was used to compare data between groups. Results: Compared with the non-blocking group, the proportion of Th2 and Th17 cells in the IL-33/ICOS blocking group was significantly down-regulated (Th2: 65.96% ± 6.04% vs. 49.09% ± 7.03%; Th17: 19.17% ± 4.03% vs. 9.56% ± 2.03%), while the proportion of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were up-regulated (Th1: 17.14% ± 3.02% vs. 31.93% ± 5.02%; Th1/Th2: 0.28 ± 0.06 vs. 0.62 ± 0.23), and the difference was statistically significant (t = 5.15, 6.03, 7.14, 4.28, respectively, with P < 0.05). After entering the chronic inflammation stage of liver fibrosis in mice (10 weeks), compared with the non-blocking group, the expression levels of IL-4 and IL-17 in the blockade group were significantly down-regulated [IL-4: (84.75 ± 14.35) pg/ ml vs. (77.88 ± 19.61) pg/ml; IL-17: (72.38 ± 15.13) pg/ml vs. (36.38 ± 8.65) pg/ml], while the expression of interferon γ was up-regulated [(37.25 ± 11.51) pg/ml vs. (77.88 ± 19.61) pg/ml], and the difference was statistically significant (t: IL-4: 4.71; IL-17: 5.84; interferon γ: 5.05, respectively, with P < 0.05). Liver histopathological results showed that hepatic necrosis, hepatic lobular structural disorder, and fibrous tissue hyperplasia were significantly lower in the blockade group than those in the non-blocking group at 13 weeks of liver fibrosis. Conclusion: Combined blockade of the ICOS signaling pathway and IL-33 can regulate Th2 and Th17 polarization, down-regulate the inflammatory response, and inhibit or prevent the occurrence and progression of fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Th2 Cells , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells/pathology , Immunity
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 673-676, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985545

ABSTRACT

With the expansion of mpox virus infection from endemic to a global epidemic in 2022, the WHO declared that the mpox event constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Due to the high degree of gene sequence similarity among orthopox viruses and cross-reactive antibodies induced by orthoviruses, smallpox vaccination may affect the immune response induced by mpox virus infection. The analysis of the protective effects of smallpox vaccination against mpox virus infection will help define the focus of prevention and control. In this review, we clarify the protection of the smallpox vaccine against mpox virus infection by analyzing the correlation between smallpox vaccination, immune response status, and clinical data and providing evidence for the prevention, control, and strategies of mpox epidemics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smallpox/epidemiology , Mpox (monkeypox)/drug therapy , Smallpox Vaccine/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Immunity
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1569-1573, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010007

ABSTRACT

Although the body has a strong immune system which can resists the invasion of leukemia cells, leukemia cells disseminate systemically and form an immunosuppressive microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms, including regulation of antigen presentation, utilization of immunosuppressive enzyme AXL, immune cell inhibitory checkpoint NKG2A and immunoregulatory gene VISTA, resulting in immune escape. Therefore, most types of leukemia are inevitable for the affliction of drug resistance or relapse, and the immune efficacy is not as significant as that of other hematological tumors and the prognosis is suboptimal. This article reviews the immune heterogeneity of leukemia microenvironment from many aspects, including anti-leukemia immunity and immune escape. In addition, it also reviews the latest progress and future prospects of immune checkpoint inhibition, adoptive cell therapy and vaccine therapy in leukemia, providing a theoretical basis for the development of personalized combination therapy strategies with less toxic side effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Leukemia/therapy , Immunity , Combined Modality Therapy , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009427

ABSTRACT

Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), a potentially carcinogenic toxin, is produced by Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis and Ananabacteria during water bloom. Increasing evidence demonstrated that MC-LR induces male reproductive toxicity, mainly by inducing germ cell apoptosis, destroying cell cytoskeleton, interfering with DNA damage repair pathway, and damaging blood-testicular barrier (BTB), which eventually lead to male sterility. Testicular Sertoli cells are the somatic cells that directly contact with spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules. They not only regulate immune response to maintain testicular immune homeostasis by secreting a variety of cytokines and immunosuppressive factors, but also provide the protective effects of spermatogenic cells by forming BTB. MC-LR induces inflammation and apoptosis of Sertoli cells, and destroys the integrity of the BTB, and then causes spermatogenesis dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Sertoli Cells , Leucine/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Microcystins/metabolism , Immunity
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009426

ABSTRACT

Monocytes are important target cells of various hemorrhagic fever viruses. In viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), monocytes can be infected by viruses and produce different kinds of cytokines, which contribute to the antiviral immune response and participation in the immunopathogenesis of VHFs. During the pathogenesis of various VHFs (early stage), monocytes change in cell counting, subpopulation distribution and expression of surface molecules with an activated phenotype. Several hemorrhagic fever viruses can infect monocytes and induce immune response, which may play an important role in immunopathological injury. Monocytes and the cytokines they produce may interact with platelets and vascular endothelial cells, contributing to disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Monocytes , Endothelial Cells , Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/pathology , Immunity , Cytokines
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