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1.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 101-105, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the karyotype of a patient with mosaicism complex structural aberration of chromosome 18.@*METHODS@#A male patient with a 2-year history of infertility presented at the Center of Reproductive Medicine of the Third Hospital of Peking University in October 2019 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the patient was collected. Peripheral blood sample was taken for chromosomal karyotyping, copy number variation (CNV) analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. Semen sample was taken for single sperm CNV analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to have a karyotype of mos 47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)[84]/46,XY,del(18)(q21q23)[9]/48,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)×2[6]/47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23×2)[1].ish 47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)[84]/46,XY,del(18)(q21q23)[9]/48,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)×2[6]/47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23×2)[1]del(18)(q21q23)(D18Z1+,18p+,18q+,WCP18+),r(18)(q21q23)(WCP18+),r(18)(q21q23×2)(WCP18+). No pathogenic CNV was identified. Sequencing of 20 single sperms showed that 1 sperm was normal, 1 had yielded no result, 9 had harbored del(18q), 7 had harbored dup(18q)×2, and 2 had harbored dup(18q)×3. The dup/del fragments had both spanned approximately 33 Mb.@*CONCLUSION@#It is rare for carriers of complex structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 18 to have a normal phenotype. Based on the accurate cytogenetic and molecular analyses and the single sperm CNV analysis, the influence of the aberrant karyotype on the gametogenesis may be evaluated.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Mosaicism , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Semen , Karyotype
2.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 49-54, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013248

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (IALL). Methods: A retrospective cohort study.Clinical data, treatment and prognosis of 28 cases of IALL who have been treated at Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University and Baoding Children's Hospital from October 2013 to May 2023 were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), all patients were divided into KMT2A gene rearrangement (KMT2A-R) positive group and KMT2A-R negative group. The prognosis of two groups were compared. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-Rank test were used to analyze the survival of the patients. Results: Among 28 cases of IALL, there were 10 males and 18 females, with the onset age of 10.9 (9.4,11.8) months. In terms of immune classification, 25 cases were B-ALL (89%), while the remaining 3 cases were T-ALL (11%). Most infant B-ALL showed pro-B lymphocyte phenotype (16/25,64%). A total of 22 cases (79%) obtained chromosome karyotype results, of which 7 were normal karyotypes, no complex karyotypes and 15 were abnormal karyotypes were found. Among abnormal karyotypes, there were 4 cases of t (9; 11), 2 cases of t (4; 11), 2 cases of t (11; 19), 1 case of t (1; 11) and 6 cases of other abnormal karyotypes. A total of 19 cases (68%) were positive for KMT2A-R detected by FISH. The KMT2A fusion gene was detected by real-time PCR in 16 cases (57%). A total of 24 patients completed standardized induction chemotherapy and were able to undergo efficacy evaluation, 23 cases (96%) achieved complete remission through induction chemotherapy, 4 cases (17%) died of relapse. The 5-year event free survival rate (EFS) was (46±13)%, and the 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was (73±10)%.The survival time was 31.3 (3.3, 62.5) months. There was no significant statistical difference in 5-year EFS ((46±14)% vs. (61±18)%) and 5-year OS ((64±13)% vs. (86±13)%) between the KMT2A-R positive group (15 cases) and the KMT2A-R negative group (9 cases) (χ2=1.88, 1.47, P=0.170, 0.224). Conclusions: Most IALL patients were accompanied by KMT2A-R. They had poor tolerance to traditional chemotherapy, the relapse rate during treatment was high and the prognosis was poor.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Infant , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Prognosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Abnormal Karyotype , Recurrence
3.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 34-39, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012421

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathologic features and diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) with a predominantly diffuse growth pattern (DFL) with 1p36 deletion. Methods: Eight cases of DFL with 1p36 deletion diagnosed at Department of Pathology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University (n=5) and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital (n=3) from January 2017 to January 2023 were included. Their clinicopathologic features and follow-up data were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed. Results: There were five males and three females, with a median age of 67 years, and inguinal lymphadenopathy was found as the main symptom. Histologically, similar morphologic features were sheared among all cases, with effaced nodal structure and characterized by proliferation of centrocytes in a diffuse pattern, with or without follicular components. The germinal center-related markers such as CD10 and/or bcl-6 were expressed in the tumor cells, and 1p36 deletion but not bcl-2 translocation was appreciable in these cases. Conclusions: DFL with 1p36 deletion is a rare subtype of FL, with some overlaps with other types of FL or indolent B-cell lymphomas in their pathologic features. An accurate diagnosis requires comprehensive considerations based on their clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Lymphoma, Follicular/pathology , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lymphoma, B-Cell/pathology , Chromosome Deletion , Cell Proliferation
4.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 459-463, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985891

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of disorders of sex development (DSD) caused by Y chromosome copy number variant (CNV). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 3 patients diagnosed with DSD caused by Y chromosome CNV admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January, 2018 to September, 2022. Clinical data were collected. Clinical study and genetic test were performed by karyotyping, whole exome sequencing (WES), low coverage whole genome copy number variant sequencing (CNV-seq), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and gonadal biopsy. Results: The 3 children, aged 12, 9, 9 years, the social gender were all female, presented with short stature, gonadal dysplasia and normal female external genital. No other phenotypic abnormality was found except for case 1 with scoliosis. The karyotype of all cases were identified as 46, XY. No pathogenic vraiants were found by WES. CNV-seq determined that case 1 was 47, XYY,+Y(2.12) and case 2 was 46, XY,+Y(1.6). FISH concluded that the long arm of Y chromosome was broken and recombined near Yq11.2, and then produced a pseudodicentric chromosome idic(Y). The karyotype was reinterpreted as mos 47, X, idic(Y)(q11.23)×2(10)/46, X, idic(Y)(q11.23)(50) in case 1. The karyotype was redefined as 45, XO(6)/46, X, idic(Y)(q11.22)(23)/46, X, del(Y)(q11.22)(1) in case 2. 46, XY, -Y(mos) was found by CNV-seq in case 3, and the karyotype of 45, XO/46, XY was speculated. Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of children with DSD caused by Y chromosome CNV are short stature and gonadal dysgenesis. If there is an increase of Y chromosome CNV detected by CNV-seq, FISH is recommended to classify the structural variation of Y chromosome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , DNA Copy Number Variations , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Retrospective Studies , Chromosomes, Human, Y , Turner Syndrome
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 592-598, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985738

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical, pathological and immunophenotypic features, molecular biology and prognosis of fibrin-associated large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL-FA) in various sites. Methods: Six cases of LBCL-FA diagnosed from April 2016 to November 2021 at the Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China and the First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China were collected. The cases were divided into atrial myxoma and cyst-related groups. Clinical characteristics, pathological morphology, immunophenotype, Epstein Barr virus infection status, B-cell gene rearrangement and fluorescence in situ hybridization of MYC, bcl-2, bcl-6 were summarized. Results: The patients' mean age was 60 years. All of them were male. Three cases occurred in atrial myxoma background, while the others were in cyst-related background, including adrenal gland, abdominal cavity and subdura. All cases showed tumor cells located in pink fibrin clot. However, three cyst-related cases showed the cyst wall with obviously fibrosis and inflammatory cells. All cases tested were non germinal center B cell origin, positive for PD-L1, EBER and EBNA2, and were negative for MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 rearrangements, except one case with MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 amplification. All of the 5 cases showed monoclonal rearrangement of the Ig gene using PCR based analysis. The patients had detailed follow-ups of 9-120 months, were treated surgically without radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and had long-term disease-free survivals. Conclusions: LBCL-FA is a group of rare diseases occurring in various sites, with predilection in the context of atrial myxoma and cyst-related lesions. Cyst-related lesions with obvious chronic inflammatory background show more scarcity of lymphoid cells and obvious degeneration, which are easy to be missed or misdiagnosed. LBCL-FA overall has a good prognosis with the potential for cure by surgery alone and postoperative chemotherapy may not be necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Fibrin/genetics , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Myxoma , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 454-459, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985700

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characteristics of gastric carcinoma with NTRK-rearrangement/amplification. Methods: The clinicopathological data of gastric carcinoma cases with NTRK-rearrangement/amplification diagnosed from January 2011 to September 2020 at the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, China, were collected. The clinicopathological, immunophenotypic and molecular pathological features were analyzed. The relevant literature was reviewed. Results: There were 4 cases of gastric carcinoma with NTRK-rearrangement/amplification. All 4 patients were male, aged 57-67 years (average, 63 years). Tumor sizes ranged from 3.5 to 5.2 cm (average, 4.8 cm). All tumors were in the antrum. All 4 patients underwent radical gastrectomy and were followed up after the surgery. Morphologically, all tumors showed histological features with enteroblastic-differentiated gastric carcinoma. Tumor cells showed predominantly tubular/papillary architecture, with conspicuous vesicular nuclei and pale staining or transparent cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed pan-TRK expression in all cases, with various degrees of positivity in the cytoplasm. All cases were subject to NTRK1/2/3 detection using fluorescence in situ hybridization. There were NTRK translocations in 2 cases and NTRK amplifications in 2 cases. These cases were further verified by RNAseq next generation sequencing which confirmed that NTRK1 gene translocation (TPM3-NTRK1) and NTRK2 gene translocation (NTRK2-SMCHD1) occurred in two cases, respectively. Conclusions: NTRK mutation occurs less frequently in gastric cancer. In this study, the cases mainly occur in the antrum. The morphology has the characteristics of enteroblastic differentiation. The tumors have unique histological, immunophenotypic and molecular characteristics, which require much attention from pathologists to effectively guide clinicians to choose the best treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Receptor, trkA/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Translocation, Genetic , Carcinoma , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 364-369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985681

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, immunophenotypes and molecular genetics of fibroma of tendon sheath (FTS). Methods: One hundred and thirty-four cases of FTS or tenosynovial fibroma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China from January 2008 to April 2019 were selected. The clinical and histologic features of these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on the above cases. Results: There were a total of 134 cases of FTS, including 67 males and 67 females. The patients' median age was 38 years (ranged from 2 to 85 years). The median tumor size was 1.8 cm (ranged from 0.1 to 6.8 cm). The most common site was the upper extremity (76/134, 57%). Follow-up data was available in 28 cases and there was no detectable recurrence. Classic FTS (114 cases) were well-defined and hypocellular. A few spindle-shaped fibroblasts were scattered in the dense collagenous sclerotic stroma. Characteristically elongated slit-like spaces or thin-walled vessels were observed. Most of cellular FTSs (20 cases) were well-defined and the area with increased cellularity of the spindle cells coexisted with classic FTS. There were occasional mitotic figures, but no atypical mitotic figures. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 8 cases of classic FTS and most cases were positive for SMA (5/8). Immunohistochemistry was also performed in 13 cases of cellular FTS and showed 100% positive rate for SMA. FISH was conducted on 20 cases of cellular FTS and 32 cases of classical FTS. USP6 gene rearrangement was found in 11/20 of cellular FTS. Among 12 cases of CFTS with nodular fasciitis (NF)-like morphological feature, 7 cases showed USP6 gene rearrangement. The rearrangement proportion of USP6 gene in cellular FTS without NF-like morphological features was 4/8. By contrast, 3% (1/32) of the classic FTS showed USP6 gene rearrangement. RT-PCR was performed in those cases with detected USP6 gene rearrangement and sufficient tissue samples for RT-PCR. The MYH9-USP6 fusion gene was detected in 1 case (1/8) of the cellular FTSs, while no target fusion partner was detected in the classic FTS. Conclusions: FTS is a relatively rare benign fibroblastic or myofibroblastic tumor. Our study and recent literature find that some of the classic FTS also show USP6 gene rearrangements, suggesting that classical FTS and cellular FTS are likely to be at different stages of the same disease (spectrum). FISH for USP6 gene rearrangement may be used as an important auxiliary diagnostic tool in distinguishing FTS from other tumors.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Gene Rearrangement , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Retrospective Studies , Fibroma/pathology , Fasciitis/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase , Tendons/pathology
8.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 473-484, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the role and mechanism of circRNA-SR-related CTD associated factor 8 (SCAF8) in regulating endothelial cell pyroptosis in high glucose environment.@*METHODS@#Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and divided into six groups. The normal control group and high glucose control group were cultured in cell culture medium with 5 and 33 mmol/L glucose, respectively. The RNA control group, circRNA-SCAF8 inhibition group, miR-93-5p overexpression group and miR-93-5p inhibition group were added with non-functional siRNA, circRNA-SCAF8 inhibitor, miR-93-5p overexpression molecule and miR-93-5p inhibitor in high glucose environment, respectively. Cell viability and pyroptosis were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide fluorescence double staining. Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the expression of pyroptosis-related factors including apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), cysteine aspartic acid specific protease-1 (caspase-1) and Gasdermin D (GSDMD), NOD like receptor protein 3 (NLRP-3), thioredoxin interacting proteins (TXNIP), IL-18 and IL-1β. The expression of circRNA-SCAF8, miR-93-5p and TXNIP was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to locate circRNA-SCAF8 and miR-93-5p. Dual luciferase assay was used to verify the targeted regulatory relationship between miR-93-5p and upstream and downstream molecules.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the RNA control group, the cell survival rate of circRNA-SCAF8 inhibition group and miR-93-5p overexpression group increased (both P<0.01), the pyroptosis decreased (both P<0.01), and the expressions of pyroptosis-related factors such as TXNIP, NLRP-3, caspase-1, GSDMD, ASC, IL-18 and IL-1β were significantly decreased (all P<0.05). The expression of miR-93-5p was significantly increased after inhibition of circRNA-SCAF8 (P<0.01), and the expression of circRNA-SCAF8 tended to decrease after overexpression of miR-93-5p, but with no statistical significance (P>0.05). Dual luciferase assay showed that miR-93-5p downre-gulated circRNA-SCAF8 expression by binding to the 3 ´ UTR region of circRNA-SCAF8, and miR-93-5p downregulated TXNIP expression by binding to the 3 ´ UTR region of TXNIP. FISH showed that circRNA-SCAF8 and miR-93-5p were both located in the cytoplasm and were highly associated in the cells. qRT-PCR showed that the relative expression of TXNIP increased or decreased after overexpression or inhibition of miR-93-5p compared with the RNA control group, respectively (both P<0.05), suggesting that miR-93-5p could regulate TXNIP gene expression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CircRNA-SCAF8/miR-93-5p/TXNIP axis is involved in the regulation of pyroptosis in HUVECs under high glucose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Factor VIII , RNA, Circular , Endothelial Cells , Interleukin-18 , Pyroptosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Caspase 1 , MicroRNAs/genetics , Carrier Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1566-1569, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic characteristics of a child with mosaicism Turner syndrome.@*METHODS@#A child who had presented at Linyi People's Hospital on May 19, 2022 due to short stature was selected as the study subject. The child was subjected to combined chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA).@*RESULTS@#The child was found to have a 46,X,i(X)(q10)[94]/45,X[6] karyotype. The result of FISH was nucish(XYpter,XYqter)1[78]/(XYpter)1,(XYqter)3[122]. CMA result for her peripheral blood sample was arr[hg19]Xp22.33p11.1(168551_58526888)×1, and that for her oral mucosal cells was arr[hg19]Xp22.33p11.1(168551_58526888)1-2,Xq11.2q28(63000001_155233098)×2-3. By integrating the above findings, her molecular karyotype was determined as mos 46,X,i(X)(q10)[94]/45,X[6].arr[hg19]Xp22.33p11.1(168551_58526888)×1-2,Xq11.2q28(63000001_155233098)×2-3.nucish(XYpter)1,(XYqter)3[122]/(XYpter,XYqter)1[78], which has indicated mosaicism Turner syndrome.@*CONCLUSION@#The 46,X,i(X)(q10)/45,X mosaicism probably underlay the pathogenesis in this child.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Mosaicism , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Karyotype
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1455-1460, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out cyto- and molecular genetic analysis for a fetus with a ring chromosome identified through non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).@*METHODS@#A pregnant woman presented at the Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University on May 11, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Maternal peripheral blood sample was screened by NIPT, and G-banded chromosomal karyotyping was carried out on amniotic fluid and peripheral blood samples from the couple. The fetus and the pregnant woman were also subjected to genomic copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq), chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay.@*RESULTS@#NIPT result suggested that the fetus had monomeric mosaicism or fragment deletion on chromosome 13. G banded chromosomal analysis showed that both the fetus and its mother had a karyotype of 47,XX,der(13)(pter→p11::q22→q10),+r(13)(::p10::q22→qter::), whilst her husband had a normal karyotype. FISH has verified the above results. No abnormality was detected with CNV-seq and CMA in both the fetus and the pregnant woman.@*CONCLUSION@#The ring chromosome 13 in the fetus has derived from its mother without any deletion, duplication and mosaicism. Both the fetus and the pregnant woman were phenotypically normal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Ring Chromosomes , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Amniotic Fluid
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1430-1435, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009317

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a rare case with Disorder of sex development.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the patient was collected. Chromosomal karyotyping, SRY gene testing, whole exome sequencing (WES), low-coverage massively parallel copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were carried out.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 14-year-old female, had manifested short stature and dysplasia of second sex characteristics. She was found to have a 46,XY karyotype and positive for the SRY gene. No pathogenic variant was found by WES, except a duplication at Yp11.32q12. The result of CNV-seq was 47,XYY. FISH has confirmed mosaicism for a dicentric Y chromosome. A 23.66 Mb duplication on Yp11.32q11.223 and a 5.16 Mb deletion on Yq11.223q11.23 were found by WGS. The breakpoint was mapped at chrY: 23656267. The patient's karyotype was ultimately determined as 46,X,psu idic(Y)(q11.223)/46,X,del(Y)(q11.223).@*CONCLUSION@#The combination of multiple methods has facilitated clarification of the genetic etiology in this patient, which has provided a reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adolescent , DNA Copy Number Variations , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Y Chromosome , Sexual Development , Mosaicism
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1425-1429, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic analysis for a Chinese pedigree affected with intellectual disability and overgrowth due to a supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC).@*METHODS@#A pedigree which had presented at Jiaxing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital on August 31, 2021 was selected as the study subject, for which chromosomal karyotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray (SNP-array), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out in combination.@*RESULTS@#SNP-array analysis showed that the proband and his sister had both harbored a 16.1 Mb duplication which encompassed the critical region of 15q26 overgrowth syndrome. FISH confirmed that the proband was 47,XX,+neo(15)(qter→q25.3:)mat, her mother was 47,XX,del(15)(q25.3:),+neo(15)(qter→q25.3:), whilst her father was normal.@*CONCLUSION@#Application of multiple genetic techniques has facilitated delineation of the origin of sSMC and reliable genetic counseling for this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Chromosomes , East Asian People , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Pedigree , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Chromosome Duplication/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1414-1419, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with mosaicism Yq deletion.@*METHODS@#A fetus with high risk of sex chromosomes indicated by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital in July 2021 was selected as the study subject. Prenatal diagnosis of the fetus was performed with combined G-banded chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq), real-time fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR), and ultrasound examination.@*RESULTS@#Analysis of the amniocytes at 23 gestational weeks had yielded a 45,X karyotype. However, FISH had shown signals of Y chromosome. Re-examination by cordocentesis had shown a mosaicism of 46,X,+mar[33]/45,X[17]. FISH showed that 69% of the cells had contained Y chromosome signals. The result of CNV-seq was seq[19]del(Y)(q11.1q12)(mos) chrY: g.13200001_ 28820000del (mosaicism rate = 64%), which suggested mosaicism for a Yq deletion, which encompassed the azoospermia factor (AZF) region. Deletion of the AZF region was verified by QF-PCR. The fetal karyotype was ultimately determined as mos46,X,del(Y)(q11.1)[33]/45,X[17]. Although ultrasound examination had shown no abnormality in the fetus, the couple had opted to terminate the pregnancy, and the induced fetus had a normal male appearance.@*CONCLUSION@#The combined use of multiple techniques is beneficial for accurate and rapid prenatal diagnosis. For fetuses with mosaicism chromosomal abnormalities, it may be difficult to accurately predict the postnatal phenotype. It is therefore necessary to further explore their genotype-phenotype correlation in order to provide better guidance upon genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Male , Humans , Mosaicism , DNA Copy Number Variations , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Y Chromosome , Fetus
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1360-1366, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze the results of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and parental origins of unbalanced translocations among 17 patients, so as to provide reference for their genetic counseling.@*METHODS@#The results of CMA for 7 001 samples tested in Chengdu Women and Children's Central Hospital from January 2019 to January 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. Unbalanced reciprocal translocation was defined as two non-homologous chromosomes with lost and gained segments respectively or both with gained segments, and their parental origins were identified by parental chromosomal karyotyping and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).@*RESULTS@#In total 17 unbalanced translocations were identified. In three cases, two non-homologous chromosomes both had gained segments, which constituted a derivative chromosome, with the total number of chromosomes being 47. In the remaining 14 cases, there was a terminal deletion on one chromosome and a terminal duplication on the other, 10 of which were confirmed by karyotyping, with the total number of chromosomes being 46. In the derivative chromosome, the lost segment was replaced by a gained segment from another chromosome. Among 15 cases undergoing parental origin analysis, 12 had paternal or maternal chromosomal abnormalities, including 11 balanced translocations and 1 unbalanced translocation. The unbalanced gametes therefore may form through meiosis. In 3 cases, the parental chromosomes were normal, indicating a de novo origin.@*CONCLUSION@#Discovery of terminal duplication and deletion or gained segments on two non-homologous chromosomes by CMA is suggestive of parental balanced translocation, which can facilitate genetic counseling and assessment the recurrence risk for subsequent pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Child , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic , Microarray Analysis , Chromosomes
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1340-1344, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out combined genetic analysis on two patients suspected for Burkitt lymphoma to facilitate their diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#G banded karyotyping and interphase and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to detect the specific sites of chromosomes by using separate and fusion probes.@*RESULTS@#The separate probe showed no presence of MYC gene abnormality, while fusion probe confirmed the IGH::MYC translocation in the samples. Combined with the clinical features and pathological characteristics, the two patients were finally diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma, which was confirmed by targeted capture next generation sequencing.@*CONCLUSION@#The separate probe for the MYC gene has some shortcomings and should be used together with dual fusion probe to improve the accuracy of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Burkitt Lymphoma/pathology , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Genes, myc , Translocation, Genetic , Karyotyping
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1334-1339, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hematological tumors with different types of abnormalities in platelet derived growth factor β (PDGFRβ) gene.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was carried out on 141 patients with abnormal long arm of chromosome 5 (5q) and comprehensive medical history data from Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Naval Medical University from 2009 to 2020, and their clinical data were collected. R-banding technique was used for chromosomal karyotyping analysis for the patient's bone marrow, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the PDGFRβ gene. The results of detection were divided into the amplification group, deletion group, and translocation group based on FISH signals. The three sets of data column crosstabs were statistically analyzed, and if the sample size was n >= 40 and the expected frequency T for each cell was >= 5, a Pearson test was used to compare the three groups of data. If N < 40 and any of the expected frequency T for each cell was < 5, a Fisher's exact test is used. Should there be a difference in the comparison results between the three sets of data, a Bonferroni method was further used to compare the data.@*RESULTS@#In total 98 patients were detected to have PDGFRβ gene abnormalities with the PDGFRβ probe, which yielded a detection rate of 69.50% (98/141). Among these, 38 cases (38.78%) had PDGFRβ gene amplifications, 57 cases (58.16%) had deletions, and 3 (3.06%) had translocations. Among the 98 cases, 93 were found to have complex karyotypes, including 37 cases from the amplification group (97.37%, 37/38), 55 cases from the deletion group (96.49%, 55/57), and 1 case from the translocation group (33.33%, 1/3). Analysis of three sets of clinical data showed no significant gender preponderance in the groups (P > 0.05). The PDGFRβ deletion group was mainly associated with myeloid tumors, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (P < 0.001). The PDGFRβ amplification group was more common in lymphoid tumors, such as multiple myeloma (MM) (P < 0.001). The PDGFRβ translocation group was also more common in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative tumors (MDS/MPN).@*CONCLUSION@#Tumors with PDGFRβ gene rearrangement may exhibit excessive proliferation of myeloproliferative tumors (MPN) and pathological hematopoietic changes in the MDS, and have typical clinical and hematological characteristics. As a relatively rare type of hematological tumor, in addition to previously described myeloid tumors such as MPN or MDS/MPN, it may also cover lymphoid/plasma cell tumors such as multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Relevance , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Multiple Myeloma , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic
17.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1296-1300, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the origin and content of a mosaicism small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in a fetus with combined chromosomal karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).@*METHODS@#The fetus of a 31-year-old pregnant woman who had presented at the Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Longhua District of Shenzhen City in 2022 was selected as the study subject. Non-invasive prenatal testing suggested that the fetus has harbored a 8.75 Mb duplication in 4q12q13.1. With informed consent, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood samples were taken from the couple for chromosomal karyotyping analysis. The origin and content of a sSMC was identified by CMA, and its proportion in amniotic fluid was determined with a FISH assay.@*RESULTS@#The karyotypes of the pregnant woman, her husband and the fetus were respectively determined as 46,XX, 46,XY,inv(9)(p12q12), and 47,XY,inv(9)(p12q12)pat,+mar[75]/ 46,XY,inv(9)(p12q12)pat[25]. CMA test of the amniotic fluid sample was arr[hg19]4p11q13.1(48978053_63145931)×3, which revealed no mosaicism. However, FISH analysis showed that 59% of interphase cells from the cultured amniotic fluid sample had contained three signals for the centromere of chromosome 4, whilst 65% of interphase cells from the re-sampled amniotic fluid had three such signals, which confirmed the existence of trisomy 8 mosaicism.@*CONCLUSION@#Chromosomal structural abnormality combined with mosaicism can be delineated with combined chromosomal karyotyping and molecular techniques such as FISH and CMA, which has enabled more accurate counseling for the family.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Mosaicism , Genetic Techniques , Amniotic Fluid , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1181-1184, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To present on a prenatally diagnosed case with complex structural rearrangements of chromosome 8.@*METHODS@#Chromosome karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out for a fetus with increased nuchal thickness.@*RESULTS@#The karyotype of the amniotic fluid sample showed extra materials on 8p. FISH revealed a centromeric signal at the terminal of 8p with absence of telomeric signal. CMA revealed partial deletion of 8p23.3 [(208049_2256732)×1], partial duplication of 8p23.3p23.2 [(2259519_3016818)×3], and partial duplication of 8q [8q11.1q12.2(45951900_60989083)×3].@*CONCLUSION@#The complex structural rearrangements of chromosome 8 in this case has differed from the commonly seen inv dup del(8p).


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Gene Rearrangement , Prenatal Diagnosis , Centromere
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 947-953, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze sex chromosomal abnormalities and clinical manifestations of children with disorders of sex development (DSD).@*METHODS@#A total of 14 857 children with clinical features of DSD including short stature, cryptorchidism, hypospadia, buried penis and developmental delay were recruited from Zhengzhou Children's Hospital from January 2013 to March 2022. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosomal karyotyping were carried out for such children.@*RESULTS@#In total 423 children were found to harbor sex chromosome abnormalities, which has yielded a detection rate of 2.85%. There were 327 cases (77.30%) with Turner syndrome and a 45,X karyotype or its mosaicism. Among these, 325 were females with short stature as the main clinical manifestation, 2 were males with short stature, cryptorchidism and hypospadia as the main manifestations. Sixty-two children (14.66%) had a 47,XXY karyotype or its mosaicism, and showed characteristics of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) including cryptorchidism, buried penis and hypospadia. Nineteen cases (4.49%) had sex chromosome mosaicisms (XO/XY), which included 11 females with short stature, 8 males with hypospadia, and 6 cases with cryptorchidism, buried penis, testicular torsion and hypospadia. The remainder 15 cases (3.55%) included 9 children with a XYY karyotype or mosaicisms, with main clinical manifestations including cryptorchidisms and hypospadia, 4 children with a 47,XXX karyotype and clinical manifestations including short stature and labial adhesion, 1 child with a 46,XX/46,XY karyotype and clinical manifestations including micropenis, hypospadia, syndactyly and polydactyly, and 1 case with XXXX syndrome and clinical manifestations including growth retardation.@*CONCLUSION@#Among children with DSD due to sex chromosomal abnormalities, sex chromosome characteristics consistent with Turner syndrome was most common, among which mosaicism (XO/XX) was the commonest. In terms of clinical manifestations, the females mainly featured short stature, while males mainly featured external genital abnormalities. Early diagnosis and treatment are particularly important for improving the quality of life in such children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Turner Syndrome/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Cryptorchidism , Hypospadias , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping , Mosaicism , Disorders of Sex Development/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 922-927, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To validate a fetus with high risk for trisomy 13 suggested by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).@*METHODS@#The fetus was selected as the study subject after the NIPT detection at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences on February 18, 2019. Clinical data of the pregnant woman was collected. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosomal karyotyping analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were carried out on amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood and the couple's peripheral blood samples. Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) was also performed on the placental and amniotic fluid samples following induced labor.@*RESULTS@#The pregnant woman, a 38-year-old G4P1 gravida, was found to have abnormal fetal development by prenatal ultrasonography. NIPT test suggested that the fetus has a high risk for trisomy 13. Chromosomal karyotyping analysis of fetal amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood were 46,XN,add(13)(p10). The result of CMA was arr[hg19]1q41q44(223937972_249224684)×3, with the size of the repeat fragment being approximately 25.29 Mb, the fetal karyotype was thereby revised as 46,XN,der(13)t(1;13)(q41;p10). Chromosomal karyotyping analysis and CMA of the parents' peripheral blood samples showed no obvious abnormality. The CNV-seq analysis of induced placenta revealed mosaicisms of normal karyotype and trisomy 13. The CNV-seq test of induced amniotic fluid confirmed a duplication of chr1:22446001_249220000 region spanning approximately 24.75 Mb, which was in keeping with the CMA results of amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood samples.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT may yield false positive result due to placenta mosaicism. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be recommended to women with a high risk by NIPT test. And analysis of placenta can explain the inconsistency between the results of NIPT and invasive prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Placenta , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Fetus , Amniotic Fluid , Chromosome Aberrations , Trisomy/genetics
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