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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 31-43, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551189

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón (CP) es una enfermedad con gran impacto a nivel mundial en el número de muertes y en costos en salud. La alta incidencia y mortalidad de esta enfermedad asociada al diagnóstico tardío, y la mejoría del pronóstico ante una detección temprana, determinan que sea una patología pasible de beneficiarse mediante detección temprana. La tomografía de baja dosis de radiación (TCBD) demostró ser un método que se pue- de realizar periódicamente a un grupo de personas con alto riesgo de desarrollar CP y así reducir la mortalidad por esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, este beneficio es tal cuan- do se encuentra desarrollado bajo un programa organizado y con participación multi- disciplinaria especializada en cáncer de pulmón. Métodos: Se plantea determinar lineamientos básicos para el desarrollo de la detección temprana de cáncer de pulmón en América Latina para que pueda ser realizada en forma uniforme, con el menor riesgo y el máximo beneficio esperado. Se analizaron las principales publicaciones referidas a este tema, contemplando la diversidad de atención y acceso de América Latina. Resultado: Se desarrollan requerimientos mínimos para la implementación de un pro- grama. Discusión: El número de programas en la región es escaso y depende más de esfuerzos individuales que de políticas generales de salud. Consideramos que estos lineamien- tos pueden servir de apoyo para el desarrollo de más programas en la región y de for- ma más homogénea.


Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is a disease with a great impact worldwide in the number of deaths and health costs. The high incidence and mortality of this disease associated with late diagnosis and the improved prognosis with early detection determine that it is a pathology that can benefit from early detection. Low radiation dose tomography (LDCT) demonstrated a method that can be performed periodically to a group of people at high risk of developing CP and thus reduce mortality from this disease. However, this benefit is such when it is developed under an organized program with multidisciplinary participation specialized in lung cancer. Methods: It is proposed to determine basic guidelines for the development of early de- tection of lung cancer in Latin America so that it can be carried out uniformly, with the lowest risk and the maximum expected benefit. The main publications referring to this topic were analyzed, considering the diversity of care and access in Latin America. Result: Minimum requirements are developed for the implementation of a program. Discussion: The number of programs in the region is small and depends more on individual efforts than on general health policies. We consider that these guidelines can serve as support for the development of more programs in the region and in a more ho- mogeneous way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Programs and Plans , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Tomography/methods , Incidence , Mortality , Education, Professional , Health Policy , Latin America
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tospovirus , Plant Diseases , Glycine max , Incidence , Urticaceae , Egypt/epidemiology , Plant Weeds , Necrosis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Carps , Pakistan , Bacteria , Ponds , Incidence
5.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE02211, 2024. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1527573

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Propor um diagrama de prevenção de quedas para pessoas idosas, baseado no Modelo de Promoção da Saúde de Nola Pender. Métodos A construção do diagrama foi embasada no modelo de Nola Pender e em seus elementos. Para isso, foi realizado um estudo de revisão integrativa, com o objetivo de coletar dados sobre características e experiências individuais, sentimentos e conhecimentos e adoção de comportamento saudável para prevenção de quedas. Após a coleta dessas informações, realizou-se análise de similitude dos estudos selecionados por meio do IRaMuTeQ. Os elementos obtidos da análise de similitude facilitaram o agrupamento dos estudos quanto aos elementos encontrados e, assim, proporcionaram a organização do diagrama de prevenção de quedas. Resultados A amostra final foi constituída de 54 artigos, divididos de acordo com os elementos do modelo de Nola Pender: 36 abordavam características e experiências individuais, 40 sentimentos e conhecimentos, e 20 eram referentes ao comportamento. Os elementos obtidos da análise de similitude geraram um leque semântico de palavras mais frequentes: queda, prevenção, mulher e medo. Já as palavras menos frequentes foram cognição, autoeficácia, transporte e planejamento, os quais contribuíram para a construção do diagrama. Conclusão A partir da revisão, elaborou-se um diagrama, que favoreceu a identificação dos fatores pessoais, barreiras e facilidades, para um comportamento desejável à prevenção de quedas.


Resumen Objetivo Proponer un diagrama de prevención de caídas para personas mayores, basado en el modelo de promoción de la salud de Nola Pender. Métodos La elaboración del diagrama se basó en el modelo de Nola Pender y sus elementos. Para tal fin, se realizó un estudio de revisión integradora con el objetivo de recopilar datos sobre características y experiencias individuales, sentimientos y conocimientos y adopción de un comportamiento saludable para la prevención de caídas. Después de recopilar la información, se realizó un análisis de similitud de los estudios seleccionados mediante IRaMuTeQ. Los elementos obtenidos del análisis de similitud permitieron agrupar los estudios respecto a los elementos encontrados y, de esta forma, proporcionaron la organización del diagrama de prevención de caídas. Resultados La muestra final estuvo compuesta por 54 artículos, divididos de acuerdo con los elementos del modelo de Nola Pender: 36 abordaban características y experiencias individuales, 40 sentimientos y conocimientos y 20 eran sobre el comportamiento. Los elementos obtenidos del análisis de similitud generaron un conjunto semántico de palabras más frecuentes: caída, prevención, mujer y miedo. Por otro lado, las palabras menos frecuentes fueron: cognición, autoeficacia, transporte y planificación, que contribuyeron para la elaboración del diagrama. Conclusión A partir de la revisión, se elaboró un diagrama que favoreció la identificación de los factores personales, barreras y facilidades para un comportamiento conveniente en la prevención de caídas.


Abstract Objective To propose a fall prevention diagram for older adults, based on Nola Pender's Health Promotion Model. Methods Diagram construction was based on Nola Pender's model and its elements. For this, an integrative review study was carried out with the objective of collecting data on individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect and behavioral outcome for fall prevention. After collecting this information, a similarity analysis of the selected studies was carried out using IRaMuTeQ. The elements obtained from similarity analysis facilitated the grouping of studies regarding the elements found and thus provided fall prevention diagram organization. Results The final sample consisted of 54 articles, divided according to the elements of Nola Pender's model: 36 addressed individual characteristics and experiences, 40 referred to behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and 20 referred to behavioral outcome. The elements obtained from the similarity analysis generated a semantic range of the most frequent words: fall, prevention, woman and fear. The least frequent words were cognition, self-efficacy, transportation and planning, which contributed to diagram construction. Conclusion From the review, a diagram was prepared, which favored identifying personal factors, barriers and facilities for a desirable behavior to prevent falls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , Incidence , Accident Prevention , Health Promotion
6.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul. (En línea) ; 27(1): e007089, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552204

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes. El valor pronóstico de una ergometría positiva en el contexto de imágenes tomográficas de perfusión miocárdica de estrés y reposo (SPECT) normales no está bien establecido. Objetivos. Documentar la incidencia de infarto, muerte y revascularización coronaria en pacientes con una ergometría positiva de riesgo intermedio e imágenes de perfusión SPECT normales, y explorar el potencial valor del puntaje de riesgo de Framingham en la estratificación pronóstica de estos pacientes. Métodos. Cohorte retrospectiva integrada por pacientes que habían presentado síntomas o hallazgos electrocardiográficos compatibles con enfermedad arterial coronaria durante la prueba de esfuerzo, con criterios de riesgo intermedio en la puntuación de Duke y perfusión miocárdica SPECT normal. Fueron identificados a partir de la base de datos del laboratorio de cardiología nuclear del Instituto de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular de la ciudad de Posadas, Argentina. Resultados. Fueron elegibles 217 pacientes. El seguimiento fue de 3 1,5 años. La sobrevida libre de eventos (muerte,infarto de miocardio no fatal, angioplastia coronaria o cirugía de bypass de arteria coronaria) a uno, tres y cinco años fue significativamente menor (Log-rank test, p= 0,001) en el grupo con puntaje de Framingham alto o muy alto (77, 71y 59 %, respectivamente) que en el grupo de puntaje bajo o intermedio (89, 87 y 83 %). Tomando como referencia a los pacientes con riesgo bajo en el puntaje de Framingham, luego de ajustar por edad, sexo y puntaje de Duke, los pacientes categorizados en los estratos alto y muy alto riesgo del puntaje de Framingham presentaron una incidencia del evento combinado cercana al triple (hazard ratio [HR] 2,81; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95 % 0,91 a 8,72; p= 0,07 y HR 3,61;IC 95 % 1,23 a 10,56; p= 0,019 respectivamente). Conclusiones. La estimación de riesgo con el puntaje de Framingham sería de ayuda en la estratificación pronóstica de los pacientes con ergometría positiva y SPECT normal. (AU)


Background. The prognostic value of positive exercise testing with normal SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging is not well established. Objectives. To document the incidence of infarction, death, and coronary revascularization in patients with a positive intermediate-risk exercise test and normal SPECT perfusion images and to explore the potential value of the Framingham Risk Score in the prognostic stratification of these patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort comprised patients who presented symptoms or electrocardiographic findings compatible with coronary artery disease during the stress test, with intermediate risk criteria in the Duke score and normal SPECT myocardial perfusion. They were identified from the database of the nuclear cardiology laboratory of the Instituto de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular of Posadas, Argentina. Results. 217 patients were eligible. Follow-up was 3 1.5 years. Event-free survival (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass surgery) at one, three, and five years was significantly lower (Log-ranktest, p: 0.001) in the group with a score of Framingham high or very high (77, 71 and 59 %, respectively) than in the lowor intermediate score group (89, 87 and 83 %). Taking as reference the low-risk patients in the Framingham score, after adjusting for age, sex, and Duke score, the patients categorized in the high-risk and very high-risk strata showed about three times higher incidence of the combined event (hazard ratio [HR] 2.81; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 8.72;p=0.07 and HR 3.61; 95 % CI 1.23 to 10.56; p=0.019 respectively). Conclusions. Risk estimation with the Framingham score would be helpful in the prognostic stratification of patients with positive exercise testing and normal SPECT. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Survival Analysis , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ergometry , Risk Assessment/methods , Exercise Test , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 294-302, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The disease burdens for endometrial cancer (EC) vary across different countries and geographical regions and change every year. Herein, we reported the updated results of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 on EC with respect to age-standardized incidence and mortality from 1990 to 2019.@*METHODS@#The annual percentage change (APC) of incidence and mortality was evaluated using joinpoint regression analysis to examine the temporal trends during the same timeframe in terms of the global landscape, different sociodemographic indices (SDI), and geographic regions. The relationship between Human Development Index (HDI) and incidence and mortality was additionally explored.@*RESULTS@#The age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) revealed a significant average global elevation by 0.5% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.7; P <0.001). The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), in contrast, fell by an average of 0.8% per year (95% CI, -1.0 to -0.7; P <0.001) worldwide. The ASIRs and ASMRs for EC varied across different SDIs and geographical regions. We noted four temporal trends and a significant reduction by 0.5% per year since 2010 in the ASIR, whereas we detected six consecutively decreasing temporal trends in ASMR during the entire period. Notably, the estimated APCs were significantly positively correlated with HDIs (ρ = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.35; P = 0.003) with regard to incident cases in 2019.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Incidence rates for EC reflected a significant increase overall (although we observed a decline since 2010), and the death rates declined consecutively from 1990 to 2019. We posit that more precise strategies can be tailored and then implemented based on the distinct age-standardized incidence and mortality burden in different geographical areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Global Burden of Disease , Incidence , Endometrial Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cost of Illness
8.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 1-14, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006383

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective@#Scabies is the second most common cause of disability due to skin disease in the Philippines. However, there were no cited studies in Global Burden of Disease 2019 and the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) computations were most likely based on statistical modelling. The Philippine Department of Health has embarked on a program to estimate the disease burden of priority diseases in the country, which include scabies. The last nationwide prevalence survey was 23 years ago. This systematic review aimed to estimate the prevalence or incidence of scabies in the Philippines. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed, Scopus, Herdin, and Philippine Health Research Registry (search date October 2022) for studies on prevalence/incidence (including systematic reviews, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, case series, registry or census studies) of patients diagnosed with scabies in the Philippines. We excluded narrative reviews, commentaries, and conference proceedings or abstracts. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, assessed full text reports for eligibility, appraised the quality of included studies, and collected data using a pretested data extraction form. We did not pool studies due to clinical heterogeneity but plotted the individual studies in a forest plot with prevalence estimates and confidence intervals. We reported the median and interquartile range for entire group or relevant subgroups (age, setting) of studies. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the certainty of evidence.@*Results@#We included nine studies (N=79,065). Most were clinic-based prevalence studies, retrospective chart reviews, conducted in dermatology outpatient clinics, Metro Manila area, and on pediatric populations. Prevalence of scabies was moderate (i.e., between 2 and 10%), ranging from 2.75% (national prevalence survey) to 6.8% (communitybased review), to high (> 10%) among pediatric patients in clinic-based retrospective chart reviews (29 to 36%) and institution-based surveys (39.0% to 45%), and a tertiary government university training hospital dermatology clinic (22.9%). The most affected age group was from 0 to 14 y/o, while males tended to have a higher prevalence than females. The cooler month of January had higher prevalence than the hotter month of June in one study. @*Conclusion@#Scabies is common in the Philippines, especially among children and elderly in institutional settings, and during the month of January. There is a need to do a national prevalence survey to identify high-risk areas and to monitor the prevalence of scabies, especially in crowded settings and vulnerable populations. This information can be used for estimating the burden of disease for scabies and guide appropriate health resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Scabies , Philippines , Epidemiology , Prevalence , Incidence
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 99-106, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the risk of aristolochic acid (AA)-associated cancer in patients with AA nephropathy (AAN).@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted on patients diagnosed with AAN at Peking University First Hospital from January 1997 to December 2014. Long-term surveillance and follow-up data were analyzed to investigate the influence of different factors on the prevalence of cancer. The primary endpoint was the incidence of liver cancer, and the secondary endpoint was the incidence of urinary cancer during 1 year after taking AA-containing medication to 2014.@*RESULTS@#A total of 337 patients diagnosed with AAN were included in this study. From the initiation of taking AA to the termination of follow-up, 39 patients were diagnosed with cancer. No cases of liver cancer were observed throughout the entire follow-up period, with urinary cancer being the predominant type (34/39, 87.17%). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, follow-up period, and diabetes were potential risk factors, however, the dosage of the drug was not significantly associated with urinary cancer.@*CONCLUSIONS@#No cases of liver cancer were observed at the end of follow-up. However, a high prevalence of urinary cancer was observed in AAN patients. Establishing a direct causality between AA and HCC is challenging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Incidence , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Aristolochic Acids/adverse effects
10.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 253-262, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518676

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Marianao históricamente ha sido un municipio de La Habana con alta carga de tuberculosis. Una nueva mirada sería importante.


Introduction: Marianao has historically been a municipality of Havana with a high bur-den of tuberculosis. A new look would be important.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Public Health , Epidemiological Monitoring , Socioeconomic Factors , Incidence , Prevalence , Cuba/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Sociodemographic Factors , Health Policy
12.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3690, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to analyze the prevalence of tuberculosis, coronavirus, chronic conditions and vulnerabilities among migrants and refugees in Brazil. Method: this is a cross-sectional study of the electronic survey type conducted with international migrants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistics was applied for the analysis, with calculation of position and dispersion measures. Regarding the categorical variables, relative and absolute frequencies were estimated. Results: the study participants were 553 migrants and refugees, verifying 3.07%, 7.2% and 27.3% prevalence of tuberculosis, COVID-19 and chronic conditions, respectively. Among the vulnerabilities, 32% reported unemployment, 37.6% moved to Brazil as a result of the social situation in their countries and 33.6% were living as refugees or sheltered people. Conclusion: tuberculosis, chronic diseases and COVID-19 presented higher prevalence values in migrants and refugees than in the general population. As this is a population group that still has significant difficulty accessing health services and social protection systems, based on diverse evidence, the study will subsidize public policies, Nursing care and the incorporation of new routines in the service.


Resumo Objetivo: analisar a prevalência de tuberculose, coronavírus, condições crônicas e vulnerabilidades entre migrantes e refugiados no Brasil. Método: trata-se de estudo transversal, do tipo inquérito eletrônico, realizado com migrantes internacionais durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Para a análise, aplicou-se estatística descritiva, com cálculo de medidas de posição e de dispersão. Quanto às variáveis categóricas, estimaram-se as frequências relativas e absolutas. Resultados: participaram do estudo 553 migrantes e refugiados, verificando-se prevalência de 3,07% de tuberculose, 7,2% de COVID-19 e 27,3% de condições crônicas. Entre as vulnerabilidades, 32% referiram desemprego, 37,6% mudaram para o Brasil em decorrência da situação social do seu país e 33,6% residiam em asilo e ou abrigo. Conclusão: a tuberculose, as doenças crônicas e a COVID-19 apresentaram maior prevalência em migrantes e refugiados que na população em geral. Por tratar-se de uma população ainda com grande dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde e aos sistemas de proteção social, o estudo subsidiará, com base em evidências, as políticas públicas, o atendimento do enfermeiro e a incorporação de novas rotinas no serviço.


Resumen Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia de tuberculosis, coronavirus, condiciones crónicas y vulnerabilidades en inmigrantes y refugiados en Brasil. Método: se trata de un estudio transversal, del tipo encuesta electrónica, realizado con migrantes internacionales durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Para el análisis se aplicó estadística descriptiva, con cálculo de medidas de posición y dispersión. En cuanto a las variables categóricas, se estimaron las frecuencias relativas y absolutas. Resultados: participaron del estudio 553 inmigrantes y refugiados, la prevalencia de tuberculosis era del 3,07%, de COVID-19 del 7,2% y de condiciones crónicas del 27,3%. Entre las vulnerabilidades, el 32% reportó desempleo, el 37,6% emigró a Brasil por la situación social de su país y el 33,6% vivía en un asilo o albergue. Conclusión: la tuberculosis, las enfermedades crónicas y el COVID-19 fueron más prevalentes en inmigrantes y refugiados que en la población general. Por tratarse de una población que aún tiene grandes dificultades para acceder a los servicios de salud y sistemas de protección social, el estudio contribuirá, con base en la evidencia, a las políticas públicas, la atención de enfermería y la incorporación de nuevas rutinas en el servicio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Refugees , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emigrants and Immigrants , COVID-19/epidemiology
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 447-454, oct. 2023. tab, mapas, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521865

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El año 2020, la tuberculosis (TB) fue responsable por 9,9 millones de nuevos casos y 1,5 millones de muertes en el mundo. En Chile, se ha reportado aumento en las tasas de incidencia en los últimos años, con gran concentración de casos en la Región Metropolitana (RM). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación espacio-temporal de la TB pulmonar con variables socioeconómicas en la RM de Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico desarrollado entre los años 2016 y 2020. Los casos se obtuvieron desde el Ministerio de Salud (n = 4.370), describiéndose según: sexo, edad, año de confirmación diagnóstica, servicio de salud y comuna de residencia. Se utilizó análisis de componentes principales para la construcción de factores socioeconómicos comunales. La asociación entre factores y TB pulmonar se evaluó con un modelo binominal negativo multinivel. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento en la tasa de incidencia (9,97 a 10,74 casos por 100 mil), disminución de la incidencia en personas ≥ 65 años (17,56 a 13,38) y en el promedio de edad (46,03 a 41,77 años). El factor caracterizado por mayor inmigración, hacinamiento y población urbana se asoció con mayores tasas de incidencia (RTI: 1,29; IC95: 1,23-134) y el factor con mayor escolaridad, menor pobreza y menor hacinamiento con menores tasas (RTI: 0,94; IC95: 0,89-0,98) en el periodo. CONCLUSIONES: La disminución en la edad de los casos junto a la concentración de casos en comunas urbanas y céntricas, asociadas con variables socioeconómicas desfavorables, confirman que la TB pulmonar continúa siendo un problema de relevancia a considerar.


BACKGROUND: In 2020, tuberculosis (TB) was responsible for 9.9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths worldwide. In Chile, an increase in incidence rates has been reported in recent years, with a concentration of cases in the Metropolitan Region (MR). AIM: To evaluate the spatio-temporal relationship of pulmonary TB with socioeconomic variables in the MR of Chile. METHODS: Ecological study developed between 2016 and 2020. Cases were obtained from the Ministry of Health (n = 4,370) and described by: sex, age, year of confirmation, health service, and commune of residence. Principal component analysis was used to construct community socioeconomic factors, and the association between factors and pulmonary TB was evaluated with a multilevel negative binomial model. RESULTS: There was an increase in the incidence rate (9.97 to 10.74 cases per 100,000), a decrease in the incidence in people ≥ 65 years (17.56 to 13.38), and the average age (46.03 to 41.77 years). The factor characterized by greater immigration, overcrowding, and the urban population was associated with more elevated incidence rates (RTI: 1.29; IC95: 1.23-134), and the factor with higher education, less poverty, and less overcrowding with lower rates (RTI: 0.94; CI 95: 0.89-0.98) in the period. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the age of the cases together and the concentration of cases in urban and central communes, associated with unfavorable socioeconomic variables, confirm that pulmonary TB continues to be a relevant problem to consider.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
14.
Rev. Ciênc. Saúde ; 13(2): 33-41, Junho 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444166

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar a comunicação social em crianças até 12 anos diagnosticadas com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) atendidos no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil (CAPSi) da cidade de Mossoró/RN. Métodos: Pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, quantitativa, transversal, realizada no CAPSi de Mossoró/RN. A coleta de dados baseou-se na aplicação de questionários aos pais/responsáveis, para caracterizar suas condições socioeconômicas e sua percepção sobre seus filhos. Foi utilizado o instrumento Avaliação do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (ADL) para crianças, desenvolvido para avaliar a aquisição e desenvolvimento de conteúdo (semântica) e estrutura (morfologia e sintaxe) da linguagem. Os questionários foram codificados e os dados foram tabulados para posterior análise estatística. Resultados: Foram estudadas 33 crianças e 73 pais/responsáveis. A maioria dos pais/responsáveis era do sexo feminino (95,9%), predominantemente na faixa etária de 30-39 anos (média de 37,6 anos), com cônjuge (60%), com ensino médio completo (45%) e renda mensal em torno de um salário-mínimo (76,7%), possuindo atitudes positivas em relação aos filhos e notando dificuldades na comunicação destes. Na aplicação do questionário com as crianças, 63,7% apresentaram resultados na faixa de normalidade, enquanto 3% apresentaram alteração leve e 33,3% alteração grave de linguagem. Conclusão: Crianças com TEA frequentadoras do CAPSi apresentam alterações de linguagem no subnível pragmático e mais da metade dos participantes não apresenta alterações morfossintáticas e semânticas


Objective: To characterize social communication in children up to 12 years old diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) treated at the Child Psychosocial Care Center (CAPSi) in Mossoró/RN. Methods: Exploratory, descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study conducted at CAPSi in Mossoró/RN. The data collection was based on the application of questionnaires to parents/guardians to characterize their socioeconomic conditions and their perception of their children. The Language Development Assessment (LDA) instrument for children was used, developed to assess the acquisition and development of language content (semantics) and structure (morphology and syntax). The questionnaires were coded, and the data were tabulated for further statistical analysis. Results: 33 children and 73 parents/guardians were studied. Most parents/guardians were female (95.9%), aged 30-39 years (mean age 37.6 years predominantly), with a partner (60%), with high school education (45%), and monthly income around one minimum wage (76.7%), having positive attitudes toward their children and noticing difficulties in their communication. In applying the questionnaire to the children, 63.7% presented results within the normal range, while 3% presented mild and 33.3% severe language alterations. Conclusion: Children with ASD attending CAPSi have language disorders in the pragmatic sublevel, and more than half of the participants did not have morphosyntactic and semantic changes


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Child , Incidence , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(3): [211-216], sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510804

ABSTRACT

En Colombia, para 2020, el cáncer de pulmón se reportó como la segunda neoplasia con mayor incidencia y la primera con mayor tasa de mortalidad según las cifras del minis-terio de salud de Colombia. El compromiso peritoneal en el cáncer de pulmón es algo extremadamente raro, se considera <1%. A continuación, exponemos un caso de car-cinomatosis peritoneal en cáncer de pulmón en un hospital en la ciudad de Bogotá. Se incorpora una posterior revisión descriptiva de la literatura de los casos clínicos de car-cinomatosis peritoneal en cáncer de pulmón reportados en la literatura mundial en los últimos 20 años, con el objetivo de resumir las principales características de estos pa-cientes que permiten plantear hipótesis de su enfoque terapéutico y pronóstico


In Colombia for 2020, lung cancer was reported as the fifth neoplasm with the highest incidence and the second with the highest mortality rate. Peritoneal involvement in lung cancer is extremely rare, it is considered <1%. Next, we present a case of peritoneal car-cinomatosis in lung cancer in Bogotá, with a subsequent literature review of the litera-ture of clinical cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis in lung cancer reported in the world li-terature in the last 20 years. The aim is to summarize the main characteristics of these patients that allow to hypothesize their prognostic and therapeutic approach


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Peritoneal Neoplasms/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Case Reports , Incidence , Mortality
16.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 270-273, Septiembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515962

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ifosfamida es un agente alquilante utilizado para el tratamiento de enfermedades oncohematológicas. Entre sus eventos adversos agudos se encuentra la neurotoxicidad. Esta puede presentarse desde el inicio de la infusión hasta tres días después. El tratamiento consiste en suspender la administración y asegurar una adecuada hidratación. Objetivo: Describir eventos neurológicos asociados al uso de ifosfamida en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedades oncohematológicas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal. Los datos se obtuvieron de historias clínicas de pacientes internados en el Hospital Garrahan que infundieron ifosfamida y desarrollaron síntomas neurológicos. Se analizaron edad, diagnóstico de base, dosis de ifosfamida, síntomas neurológicos y su relación con la infusión, tratamiento instaurado, exámenes complementarios y posibles factores de riesgo asociados. Resultados: Se registraron un total de catorce eventos neurológicos en doce pacientes, sin diferencia de sexo, con una mediana de edad de 9,5 años. La enfermedad de base más prevalente fue osteosarcoma. Las convulsiones fueron el síntoma más frecuente (50%), seguido de somnolencia y paresias. La combinación de ifosfamida y etopósido con/sin carboplatino se asoció en un 36% cada uno. El 64% desarrolló neurotoxicidad dentro de las primeras cuatro horas. Ningún paciente presentó alteraciones en los exámenes complementarios. Todos presentaron recuperación ad integrum. Conclusión: Este estudio brinda información acerca del tiempo de aparición de esta complicación, lo cual facilitará su detección precoz y tratamiento oportuno (AU)


Introduction: Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent used for the treatment of cancer. Among its acute adverse events is neurotoxicity. This can occur from the beginning of the infusion up to three days afterwards. Treatment consists of discontinuing administration and ensuring adequate hydration. Objective: To describe neurological events associated with the use of ifosfamide in children with cancer. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, and cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from clinical records of patients admitted to the Garrahan Hospital who received ifosfamide infusion and developed neurological symptoms. Age, baseline diagnosis, ifosfamide dose, neurological symptoms and their relationship with the infusion, treatment, complementary tests, and possible associated risk factors were analyzed. Results: A total of fourteen neurological events were recorded in twelve patients, without difference in sex and with a median age of 9.5 years. The most prevalent underlying disease was osteosarcoma. Seizures were the most frequent symptom (50%), followed by drowsiness and paresis. The combination of ifosfamide and etoposide with/without carboplatin was associated in 36% each. Sixty-four percent developed neurotoxicity within the first four hours. None of the patients presented with abnormalities in the complementary examinations. All recovered ad integrum. Conclusion: This study provides information about the time of onset of this complication, which will facilitate its early detection and timely treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Ifosfamide/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/adverse effects
17.
Actual. osteol ; 19(3): 181-189, Sept - Dic 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554586

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia de vitamina D (VD) en el embarazo se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de cesáreas, preeclampsia y partos prematuros. Objetivo: evaluar si el grado de insuficiencia de VD se asocia a mayor número de cesáreas y evaluar la correlación entre la 25 hidroxivitamina D (25OHD) materna y en sangre del cordón del recién nacido. Las mujeres (n=127) se dividieron según sus niveles de 25OHD (ng/mL):G1:<20 (deficiencia), G2:20-30 (insuficiencia), G3:>30 (suficiencia). Se registraron edad; edad gestacional (EG); índice de masa corporal (IMC); tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica; tipo de parto y la estación del año en que se tomó la muestra. Se determinaron calcemia (ng/mL); 25OHD; parathormona intacta (pg/mL); fosfatasa alcalina ósea (UI/L) y crosslaps (pg/mL). La edad media fue de 26±6 años y la EG de 35,8±2,7 semanas, sin diferencias entre grupos. El porcentaje de cesáreas fue mayor en G1 que en G2 y G3 (31,3%, 21,4% y 25%, respectivamente; p<0,05). El mayor porcentaje de muestras se tomó en primavera (p<0,05). No se observaron diferencias en las demás variables maternas estudiadas. La 25OHD materna correlacionó positivamente con los valores de la sangre de cordón de sus respectivos recién nacidos (r= 0,67; p<0,0001). Independientemente de la época del año y del IMC, se observó que un porcentaje significativo de las mujeres embarazadas estudiadas tenía niveles de 25OHD inferiores a 30 ng/mL. Conclusión: evidenciamos que la deficiencia de VD materna se asoció al número de cesáreas. Asimismo, los niveles séricos de 25OHD en sangre de cordón umbilical correlacionaron significativamente con los maternos. (AU)


Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency in pregnancy is associated with a higher incidence of cesarean section, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. Objective: to evaluate if the degree of VD insufficiency is associated with the incidence of cesarean section and to determine the correlation between maternal and newborn cord blood 25-hydroxy VS (25OHD). Women (n=127) were divided according to their 25OHD levels (ng/mL): G1:<20 (deficiency), G2:20-30 (insufficiency), G3:>30 (sufficiency). Age; gestational age (GA); body mass index (BMI); systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg); type of delivery and the season of the year in which the sample was taken were recorded. Calcemia (ng/mL); 25OHD; intact parathormone (pg/mL); bone alkaline phosphatase (IU/L) and Crosslaps (pg/mL) levels were determined. Mean age was 26±6 years and GA was 35.8±2.7 weeks with no differences among groups. The % of cesarean sections was higher in G1 than in G2 and G3 (31.3%, 21.4% and 25%; p<0.05). The highest % of samples were taken in spring (p<0.05). No differences were observed in the other maternal variables studied. Maternal serum 25OHD levels correlated positively with those of cord blood from their respective newborns (r=0.67; p<0.0001). Regardless the season of the year and BMI, a high % of the studied pregnant women presented 25OHD levels lower than 30 ng/ml. Conclusion: we found that maternal VD deficiency is associated with the number of cesarean sections. In addition, 25OHD levels in the newborn significantly correlate with maternal serum levels. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Pregnancy/statistics & numerical data , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Seasons , Vitamin D , Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2/blood , Incidence , Gestational Age , Fetal Blood , Obstetric Labor, Premature/epidemiology
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 625-631, July-Aug. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521790

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to analyze the use of shoulder imbalance as a parameter for scoliosis screening as well as its relationship with other parameters of physical examination. Methods This study assesses a smartphone application that analyzes several parameters of the physical examination in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Medical and non-medical examiners applied the screening tool in students in a public school and in a private sports club. After data collection, interobserver correlation was done to verify shoulder imbalance and to compare shoulder imbalance with Adam's bending test and with trunk rotation. Results Eighty-nine participants were examined, 18 of whom were women and 71 of whom were men. Two subjects were excluded from the analysis. The mean age of subjects from the public school was 11.30 years and, for those from the sports club, it was 11.92 years. The examiners had poor-to-slight interobserver concordance on shoulder asymmetry in the anterior and posterior view. No significant statistical correlation was found between shoulder asymmetry and positive Adam's forward bending test. Conclusion Our preliminary study shows that the shoulder asymmetry has a poor correlation with the Adam's forward bending test and measuring trunk rotation using a scoliometer. Therefore, the use of shoulder imbalance might not be useful for idiopathic scoliosis screening. Level of Evidence III; Diagnostic Study


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o uso da assimetria de ombros como parâmetro para a triagem de escoliose e sua relação a outros parâmetros do exame físico. Métodos Este estudo avalia um aplicativo para smartphone que analisa diversos parâmetros do exame físico de adolescentes com escoliose idiopática. Examinadores médicos e não médicos utilizaram o instrumento de triagem em alunos de uma escola pública e de um clube esportivo privado. Após a coleta de dados, a correlação interobservador foi determinada para verificar a assimetria de ombros e compará-la ao teste de inclinação de Adam e à medição da rotação do tronco. Resultados Oitenta e nove participantes foram examinados, sendo 18 do sexo feminino e 71 do sexo masculino. Dois indivíduos foram excluídos da análise. A média de idade dos participantes da escola pública foi de 11,30 anos e do clube esportivo, 11,92 anos. Os examinadores apresentaram concordância interobservador baixa a branda quanto à assimetria de ombros em incidência anterior e posterior. Não houve correlação estatística significativa entre a assimetria de ombros e o resultado positivo no teste de inclinação do tronco de Adam. Conclusão Nosso estudo preliminar mostra que a assimetria de ombros tem baixa correlação com o teste de inclinação de Adam e assim como com a medição de rotação do tronco com escoliômetro. Portanto, o uso da assimetria de ombros pode não ser útil na triagem da escoliose idiopática. Nível de Evidência III; Estudo Diagnóstico


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Scoliosis , Shoulder/abnormalities , Congenital Abnormalities , Mass Screening , Incidence
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202813, ago. 2023. mapas, graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442590

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La tuberculosis continúa siendo un problema frecuente en contextos de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica. El objetivo principal fue establecer la prevalencia de infección latente y viraje tuberculínico en contactos escolares de casos de tuberculosis. Población y métodos. En un área programática del sur de la ciudad, se evaluó la prevalencia de infección y viraje tuberculínico de 691 niñas, niños y adolescentes utilizando la prueba cutánea de tuberculina. Se investigó la asociación entre pérdida de seguimiento por parte del equipo de salud y características demográficas, escolares y asistencia inicial, y se describió el grado de adherencia cuando la quimioprofilaxis con isoniacida fue indicada. Resultados. Según las definiciones consideradas, la prevalencia de infección latente fue entre el 3,4 % (IC95 %: 2,3-5,2) y el 11,6 % (IC95 %: 9,3-14,4) de los 610 contactos con al menos una prueba cutánea aplicada. La incidencia de viraje tuberculínico se encontró entre el 0,3 % y el 6,8 % de los 294 evaluados. La edad mayor de 18 años, la mayor prevalencia de necesidades básicas insatisfechas en la comuna escolar, la pertenencia al turno escolar vespertino, la negatividad en la baciloscopia del caso índice y la ausencia de aplicación de la prueba cutánea inicial se asociaron con pérdida de seguimiento del contacto. Conclusiones. La incidencia de viraje tuberculínico en contactos escolares fue baja. La adherencia a isoniacida continúa siendo limitada. Se identificaron factores asociados con la pérdida de seguimiento de contactos que podrían orientar estrategias necesarias para mejorar este proceso.


Introduction. Tuberculosis continues to be a common problem in settings of socioeconomic vulnerability. Our primary objective was to establish the prevalence of latent infection and tuberculin conversion among school contacts of tuberculosis cases. Population and methods. In a programmatic area in the south of the City of Buenos Aires, the prevalence of latent infection and tuberculin conversion was assessed in 691 children and adolescents using the tuberculin skin test. The association between loss to follow-up by the health care team and the demographic, school, and baseline care characteristics was studied, and the level of adherence when isoniazid chemoprophylaxis was indicated was described. Results. According to established definitions, the prevalence of latent infection was between 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3­5.2) and 11.6% (95% CI: 9.3­14.4) in the 610 contacts with at least one skin test. The incidence of tuberculin conversion was between 0.3% and 6.8% in the 294 assessed participants. Age older than 18 years, a higher prevalence of unmet basic needs in the school district, attending the afternoon school shift, negative sputum smear results in the index case, and absence of baseline skin test were associated with contact lost to follow-up. Conclusions. The incidence of tuberculin conversion among school contacts was low. Adherence to isoniazid treatment remains limited. Factors associated with loss of contact tracing were identified, which may guide strategies necessary to improve this process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculin , Tuberculin Test , Incidence , Prevalence , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202805, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442961

ABSTRACT

El Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causa enfermedad invasiva (EI). Se distinguen cepas capsuladas, como el serotipo b (Hib), y cepas no tipificables (HNT). Al año de declarada la pandemia por COVID-19, observamos un aumento de casos. Se describen las características clínico-epidemiológicas de niños con EI por Hi internados en el hospital (julio 2021-julio 2022). Hubo 14 casos; 12 previamente sanos. Aislamientos: Hib (n = 6), Hi serotipo a (n = 2), HNT (n = 5), 1 no se tipificó. Mediana de edad: 8,5 meses (RIC 4-21). Manifestaciones: meningitis (n = 5), neumonía (n = 6), celulitis (n = 2), artritis (n = 1). Nueve presentaron vacunación incompleta para Hib. Observamos un incremento de EI por Hi de 2,5 veces respecto a años previos. Estos datos sugieren el resurgimiento de Hib por la caída de las coberturas de vacunación y porque otras cepas de Hi no b están en aumento.


Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causes invasive disease. There are encapsulated strains, such as serotype b (Hib), and non-typeable strains (NTHi). One year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cases increased. In this report we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children hospitalized with invasive Hi disease (July 2021-July 2022). There were 14 cases; 12 were previously healthy children. Isolations: Hib (n = 6), Hi serotype a (n = 2), NTHi (n = 5); 1 case was not typified. Median age: 8.5 months (IQR: 4­21). Manifestations: meningitis (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 6), cellulitis (n = 2), arthritis (n = 1). Incomplete Hib immunization was observed in 9 children. Invasive Hi disease increased 2.5 times from previous years. These data suggest the reemergence of Hib due to a decline in vaccination coverage and an increase in other non-b-type Hi serotypes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Incidence , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics
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