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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1135-1145, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514341

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The human soleus muscle has attracted attention in the fields of sport science, rehabilitation medicine, etc. for improving exercise performance in training, preventing injuries, and rehabilitation. The sagittal tendon plate of the soleus muscle is particularly important in rehabilitation. Few studies, however, have evaluated the shape of the sagittal tendon plate in the human soleus muscle in detail and attempted to classify its variations based on its morphology. In this study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the morphology of the sagittal tendon plates in soleus muscle specimens from Japanese cadavers and constructed a morphology-based classification system and evaluated their frequencies of occurrence. First, the specimens were divided into those with a sagittal tendon plate that was visible on the anterior surface (pennate muscle group) and those without (non-pennate muscle group). Next, based on the "number" and "breadth" of the sagittal tendon plates, the pennate muscle group specimens were further classified into four classes: Class I (one tendon, thin), Class II (one tendon, slightly broad), Class III (one tendon, very broad), and Class IV (two tendons, thin). Subsequently, the specimens were further divided into three types based on the position where the sagittal tendon plate joined the Achilles tendon: median tendon type, lateral tendon type, and medial tendon type (a total 13 divisions). When 458 Japanese soleus muscle specimens were classified into these divisions, the occurrence frequencies of Class I-IV were 80.57 %, 4.59 %, 5.46 %, and 1.09 %, respectively. In Class I, the median tendon type was more frequent than the lateral and medial tendon types, accounting for 48.47 % overall. The classification types of the sagittal tendon plate and their respective occurrence frequencies shown in this study are expected to serve as fundamental data in implementing rehabilitation of soleus muscle.


El músculo sóleo humano ha atraído la atención de la ciencia del deporte, la medicina de rehabilitación, etc. para mejorar el rendimiento del ejercicio en el entrenamiento, prevenir las lesiones y rehabilitación. La lámina tendinosa sagital del músculo sóleo es particularmente importante en la rehabilitación. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han evaluado en detalle la forma de la placa lámina sagital en el músculo sóleo humano y han intentado clasificar sus variaciones en función de su morfología. Realizamos un análisis detallado de la morfología de las láminas de los tendones sagitales en muestras de músculo sóleo de cadáveres japoneses y construimos un sistema de clasificación basado en la morfología y, además, evaluamos su frecuencia de aparición. Los especímenes se dividieron en aquellos con una lámina de tendón sagital que era visible en la superficie anterior (grupo muscular pennado) y aquellos sin (grupo muscular no pennado). A continuación, según el "número" y el "ancho" de las láminas de los tendones sagitales, las muestras del grupo de músculos pennados se clasificaron en cuatro clases: Clase I (un tendón, delgado), Clase II (un tendón, ligeramente ancho), Clase III (un tendón, muy ancho) y Clase IV (dos tendones delgados). Posteriormente, las muestras se dividieron en tres tipos, según la posición donde la lámina del tendón sagital se unía al tendón calcáneo: tipo de tendón mediano, tipo de tendón lateral y tipo de tendón medial (un total de 13 divisiones). En estas divisiones se clasificaron 458 especímenes de músculo sóleo de indiviuos japoneses, las frecuencias de ocurrencia de Clase I-IV fueron 80,57 %, 4,59 %, 5,46 % y 1,09 %, respectivamente. En la Clase I, el tipo de tendón mediano era más frecuente que los tipos de tendón lateral y medial, representando el 48,47 % del total. Se espera que los tipos de clasificación de la lámina del tendón sagital y sus respectivas frecuencias de aparición, que se reportan en este estudio, sirvan como datos fundamentales para implementar la rehabilitación del músculo sóleo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tendons/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Japan
2.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 19-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The association between meat, fish, or fatty acid intake and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has been investigated in a few studies, and the results were inconsistent. In addition, most studies are mainly based on the United States and European countries, in which the dietary patterns differ from that in Asia. Therefore, the risk of AML/MDS from meat, fish, or fatty acid intake in Asia requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AML/MDS incidence and meat, fish, or fatty acid intake using the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.@*METHODS@#The present study included 93,366 participants who were eligible for analysis and followed up from the 5-year survey date until December 2012. We estimated the impact of their intake on AML/MDS incidence using a Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#The study participants were followed up for 1,345,002 person-years. During the follow-up period, we identified 67 AML and 49 MDS cases. An increased intake of processed red meat was significantly associated with the incidence of AML/MDS, with a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.57) for the highest versus lowest tertile and a Ptrend of 0.04. Meanwhile, the intake of other foods and fatty acids was not associated with AML/MDS.@*CONCLUSION@#In this Japanese population, processed red meat was associated with an increased incidence of AML/MDS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , Public Health , Meat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/epidemiology
3.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 18-18, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971208

ABSTRACT

During the recent emergence of COVID-19, an increased practice of hand hygiene coincided with the reduced incidence of the norovirus epidemic in Japan, which is similar to experience with the pandemic flu in 2009. We investigated the relationship between the sales of hand hygiene products, including liquid hand soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and the trend of norovirus epidemic. We used national gastroenteritis surveillance data across Japan in 2020 and 2021 and compared the base statistics of incidence of these two years with the average of the previous 10 years (2010-2019). We calculated the correlations (Spearman's Rho) between monthly sales of hand hygiene products and monthly norovirus cases and fitted them to a regression model. In 2020, there was no epidemic, and the incidence peak was the lowest in recent norovirus epidemics. In 2021, the incidence peak was delayed for five weeks to the usual epidemic seasons. Correlation coefficients between monthly sales of liquid hand soap and skin antiseptics and norovirus incidence showed a significantly negative correlation (Spearman's Rho = -0.88 and p = 0.002 for liquid hand soap; Spearman's Rho = -0.81 and p = 0.007 for skin antiseptics). Exponential regression models were fitted between the sales of each hand hygiene product and norovirus cases, respectively. The results suggest hand hygiene using these products is a potentially useful prevention method against norovirus epidemics. Effective ways of hand hygiene for increasing the prevention of norovirus should therefore be studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Soaps , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Norovirus
4.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 16-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous cardiovascular risk prediction models in Japan have utilized prospective cohort studies with concise data. As the health information including health check-up records and administrative claims becomes digitalized and publicly available, application of large datasets based on such real-world data can achieve prediction accuracy and support social implementation of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models in preventive and clinical practice. In this study, classical regression and machine learning methods were explored to develop ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke prognostic models using real-world data.@*METHODS@#IQVIA Japan Claims Database was searched to include 691,160 individuals (predominantly corporate employees and their families working in secondary and tertiary industries) with at least one annual health check-up record during the identification period (April 2013-December 2018). The primary outcome of the study was the first recorded IHD or stroke event. Predictors were annual health check-up records at the index year-month, comprising demographic characteristics, laboratory tests, and questionnaire features. Four prediction models (Cox, Elnet-Cox, XGBoost, and Ensemble) were assessed in the present study to develop a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model for Japan.@*RESULTS@#The analysis cohort consisted of 572,971 invididuals. All prediction models showed similarly good performance. The Harrell's C-index was close to 0.9 for all IHD models, and above 0.7 for stroke models. In IHD models, age, sex, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure had higher importance, while in stroke models systolic blood pressure and age had higher importance.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study analyzed classical regression and machine learning algorithms to develop cardiovascular disease risk prediction models for IHD and stroke in Japan that can be applied to practical use in a large population with predictive accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods
5.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 15-15, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Individual-level social capital is an important determinant of older adults' long-term care needs; however, there is scant evidence regarding community-level social capital. Therefore, we investigated the association between community-level social capital and the prevalence of the need for long-term care among older adults.@*METHODS@#Between January and February 2018, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all older adults (n = 13,558) aged 65 to 74 years in a rural municipality in Japan (total population, n = 72,833). A self-reported questionnaire was used to identify community-level social capital, comprising civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios of the need for long-term care and a decline in social activity competence as assessed by instrumental activities of daily living. For the analysis, the community levels were divided into 76 voting districts and adjusted for daily life, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, health conditions, and the three social capital subscale scores at the individual level.@*RESULTS@#After adjusting for the covariates, we observed a tendency that a higher community level of reciprocity was associated with a lower prevalence of long-term care needs (OR: 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.75-1.00), whereas a high community level of social cohesion was associated with a significantly reduced decline in instrumental activities of daily living (OR per standard deviation increase: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.96). No significant association was found with civic participation. Similarly, individual-level social capital was associated with the need for long-term care and decline in instrumental activities of daily living.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggest that good community-level reciprocity or social cohesion as well as good individual social capital status may help prevent the need for long-term care among older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Interpersonal Relations , Activities of Daily Living , Social Participation , Social Capital , Multilevel Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Long-Term Care , Japan/epidemiology , Social Support
6.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 13-13, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have increased the rate of presenteeism among front-line physicians. Presenteeism is the term used to describe attendance at work despite ill health that would normally prompt rest or absence from work. This study aimed to examine the associations between COVID-19 clinical practice and presenteeism among physicians.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2021 to January 2022. The questionnaires were distributed to 21,737 employed physicians who were members of the Japan Medical Association. Presenteeism was measured by the Work Functioning Impairment Scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between COVID-19 clinical practice and presenteeism.@*RESULTS@#Overall, 3,968 participants were included in the analysis, and presenteeism was observed in 13.9% of them. The rate of presenteeism significantly increased with both the number of COVID-19 patients treated and the percentage of work time spent treating these patients (both P values for trend < 0.001). In comparison to those not currently engaged in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, presenteeism was significantly higher among front-line (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.53) and second-line physicians supporting those in the front-line (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17-1.78). There was no association between involvement in COVID-19 vaccination services and presenteeism.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The burden on front-line and second-line physicians in COVID-19 clinical practice must be minimized. Employed physicians also need to recognize the importance of communicating with their workplaces about presenteeism.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Presenteeism , Japan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Physicians , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 12-12, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few prospective studies have investigated the association between paternal occupational exposures and risk of infant congenital heart defects (CHDs). We investigated the associations between paternal occupational exposures, frequency of use, and concurrent or sequential exposure to a mixture of compounds and the risk of infant CHDs.@*METHODS@#Our study examined 28,866 participants in the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with paternal occupational exposures during the 3 months until pregnancy was noticed after adjustment for potential confounding factors of the infant CHDs. CHD diagnosis was ascertained from medical record.@*RESULTS@#In total, 175 were diagnosed with infant CHDs. The number of fathers who were exposed to the following substances at least once a month were: 11,533 for photo copying machine/laser printer, 10,326 for permanent marker, 8,226 for soluble paint/inkjet printer, 6,188 for kerosene/petroleum/benzene/gasoline, 4,173 for organic solvents, 3,433 for chlorine bleach/germicide, 2,962 for engine oil, 2,931 for insecticide, 2,460 for medical sterilizing disinfectant, 1,786 for welding fumes, 1,614 for dyestuffs, 1,247 for any products containing lead-like solder, 986 for herbicide, 919 for radiation/radioactive substances/isotopes, 837 for lead-free solder, 341 for microbes, 319 for formalin/formaldehyde, 301 for agricultural chemical not listed above or unidentified, 196 for general anesthetic for surgery at hospital, 171 for anti-cancer drug, 147 for chromium/arsenic/cadmium, 88 for mercury and 833 for other chemical substances. Paternal occupational exposure regularly to photo copying machine or laser printer and soluble paint/inkjet printer were associated with higher risks of infant CHDs: the adjusted ORs (95%CIs) were 1.38 (1.00-1.91) and 1.60 (1.08-2.37), respectively. The higher risks were also observed for occasional exposure to engine oil, any products containing lead-like solder lead-free solder, and microbes; the adjusted ORs (95%CIs) were 1.68 (1.02-2.77), 2.03 (1.06-3.88), 3.45 (1.85-6.43), and 4.51, (1.63-12.49), respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Periconceptional paternal occupational exposure was associated with a higher risk of infant CHDs. Further studies using biomarkers of the association between paternal occupational exposure and infant CHDs are warranted.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Infant , Child , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Case-Control Studies , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Fathers
8.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 10-10, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Before the COVID-19 vaccine became available, many Japanese people were undecided about whether or not to receive them. Their decisions were keys to achieving herd immunity. The impact of the type of information source on the COVID-19 vaccine uptake decision-making process remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between information source usage on COVID-19 and subsequent vaccine uptake status among those who have yet to decide whether to receive vaccines from non-prioritized people for vaccination.@*METHODS@#Prospective cohort online self-administered surveys were conducted in February 2021 (T1), before the start of the mass vaccination program, and September-October 2021 (T2), when the vaccines were available to all citizens. The survey's target population was registered monitors of an Internet research company. Participants who answered "I want to get vaccinated after waiting to see how it goes." at T1 were eligible for analysis. The outcome variable was the COVID-19 vaccine uptake status in T2, and the predictors were 20 types of information sources, categorized based on people (family members, etc.), institutions (governments, etc.), or media (TV news, etc.). Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for possible confounders.@*RESULTS@#The 5,139 respondents, mean age and standard deviation was 42.8 ± 12.5, 55.7% female, were eligible for analysis. 85.7% completed vaccination (including reserved/intended people) in T2. In the multivariate logistic analysis, odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for vaccine uptake were 1.49 (1.18-1.89) for workplaces/schools, 1.81 (1.33-2.47) for LINE, 0.69 (0.55-0.86) for Internet news and 0.62 (0.48-0.82) for video sharing sites.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The type of information source usage played an important role in the decision to vaccinate against COVID-19. Although caution is needed in interpreting the results, obtaining information from workplaces/schools and LINE was influential in promoting immunization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Information Sources , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Intention , Japan , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
9.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 9-9, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is substantial evidence on the association between lower education and unhealthy behaviors. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. This study aimed to examine whether income, health literacy, and social support mediate the association between education and health-related behaviors.@*METHODS@#A questionnaire survey was conducted in metropolitan areas in Japan from 2010 to 2011 among residents aged 25-50 years. Data from 3663 participants were used in this study. Health literacy was measured using the Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale. Health-related behaviors were current smoking, poor dietary habits, hazardous drinking, and lack of exercise. Poisson regression analyses with robust variance estimators were conducted to examine the associations between education and these health-related behaviors. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to estimate the magnitudes of the mediating effects of income, health literacy, and social support on these associations.@*RESULTS@#Less educated participants had higher risks of all unhealthy behaviors. Income mediated the associations of education with smoking (6.4%) and exercise (20.0%). Health literacy mediated the associations of education with dietary habits (15.4%) and exercise (16.1%). Social support mediated the associations of education with dietary habits (6.4%) and exercise (7.6%). The education-drinking association was mediated by income in the opposite direction (-10.0%). The proportions of the total effects mediated by income, health literacy, and social support were 9.8% for smoking, 24.0% for dietary habits, -3.0% for drinking, and 43.7% for exercise.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings may provide clues for designing effective interventions to reduce educational inequalities in health-related behaviors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Japan , Health Behavior , Educational Status , Exercise , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Literacy , Cognition
10.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 7-7, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Many previous studies have reported COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, but there are few studies in Japan. This community-based, retrospective observational study investigated the association between vaccination status and COVID-19-related health outcomes in COVID-19 patients by SARS-CoV-2 variant type.@*METHODS@#The study participants were 24,314 COVID-19 patients aged 12 or older whose diagnoses were reported to the Nara Prefecture Chuwa Public Health Center from April 2021 to March 2022, during periods when the alpha, delta, and omicron variants of COVID-19 were predominant. The outcome variables were severe health consequences (SHC) (i.e., ICU admission and COVID-19-related death), hospitalization, and extension of recovery period. The explanatory variable was vaccination status at least 14 days prior to infection. Covariates included gender, age, population size, the number of risk factors for aggravation, and the number of symptoms at diagnosis. The generalized estimating equations of the multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate the adjusted incidence proportion (AIP) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each health outcome. We performed stratified analyses by SARS-CoV-2 variant type, but the association between vaccination status and COVID-19-related health outcomes was stratified only for the delta and omicron variants due to the small number of vaccinated patients during the alpha variant.@*RESULTS@#Of the 24,314 participants, 255 (1.0%) had SHC; of the 24,059 participants without SHC, 2,102 (8.7%) were hospitalized; and of the 19,603 participants without SHC, hospitalization, and missing data on recovery period, 2,960 (15.1%) had extension of recovery period. Multivariable Poisson regression models showed that regardless of SARS-CoV-2 variant type or health outcome, those who received two or more vaccine doses had significantly lower risk of health outcomes than those who did not receive the vaccine, and there was a dose-response relationship in which the AIP for health outcomes decreased with an increased number of vaccinations.@*CONCLUSION@#A higher number of vaccinations were associated with lower risk of COVID-19-related health outcomes, not only in the delta variant but also in the omicron variant. Our findings suggest that increasing the number of COVID-19 vaccine doses can prevent severe disease and lead to early recovery of patients not requiring hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Japan/epidemiology , Independent Living , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
11.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 6-6, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Recent studies indicate that the timing of introduction of potentially allergenic food is crucial for the development of food allergy in children. This cross-sectional study aimed to clarify the reality of allergen food intake in a general population of young children in Japan.@*METHODS@#A questionnaire survey of caregivers was conducted at health checkups for 1.5-year (18-month)-old and 3-year-old children in the fall of 2020. The caregivers were asked about (1) the presence/absence of allergic disease symptoms based on the ISAAC questionnaire, and (2) foods that caregivers avoided giving their children. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were periformed to determine factors associated with food avoidance.@*RESULTS@#Questionnaires were distributed to 1720 caregivers, and 1603 (93%) responded. The responders consisted of 771 and 832 caregivers who participated in 1.5-year-old and 3-year-old checkups, respectively. The prevalence of allergic diseases was comparable to recent epidemiological studies in Japan, indicating that the population may be representative. At 1.5 years old, more than 50% of the children were not exposed to peanuts, tree nuts, fish eggs, shellfish, and buckwheat. At 3 years old, the avoidance rates of the foods had decreased but were still between 18.8% and 32.0%. On the other hand, the avoidance rates of chicken egg and cow's milk, the top 2 common allergenic foods in Japan, were much lower at 2.8% and 1.5% at 1.5 years, and they decreased to 1.4% and 0.7% at 3 years old, respectively. Ordinal logistic analysis showed that avoidance of chicken egg, cow's milk, and wheat was associated with food allergy diagnosis and chicken egg avoidance with eczema, but avoidance of other foods showed no associations with any risk factors for food allergy.@*CONCLUSION@#Caregivers avoided giving various foods, independent of allergy risk factors, to their young children. Since delayed introduction of an allergenic food has been reported to increase the risk of developing an allergy to the food, the results warrant future investigation of the development of food allergies in relation to current eating habits and recommendations.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Food Hypersensitivity/complications , Risk Factors , Food , Allergens
12.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 5-5, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Heated tobacco product (HTP) use has increased substantially between 2016 and 2017 in Japan. This study aims to clarify how HTP use (IQOS, Ploom, and glo) spread across the different combustible cigarette smoking statuses during 2015-16 and 2017-18 in Japan.@*METHODS@#We compared the two periods of (i) 2015 to 2016 (N = 5,366) and (ii) 2017 to 2018 (N = 3,422) from a longitudinal study randomly sampling members from the Japan "Society and New Tobacco" Internet Survey (JASTIS). Multivariable logistic regression models for current HTP use in the previous 30 days by combustible cigarette smoking status in the previous year were used adjusting for socio-demographic factors.@*RESULTS@#HTP use increased by 10 times in the 2017-18 cohort compared with the 2015-16 cohort according to the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for current HTP use as 10.2 (7.03-14.8). According to smoking status, significantly higher adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of current HTP use for the after period were observed: 2.60 (1.37-4.94) for never smokers, 7.82 (3.64-16.8) for former smokers, 21.1 (5.73-77.9) for current smokers with intention to quit, and 17.0 (9.58-30.3) for current smokers without intention to quit.@*CONCLUSION@#During 2015 to 2018 in Japan, HTP use dramatically increased in all subgroups except for never smokers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Tobacco Products , Tobacco , Cigarette Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 63-67, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The rapid development of winter sports requires investigation on injuries in Chongli district, Zhangjiakou city, one of the ski sites of the 2022 Winter Olympics. Careful evaluation is required to observe which injuries are caused under what circumstances, and then we can make corresponding preventive measures and recommendations based on the results.@*METHODS@#In this retrospective study, the data of injury cases at ski resorts in China (Chongli district) and Japan were analyzed to provide a reference for the ongoing injury prevention at ski resorts. We collected data on injuries at Wanlong and Fulong ski resorts in Chongli district during the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 ski seasons. We referred to the skiing injury report issued in February 2020 of a nationwide ski safety statistical service - Japan Ski Safety Association. The causes of injury and specific injured body parts were analyzed based on the data of Chinese and Japanese ski resorts. Statistical significance has been calculated using the Chi-square test.@*RESULTS@#During the 2019-2020 ski season in Japanese ski resorts, the number of reported injuries per 10,000 skiers was 0.93, of which 457 (17.3%) were over 50 years old, accounting for a large proportion of injuries, meanwhile in Chongli ski resort, the injury rate of skiers aged 50 and over was 7.1%. The knee joint (23.7% at Wanlong ski resort and 28.4% in Japanese ski resorts) was the most injured body part among Chongli and Japanese skiers. Among snowboarders, shoulder joint injury (17.7% in Japanese ski resorts) was the most common, and injury on hands and fingers (16.3% in Wanlong ski resorts) was the most common. Head injury rates are similar in Chongli, China and Japanese ski resorts (8.2% and 8.7%, respectively).@*CONCLUSION@#Our analysis demonstrated that injury data recorded among young skiers was higher in Chinese ski resorts (Chongli district) than that in Japanese ski resorts, and elderly skiers made up a larger proportion of skiing injuries in Japanese resorts. Thus, according to our research, the protection of knee joints, shoulder joints, and hands and fingers should be taken seriously. It should pay attention to the teaching of ski poles (for finger protection), and use protective devices such as knee pads, helmets, etc.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Athletic Injuries/prevention & control , Skiing/injuries , Japan/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
14.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 89-94, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969953

ABSTRACT

Ashi point is one of the three major categories of acupoint in acupuncture-moxibustion theory nowadays. It is originally recorded in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang (Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces for Emergency) as one of the effective folk methods. The theoretic development of ashi point goes through the innovation period of contemporary and modern acupuncture-moxibustion theory, specifically in three aspects, definition, property and status. Through the analysis of historical data, it is found that the bias of ashi point theory results from the misunderstanding of connotation, the distortion of application techniques, the misinterpretation of semantics and the gradual promotion of status. All of these are generally caused by the reform of acupuncture-moxibustion theory in Japan, which covers the essence of ashi point, limits its connotation and clouds the concept of acupoint. It is necessary to re-understand the literal sense and theoretic construction of ashi point and timely update the knowledge system of acupuncture-moxibustion in association with the results of theoretical researches.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Moxibustion , Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Japan
15.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 453-457, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982613

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) jointly released the Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2020 with 93 recommendations. In the same year, the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine (JSICM) and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) also cooperated to publish the Japanese clinical practice guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2020, covering 118 clinical issues in 22 areas. In this paper, 50 items in the contents of the two guidelines are compared in accordance with the order of international guidelines, including screening, initial resuscitation, mean arterial pressure, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), diagnosis of infection, timing of antimicrobial administration, biomarkers for initiation of antimicrobial therapy, selection of antibiotic, antifungal therapy, antiviral therapy, infusion of antibiotic, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, source of infection control, antimicrobial de-escalation strategy, course of antimicrobial administration, biomarkers for discontinuation of antibiotic, fluid management, vasoactive agents, positive inotropic agents, monitoring and intravenous access, fluid balance, oxygenation targets, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, noninvasive ventilation, protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), low tidal volume in respiratory failure patients with non-ARDS, lung recruitment maneuvers, prone position ventilation, muscle relaxants, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), glucocorticoids, blood purification, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, immunoglobulin, stress ulcer prevention, prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE), renal replacement therapy, glycemic management, vitamin C, sodium bicarbonate therapy, nutrition, treatment goals, palliative care, peer support groups, transition of care, screening economic and social support, education for the knowledge about sepsis to the patients and their families, common decision-making, discharge planning, cognitive therapy and follow-up after discharge. It is convenient for everyone to understand some views in the field of sepsis and septic shock, and deepen their understanding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Respiration , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Japan , Practice Guidelines as Topic
16.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(1)maio 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402669

ABSTRACT

Introdução: apesar de ser o país de maior média de idade no mundo, o Japão tem se destacado no combate à pandemia da COVID-19 (do inglês Coronavirus Disease 2019) ao apresentar reduzidas taxas de contaminação pelo vírus e de mortalidade. Objetivo: discutir acerca das estratégias em saúde adotadas pelo Japão diante da pandemia da doença da COVID-19, bem como avaliar os dados sobre contaminação e mortalidade japoneses em comparação com os outros quatro países com maior média de idade do mundo (Itália, Alemanha, Portugal e Espanha) e o Brasil. Metodologia: para avaliação das estratégias em saúde japonesas foi realizada busca nas bases de dados: PubMed, Cochrane e Scielo, utilizando-se combinação dos termos "Japão", "covid", "coronavirus" e "sistemas de saúde", nos idiomas Inglês, Espanhol e Português. Os dados de infecção da COVID-19 foram extraídos do site Our World in Data, correspondendo ao período de 25 de janeiro de 2020 a 30 de julho de 2020. Resultados: dentre as medidas adotadas pelo país no enfrentamento à pandemia, destacam-se o diagnóstico e resposta precoces à infecção, o rastreamento de contatos, o diagnóstico precoce e disponibilidade de cuidados intensivos para pacientes graves e estímulo a medidas comportamentais de distanciamento. Dentre os países analisados, o Japão apresenta as menores taxas de contaminação e mortalidade em termos absolutos pela COVID-19. Conclusões: medidas de distanciamento social, diagnóstico e tratamento precoces parecem ter contribuído para o sucesso no combate à COVID-19 no Japão. No período estudado, em milhão de habitantes, o Japão teve 6,13 casos de Covid, enquanto o Brasil apresentou 218,26 casos. Já no número de mortes confirmadas pela doença, o primeiro teve uma taxa de 0,23 enquanto o segundo de 5,16 casos por milhão de habitantes. É possível, a partir do conhecimento dessas medidas, buscar mecanismos semelhantes ao traçar políticas de saúde no enfrentamento de pandemias em outros países (AU)


Introduction: despite being the country with the highest average age globally, Japan has stood out in the fight against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic by presenting low contamination rates by the virus and mortality. Objective: we aim to discuss the health strategies adopted by Japan in the face of the COVID-19 disease pandemic, as well as to evaluate data on Japanese contamination and mortality compared to the other four countries with the highest average age in the world (Italy, Germany, Portugal and Spain) and Brazil. Methodology: the search was carried out to evaluate Japanese health strategies by using the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, and Scielo using a combination of the terms "Japan", "covid", "coronavirus" and "health systems" in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The COVID-19 infection data was extracted from the Our World in Data website, from January 25, 2020, to July 30, 2020. Results: Among the measures adopted by the country to face the pandemic, the early diagnosis and response to infection, contact tracing, early diagnosis and availability of intensive care for critically ill patients, and encouraging behavioral distancing measures stand out. Among the countries analyzed, Japan has the lowest rates of contamination and mortality in absolute terms by COVID-19. Conclusions: social distancing measures, early diagnosis, and treatment seem to have contributed to the success in combating COVID-19 in Japan. In the studied period, in a million inhabitants, Japan had 6.13 cases of covid while Brazil had 218.26 cases. As for the number of deaths confirmed by the disease, the first had a rate of 0.23 while the second had 5.16 cases per million inhabitants. Based on the knowledge of these measures, it is possible to seek similar mechanisms when designing health policies to face pandemics in other countries (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , National Health Systems , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Japan
17.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368253

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: apesar de ser o país de maior média de idade no mundo, o Japão tem se destacado no combate à pandemia da COVID-19 (do inglês Coronavirus Disease 2019) ao apresentar reduzidas taxas de contaminação pelo vírus e de mortalidade. Objetivo: discutir acerca das estratégias em saúde adotadas pelo Japão diante da pandemia da doença da COVID-19, bem como avaliar os dados sobre contaminação e mortalidade japoneses em comparação com os outros quatro países com maior média de idade do mundo (Itália, Alemanha, Portugal e Espanha) e o Brasil. Metodologia: para avaliação das estratégias em saúde japonesas foi realizada busca nas bases de dados: PubMed, Cochrane e Scielo, utilizando-se combinação dos termos "Japão", "covid", "coronavirus" e "sistemas de saúde", nos idiomas Inglês, Espanhol e Português. Os dados de infecção da COVID-19 foram extraídos do site Our World in Data, correspondendo ao período de 25 de janeiro de 2020 a 30 de julho de 2020. Resultados: dentre as medidas adotadas pelo país no enfrentamento à pandemia, destacam-se o diagnóstico e resposta precoces à infecção, o rastreamento de contatos, o diagnóstico precoce e disponibilidade de cuidados intensivos para pacientes graves e estímulo a medidas comportamentais de distanciamento. Dentre os países analisados, o Japão apresenta as menores taxas de contaminação e mortalidade em termos absolutos pela COVID-19. Conclusões: medidas de distanciamento social, diagnóstico e tratamento precoces parecem ter contribuído para o sucesso no combate à COVID-19 no Japão. No período estudado, em milhão de habitantes, o Japão teve 6,13 casos de Covid, enquanto o Brasil apresentou 218,26 casos. Já no número de mortes confirmadas pela doença, o primeiro teve uma taxa de 0,23 enquanto o segundo de 5,16 casos por milhão de habitantes. É possível, a partir do conhecimento dessas medidas, buscar mecanismos semelhantes ao traçar políticas de saúde no enfrentamento de pandemias em outros países. (AU)


ABSTRAC: Introduction: despite being the country with the highest average age globally, Japan has stood out in the fight against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic by presenting low contamination rates by the virus and mortality. Objective: we aim to discuss the health strategies adopted by Japan in the face of the COVID-19 disease pandemic, as well as to evaluate data on Japanese contamination and mortality compared to the other four countries with the highest average age in the world (Italy, Germany, Portugal and Spain) and Brazil. Methodology: the search was carried out to evaluate Japanese health strategies by using the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, and Scielo using a combination of the terms "Japan", "covid", "coronavirus" and "health systems" in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The COVID-19 infection data was extracted from the Our World in Data website, from January 25, 2020, to July 30, 2020. Results: Among the measures adopted by the country to face the pandemic, the early diagnosis and response to infection, contact tracing, early diagnosis and availability of intensive care for critically ill patients, and encouraging behavioral distancing measures stand out. Among the countries analyzed, Japan has the lowest rates of contamination and mortality in absolute terms by COVID-19. Conclusions: social distancing measures, early diagnosis, and treatment seem to have contributed to the success in combating COVID-19 in Japan. In the studied period, in a million inhabitants, Japan had 6.13 cases of covid while Brazil had 218.26 cases. As for the number of deaths confirmed by the disease, the first had a rate of 0.23 while the second had 5.16 cases per million inhabitants. Based on the knowledge of these measures, it is possible to seek similar mechanisms when designing health policies to face pandemics in other countries.(AU)


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Health Systems/trends , Health Strategies , Early Diagnosis , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Japan , Asian People
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 703-711, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940929

ABSTRACT

Surgery is so far the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Since the 1990s, the pathology spectrum of early-stage lung cancer has gradually changed because of the increased detection of ground-glass opacity (GGO). The findings from preoperative thin-section computed tomography are strong predictors for the invasiveness and lymph node involvement of GGO, and limited surgery is believed to be implemented safely for radiological less invasive lesions, which calls into question the dominance of lobectomy. After the JCOG0201 trial establishing the radiologic criteria of pathological noninvasiveness for lung adenocarcinoma, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) and the West Japan Oncology Group (WJOG) have successively carried out a series of prospective imaging-guided trials to investigate the optimal surgical procedure for early-stage lung cancer. JCOG0804, was a single-arm, non-randomized, confirmatory trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublobar resection (wedge resection and segmentectomy) for GGO dominant peripheral lung cancer. The primary end point was 5-year relapse-free survival. JCOG0802/WJOG4607L, was a multicentre, open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial to investigate if segmentectomy was non-inferior to lobectomy in patients with small-sized peripheral NSCLC. The primary endpoint was 5-year overall survival. JCOG1211 was also a non-randomized confirmatory trial to confirm the efficacy of a segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant GGO. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival. The findings of JCOG0804 and JCOG0802, and the primary analysis results of JCOG1211 have been officially published. This article systematically reviewed and interpreted the results of the JCOG lung cancer surgery trial series.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Clinical Trials as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Japan , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 319-327, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Femoral neck fracture is the most serious osteoporotic fractures that is responsible for high medical costs and high mortality. Femoral neck geometric parameters (FNGPs) are important parameters that reflect the geometrical characteristics of femoral neck, and are closely related to the strength of femoral neck and the risk of fragility fracture.There are differences in the incidence of femoral neck fractures among races. However, whether there is difference in FNGPs among races is unknown.Therefore, this study aims to compare the differences in FNGPs between Chinese and Japanese females.@*METHODS@#This study was a cross-sectional study, in which 3 859 healthy females aged 10-86 (45.7±17.1) years old were recruited from Changsha City of Hunan Province and surrounding areas. The weight and height were measured and recorded, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone densitometer was used to measure femoral neck projective bone area (BA) and bone mineral density (BMD). FNGPs were calculated using the BMD and BA, which included the outer diameter (OD), cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical thickness (CT), endocortical diameter (ED), buckling ratio (BR), section modulus (SM), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), and compression strength index (CSI). The data of FNGPs in Japanese females was collected from literature. These subjects were grouped by 10-year age. The mean and standard deviation of height, weight, BMI, femoral neck BMD, and FNGPs of each group were calculated. The model with the best goodness-of-fit was selected from various mathematical regression models to analyze the distribution trend and the best fitting curve of FNGPs with age. The differences in FNGPs between Chinese and Japanese females were analyzed by using age-corresponding mean fitting curve for paired t-test, and the relative change rates of FNGPs were compared.@*RESULTS@#The mean values of FNGPs were significantly different among different years old healthy females (all P<0.01). The mean values of OD, CSA, CT, SM, and CSMI in femoral neck were high at 30 to 39 years old, and then they were gradually decreased with age. The CSI reached its peak at 20-29 years old, and it was decreased gradually after 30 years old. ED and BR were at a low level before 40 years old, they were gradually increased after 40 years old, and reached the maximum average value at 80-86 years old. The variations in FNGPs with age were fitted with the best goodness-of-fit by applying the cubic regression model and the determination coefficients of regression equations (R2: 0.062-0.404) were significant (all P<0.01). The distribution trend of FNGPs with age varied with the indices, among which CSA, CT, SM, CSMI and CSI were increased with age before 35 years old, and then they were decreased with age; BR was at a low level in the early stage, and then it was increased with age after about 40 years. There were significant differences in the fitting curves of FNGPs related to age between Chinese and Japanese females (all P<0.01). The fitting curves of OD, ED, BR and SM in Chinese females were significantly higher than those in Japanese females (all P<0.01), while those of CSA and CT in Chinese females were significantly lower than those in Japanese females (all P<0.01). Before the age of 50, the curves of CSMI and CSI of Chinese females were significantly higher than those of Japanese females (all P<0.01), while after the age of 60 the situation was reversed (all P<0.01). Except for SM and CSI, there were significant differences in the rate of OD, CSA, CT, ED, BR and CSMI with age (all P<0.01). By the age of 80 years old, the rates of change in OD, ED, and BR with the age in Chinese females were increased by 0.91%,3.94%, and 47.5%, respectively, while those in Japanese females were increased by 8.57%, 15.8% and 85.3%, respectively;the rates of change of CSA, CT, and CSMI with the age in Chinese females were declined 28.0%, 29.6%, and 25.2%, respectively, while those in Japanese females were declined 29.9%, 36.2%, and 10.9%, respectively. There were significant difference in the rates of change in FNGPs with the age between Chinese and Japanese females (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study reveals the variation of FNGPs with age in Chinese, and confirms that there are racial differences in FNGPs between Chinese and Japanese females, which may be one of the important reasons for the difference in the incidence of femoral neck fracture between Chinese and Japanese females.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Femoral Neck Fractures/epidemiology , Femur Neck , Japan
20.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 25-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides are widely used for controlling various pests. There are two types that differ in terms of usage: agricultural-purpose PYR (agriculture-PYR) and hygiene purpose PYR (hygiene-PYRs). Few studies exist on the exposure to these chemicals in small children. In this study, we conducted biomonitoring of urinary pyrethroid metabolites in 1.5-year-old children throughout the year.@*METHODS@#Study subjects were 1075 children participating in an Aichi regional sub-cohort of the Japan Environment and Children's Study as of 18-month health check-up. The concentrations of four specific hygiene-PYR metabolites including 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenedimethanol (HOCH2-FB-Al), and five common metabolites of hygiene- and agriculture-PYRs including 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) and cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DCCA), were measured in urine samples extracted from soiled diapers using a triple quadrupole gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer.@*RESULTS@#The highest detection frequencies were for 3PBA, followed by DCCA, 1R-trans-chrysanthemum dicarboxylic acid, and HOCH2-FB-Al. Among the six metabolites, urinary concentrations were seasonally varied. However, this variation was not observed in the most studied PYR metabolite, 3PBA. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between FB-Al and DCCA (r = 0.56) and HOCH2-FB-Al and 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (r = 0.60).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This biomonitoring survey found widespread and seasonally specific exposure to multiple hygiene- and agriculture-PYRs in 1.5-year-old Japanese children.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Agriculture , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Insecticides , Japan , Mass Spectrometry , Pyrethrins/urine
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