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1.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 3-3, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although social interaction and social support during the "new normal" due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be related to presenteeism, the effect between these factors has not been clear for Japanese workers. The aim of this study was to describe the presenteeism of Japanese workers with reference to social interaction and social support following the lifestyle changes due to COVID-19 and to assess whether social interaction and social support affected their presenteeism.@*METHODS@#The data were obtained from internet panel surveys from October 2020. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multiple linear regression was conducted using the data from the first, fourth and fifth surveys, which were conducted during October to November 2020, July to August 2021, and September to October 2021, respectively. To measure presenteeism, questions from "absenteeism and presenteeism questions of the World Health Organization's Heath and Work Performance Questionnaire", short version in Japanese was utilized. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to investigate the effects of social interaction and social support-related factors on presenteeism.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3,407 participants were included in the analysis. The mean score of absolute presenteeism from the fifth survey was 58.07 (SD = 19.71). More time spent talking with family, a larger number of social supporters and a higher satisfaction level for social support were associated with a higher absolute presenteeism score.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results suggested that social support reduced the presenteeism of the Japanese workers during the "new normal" due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Social interaction with family also relieved presenteeism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Social Interaction , Pandemics , Presenteeism , COVID-19/epidemiology
2.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 19-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The association between meat, fish, or fatty acid intake and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has been investigated in a few studies, and the results were inconsistent. In addition, most studies are mainly based on the United States and European countries, in which the dietary patterns differ from that in Asia. Therefore, the risk of AML/MDS from meat, fish, or fatty acid intake in Asia requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AML/MDS incidence and meat, fish, or fatty acid intake using the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.@*METHODS@#The present study included 93,366 participants who were eligible for analysis and followed up from the 5-year survey date until December 2012. We estimated the impact of their intake on AML/MDS incidence using a Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#The study participants were followed up for 1,345,002 person-years. During the follow-up period, we identified 67 AML and 49 MDS cases. An increased intake of processed red meat was significantly associated with the incidence of AML/MDS, with a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.57) for the highest versus lowest tertile and a Ptrend of 0.04. Meanwhile, the intake of other foods and fatty acids was not associated with AML/MDS.@*CONCLUSION@#In this Japanese population, processed red meat was associated with an increased incidence of AML/MDS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , Public Health , Meat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/epidemiology
3.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 18-18, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971208

ABSTRACT

During the recent emergence of COVID-19, an increased practice of hand hygiene coincided with the reduced incidence of the norovirus epidemic in Japan, which is similar to experience with the pandemic flu in 2009. We investigated the relationship between the sales of hand hygiene products, including liquid hand soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and the trend of norovirus epidemic. We used national gastroenteritis surveillance data across Japan in 2020 and 2021 and compared the base statistics of incidence of these two years with the average of the previous 10 years (2010-2019). We calculated the correlations (Spearman's Rho) between monthly sales of hand hygiene products and monthly norovirus cases and fitted them to a regression model. In 2020, there was no epidemic, and the incidence peak was the lowest in recent norovirus epidemics. In 2021, the incidence peak was delayed for five weeks to the usual epidemic seasons. Correlation coefficients between monthly sales of liquid hand soap and skin antiseptics and norovirus incidence showed a significantly negative correlation (Spearman's Rho = -0.88 and p = 0.002 for liquid hand soap; Spearman's Rho = -0.81 and p = 0.007 for skin antiseptics). Exponential regression models were fitted between the sales of each hand hygiene product and norovirus cases, respectively. The results suggest hand hygiene using these products is a potentially useful prevention method against norovirus epidemics. Effective ways of hand hygiene for increasing the prevention of norovirus should therefore be studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Soaps , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Norovirus
4.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 16-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous cardiovascular risk prediction models in Japan have utilized prospective cohort studies with concise data. As the health information including health check-up records and administrative claims becomes digitalized and publicly available, application of large datasets based on such real-world data can achieve prediction accuracy and support social implementation of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models in preventive and clinical practice. In this study, classical regression and machine learning methods were explored to develop ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke prognostic models using real-world data.@*METHODS@#IQVIA Japan Claims Database was searched to include 691,160 individuals (predominantly corporate employees and their families working in secondary and tertiary industries) with at least one annual health check-up record during the identification period (April 2013-December 2018). The primary outcome of the study was the first recorded IHD or stroke event. Predictors were annual health check-up records at the index year-month, comprising demographic characteristics, laboratory tests, and questionnaire features. Four prediction models (Cox, Elnet-Cox, XGBoost, and Ensemble) were assessed in the present study to develop a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model for Japan.@*RESULTS@#The analysis cohort consisted of 572,971 invididuals. All prediction models showed similarly good performance. The Harrell's C-index was close to 0.9 for all IHD models, and above 0.7 for stroke models. In IHD models, age, sex, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure had higher importance, while in stroke models systolic blood pressure and age had higher importance.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study analyzed classical regression and machine learning algorithms to develop cardiovascular disease risk prediction models for IHD and stroke in Japan that can be applied to practical use in a large population with predictive accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods
5.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 15-15, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Individual-level social capital is an important determinant of older adults' long-term care needs; however, there is scant evidence regarding community-level social capital. Therefore, we investigated the association between community-level social capital and the prevalence of the need for long-term care among older adults.@*METHODS@#Between January and February 2018, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all older adults (n = 13,558) aged 65 to 74 years in a rural municipality in Japan (total population, n = 72,833). A self-reported questionnaire was used to identify community-level social capital, comprising civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios of the need for long-term care and a decline in social activity competence as assessed by instrumental activities of daily living. For the analysis, the community levels were divided into 76 voting districts and adjusted for daily life, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, health conditions, and the three social capital subscale scores at the individual level.@*RESULTS@#After adjusting for the covariates, we observed a tendency that a higher community level of reciprocity was associated with a lower prevalence of long-term care needs (OR: 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.75-1.00), whereas a high community level of social cohesion was associated with a significantly reduced decline in instrumental activities of daily living (OR per standard deviation increase: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.96). No significant association was found with civic participation. Similarly, individual-level social capital was associated with the need for long-term care and decline in instrumental activities of daily living.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggest that good community-level reciprocity or social cohesion as well as good individual social capital status may help prevent the need for long-term care among older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Interpersonal Relations , Activities of Daily Living , Social Participation , Social Capital , Multilevel Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Long-Term Care , Japan/epidemiology , Social Support
6.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 13-13, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have increased the rate of presenteeism among front-line physicians. Presenteeism is the term used to describe attendance at work despite ill health that would normally prompt rest or absence from work. This study aimed to examine the associations between COVID-19 clinical practice and presenteeism among physicians.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2021 to January 2022. The questionnaires were distributed to 21,737 employed physicians who were members of the Japan Medical Association. Presenteeism was measured by the Work Functioning Impairment Scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between COVID-19 clinical practice and presenteeism.@*RESULTS@#Overall, 3,968 participants were included in the analysis, and presenteeism was observed in 13.9% of them. The rate of presenteeism significantly increased with both the number of COVID-19 patients treated and the percentage of work time spent treating these patients (both P values for trend < 0.001). In comparison to those not currently engaged in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, presenteeism was significantly higher among front-line (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.53) and second-line physicians supporting those in the front-line (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17-1.78). There was no association between involvement in COVID-19 vaccination services and presenteeism.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The burden on front-line and second-line physicians in COVID-19 clinical practice must be minimized. Employed physicians also need to recognize the importance of communicating with their workplaces about presenteeism.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Presenteeism , Japan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Physicians , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 12-12, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few prospective studies have investigated the association between paternal occupational exposures and risk of infant congenital heart defects (CHDs). We investigated the associations between paternal occupational exposures, frequency of use, and concurrent or sequential exposure to a mixture of compounds and the risk of infant CHDs.@*METHODS@#Our study examined 28,866 participants in the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with paternal occupational exposures during the 3 months until pregnancy was noticed after adjustment for potential confounding factors of the infant CHDs. CHD diagnosis was ascertained from medical record.@*RESULTS@#In total, 175 were diagnosed with infant CHDs. The number of fathers who were exposed to the following substances at least once a month were: 11,533 for photo copying machine/laser printer, 10,326 for permanent marker, 8,226 for soluble paint/inkjet printer, 6,188 for kerosene/petroleum/benzene/gasoline, 4,173 for organic solvents, 3,433 for chlorine bleach/germicide, 2,962 for engine oil, 2,931 for insecticide, 2,460 for medical sterilizing disinfectant, 1,786 for welding fumes, 1,614 for dyestuffs, 1,247 for any products containing lead-like solder, 986 for herbicide, 919 for radiation/radioactive substances/isotopes, 837 for lead-free solder, 341 for microbes, 319 for formalin/formaldehyde, 301 for agricultural chemical not listed above or unidentified, 196 for general anesthetic for surgery at hospital, 171 for anti-cancer drug, 147 for chromium/arsenic/cadmium, 88 for mercury and 833 for other chemical substances. Paternal occupational exposure regularly to photo copying machine or laser printer and soluble paint/inkjet printer were associated with higher risks of infant CHDs: the adjusted ORs (95%CIs) were 1.38 (1.00-1.91) and 1.60 (1.08-2.37), respectively. The higher risks were also observed for occasional exposure to engine oil, any products containing lead-like solder lead-free solder, and microbes; the adjusted ORs (95%CIs) were 1.68 (1.02-2.77), 2.03 (1.06-3.88), 3.45 (1.85-6.43), and 4.51, (1.63-12.49), respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Periconceptional paternal occupational exposure was associated with a higher risk of infant CHDs. Further studies using biomarkers of the association between paternal occupational exposure and infant CHDs are warranted.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Infant , Child , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Case-Control Studies , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Fathers
8.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 7-7, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Many previous studies have reported COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, but there are few studies in Japan. This community-based, retrospective observational study investigated the association between vaccination status and COVID-19-related health outcomes in COVID-19 patients by SARS-CoV-2 variant type.@*METHODS@#The study participants were 24,314 COVID-19 patients aged 12 or older whose diagnoses were reported to the Nara Prefecture Chuwa Public Health Center from April 2021 to March 2022, during periods when the alpha, delta, and omicron variants of COVID-19 were predominant. The outcome variables were severe health consequences (SHC) (i.e., ICU admission and COVID-19-related death), hospitalization, and extension of recovery period. The explanatory variable was vaccination status at least 14 days prior to infection. Covariates included gender, age, population size, the number of risk factors for aggravation, and the number of symptoms at diagnosis. The generalized estimating equations of the multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate the adjusted incidence proportion (AIP) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each health outcome. We performed stratified analyses by SARS-CoV-2 variant type, but the association between vaccination status and COVID-19-related health outcomes was stratified only for the delta and omicron variants due to the small number of vaccinated patients during the alpha variant.@*RESULTS@#Of the 24,314 participants, 255 (1.0%) had SHC; of the 24,059 participants without SHC, 2,102 (8.7%) were hospitalized; and of the 19,603 participants without SHC, hospitalization, and missing data on recovery period, 2,960 (15.1%) had extension of recovery period. Multivariable Poisson regression models showed that regardless of SARS-CoV-2 variant type or health outcome, those who received two or more vaccine doses had significantly lower risk of health outcomes than those who did not receive the vaccine, and there was a dose-response relationship in which the AIP for health outcomes decreased with an increased number of vaccinations.@*CONCLUSION@#A higher number of vaccinations were associated with lower risk of COVID-19-related health outcomes, not only in the delta variant but also in the omicron variant. Our findings suggest that increasing the number of COVID-19 vaccine doses can prevent severe disease and lead to early recovery of patients not requiring hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Japan/epidemiology , Independent Living , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
9.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 6-6, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Recent studies indicate that the timing of introduction of potentially allergenic food is crucial for the development of food allergy in children. This cross-sectional study aimed to clarify the reality of allergen food intake in a general population of young children in Japan.@*METHODS@#A questionnaire survey of caregivers was conducted at health checkups for 1.5-year (18-month)-old and 3-year-old children in the fall of 2020. The caregivers were asked about (1) the presence/absence of allergic disease symptoms based on the ISAAC questionnaire, and (2) foods that caregivers avoided giving their children. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were periformed to determine factors associated with food avoidance.@*RESULTS@#Questionnaires were distributed to 1720 caregivers, and 1603 (93%) responded. The responders consisted of 771 and 832 caregivers who participated in 1.5-year-old and 3-year-old checkups, respectively. The prevalence of allergic diseases was comparable to recent epidemiological studies in Japan, indicating that the population may be representative. At 1.5 years old, more than 50% of the children were not exposed to peanuts, tree nuts, fish eggs, shellfish, and buckwheat. At 3 years old, the avoidance rates of the foods had decreased but were still between 18.8% and 32.0%. On the other hand, the avoidance rates of chicken egg and cow's milk, the top 2 common allergenic foods in Japan, were much lower at 2.8% and 1.5% at 1.5 years, and they decreased to 1.4% and 0.7% at 3 years old, respectively. Ordinal logistic analysis showed that avoidance of chicken egg, cow's milk, and wheat was associated with food allergy diagnosis and chicken egg avoidance with eczema, but avoidance of other foods showed no associations with any risk factors for food allergy.@*CONCLUSION@#Caregivers avoided giving various foods, independent of allergy risk factors, to their young children. Since delayed introduction of an allergenic food has been reported to increase the risk of developing an allergy to the food, the results warrant future investigation of the development of food allergies in relation to current eating habits and recommendations.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Food Hypersensitivity/complications , Risk Factors , Food , Allergens
10.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 5-5, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Heated tobacco product (HTP) use has increased substantially between 2016 and 2017 in Japan. This study aims to clarify how HTP use (IQOS, Ploom, and glo) spread across the different combustible cigarette smoking statuses during 2015-16 and 2017-18 in Japan.@*METHODS@#We compared the two periods of (i) 2015 to 2016 (N = 5,366) and (ii) 2017 to 2018 (N = 3,422) from a longitudinal study randomly sampling members from the Japan "Society and New Tobacco" Internet Survey (JASTIS). Multivariable logistic regression models for current HTP use in the previous 30 days by combustible cigarette smoking status in the previous year were used adjusting for socio-demographic factors.@*RESULTS@#HTP use increased by 10 times in the 2017-18 cohort compared with the 2015-16 cohort according to the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for current HTP use as 10.2 (7.03-14.8). According to smoking status, significantly higher adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of current HTP use for the after period were observed: 2.60 (1.37-4.94) for never smokers, 7.82 (3.64-16.8) for former smokers, 21.1 (5.73-77.9) for current smokers with intention to quit, and 17.0 (9.58-30.3) for current smokers without intention to quit.@*CONCLUSION@#During 2015 to 2018 in Japan, HTP use dramatically increased in all subgroups except for never smokers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Tobacco Products , Nicotiana , Cigarette Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 63-67, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The rapid development of winter sports requires investigation on injuries in Chongli district, Zhangjiakou city, one of the ski sites of the 2022 Winter Olympics. Careful evaluation is required to observe which injuries are caused under what circumstances, and then we can make corresponding preventive measures and recommendations based on the results.@*METHODS@#In this retrospective study, the data of injury cases at ski resorts in China (Chongli district) and Japan were analyzed to provide a reference for the ongoing injury prevention at ski resorts. We collected data on injuries at Wanlong and Fulong ski resorts in Chongli district during the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 ski seasons. We referred to the skiing injury report issued in February 2020 of a nationwide ski safety statistical service - Japan Ski Safety Association. The causes of injury and specific injured body parts were analyzed based on the data of Chinese and Japanese ski resorts. Statistical significance has been calculated using the Chi-square test.@*RESULTS@#During the 2019-2020 ski season in Japanese ski resorts, the number of reported injuries per 10,000 skiers was 0.93, of which 457 (17.3%) were over 50 years old, accounting for a large proportion of injuries, meanwhile in Chongli ski resort, the injury rate of skiers aged 50 and over was 7.1%. The knee joint (23.7% at Wanlong ski resort and 28.4% in Japanese ski resorts) was the most injured body part among Chongli and Japanese skiers. Among snowboarders, shoulder joint injury (17.7% in Japanese ski resorts) was the most common, and injury on hands and fingers (16.3% in Wanlong ski resorts) was the most common. Head injury rates are similar in Chongli, China and Japanese ski resorts (8.2% and 8.7%, respectively).@*CONCLUSION@#Our analysis demonstrated that injury data recorded among young skiers was higher in Chinese ski resorts (Chongli district) than that in Japanese ski resorts, and elderly skiers made up a larger proportion of skiing injuries in Japanese resorts. Thus, according to our research, the protection of knee joints, shoulder joints, and hands and fingers should be taken seriously. It should pay attention to the teaching of ski poles (for finger protection), and use protective devices such as knee pads, helmets, etc.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Athletic Injuries/prevention & control , Skiing/injuries , Japan/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
12.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 23-23, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the age-adjusted incidence and mortality of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been decreasing steadily in Japan, both diseases remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality along with the aging society. Herein, we aim to provide a prescription of 10 health tips for long and healthy life named the "Lifelong Health Support 10 (LHS10)."@*METHOD@#The LHS10 was developed by the preventive medicine specialists at the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center in Suita, where it has been used for health guidance to prevent CVD, cancer, and cognitive decline in addition to their major risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. It consisted of the lifestyle modification recommendations of the 2014 Japanese Society of Hypertension guidelines and the 2017 Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for preventing atherosclerotic CVD. Further, it came in line with other international lifestyle modification guidelines. In this narrative review, we summarized the results of several Japanese epidemiological studies investigating the association between the LHS10 items and the risk of cancer, CVD, and other chronic diseases including dementia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease.@*RESULTS@#The LHS10 included avoiding smoking and secondhand smoke exposure, engaging in physical activity, refraining from excessive alcohol drinking, reducing fried foods and sugary soft drinks, cutting salt in food, consuming more vegetables, fruits, fish, soy foods, and fibers, and maintaining proper body weight. All items of the LHS10 were shown to reduce the risk of cancer, CVD, and other chronic diseases.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The LHS10 can be a helpful tool for health guidance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hypertension/prevention & control , Japan/epidemiology , Life Style , Neoplasms , Prescriptions , Risk Factors
13.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 18-18, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Community health activities by public health nurses (PHNs) are known to improve lifestyle habits of local residents, and may encourage the practice of infectious disease prevention behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the association between prefecture-level COVID-19 incidence rate and the number of PHNs per population in Japan, by the COVID-19 variant type.@*METHODS@#Our data were based on government surveys where prefectural-level data are accessible to the public. The outcome variable was the COVID-19 incidence rate (i.e., the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population for each variant type in 47 prefectures). The explanatory variable was the number of PHNs per 100,000 population by prefecture. Covariates included socioeconomic factors, regional characteristics, healthcare resources, and health behaviors. The generalized estimating equations of the multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the COVID-19 cases. We performed stratified analyses by variant type (i.e., wild type, alpha variant, and delta variant).@*RESULTS@#A total of 1,705,224 confirmed COVID-19 cases (1351.6 per 100,000 population) in Japan were reported as of September 30, 2021. The number of PHNs per 100,000 population in Japan was 41.9. Multivariable Poisson regression models showed that a lower number of PHNs per population was associated with higher IRR of COVID-19. Among all COVID-19 cases, compared to the highest quintile group of the number of PHNs per population, the adjusted IRR of the lowest quintile group was consistently significant in the models adjusting for socioeconomic factors (IRR: 3.76, 95% CI: 2.55-5.54), regional characteristics (1.73, 1.28-2.34), healthcare resources (3.88, 2.45-6.16), and health behaviors (2.17, 1.39-3.37). These significant associations were unaffected by the variant type of COVID-19.@*CONCLUSION@#We found that the COVID-19 incidence rate was higher in prefectures with fewer PHNs per population, regardless of the COVID-19 variant type. By increasing the number of PHNs, it may be possible to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Japan and provide an effective human resource to combat emerging infectious diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Nurses, Public Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 14-14, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Happiness may help to prevent negative physiological outcomes in response to life events; however, factors contributing to happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic have not been longitudinally investigated. This study explored the predictors of happiness in mothers of young children in Japan using comparable data that were obtained before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.@*METHODS@#We conducted the baseline survey in February 2020, and 4 months later, we also conducted the follow-up survey. Throughout all 47 prefectures in Japan, 4,700 (100 respondents/prefecture) mothers of infants and/or preschoolers (0-6 years) participated in the baseline online survey; 2,489 of these also participated in the follow-up survey.@*RESULTS@#We performed hierarchical multiple regression analysis and our final model indicated that maternal happiness during COVID-19 pandemic was positively related to employment status (homemaker, β = 0.052, p = 0.014), levels of available social support (average, β = 0.052, p = 0.012, high, β = 0.055, p = 0.010) and happiness score before the pandemic (β = 0.467, p < 0.001), and satisfaction toward the measures against the COVID-19 at partners' workplace (average, β = 0.129, p < 0.001; high, β = 0.279, p < 0.001), preventive behavior against COVID-19 (average, β = 0.055, p = 0.002; high, β = 0.045, p = 0.015) and positive attitudes/thinking (β = 0.087, p < 0.001) during the pandemic. In contrast, poor mental health (K6 ≥5, β = -0.042, p = 0.011) before the pandemic and negative changes during the pandemic (≥3, β = -0.085, p < 0.001) were negatively related to maternal happiness during the pandemic. Our final model explained 44.9% of the variance in mothers' happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Satisfaction toward the measures against the COVID-19 at partners' workplace, preventive behavior, and positive attitudes/thinking were especially important for maternal happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future study is needed to consider measures against infectious diseases in the workplace that are desirable for the well-being of parents with young children, taking into account the gender perspective.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Happiness , Japan/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics
15.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 117-117, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The best approach to reduce congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMVi) is to practice behaviors that reduce cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission during pregnancy. Expanding awareness and knowledge of CMV is expected to result in increased practice of preventative behaviors. To this end, it is necessary to understand current awareness and knowledge of CMV.@*METHODS@#This web-based cross-sectional survey assessed the awareness and knowledge of cCMVi among pregnant women and the general public in Japan. Participants aged 20-45 years (pregnant and non-pregnant women, and men) were identified from a consumer panel. Study outcomes (all participants) included awareness of cCMVi and other congenital conditions. Among those aware of cCMVi, outcomes included knowledge of CMV transmission routes, long-term outcomes of cCMVi, and behaviors to prevent CMV transmission during pregnancy. Outcomes limited to pregnant women included the practice of preventative behaviors and opinion on how easy it is to implement these behaviors. The data of the pregnant group (pregnant at the time of the survey) were compared with those of the general group (non-pregnant women and men).@*RESULTS@#There were 535 participants in the pregnant group and 571 in the general group. Awareness of cCMVi was generally low (pregnant, 16.1%; general, 10.2%). Pregnant participants were significantly more aware of most congenital conditions than those in the general group, including cCMVi (P = 0.004). Knowledge about CMV/cCMVi was limited; there were no significant differences between the two groups for 24 of the 26 knowledge questions. A small proportion (one third or less) of pregnant women practiced behaviors to prevent the transmission of CMV, though most (73.3-95.3%) pregnant women who were aware of cCMVi considered such behaviors easy to implement.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Awareness and knowledge of CMV/cCMVi is low among pregnant women in Japan; the level of knowledge is similar to that among the general public. This needs to be improved. Most pregnant women considered behaviors to prevent CMV transmission easy to perform, which indicates that effectively educating pregnant women regarding the long-term outcomes of cCMVi, CMV transmission routes, and preventative behaviors will contribute to a reduced incidence of cCMVi.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000041260 .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Internet , Japan/epidemiology , Pregnant Women
16.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 115-115, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We investigated factors associated with prolonged viral clearance of SARS-CoV-2 among non-severe adult patients in Osaka, Japan. A total of 706 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this longitudinal observational study between 29 January 2020 and 31 May 2020, across 62 hospitals and three non-hospital recuperation facilities.@*METHODS@#Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors associated with prolonged (29 days: upper 25% in duration) viral clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Linear regression analysis was conducted to assess these factors 14 days after symptom onset.@*RESULTS@#The median duration of viral clearance was 22 days from symptom onset. After adjustment for sex, age, symptoms, comorbidity, and location of recuperation, comorbidities were associated with prolonged duration: (OR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.11-2.82]) for one, (OR, 2.47 [95% CI, 1.32-4.61]) for two or more comorbidities. Viral clearance 14 days after symptom onset was 3 days longer for one comorbidity and 4 days longer for two or more comorbidities compared to clearance when there was no comorbidity.@*CONCLUSION@#The presence of comorbidity was a robust factor associated with a longer duration of viral clearance, extending by 3 to 4 days compared to patients with no comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , COVID-19 , Japan/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
17.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 113-113, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The July 2018 Japan Floods caused enormous damage to western Japan. Such disasters can especially impact elderly persons. Research has shown that natural disasters exacerbated a decline in cognitive function, but to date, there have been no studies examining the effects of this disaster on the elderly. The object of this study was to reveal the effect of this disaster in terms of cognitive decline among the elderly.@*METHODS@#Study participants were certified users of the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system in Hiroshima, Okayama, and Ehime prefectures from May 2018 to June 2018. The observation period was from July 2018 to December 2018. Our primary outcome was cognitive decline after the disaster using a dementia symptomatology assessment. In addition to a crude model, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the cognitive decline of victims, adjusting for age classification, gender, the level of dementia scale before the disaster occurred, residential environment, whether a participant used facilities shut down after the disaster, and population density. After we confirmed that the interaction term between victims and residential environment was statistically significant, we stratified them for the analysis.@*RESULTS@#The total number of participants was 264,614. Victims accounted for 1.10% of the total participants (n = 2,908). For the Cox proportional hazards model, the hazard ratio of the victims was 1.18 (95% confidential interval (CI): 1.05-1.32) in the crude model and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00-1.26) in the adjusted model. After being stratified by residential environment, the hazard ratio of home victims was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.06-1.36) and the hazard ratio of facility victims was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.67-1.17).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed that elderly living at home during the 2018 Japan Floods were at risk for cognitive decline. Medical providers, care providers, and local governments should establish a system to check on the cognitive function of elderly victims and provide necessary care support.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Floods , Insurance, Long-Term Care , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
18.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 111-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between occupational class and self-reported low back pain (LBP) in a representative sample of the Japanese general population.@*METHODS@#We used anonymized data from a nationwide survey (31,443 men and 35,870 women aged ≥ 20). Occupational class variables included working status, occupation, employment status, and company size (number of employees). Covariates included age, socio-economic status, lifestyle, and comorbidities. Poisson regression models stratified by gender were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for self-reported LBP.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of self-reported LBP was 11.7% in men and 14.2% in women. After adjustment for covariates and mutual adjustment for all occupational class variables, among both genders, agricultural/forestry/fishery workers and non-workers had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP: APR (95% CI) of agricultural/forestry/fishery was 1.36 (1.08-1.70) in men and 1.59 (1.30-1.93) in women; that of non-workers was 1.42 (1.18-1.70) in men and 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in women. Among men, non-regular employees were more likely to have self-reported LBP than regular employees: APR (95% CI) was 1.25 (1.07-1.46) in part-timers and casual staff and 1.18 (1.03-1.35) in other types of non-regular employees. Moreover, compared to men working at companies with ≥ 100 employees, men working at companies with 30-99 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP (APR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34). Among women, professionals and technicians (1.26; 1.11-1.43) and sales workers (1.22; 1.04-1.43) had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported LBP than clerks. Neither employment status nor company size was associated with self-reported LBP in women. After stratified analyses by age group, similar patterns were observed in participants aged 20-64, but not in those aged ≥ 65.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that self-reported LBP is highly prevalent among agricultural/forestry/fishery workers and the unemployed, regardless of gender, and that there are also gender differences in the association of occupational class factors with self-reported LBP. It is necessary, therefore, to take preventive measures against LBP based on gender and occupational class factors in Japan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Japan/epidemiology , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Self Report , Sex Distribution
19.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 105-105, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#How community-based group resistance exercises affect the transition from robustness to frailty remains unclear. Thus, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine whether the trajectory from robustness to frailty over age differed depending on the duration of participation in group exercises.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the Kihon Checklist (KCL) score of community-dwelling elderly residents of Sumoto city, Hyogo prefecture, who participated in community-based group resistance exercises between April 2010 and December 2019. Finally, 2567 older individuals were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The explanatory variables of interest were the frailty score measured using the KCL for each individual, where 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8 points denoted robustness, pre-frailty, and frailty, respectively. We considered age, sex, systolic blood pressure, pulse, duration of participation, and change in KCL score from baseline as possible confounders. Participants were classified as follows based on the duration of participation in the exercises: <3 times, short-term participation group; 4-6 times; mid-term participation group; and 7-13 times, long-term participation group. The mean duration from the baseline physical test for the total sample was 2.35 years (SD=2.51).@*RESULTS@#The participants' mean total KCL score at baseline was 4.9±3.7. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed that the KCL scores changed by 0.82 points for each additional year of age (p<0.001) and changed by - 0.93 points for long-term participate group (p<0.001). The Estimated Marginal Means (EMM) of the KCL score was 3.98 (95%CI: 3.69, 4.28) points in the short-term participation group and was significantly worse than that of the long-term participation group at 70 years of age (p=0.001). The EMM was 4.49 (95%CI: 4.24, 4.74) at 75 years of age in the mid-term participation group and was significantly worse than that of the long-term participation group. The EMM was 3.87 (95%CI: 3.57, 4.16) in the long-term participation group and significantly better than that of the short-term (p<0.001) and mid-term (p=0.002) participation groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Participation in community-based group resistance exercises prolongs the transition from robustness to frailty. The improved KCL scores at baseline in the long-term participation group remained in the robust range at 75 years of age, which suggests the importance of initiating participation before the onset of functional decline.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Checklist , Cohort Studies , Exercise Test , Frailty/prevention & control , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Resistance Training , Retrospective Studies , Social Participation
20.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 104-104, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Excess winter mortality caused by cardiovascular disease is particularly profound in cold houses. Consistent with this, accumulating evidence indicates that low indoor temperatures at home increase blood pressure. However, it remains unclear whether low indoor temperatures affect other cardiovascular biomarkers. In its latest list of priority medical devices for management of cardiovascular diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) included electrocardiography systems as capital medical devices. We therefore examined the association between indoor temperature and electrocardiogram findings.@*METHODS@#We collected electrocardiogram data from 1480 participants during health checkups. We also measured the indoor temperature in the living room and bedroom for 2 weeks in winter, and divided participants into those living in warm houses (average exposure temperature ≥ 18 °C), slightly cold houses (12-18 °C), and cold houses (< 12 °C) in accordance with guidelines issued by the WHO and United Kingdom. The association between indoor temperature (warm vs. slightly cold vs. cold houses) and electrocardiogram findings was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models, with adjustment for confounders such as demographics (e.g., age, sex, body mass index, household income), lifestyle (e.g., eating habit, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking), and region.@*RESULTS@#The average temperature at home was 14.7 °C, and 238, 924, and 318 participants lived in warm, slightly cold, and cold houses, respectively. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were observed in 17.6%, 25.4%, and 30.2% of participants living in warm, slightly cold, and cold houses, respectively (p = 0.003, chi-squared test). Compared to participants living in warm houses, the odds ratio of having electrocardiogram abnormalities was 1.79 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.81, p = 0.011) for those living in slightly cold houses and 2.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.27-3.75, p = 0.005) for those living in cold houses.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In addition to blood pressure, living in cold houses may have adverse effects on electrocardiogram. Conversely, keeping the indoor thermal environment within an appropriate range through a combination of living in highly thermal insulated houses and appropriate use of heating devices may contribute to good cardiovascular health.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#The trial was retrospectively registered on 27 Dec 2017 to the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR, https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , registration identifier number UMIN000030601 ).


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrocardiography , Housing , Japan/epidemiology , Temperature
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