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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1376-1380, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134451

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Metopic suture can be visualized from the nasion to the bregma along the arch of the frontal bone in mid-sagittal plane. Persistent metopic suture normally closing between 1st and 2nd year of life has also been related with ethnicity. The present study reports the presence of complete and incomplete metopic sutures in Nepalese and Korean population skulls which helps to shed light on its incidence rate. Out of 121 adult skulls in Nepalese population, metopic suture was found to be present in 33 skulls. Incomplete metopic sutures showed variations of morphology, like linear (6.61 %), V-shaped (8.26 %) and double incomplete (10.74 %) and two cases with complete metopic suture, which showed variation in interdigitation between its anterior and posterior ends. Korean population showed metopic suture to be present in 8 skulls out of 104 with metopism in 3 skulls. Incomplete metopic sutures like double incomplete (1.92 %) and linear (2.88 %) were also noted. Alterations to local strains could be the contributing factor for such variation and complexity of interdigitation, which occur during the growth of the braincase. The knowledge of the metopic suture and its variations according to ethnicity is important and should be considered to prevent wrong diagnosis. The presence of different types of metopic sutures as reported by the present study provides informative value on the presence and variation of such sutures in population depending on ethnicity and ought to be helpful in diagnostic sequences in emergency setting.


RESUMEN: La sutura metópica se puede visualizar desde nasión hasta el bregma a lo largo del arco del hueso frontal en el plano mediano sagital. La sutura metópica persistente que normalmente se cierra entre el primer y segundo año de vida, también se ha relacionado con el origen étnico. El presente estudio informa la presencia de suturas metópicas completas e incompletas en los cráneos de la población nepalesa y coreana, lo que además de entregar información sobre su tasa de incidencia. De 121 cráneos adultos en la población nepalesa, en 33 de ellos se encontró la sutura metópica. Las suturas metópicas incompletas mostraron variaciones de la morfología, como lineal (6,61 %), en forma de V (8,26 %) y doble incompleta (10,74 %), además de dos casos con sutura metópica completa, que mostraron variación en la interdigitación entre sus extremos anterior y posterior. De los 104 cráneos de la población coreana en 8 se presentó la sutura metópica y en 3 metopismo. También se observaron suturas metópicas incompletas como doble incompleta (1,92 %) y lineal (2,88 %). Las alteraciones en las etnias locales podrían ser el factor contribuyente para tal variación y complejidad de la interdigitación, que ocurre durante el crecimiento de la cráneo. El conocimiento de la sutura metópica y sus variaciones según el origen étnico es importante y debe considerarse para prevenir un diagnóstico incorrecto. La presencia de diferentes tipos de suturas metópicas según lo informado en el estudio, proporciona un valor informativo sobre la presencia y la variación de tales suturas en la población, dependiendo de la etnia, y debería ser útil en las secuencias de diagnóstico en situaciones de emergencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cranial Sutures/abnormalities , Prevalence , Frontal Bone/abnormalities , Korea/ethnology , Nepal/ethnology
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Studies on oral health care in North Korea are being pursued in South Korea. However, the covertness of North Korea offers substantial resistance to the access of information from the country, including in the field of oral health care. In this study, we explored North Korea's oral health care policy and its status in the Kim Jong-Un Era.METHODS: We used existing information from Internet searches and also interviewed three health care professionals who had recently contact with North Korea.RESULTS: At present, there are four development policies of oral health care in North Korea: expansion of dental institutions and resource support, strengthening the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, improvement of dental prosthetics, and increasing the responsibility and role of the dental workforce. In addition, there has been an increasing interest in children's oral health with the development of a few programs.CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve overall oral health care, cooperation is required from North Korea in accessing relevant information in the field of children's oral health, dental prosthetics, and dental materials. For this to occur, there should be a preliminary trust building process between North Korea and South Korea as well as access to information from reliable sources.


Subject(s)
Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Dental Materials , Internet , Korea , Oral Health , Stomatognathic Diseases
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans in the national culture collection from Korea. Twenty-nine (dental plaque, n=27; endodontic infections, n=1; blood, n=1) isolates were included in this study.METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion test. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), serotyping, and collagen-binding genes were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. A collagen-binding (to assess the adhesion properties) assay was performed. S. mutans demonstrated high susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Differences in collagen-binding abilities of the cnm-positive and -negative groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05).RESULTS: MLST analyses revealed 25 sequence types (STs), 17 of which (ST213-ST229) contained new alleles. The strains were classified into four serotypes with the c type encompassing 79.3% of all strains, while the e, f, and k types representing 6.9% each. Analysis of the cnm and cbm genes, which encode the two surface adhesin components of S. mutans, revealed three cnm-positive strains, each displaying greater adhesion ability than those of the cnm-negative strains.CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the presence of a wide variety of S. mutans genotypes in Korea. These findings may provide useful information regarding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, such as dental caries.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Communicable Diseases , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Genotype , Inflammation , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between oral health-related quality of life and oral health-related self-efficacy in high school students.METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among high school students in Daegu, South Korea from November to December 2015, and the final data of 432 students were analyzed.RESULTS: Analysis of oral health-related self-efficacy in terms of general characteristics showed that both grade and income were significant factors (P<0.01). Furthermore, analysis of oral health-related quality of life in terms of general characteristics showed that academic achievement, father's educational level, and academic stress were significant factors (P<0.05). Correlation analyses of oral health-related quality of life with oral health-related self-efficacy revealed positive correlations with tooth brushing and ordinary oral health behavior. Regression analysis of oral health-related quality of life showed that father's educational level, oral health-related self-efficacy, academic stress, and academic achievement were influencing factors.CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that oral health-related self-efficacy may play a significant role in oral health-related quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Male , Oral Health , Quality of Life , Tooth
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820816

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The decayed-missing-filled (DMFT) index is a representative oral health indicator. Prediction of DMFT index is an important basis for the development of public oral health care projects and strategies for caries prevention. In this study, we used data from the 2015 Korean children's oral health survey to predict DMFT index and caries risk groups using statistical techniques and four different machine-learning algorithms.METHODS: DMFT prediction models were constructed using multiple linear regression and four different machine-learning algorithms: decision tree regressor, decision tree classifier (DTC), random forest regressor, and random forest classifier (RFC). Thereafter, their accuracies were compared.RESULTS: For the DMFT predictive model, the prediction accuracy of multiple linear regression and RFC were 15.24% and 43.27%, respectively. The accuracy of DTC prediction was 2.84 times that of multiple linear regression. The important feature of the machine-learning model, which predicts DMFT index and the caries risk group, was the number of teeth with sealants.CONCLUSIONS: Using data from the 2015 Korean children's oral health survey, which is considered big data in the field of oral health survey in Korea, this study confirmed that machine-learning models are more useful than statistical models for predicting DMFT index and caries risk in 12-year-old children. Therefore, it is expected that the machine-learning model can be used to predict the DMFT score.


Subject(s)
Child , Decision Trees , Dental Caries , Forests , Humans , Korea , Linear Models , Machine Learning , Models, Statistical , Oral Health , Tooth
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820815

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by a long progressive phase of neuronal changes, including accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, before the onset of observable symptoms. Many efforts have been made to develop a blood-based diagnostic method for AD by incorporating Aβ and tau as plasma biomarkers. As blood tests have the advantages of being highly accessible and low cost, clinical implementation of AD blood tests would provide preventative screening to presymptomatic individuals, facilitating early identification of AD patients and, thus, treatment development in clinical research. However, the low concentration of AD biomarkers in the plasma has posed difficulties for accurate detection, hindering the development of a reliable blood test. In this review, we introduce three AD blood test technologies emerging in South Korea, which have distinctive methods of heightening detection sensitivity of specific plasma biomarkers. We discuss in detail the multimer detection system, the self-standard analysis of Aβ biomarkers quantified by interdigitated microelectrodes, and a biomarker ratio analysis comprising Aβ and tau.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Methods , Microelectrodes , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Neurons , Plasma , tau Proteins
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Major liver resection and radical lymph node dissection has been accepted as a definite treatment of choice for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). However, the perioperative and survival outcomes of right hemihepatectomy (RH) and left hemihepatectomy (LH) still remain controversial. Thus, this study aimed to compare the surgical and oncological outcomes of RH and LH in HC patients.METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2018, a total of 326 patients underwent surgical resection for HC at Yonsei University College of Medicine in Seoul, Korea. Among the 326 patients, we excluded 130 patients and selected 196 patients, who underwent hemihepatectomy with caudate lobectomy. Among these 196 patients, 114 patients underwent RH, and 82 patients underwent LH. We compared the clinicopathological features as well as the surgical and oncologic outcomes of the RH and LH groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in disease-free survival (P = 0.473) or overall survival (P = 0.946) in the RH and LH groups. The LH group had fewer complications compared with the RH group, including postoperative ascites (RH: 15 [13.2%] vs. LH: 3 [3.7%], P = 0.023); however, the LH group had more bile leakage complications (RH: 5 [4.4%] vs. LH: 12 [14.6%], P = 0.012). The average time lag from portal vein embolization to operation was 25.80 ± 12.06 days (n = 45). There was no difference in postoperative liver failure (P = 0.402), although there were significantly more frequent ascites after RH (P = 0.023).CONCLUSION: LH might be a good alternative option for the surgical treatment of HC given appropriate tumor location and biliary anatomy indications.


Subject(s)
Ascites , Bile , Cholangiocarcinoma , Disease-Free Survival , Hepatectomy , Humans , Klatskin Tumor , Korea , Liver , Liver Failure , Lymph Node Excision , Portal Vein , Seoul , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We conducted a multi-institutional analysis to establish the epidemiological characteristics of recurrent inguinal hernia following hernia repair in patients across 4 institutions in Korea.METHODS: The retrospectively reviewed data included patient characteristics, hernia location, year of primary operation, type of hernia, timing of recurrence, primary operation type, and whether a mesh was used.RESULTS: Among 4,604 patients who underwent hernia repair surgery, 255 patients (5.5%; 13 females and 242 males; mean age, 63 years) were found to have recurrent hernia from January 2010 to April 2017. Recurrent indirect inguinal and direct hernias were observed in 47.1% and 49.4% of the patients, respectively. The recurrence of hernias within 1 year of surgery was the highest at 17.25%. Early and late recurrences was observed in 23.5% and 66.5% of the patients, respectively. Among the patients, 81.6% underwent open hernia repair at the time of initial surgery.CONCLUSION: Recurrence of hernia is most common in the first year after the initial surgery, and 23.5% of recurrent inguinal hernia was developed within 2 years. Patients underwent surgery after an average of 116 months (median value, 64 months) following the first operation. In patients with recurrent hernia, direct hernia was seen more frequent than indirect hernia whereas indirect hernia occurred more in patients with primary hernia.


Subject(s)
Female , Hernia , Hernia, Inguinal , Herniorrhaphy , Humans , Korea , Male , Prevalence , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae poses a critical threat to public health, rapid detection of carbapenemase genes is urgently required for prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and infection control. We evaluated the performance of Xpert Carba-R v.2 (Cepheid, USA) compared with that of culture-based conventional PCR.METHODS: Using the results of 5,479 consecutive clinical rectal swabs, discrepant analysis (enriched culture followed by PCR) was performed for all discordant samples (N=100), which were Carba-R v.2-positive and culture-negative.RESULTS: Among the samples, 206 carbapenemase genes (3.6%) were detected by Carba-R v.2. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 49.0% and 99.9%, respectively. Following discrepant analysis, the PPV increased to 73.5% and the low PPV (8.1%) of the 86 non-KPC improved to 48.8%. Among the 105 discrepancies, NDM was the most frequently observed (N=56), followed by KPC (N=26), VIM (N=10), IMP (N=8), OXA-48 (N=5). The threshold cycle values between discordant vs. concordant and resolved groups were significantly different (P<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Carba-R v.2 is a rapid and sensitive method for detecting carbapenemase-encoding genes compared with culture-based conventional PCR. Most of our discrepant results were non-KPC genes. Thus, the clinical significance of the non-KPC positive cases detected by Carba-R v.2 should be investigated. This assay would be useful for deciding whether to isolate pre-exposed patients in hospital settings, based on the high specificity and NPV.


Subject(s)
Enterobacteriaceae , Humans , Infection Control , Korea , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Differences in the performance of suggested warfarin dosing algorithms among different ethnicities and genotypes have been reported; this necessitates the development of an algorithm with enhanced performance for specific population groups. Previous warfarin dosing algorithms underestimated warfarin doses in VKORC1 1173C carriers. We aimed to develop and validate a new warfarin dosing algorithm for Korean patients with VKORC1 1173C.METHODS: A total of 109 patients carrying VKORC1 1173CT (N=105) or 1173CC (N=4) were included in this study. Multiple regression analysis was performed to deduce a new dosing algorithm. Following literature searches for genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms, 21 algorithms were selected and evaluated using the correlation coefficient (ρ) of actual dose and estimated dose, mean error, and root mean square error.RESULTS: The developed algorithm is as follows: maintenance dose (mg/week)=exp [3.223−0.009×(age)+0.577×(body surface area [BSA])+0.178×(sex)−0.481×(CYP2C9 genotype)+0.227×(VKORC1 genotype)]. Integrated variables explained 44% of the variance in the maintenance dose. The predicted and actual doses showed moderate correlation (ρ=0.641) with the best performance with a mean error of −1.30 mg/week. The proportion of underestimated groups was 17%, which was lower than with the other algorithms.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to develop and validate a warfarin dosing algorithm based on data from VKORC1 1173C carriers; it showed superior predictive performance compared with previously published algorithms.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Humans , Korea , Population Groups , Warfarin
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genetic counseling (GC) provides many benefits, including the identification of patients appropriate for testing, patient education, and medical management. We evaluated the current status of and challenges faced by GC practitioners in Korean hospitals.METHODS: An electronic survey was designed and conducted in 52 certified laboratory physicians belonging to the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine, from August to September 2018. The questionnaires addressed three main categories of information: (1) current status of GC in hospitals; (2) essential qualifications of GC practitioners; and (3) challenges and perspectives for GC. Fisher's exact test was applied to analyze categorical data.RESULTS: Among a total of 52 participants who initially responded, 12 (23.1%) were performing GC either by direct or indirect care. GC clinics were opened regularly for one (33.3%) or more than three sessions (25.0%) per week; most respondents spent more time for pre-visit activities than in-person visits, both for a initial visit patient and for a follow-up visit patient. All laboratory physicians provided genetic information to their patients. Most recommended family genetic testing when indicated (91.7%), discussed disease management (75.0%), and/or ordered additional genetic testing (58.3%), and some referred patients to other specialists (8.3%).CONCLUSIONS: Both patients and laboratory physicians concede the advantage of GC performed by clinical geneticists; however, the practice of GC involves several challenges and raises some concerns. The cost and support required to implement GC need to be addressed in order to provide qualified GC in Korea.


Subject(s)
Disease Management , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Testing , Humans , Korea , Patient Education as Topic , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785352

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disease and the most common chronic disease of children. Eosinophil count and percentage in nasal smear are useful for differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between nasal eosinophil count and percentage.METHODS: Between January 2017 and August 2018, 221 children patients with a clinical history of rhinitis were tested at the outpatient respiratory and allergy unit of the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea. Nasal secretion was collected by swabbing a children's nasal inferior turbinate 3–4 times with a cotton swab and then placed on to a glass slide. Later, the smear was stained by Giemsa stain.RESULTS: This is the first study to assess the comparison of nasal eosinophil count and percent. There is a positive correlation between nasal eosinophil count and percent Y=1.02 X+2.82 (Y=Eosinophil count, X=Eosinophil percentage). To determine the usefulness of nasal eosinophil count and percentage in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis, we analyzed receiver operating characteristic curves. The cutoff value of the nasal eosinophil count was 6.5/high-power field, and that of the nasal eosinophil ratio was 3% for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis.CONCLUSION: In patients with suspected rhinitis, one of the values of nasal eosinophil count or percentage can be used in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Azure Stains , Child , Chronic Disease , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosinophils , Glass , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Outpatients , Pediatrics , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , ROC Curve , Turbinates
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Korean children has been increased. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of rhinitis and to compare clinical parameters between AR and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) in children.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,034 children under 18 years of age who visited Korea University Anam Hospital for rhinitis symptoms from January 2008 to December 2017. Clinical data, including clinical features, comorbidities, blood test results, allergen sensitization profile, and pulmonary function test parameters, were collected.RESULTS: Among the 1,034 children with rhinitis, 737 (71.3%) were AR and 297 (28.7%) were NAR. The prevalence of AR gradually increased with age. The median levels of eosinophil count (4.1%), serum total IgE (204.4 IU/L), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) concentration (17.9 µg/L), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) (22.0 ppb) were significantly higher in children with AR than in those with NAR. The sensitization rate to the inhalant allergens increased with age; however, food allergen sensitization rate tended to decrease. Median levels of eosinophil count, total IgE, ECP, and FeNO were significantly higher in the poly-sensitized group than in the mono-sensitized and nonsensitized groups.CONCLUSION: More than 70% of Korean children who have rhinitis symptoms are AR. Children with AR more likely to have higher levels of FeNO and bronchial asthma. Poly-sensitized children showed increased rates of atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Asthma , Child , Comorbidity , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eosinophil Cationic Protein , Eosinophils , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Medical Records , Nitric Oxide , Prevalence , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785350

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify causative agents of the drug-induced anaphylaxis (DIA) by using the Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management-Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KIDS-KAERS) database (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety) in Korea and to check their labeling information regarding anaphylaxis.METHODS: Among Individual Case Safety Reports from January, 2008 to December 2017, cases of DIA were analyzed for demographics, causative agents and fatal cases resulting in death. The domestic drug labeling, Micromedex and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug package insert, were reviewed to check if the labeling information on suspected causative agents contains anaphylaxis.RESULTS: A total of 4,700 cases of DIA were analyzed. The mean age was 49.85±18.32 years, and 2,642 patients (56.2%) were females. Among 8,664 drugs reported as causative agents, antibiotics (27.4%) accounted for the largest portion. There were 18 fatal cases: antibiotics (7 cases), antineoplastic agents (4 cases) were the major causative drugs for the mortality cases. Of 513 drugs reported as suspected causative agents, 103 (20.1%) did not list anaphylaxis as an adverse effect on domestic drug labeling and 16 (3.1%) did not reflect anaphylaxis in any of 3 adverse drug information.CONCLUSION: Analysis of 10-year data showed that antibiotics were the main cause of DIA and the mortality rate was 0.7%. In 3.1% of suspected drugs, there was no description of anaphylaxis in any of the drug labeling.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , Demography , Drug Labeling , Female , Humans , Korea , Mortality , Pharmacovigilance , United States Food and Drug Administration
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785346

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Korea , Pollen
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785342

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The pollen calendar is the simplest forecasting method for pollen concentrations. As pollen concentrations are liable to seasonal variations due to alterations in climate and land-use, it is necessary to update the pollen calendar using recent data. To attenuate the impact of considerable temporal and spatial variability in pollen concentrations on the pollen calendar, it is essential to employ a new methodology for its creation.METHODS: A pollen calendar was produced in Korea using data from recent observations, and a new method for creating the calendar was proposed, considering both risk levels and temporal resolution of pollen concentrations. A probability distribution was used for smoothing concentrations and determining risk levels. Airborne pollen grains were collected between 2007 and 2017 at 8 stations; 13 allergenic pollens, including those of alder, Japanese cedar, birch, hazelnut, oak, elm, pine, ginkgo, chestnut, grasses, ragweed, mugwort and Japanese hop, were identified from the collected grains.RESULTS: The concentrations of each pollen depend on locations and seasons due to large variability in species distribution and their environmental condition. In the descending order of concentration, pine, oak and Japanese hop pollens were found to be the most common in Korea. The pollen concentrations were high in spring and autumn, and those of oak and Japanese hop were probably the most common cause of allergy symptoms in spring and autumn, respectively. High Japanese cedar pollen counts were observed in Jeju, while moderate concentrations were in Jeonju, Gwangju and Busan.CONCLUSIONS: A new methodology for the creation of a pollen calendar was developed to attenuate the impact of large temporal and spatial variability in pollen concentrations. This revised calendar should be available to the public and allergic patients to prevent aggravation of pollen allergy.


Subject(s)
Alnus , Ambrosia , Artemisia , Asians , Betula , Climate , Corylus , Cryptomeria , Forecasting , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Methods , Poaceae , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Seasons
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While there is an urgent need for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), current genetic tests have drawbacks. We retrospectively reviewed the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) as a quick tool for immunophenotyping and functional assays in patients suspected to have PIDs at a single tertiary care institute.METHODS: Between January 2001 and June 2018, patients suspected of having PIDs were subjected to FCM tests, including lymphocyte subset analysis, detection of surface- or intracellular-target proteins, and functional analysis of immune cells, at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The genetic diagnosis was performed using Sanger or diagnostic exome sequencing.RESULTS: Of 60 patients diagnosed with definite or probable PID according to the European Society of Immune Deficiencies criteria, 24 patients were provided with useful information about immunological dysfunction after initial FCM testing. In 10 patients, the PID diagnosis was based on abnormal findings in FCM testing without genetic tests. The FCM findings provided strong evidence for the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (n = 6), X-linked chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) (n = 6), leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (n = 3), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 11), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-FASLG (n = 1), and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (n = 1), and probable evidence for autosomal recessive-CGD (n = 2), autosomal dominant-hyper-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-syndrome (n = 1), and STAT1 gain-of-function mutation (n = 1). In PIDs derived from PIK3CD (n = 2), LRBA (n = 2), and CTLA4 mutations (n = 3), the FCM test provided useful evidence of immune abnormalities and a tool for treatment monitoring.CONCLUSIONS: The initial application of FCM, particularly with known protein targets on immune cells, would facilitate the timely diagnosis of PIDs and thus would support clinical decisions and improve the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Diagnosis , Exome , Flow Cytometry , Genetic Testing , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Korea , Leukocytes , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency , Tertiary Healthcare
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 218-228, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health problem related to increased risks of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether recommended levels of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) decrease the risk of MetS in a community-based prospective cohort study (Ansung and Ansan cohort).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 3910 adults (1890 men, 2020 women) without MetS examined in 2001–2002 (baseline) were included in this study and followed up from 2013 to 2014. We measured LTPA energy expenditure using the standard metabolic equivalent value [metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/wk]. Individuals were categorized into five groups (physically inactive, 0.1 to <7.5, 7.5 to <15.0, 15.0 to <22.5, 22.5 to <40.0, and ≥40.0 MET-h/wk).RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 11.8 years. Among the cohort, 482 men (25.5%) and 541 women (26.8%) were diagnosed with newly developed MetS. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed a 4.4% lower MetS risk among those performing two to three times the recommended minimum of 7.5 MET-h/wk [multivariate relative risk (RR), 0.956; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.654–1.398] and a 21.9% lower risk among those performing three to four times the physical activity minimum (multivariate RR, 0.781; 95% CI, 0.574–1.063). This association was only significant in females performing three to four times the minimum (crude RR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.432–0.994).CONCLUSION: We noted that physical activity at more than 2 times the recommended minimum prevents MetS. Healthcare professionals should encourage inactive adults to be physically active during their leisure time to take advantage of its health benefits.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Energy Metabolism , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Korea , Leisure Activities , Male , Metabolic Equivalent , Motor Activity , Prospective Studies , Public Health
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 229-234, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to provide a basis for building a master plan for a regional trauma system by analyzing the distribution of trauma deaths in the most populous province in Korea.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the time distribution to death for trauma patients who died between January and December 2017. The time distribution to death was categorized into four groups (within a day, within a week, within a month, and over a month). Additionally, the distribution of deaths within 24 hours was further analyzed. We also reviewed the distribution of deaths according to the cause of death and mechanism of injury.RESULTS: Of the 1546 trauma deaths, 328 cases were included in the final study population. Patients who died within a day were the most prevalent (40.9%). Of those who died within a day, the cases within an hour accounted for 40.3% of the highest proportion. The majority of trauma deaths within 4 hours were caused by traffic-related accidents (60.4%). The deaths caused by bleeding and central nervous system injuries accounted for most (70.1%) of the early deaths, whereas multi-organ dysfunction syndrome/sepsis had the highest ratio (69.7%) in the late deaths. Statistically significant differences were found in time distribution according to the mechanism of injury and cause of death (p<0.001).CONCLUSION: The distribution of overall timing of death was shown to follow a bimodal pattern rather than a trimodal model in Korea. Based on our findings, a suitable and modified trauma system must be developed.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Central Nervous System , Hemorrhage , Humans , Korea , Wounds and Injuries
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 243-250, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811471

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the surveillance reports of adverse events (AEs) due to different types of pneumococcal vaccines, in addition to detecting and validating signals of pneumococcal vaccines by comparing AEs with labels.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the percentages of AEs according to vaccine type [pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPSVs) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs)] in children and adults using data from the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database from 2005 to 2016. A signal was defined as an AE that met all three indices of data mining: proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC). We validated the detected signals by calculating sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values of the signals against label information.RESULTS: Of the 39933 AE reports on vaccination, 5718 (7.0%) were related to pneumococcal vaccine. The most frequent AE after vaccination with PPSV was fever (23.9%) in children and injection-site reaction in adults. The most frequent AE after vaccination with PCV in children was pharyngitis (26.2%). In total, 13 AEs met all three indices for signal detection. Among these, hypotension, apathy, sepsis, and increased serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase level were not listed on vaccine labels. In validation analysis, PRR and ROR performed slightly better than IC for adults who were vaccinated with PPSVs.CONCLUSION: Overall, 13 new signals of PPSVs, including four signals not listed on the labels, were detected. Further research based on additional AE reports is required to confirm the validity of these signals for children.


Subject(s)
Adult , Apathy , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Child , Data Mining , Fever , Humans , Hypotension , Korea , Odds Ratio , Pharyngitis , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepsis , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Conjugate
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