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2.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 31-43, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551189

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón (CP) es una enfermedad con gran impacto a nivel mundial en el número de muertes y en costos en salud. La alta incidencia y mortalidad de esta enfermedad asociada al diagnóstico tardío, y la mejoría del pronóstico ante una detección temprana, determinan que sea una patología pasible de beneficiarse mediante detección temprana. La tomografía de baja dosis de radiación (TCBD) demostró ser un método que se pue- de realizar periódicamente a un grupo de personas con alto riesgo de desarrollar CP y así reducir la mortalidad por esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, este beneficio es tal cuan- do se encuentra desarrollado bajo un programa organizado y con participación multi- disciplinaria especializada en cáncer de pulmón. Métodos: Se plantea determinar lineamientos básicos para el desarrollo de la detección temprana de cáncer de pulmón en América Latina para que pueda ser realizada en forma uniforme, con el menor riesgo y el máximo beneficio esperado. Se analizaron las principales publicaciones referidas a este tema, contemplando la diversidad de atención y acceso de América Latina. Resultado: Se desarrollan requerimientos mínimos para la implementación de un pro- grama. Discusión: El número de programas en la región es escaso y depende más de esfuerzos individuales que de políticas generales de salud. Consideramos que estos lineamien- tos pueden servir de apoyo para el desarrollo de más programas en la región y de for- ma más homogénea.


Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is a disease with a great impact worldwide in the number of deaths and health costs. The high incidence and mortality of this disease associated with late diagnosis and the improved prognosis with early detection determine that it is a pathology that can benefit from early detection. Low radiation dose tomography (LDCT) demonstrated a method that can be performed periodically to a group of people at high risk of developing CP and thus reduce mortality from this disease. However, this benefit is such when it is developed under an organized program with multidisciplinary participation specialized in lung cancer. Methods: It is proposed to determine basic guidelines for the development of early de- tection of lung cancer in Latin America so that it can be carried out uniformly, with the lowest risk and the maximum expected benefit. The main publications referring to this topic were analyzed, considering the diversity of care and access in Latin America. Result: Minimum requirements are developed for the implementation of a program. Discussion: The number of programs in the region is small and depends more on individual efforts than on general health policies. We consider that these guidelines can serve as support for the development of more programs in the region and in a more ho- mogeneous way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Programs and Plans , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Tomography/methods , Incidence , Mortality , Education, Professional , Health Policy , Latin America
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 185-196, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528838

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The new paradigm in Forensic Sciences initiated by the entry of genetics (the current standard of legal evidence) and accentuated by recognized wrongful convictions derived from experts today in the eye of criticism, has highlighted the potential for bias and error in forensic disciplines when they depend on human interpretation and subjectivity, which has not been avoided by Forensic Odontology (FO). However, a subjective judgment is not necessarily wrong, so the refinement of processes, the development of standards, and robust research can contribute to the validity of interpretation to increase objectivity. Latin America (LATAM) has its own realities and needs, which have conditioned the priorities and objectives of FO research. A scoping review is presented to systematically map the investigation of LATAM researchers and identify the objective or subjective nature of their assessments. LATAM shows interesting productivity and intentions to adhere to international standards, with Brazil leading this research significantly, followed by Chile and Colombia, among others. However, there is a disproportionate approach in certain lines of research (dental age estimation), and needs to address other quantitative studies, and to improve the visibility of the LATAM FO research.


El nuevo paradigma en ciencias forenses iniciado por la entrada de la genética (el actual estándar de la evidencia jurídica), y acentuado por reconocidas condenas injustas derivadas de pericias hoy en el ojo de la crítica, ha destacado el potencial de sesgo y error que poseen algunas disciplinas forenses cuando dependen de la interpretación humana y la subjetividad, lo cual no ha sido ajeno a la odontología forense (OF). Sin embargo, un juicio subjetivo no necesariamente es erróneo, con lo que el refinamiento de procesos, el desarrollo de estándares y la investigación robusta pueden contribuir a validar esa interpretación para aumentar su objetividad. Latinoamérica (LATAM) posee realidades y necesidades propias que han condicionado las prioridades y objetivos de la investigación en OF. Se presenta una revisión con búsqueda sistemática para mapear sistemáticamente la investigación en OF realizada por investigadores latinoamericanos, así como identificar la naturaleza objetiva o subjetiva de sus evaluaciones. LATAM demuestra una productividad interesante e intenciones de adherirse a estándares internacionales, con Brasil liderando significativamente esta investigación, seguido por Chile y Colombia entre otros. Sin embargo, se observa un enfoque desproporcionado en ciertas líneas de investigación (estimación de edad dental particularmente), y necesidad tanto de abordar otros estudios cuantitativos como de mejorar la visibilidad de la investigación latinoamericana en OF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Research , Forensic Dentistry , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Qualitative Research , Latin America
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 191 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554020

ABSTRACT

Introdução: No capitalismo contemporâneo em crise, os sistemas de saúde de todo o mundo estão sendo sistematicamente enfraquecidos devido à aplicação de contrarreformas sociais por meio de políticas neoliberais/ultraneoliberais promovidas pelo Estado capitalista. Por um lado, observa-se um permanente subfinanciamento público, e por outro lado, há uma inserção, reprodução e ampliação da lógica de mercado neoliberal no setor saúde. Esse processo tem transformado a saúde em um setor voltado para a acumulação de capital e a busca incessante por sua maior valorização. Objetivo: Analisar a produção cientifica latino-americana sobre o financiamento dos sistemas de saúde na América Latina no capitalismo contemporâneo em crise, com a finalidade de compreender como os autores latino-americanos discutem o financiamento da saúde à luz do pensamento crítico de Navarro, a partir de sua obra "La Medicina bajo el Capitalismo", de 1978. Método: Inicialmente, realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre a saúde no capitalismo contemporâneo em crise. Em seguida, realizou-se uma revisão integrativa, a partir da pergunta: Como a literatura cientifica, especialmente latino-americana, vem discutindo o financiamento dos sistemas de saúde na América Latina no capitalismo contemporâneo em crise? A busca bibliográfica foi realizada na Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde, em 3 de fevereiro de 2023, encontrando-se 265 publicações, e incluindo-se, após o processo de seleção, 23 artigos na revisão integrativa. Por fim, realizou-se uma análise comparativa, identificando convergências e divergências entre os resultados da revisão à luz do pensamento crítico de Vicente Navarro López. Resultados: Os artigos incluídos na revisão foram classificados em eixos temáticos: 65,2% discutiram o financiamento e a privatização da saúde e cobertura universal de seguro de saúde; 47,8%, o financiamento em meio a processos de reforma do setor saúde; 43,5%, o subfinanciamento público da saúde; 39,1%, o financiamento em meio a processos de reforma fiscal ou tributária ou busca de novas fontes de financiamento para a saúde; 26,1%, o financiamento em meio a processos de descentralização da saúde; e 17,4%, o financiamento em meio a processos constituintes ou de implementação de novas constituições políticas. Enquanto as convergências e divergências entre os resultados desses artigos e as contribuições do pensamento crítico de Navarro, identificou-se que 39,1% tiveram alguma aproximação ao método de estudo marxista, em oposição ao funcionalismo; 30.4% foram críticos com os supostos da teoria das etapas do desenvolvimento na abordagem da saúde; 47,8% e 21,7% abordaram os determinantes econômicos e políticos do subdesenvolvimento da saúde e do direito à saúde, respectivamente; e 26,1% discutiram a influência das agências internacionais nas decisões de política de saúde. Conclusões: Os pesquisadores latino-americanos no campo do financiamento da saúde enfrentam os desafios de estudá-lo dialeticamente com o cenário econômico, político e social das próprias sociedades capitalistas em que a saúde está inserida, e de incorporar em sua análise a determinação social da saúde no capitalismo contemporâneo em crise. A transição da economia da saúde para a econômica política crítica da saúde exige que esses pesquisadores superem esses desafios para integrar esses elementos em suas futuras investigações no campo do financiamento da saúde.


Introduction: In contemporary capitalism in crisis, health systems around the world are being systematically weakened due to the application of social counter-reforms through neoliberal/ultraneoliberal policies promoted by the capitalist state. On the one hand, there is permanent public underfunding, and on the other hand, there is an insertion, reproduction and expansion of the neoliberal market logic in the health sector. This process has transformed health into a sector focused on the accumulation of capital and the incessant search for its greater appreciation. Objective: To analyze the Latin American scientific production on the financing of health systems in Latin America in contemporary capitalism in crisis, in order to understand how the Latin-American authorsAmericans discuss health financing in light of Navarros critical thinking, from his 1978 work "La Medicina bajo el Capitalismo". Method: Initially, a review of the literature on health in contemporary capitalism in crisis was carried out. Then, an integrative review was carried out, based on the question: How has the scientific literature, especially Latin American, been discussing the financing of health systems in Latin America in contemporary capitalism in crisis? The bibliographic search was performed in the Virtual Health Library, on February 3, 2023, with 265 publications, and including, after the selection process, 23 articles in the integrative review. Finally, a comparative analysis was carried out, identifying convergences and divergences between the results of the review in the light of the critical thinking of Vicente Navarro López. Results: The articles included in the review were classified in thematic bundles: 65.2% discussed the financing and privatization of health and universal health insurance coverage; 47.8%, financing in the midst of health sector reform processes; 43.5%, public health underfunding; 39.1%, financing in the midst of fiscal or tax reform processes or seeking new sources of health funding; 26.1%, financing in the midst of health decentralization processes; and 17.4%, funding in the midst of constituent processes or the implementation of new political constitutions. While the convergences and divergences between the results of these articles and the contributions of Navarros critical thinking, it was identified that 39.1% had some approximation to the Marxist method of study, as opposed to functionalism; 30.4% were critical of the supposed theory of stages of development in the approach to health; 47.8% and 21.7% addressed the economic and political determinants of underdevelopment of health and the right to health, respectively; and1% discussed the influence of international agencies on health policy decisions. Conclusions: Latin American researchers in the field of health financing face the challenges of studying it dialectically with the economic, political and social scenario of capitalist societies themselves in which health is inserted, and to incorporate in its analysis the social determination of health in contemporary capitalism in crisis. The transition from health economics to critical health policy economics requires these researchers to overcome these challenges to integrate these elements into their future research in the field of health finance.


Subject(s)
Capitalism , Healthcare Financing , Health System Financing , Latin America
6.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(5): 301-307, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530018

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El virus del papiloma humano (VPH), con más de 100 tipos, es de transmisión sexual. Varios países de América Latina han introducido las vacunas contra el VPH. Aunque América Latina es la región que más rápido avanzó en la vacunación contra el VPH, sus sistemas de seguimiento y vigilancia son aún deficientes. OBJETIVO: Comparar las diferentes estrategias de vacunación contra el VPH en Ecuador y América Latina. MÉTODO: Revisión bibliográfica, en la que se obtuvo información de documentos gubernamentales y artículos indexados en los últimos 5 años sobre las estrategias de vacunación contra el VPH en Ecuador y América Latina. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los países de América Latina han logrado introducir la vacuna contra el VPH, excepto Venezuela, Martinica, Haití, Nicaragua y Cuba. CONCLUSIONES: Los protocolos de vacunación de Ecuador y América Latina necesitan mejorar sus sistemas de seguimiento y aumentar la expansión de datos de cobertura disponibles de manera consistente. Actualmente siguen existiendo desafíos para introducir las vacunas, lograr una alta cobertura y fortalecer el seguimiento, la evaluación y la notificación.


INTRODUCTION: The human papilloma virus (HPV), with more than 100 types, is a sexual transmission infection. Many Latin American countries have introduced the vaccines against the HPV. Although Latin América is the region which advanced faster against the HPV, its surveillance and follow-up systems are yet deficient. OBJECTIVE: To compare the different strategies to assume the vaccination against the HPV in Ecuador and Latin America. METHOD: Bibliographic review, in which information was obtained from government documents and articles indexed in the last five years on vaccination strategies against HPV in Ecuador and Latin America. RESULTS: Most Latin American countries have managed to introduce the vaccine against the HPV, except Venezuela, Martinica, Haiti, Nicaragua and Cuba. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccination protocols of Ecuador and Latin América need to improve their systems of follow-up and monitoring, and increase the expansion of available data in a consistent manner. Now, there are still existing challenges to introduce the vaccines, manage a high reach and fortify the follow-up, the evaluation, and the notification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Immunization Programs , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Immunization Schedule , Ecuador , Latin America
8.
Rev. ADM ; 80(4): 214-219, jul.-ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526847

ABSTRACT

La microbiota oral está conformada por diversas especies bacterianas que en condiciones normales desempeñan una función protectora del huésped; sin embargo, cuando existe un desequilibrio en el ecosistema, estos microorganismos son capaces de producir diversas manifestaciones como lo es el caso de la caries dental, enfermedad infecciosa producida principalmente por Streptococcus mutans, patógeno capaz de desmineralizar los tejidos duros del diente mediante la fermentación de hidratos de carbono obtenidos de la dieta. Se ha identificado en la pared celular de este microorganismo ocho serotipos que intervienen en la adhesión, agregación y coagregación bacteriana. En los seres humanos S. mutans presenta los serotipos c, e y f, siendo el serotipo c el más prevalente a nivel mundial, el cual se conoce que está asociado a pacientes sanos, a diferencia del e y f que son capaces de invadir las células endoteliales de las arterias coronarias. No obstante, en los últimos años se ha logrado identificar el serotipo k que de igual manera presenta alta capacidad de invadir el endotelio humano, actuando en la patogénesis de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica es lograr cuantificar los serotipos prevalentes de S. mutans en América Latina (AU)


The oral microbiota is made up of various bacterial species that under normal conditions perform a protective function of the host, however, when there is an imbalance in the ecosystem, these microorganisms are capable of producing various manifestations such as caries, an infectious disease. produced mainly by Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen capable of demineralizing the hard tissues of the tooth through the fermentation of carbohydrates obtained from the diet. Eight serotypes involved in bacterial adhesion, aggregation and coaggregation have been identified in the cell wall of this microorganism. In humans, S. mutans presents serotypes c, e, and f, serotype c being the most prevalent worldwide, which is known to be associated with healthy patients, unlike e and f, which are capable of invading the endothelial cells of the coronary arteries. However, in recent years it has been possible to identify serotype k, which also has a high capacity to invade the human endothelium, acting in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this literature review is to quantify the prevalent serotypes of S. mutans in Latin America (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans , Dental Caries/microbiology , Serogroup , Bacterial Adhesion , Latin America/epidemiology
10.
In. Roitman, Adriel Jonas. Ética en investigación: Nuevos desafíos, ¿viejos dilemas?. Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Docencia, Investigación y Desarrollo Profesional, jun. 2023. p.9-14.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1437589

ABSTRACT

Presentación de "Estudio Exploratorio de los Marcos de Gobernanza para la Revisión y Supervisión Ética de la Investigación de COVID-19 en América Latina", trabajo descriptivo para identificar si los países de América Latina adoptaron políticas para acelerar la evaluación ética de las investigaciones, a la vez de que aseguraban los estándares éticos para su realización, durante la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Ethics Committees, Research/trends , Ethics Committees, Research/ethics , Ethics, Research , COVID-19/prevention & control , Practice Guideline , Latin America
11.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(2): 13-17, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551242

ABSTRACT

El vocablo "universidad" viene del latín universitas, término que hace referencia a "totalidad" o "reunido en un todo". Históricamente fue conformado por el grupo de "los que enseñan" y el de "los que aprenden". Una de las primeras universidades fue la Universidad de Bologna donde si bien predominaban los estudios jurídicos, también se dictaban filosofía, teología, farmacia, astronomía, matemáticas y medicina. Su contrapartida fue la Universidad de París, donde se enseñaba fundamentalmente teología. En esta última institución los pontífices se reservaron la vigilancia de su actuación y enseñanza. La universidad moderna surge del modelo de Guillermo Humboldt, en el que se restablece la coexistencia de la ciencia y la investigación, que constituyen el germen de nuestra relación docencia - investigación. En las universidades de América Latina se destaca la reforma universitaria de Córdoba, uno de cuyos puntos centrales fue la autonomía universitaria, definida como la facultad de los estudiantes de dirigir la Universidad sin la intromisión de los poderes del estado, en el ámbito propio de la deliberación y la decisión libre de los alumnos y maestros, despojados de toda autoridad diferente a su capacidad docente. (AU)


The word "university" comes from the Latin universitas, a term that refers to "totality" or "united as a whole". Historically it was formed by the group of "those who teach" and "those who learn". One of the first universities was the University of Bologna where, although legal studies predominated, philosophy, theology, pharmacy, astronomy, mathematics and medicine were also taught. Its counterpart was the University of Paris, where theology was the main subject. In the latter institution, the pontiffs reserved for themselves the supervision of their actions and teaching. The modern university arises from the model of William Humboldt, in which the conjunction of science and research is reestablished, which constitute the germ of our teaching-research relationship. In Latin American universities, the university reform of Córdoba stands out, one of the central points of which was university autonomy defined as the faculty of students to direct the University, without the interference of the powers of the state, in the proper scope of deliberation and free decision of students and teachers, stripped of any other authority different from their teaching capacity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Universities/trends , Education, Medical/history , Argentina , Teaching , Universities/history , History of Medicine , Latin America
13.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 39(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1508256

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Colombia, las pruebas de Estado para la evaluación de la calidad de los programas de educación superior (Saber Pro) tienen por objeto evaluar los conocimientos y capacidades profesionales de todos los estudiantes que han cumplido la mayoría de los créditos en sus programas académicos. Adicionalmente, estas pruebas son un requisito complementario al internado rotatorio para graduarse como profesional en medicina. Sin embargo, existen cuestionamientos relacionados con su utilidad en el ejercicio laboral y la articulación de estas pruebas con la formación médica. Objetivo: Establecer la coherencia entre la prueba Saber Pro y la educación médica. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión narrativa, mediante la búsqueda en PubMed, Ovid, Elsevier, SciELO y la normativa del contexto colombiano. Resultados: De acuerdo con la búsqueda realizada, existe un número considerable de artículos que soportan la aplicación de esta prueba, fundamentados en resultados cualitativos que se relacionan con la adaptación de instrumentos de evaluación médica. Asimismo, algunas fuentes muestran la influencia que pueden tener las competencias evaluadas con indicadores de salud y otros aspectos del contexto nacional. Conclusiones: Pese al número limitado de estudios que permitan dar conclusiones de carácter cuantitativo, existe evidencia sobre la utilidad y coherencia de la Prueba de Estado en el contexto nacional, de igual forma, se establece que la prueba Saber Pro puede garantizar estándares de calidad en los programas de educación superior y, con el paso del tiempo, ha contribuido al desarrollo de recomendaciones para la transformación de la educación médica en Colombia(AU)


Introduction: In Colombia, the state tests for evaluating the quality of higher education programs (Saber Pro) are intended to evaluate the professional knowledge and skills of all students who have completed the majority of credits in their academic programs. Additionally, these tests are a complementary requirement before the rotation internship for graduating as a medical professional. However, there are questions related to their usefulness in the occupational practice and the articulation of these tests with the medical training. Objective: To establish the coherence between the Saber Pro tests and medical education. Methods: A narrative review was carried out by means of a search in PubMed, Ovid, Elsevier, SciELO and the regulations of the Colombian context. Results: According to the search carried out, there is a considerable number of articles that support the application of this test, based on qualitative results related to the adaptation of medical evaluation instruments. Likewise, some sources show the influence that the assessed competences may have, by means of health indicators and other aspects of the national context. Conclusions: Despite the limited number of studies that allow provide quantitative conclusions, there is evidence on the usefulness and coherence of the state test in the national context; likewise, the Saber Pro test is concluded to be able to guarantee quality standards in higher education programs and, with the passage of time, has contributed to the development of recommendations for the transformation of medical education in Colombia(AU)


Subject(s)
Professional Competence , Competency-Based Education , Education, Medical , Educational Measurement , Colombia , Latin America
14.
Rev. neuro-psiquiatr. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 45-61, ene. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1442084

ABSTRACT

La Ataxia de Friedreich (AF) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa autosómica recesiva con compromiso multisistémico. En esta revisión, se actualizan aspectos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos y clínico-terapéuticos y se conduce una búsqueda sistemática de casos de AF reportados en Latinoamérica. La prevalencia de AF en poblaciones caucásicas es estimada entre 2 y 5 casos por 100 000 habitantes. En Latinoamérica se han publicado 35 estudios que reúnen 1481 casos en 6 países. Causada por la expansión anormal de repeticiones GAA en el gen FXN, la etiopatogenia está asociada a una reducción en los niveles de la proteína frataxina (que altera el metabolismo energético) y el acúmulo de hierro mitocondrial. El fenotipo clásico de AF suele comenzar antes de los 25 años, aunque hay otros de inicio tardío y retención de reflejos. La sintomatología se caracteriza por ataxia progresiva, alteración sensitiva, arreflexia, disartria, y alteraciones oculomotoras, además de compromiso cardiaco, endocrino y musculoesquelético. El diagnóstico requiere evaluación neurológica detallada, estudios neurofisiológicos, neuroimágenes y pruebas bioquímicas pero el enfoque determinante es el estudio genético que demuestre variantes genéticas bialélicas en el gen FXN. El manejo es multidisciplinario, orientado a aminorar los síntomas, prevenir complicaciones y brindar asesoramiento genético apropiado. Recientemente se ha aprobado el primer tratamiento farmacológico para AF con varios más en fases de experimentación.


SUMMARY Friedreich Ataxia (FA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease with multisystemic involvement. This update of epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinico-therapeutic aspects of FA, includes a systematic review of cases in Latin America. The estimated FA prevalence in Caucasian populations is between 2 to 5 cases per 100 000. In Latin America, 1481 cases have been published in 35 articles from six different countries. Caused by an abnormally repeated expansion of GAA trinucleotide inside the FXN gene, FA's etiopathogenesis is associated with reduced levels of the frataxin protein, which disturb the energy metabolism and result in mitochondrial iron accumulation. The classic phenotype usually shows symptoms before the age of 25, although there are others with a later onset. The main symptoms of AF are progressive ataxia, sensory disturbances, areflexia, dysarthria, and oculomotor alterations, in addition to cardiac, endocrine, and musculoskeletal compromise. Diagnostic workup requires a detailed neurological examination, neuroconduction studies, neuroimaging, and biochemical tests. The definitive diagnosis is provided by genetic testing showing biallelic variants within the FXN gene. The management is multidisciplinary, aimed at reducing symptoms, preventing complications, and providing an appropriate genetic counseling. Recently, the first pharmacological treatment for AF has been approved, with several others in clinical assessment trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Ataxia , Friedreich Ataxia , Iron-Binding Proteins , Genes, Recessive , Latin America , Case Reports
15.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 22: e20236643, 01 jan 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1438026

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Sintetizar estudos qualitativos sobre as experiências de luto após um natimorto em pais que vivem na América Latina. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática qualitativa realizada em quatro bases de dados eletrônica e que utilizou o Guideline Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research (ENTREQ). A qualidade metodológica dos estudos incluídos foi avaliada usando o Critical Appraisal Skills Programme e uma síntese temática foi realizada. RESULTADOS: Um total de 110 estudos foram encontrados e quatro estudos eleitos com base nos critérios de elegibilidade. Quatro temas apresentam a experiência de luto parental: impacto, sofrimento e transformação após a morte fetal; preocupação com o corpo do bebê falecido; insatisfação com a qualidade da assistência em saúde; e família e religião como principais fontes de apoio. CONCLUSÃO: A natimortalidade na América Latina precisa ser explorada em pesquisas futuras e ainda é marcada pela desassistência no processo de luto.


OBJECTIVE: To synthesize qualitative studies on Latin American parents' grieving experiences after a stillbirth. METHOD: A systematic qualitative review was conducted in four electronic databases using the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research (ENTREQ) guideline. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, and a thematic synthesis was performed. RESULTS: One hundred ten studies were found, and four were chosen based on the eligibility criteria. Four themes were identified concerning the experience of parental grieving: impact, suffering, and transformation after fetal death; preoccupation with the deceased baby's body; dissatisfaction with the quality of health care; and family and religion as the primary sources of support. CONCLUSION: Stillbirth in Latin America must be explored in future research, and a lack of assistance still marks the grieving process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parents , Bereavement , Stillbirth , Latin America , Qualitative Research
16.
BMC pregnancy childbirth ; 23(1): 605, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, MMyP, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1518570

ABSTRACT

Background: Latin America has the highest Cesarean Section Rates (CSR) in the world. Robson's Ten Group Classification System (RTGCS) was developed to enable understanding the CSR in different groups of women, classified according to obstetric characteristics into one of ten groups. The size of each CS group may provide helpful data on quality of care in a determined region or setting. Data can potentially be used to compare the impact of conditions such as maternal morbidity on CSR. The objective of this study is to understand the impact of Severe Maternal Morbidity (SMM) on CSR in ten different groups of RTGCS. Methods: Secondary analysis of childbirth information from 2018 to 2021, including 8 health facilities from 5 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic), using a surveillance database (SIP-Perinatal Information System, in Spanish) implemented in different settings across Latin America. Women were classified into one of RTGCS. The frequency of each group and its respective CSR were described. Furthermore, the sample was divided into two groups, according to maternal outcomes: women without SMM and those who experienced SMM, considering Potentially Life-threatening Conditions, Maternal Near Miss and Maternal Death as the continuum of morbidity. Results: Available data were obtained from 92,688 deliveries using the Robson Classification. Overall CSR was around 38%. Group 5 was responsible for almost one-third of cesarean sections. SMM occurred in 6.7% of cases. Among these cases, the overall CSR was almost 70% in this group. Group 10 had a major role (preterm deliveries). Group 5 (previous Cesarean section) had a very high CSR within the group, regardless of the occurrence of maternal morbidity (over 80%). Conclusion: Cesarean section rate was higher in women experiencing SMM than in those without SMM in Latin America. SMM was associated with higher Cesarean section rates, especially in groups 1 and 3. Nevertheless, group 5 was the major contributor to the overall CSR. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Cesarean Section , Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate , Parturition , Latin America/epidemiology
17.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (39): e22205, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523010

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo tenho como objetivo refletir sobre as singularidades sexuais e de gênero presentes no bolsonarismo. Para isso, analiso o funcionamento discursivo das políticas sexo-gendradas que irrompem, hegemonicamente, do discurso da extrema direita, representado pelo que se convencionou chamar, nessa formação discursiva, de "ideologia de gênero". Utilizo o termo "cis-hétero-bolsonarismo" para descrever essas configurações político-ideológicas que se apresentam desde os movimentos reacionários latino-americanos das últimas décadas. Ao delimitar o fenômeno do cis-hétero-bolsonarismo, busco interpretar o funcionamento dessa discursividade, compreendendo sua rede dispositiva de sentidos pela descrição de seus domínios de memória, a saber: integralismo, militarismo e fascismo. Para abordar tais questões, tenho os estudos da Linguagem, a teoria queer e os estudos da biopolítica como referências teóricas.


Resumen En este artículo mi objetivo es reflexionar sobre las singularidades sexuales y de género presentes en el bolsonarismo. Para eso, analizo el funcionamiento discursivo de las políticas sexo-género que emergen, hegemónicamente, del discurso de la ultraderecha, representado por lo que se ha convenido en llamar, en esta formación discursiva, "ideología de género". Utilizo el término "cis-hétero-bolsonarismo" para describir estas configuraciones político-ideológicas que se presentan desde los movimientos reaccionarios latinoamericanos de las últimas décadas. Al delimitar el fenómeno del cis-hétero-bolsonarismo, busco interpretar el funcionamiento de esta discursividad, comprendiendo su red dispositiva de sentidos mediante la descripción de sus dominios de memoria, a saber: integralismo, militarismo y fascismo. Para abordar estas cuestiones, tengo los estudios del Lenguaje, la teoría queer y los estudios de la biopolítica como referencias teóricas.


Abstract In this article my aim is to reflect on the sexual and gender singularities present in Bolsonarism. To do so, I analyze the discursive functioning of sex-gender policies that emerge, hegemonically, from the discourse of the far-right, represented by what has become known, in this discursive formation, as "gender ideology". I use the term "cis-hetero-bolsonarism" to describe these political-ideological configurations that have emerged from Latin American reactionary movements in recent decades. By delimiting the phenomenon of cishetero-bolsonarism, I seek to interpret the functioning of this discourse, understanding its dispositif network of meanings through the description of its domains of memory, namely: integralism, militarism, and fascism. To address these issues, I have language studies, queer theory, and biopolitical studies as theoretical references.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Policy , Cisgender Persons , Gender Norms , Gender Performativity , Latin America
18.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (39): e22300, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523009

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fruto de uma parceria entre o Centro Latino-Americano em Sexualidade e Direitos Humanos (CLAM/IMS/UERJ) e a Rede Feminista de Pesquisas da Internet da Associação para o Progresso das Comunicações (FIRN/APC), este dossiê reúne trabalhos das Ciências Sociais e Humanas produzidos tanto no âmbito acadêmico quanto em instituições da sociedade civil no Brasil, Chile e México, no encontro entre as tecnologias digitais e questões de saúde das mulheres; violência contra as mulheres; viés racista na inteligência artificial; ativismo de mulheres negras e migrantes; religiosidade e auto expressão das mulheres; auto empreendedorismo masculino; e redes de homens da extrema direita. Nosso objetivo não é tanto abordar um objeto singular ou preencher uma ausência, mas, ao contrário, conectar interesses temáticos a partir de diversas abordagens teóricas, metodológicas e disciplinares em um diálogo aberto sobre as maneiras pelas quais realizamos pesquisas no, do, para e sobre o digital no que se refere a gênero, sexualidade e feminismos na América Latina.


Resumen Fruto de una colaboración entre el Centro Latinoamericano en Sexualidad y Derechos Humanos (CLAM/IMS/UERJ) y la Red Feminista de Investigación de Internet de la Asociación para el Progreso de las Comunicaciones (FIRN/APC), este dossier reúne estudios en Ciencias Sociales y Humanas realizados por investigadores e investigadoras tanto académicas como de la sociedad civil de Brasil, Chile y México. Sus contribuciones originales abordan el encuentro de las tecnologías digitales con cuestiones de salud de la mujer; violencia contra las mujeres; racismo e inteligencia artificial; activismo de mujeres negras y migrantes; religión y autoexpresión femenina; y el rol de las masculinidades con relación al fenómeno contemporáneo del empredorismo de sí y a las redes militantes de ultraderecha. Nuestro objetivo no es tanto abordar un objeto singular o cubrir una ausencia sino, más bien, conectar intereses temáticos desde diversos enfoques teóricos, metodológicos y disciplinarios en un diálogo abierto sobre las formas en que hemos investigado en, de, para y sobre lo digital en relación con el género, la sexualidad y los feminismos en América Latina.


Abstract Fruit of a partnership between the Latin American Center on Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM/IMS/UERJ) and the Association of Progressive Communication's Feminist Internet Research Network (FIRN/APC), this dossier gathers works in the Social Sciences and the Humanities produced by academic and civil society researchers from Brazil, Chile and Mexico. In their original or newly translated contributions, digital technologies meet issues of women's health; violence against women; racist bias in artificial intelligence; Black and migrant women's activism; women's religiosity and self expression; male self-entrepreneurship; and ultra right-wing men's networks. Our aim is not so much to address a singular object or to cover an absence but, rather, to connect thematic interests from diverse theoretical, methodological and disciplinary approaches in an open a dialog about the ways in which we have carried out research in, of, for and about the digital as it relates to gender, sexuality and feminisms in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Gender Expression , Latin America
19.
Saúde Soc ; 32(2): e211010es, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450455

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo del manuscrito es presentar una primera aproximación a una propuesta epistemológica que reflexione y se ocupe de la construcción y legitimación de conocimientos generados desde corporeidades abyectas, anormales o tullidas geopolíticamente ubicadas al Sur. Pone especial atención al sistema sexo-género-capacidad en la organización social y epistemológica del saber. En ese devenir, identificamos una posicionalidad y riqueza desperdiciada para el análisis y transformación social regional como resultado de un ordenamiento moderno colonial. De ahí que esta propuesta se inscriba dentro del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano para reflexionar sobre esos lugares otros de enunciación abyecta.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma abordagem inicial de uma proposta epistemológica que reflita e lide com a construção e a legitimação do conhecimento gerado a partir de corporeidades abjetas, anormais ou inválidas, geopoliticamente localizadas no Sul. Dá atenção especial ao sistema de sexo-gênero-capacidade na organização social e epistemológica do saber. No processo, identificamos uma posição e uma riqueza desperdiçadas para a análise e transformação social regional como resultado de uma ordem colonial moderna. Por isso, esta proposta se inscreve no pensamento crítico latino-americano para refletir sobre esses outros lugares de enunciação abjeta.


Abstract The aim of the article was to present a first approach to an epistemological proposal that reflects on and deals with the construction and legitimation of knowledge generated from abject, abnormal, or crippled corporeities geopolitically located in the South. It pays special attention to the sex-gender-ability system in the social and epistemological organization of knowledge. In this development, we identify a positionality and wasted wealth for regional social analysis and transformation as a result of a modern colonial order. Hence, this proposal is inscribed within the Latin American critical thinking to reflect on those other places of abject enunciation.


Subject(s)
Knowledge , Feminism , Cultural Competency , Social Discrimination , Latin America
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30: e2023059, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520971

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este trabajo estudia una red de acogida para científicos judíos desplazados por el nazismo a partir del archivo de Alejandro Lipschütz, fisiólogo que vivió en Chile desde 1926. A partir del contexto de la persecución antisemita y la forma en que afectó a la ciencia y a la universidad alemanas se analizan las cartas remitidas hacia y desde Lipschütz entre 1935 y 1936, con especial atención a personas que lo contactaron para huir de Alemania y que veían en América Latina una posibilidad. Proponemos que se trata de una red de agencias personales, cargada de subjetividades e intimidad, que debía tener en cuenta el antisemitismo y la xenofobia académica local.


Abstract This paper studies a shelter network for Jewish scientists displaced by nazism from the archive of Alexander Lipschütz, a physiologist who lived in Chile since 1926. From the context of the anti-Semitic persecution and the way in which it affected German science and their universities, we have analyzed letters sent to and from Lipschütz between 1935 and 1936, with special attention to people who contacted him to flee Germany and considered Latin America as a possibility to live. We suggest this was a network of personal agencies, charged with subjectivities and intimacy, which had to take into account local anti-Semitism and academic xenophobia.


Subject(s)
Prejudice , Refugees , Research Personnel , Universities , National Socialism , History, 20th Century , Latin America
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