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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200428, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154875


BACKGROUND Dogs are the main peridomiciliary reservoir of Leishmania infantum thus the correct diagnosis of infection is essential for the control of the transmission and treatment as well. However, the diagnosis is based on serological assays that are not fully effective. OBJECTIVE We aimed to establish an effective serological assay for the diagnosis of L. infantum infected dogs using Leishmania-derived recombinant antigens. METHODS Leishmania derived rK39-, rK28-, rKR95-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized using symptomatic and asymptomatic L. infantum-infected dogs. Then 2,530 samples from inquiry in endemic areas for VL were evaluated and the results compared with recommended assays by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH algorithm). Further samples from a cohort of 30 dogs were searched. FINDINGS For rK39-, rK28- and rKR95-ELISA the sensitivity was around 97% and specificity 100%. The positivity of these three ELISA in the inquiry samples was 27-28%, around 10% higher than the assays currently in use. When cohort samples were searched, we observed likely false-negative results (> 65%) with supposedly negative samples that turned positive six months later with the assays in use (MH algorithm). MAIN CONCLUSIONS For the diagnosis of L. infantum-infected dogs, rK39-based ELISA showed better diagnostic performance than other assays in use in Brazil and worldwide.

Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Serologic Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e018020, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144232


Abstract Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Serological methods are the most common diagnostic techniques used for the diagnosis of the CanL. The objective of our study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of one in-house ELISA kit (ELISA UNIZAR) and three commercially available serological tests (MEGACOR Diagnostik GmbH) including an immunochromatographic rapid test (FASTest LEISH®), an immunofluorescent antibody test (MegaFLUO LEISH®) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MegaELISA LEISH®), using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Two hundred fifteen serum samples were included. The highest sensitivity was achieved for FASTest LEISH® (99.38%), ELISA UNIZAR (99.37%), MegaFLUO LEISH® (99.36%) followed by MegaELISA LEISH® (98.49%). The best specificity was obtained by FASTest LEISH® (98.43%), followed by ELISA UNIZAR (97.50%), whilst MegaFLUO LEISH® and MegaELISA LEISH® obtained the lower specificity (91.94% and 91.93%, respectively). The results of present study indicate that the immunochromatographic rapid test evaluated FASTest LEISH® show similar levels of sensitivity and specificity to the quantitative commercial tests. Among quantitative serological tests, sensitivity and specificity were similar considering ELISA or IFAT techniques.

Resumo A leishmaniose canina (Lcan) é uma causada pela Leishmania infantum. Os métodos sorológicos são as técnicas diagnósticas mais utilizadas para o diagnóstico da leishmaniose canina. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi estimar a sensibilidade e a especificidade de um kit ELISA interno (ELISA UNIZAR) e de três testes sorológicos disponíveis comercialmente, feitos pelo mesmo fabricante (MEGACOR Diagnostik GmbH), incluindo um teste rápido imunocromatográfico (FASTest LEISH®), um teste de anticorpos imunofluorescentes (Megafluo LEISH®) e um ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (Megaelisa LEISH®), utilizando-se modelos de classe latentes numa análise bayesiana. Foram incluídas duzentas e quinze amostras de soro. A maior sensibilidade foi alcançada para Fastest LEISH® (99,38%), ELISA UNIZAR (99,37%), Megafluo LEISH® (99,36%) seguida por Megaelisa LEISH® (98,49%). A melhor especificidade foi obtida por FASTest LEISH® (98,43%), seguida por ELISA UNIZAR (97,50%), enquanto Megafluo LEISH® e Megaelisa LEISH® obtiveram a menor especificidade (91,94% e 91,93%, respectivamente). Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o teste rápido imunocromatográfico, avaliado por FASTest LEISH® mostra níveis similares de sensibilidade e especificidade aos testes comerciais quantitativos incluídos. Entre os testes sorológicos quantitativos, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram semelhantes, considerando-se as técnicas de ELISA ou IFI.

Animals , Dogs , Serologic Tests/standards , Leishmaniasis/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Latent Class Analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Bayes Theorem
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e001120, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138068


Abstract This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, factors associated with seropositivity to Leishmania infection in dogs and spatial analysis in six municipalities in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 462 dogs, 77 in each municipality, and used for serological analysis [dual path platform (DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]. Clinical signs of dogs were evaluated and associated factors for Leishmania infection were analyzed using robust Poisson regression model. A seroprevalence of 42.8% (198/462, IC: 95% = 38.6%-47.6%) was detected in dogs that tested positive in both tests, ranging from 29.8% to 55.8%, with higher prevalence in the municipality of Cabrobó (55.8%; P = 0.006). About 67% (132/198) of the seropositive dogs showed one or more clinical signs suggestive of canine leishmaniasis (CanL), such as lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions and conjunctivitis, which were associated with seropositivity. High seroprevalence levels were identified in urban and rural areas in all the municipalities, and the buffer for sand flies around cases covered almost these entire areas. Spatial analysis revealed a significant cluster, showing a relative risk of 1.88 in the urban area of Cabrobó. The higher density of seropositive dogs in urban areas indicates the need effective control measures against CanL to prevent the emergence of canine and human diseases.

Resumo Este estudo objetivou determinar a soroprevalência, fatores associados com a soropositividade da infecção por Leishmania em cães e análise espacial em seis municípios do semiárido de Pernambuco. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 462 cães, 77 em cada município, e utilizadas para análise sorológica [teste rápido imunocromatográfico (DPP®) e ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (ELISA)]. Os sinais clínicos dos cães foram avaliados, e os fatores associados à infecção por Leishmania foram analisados, ​​usando-se modelo robusto de regressão de Poisson. Foi detectada uma soroprevalência de 42,8% (198/462, IC: 95% = 38,6%-47,6%) em cães com resultados positivos em ambos os testes, variando de 29,8% a 55,8%, com maior prevalência no município de Cabrobó (55,8%; P = 0,006). Cerca de 67% (132/198) dos cães apresentaram um ou mais sinais clínicos sugestivos de CanL, como linfadenomegalia, lesões de pele e conjuntivite, os quais foram associados à soropositividade. Altos níveis de soroprevalência foram identificados nas áreas urbanas e rurais de todos os municípios, e os buffers da área de vôo do flebotomíneo em torno dos casos cobriam quase todas as áreas dos municípios. A análise espacial revelou um cluster significativo, mostrando um risco relativo de 1,88 na área urbana de Cabrobó. A maior densidade de casos em áreas urbanas indica a necessidade de medidas efetivas de controle contra o CanL, para evitar o surgimento da doença canina e humana.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e003520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138090


Abstract Blood samples and swabs from ocular conjunctiva and mouth were obtained from 64 cats. Of 64 serum samples, 19 were positive for Leishmania antibodies by ELISA (29.80%). Eight cats were positive by PCR (12.5%) in swab samples from mouth and/or ocular mucosa. Poor kappa agreement between serological and molecular results (k = 0.16) was obtained. From five positive PCR samples one was L. braziliensis and four were L. infantum. Phylogenetic analysis performed with the five isolates of Leishmania, showed that samples of L. infantum isolated from the cats were phylogenetically close to those isolated from domestic dogs in Brazil, while the L. braziliensis is very similar to the one described in humans in Venezuela. The study demonstrated that, despite high seropositivity for Leishmania in cats living in the study region, poor agreement between serological and molecular results indicate that positive serology is not indicative of Leishmania infection in cats. Parasite DNA can be detected in ocular conjunctiva and oral swabs from cats, indicating that such samples could be used for diagnosis. Results of phylogenetic analyzes show that L. infantum circulating in Brazil is capable of infecting different hosts, demonstrating the parasite's ability to overcome the interspecies barrier.

Resumo Amostras de sangue e swabs da conjuntiva ocular e oral foram obtidas de 64 gatos. Das 64 amostras de soro, 19 foram positivas para anticorpos contra Leishmania por ELISA (29,80%). Oito gatos foram positivos por PCR (12,5%) em amostras de swab da boca e / ou mucosa ocular. Demonstrou-se baixa concordância kappa entre os resultados sorológicos e moleculares (k = 0,16). Das cinco amostras positivas para PCR, uma era L. braziliensis e quatro eram L infantum. A análise filogenética realizada com os cinco isolados de Leishmania, mostrou que amostras de L. infantum, isoladas dos gatos, eram filogeneticamente próximas às isoladas de cães domésticos do Brasil enquanto L. braziliensis era muito semelhante ao descrito em humanos na Venezuela. O estudo demonstrou que, apesar da alta soropositividade para Leishmania, em gatos que vivem na região do estudo, pouca concordância entre os resultados sorológicos e moleculares indica que a sorologia positiva não é indicativa de infecção por Leishmania em gatos. O DNA do parasita pode ser detectado na conjuntiva ocular e nas zaragatoas orais de gatos, indicando que essas amostras podem ser usadas para o diagnóstico. . Resultados de análises filogenéticas mostram que L. infantum, circulando no Brasil, é capaz de infectar diferentes hospedeiros, demonstrando a capacidade do parasita de superar a barreira interespécies.

Animals , Cats , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Leishmania infantum/immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190408, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101276


BACKGROUND The mechanism of resistance to SbIII in Leishmania is complex, multifactorial and involves not only biochemical mechanisms, but also other elements, such as the immune system of the host. OBJECTIVES In this study, putative changes in the immunological profile of human monocytes infected with wild-type (WT) and antimony (SbIII)-resistant Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum lines were evaluated. METHODS Susceptibility assays WT and SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis and L. infantum were performed using lines THP-1 human monocytic lineage. Phagocytic capacity, cytokine profile, intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production and surface carbohydrate residues profile were performed in peripheral blood monocytes by flow cytometry. FINDINGS The phagocytic capacity and intracellular NO production by classical (CD14++CD16-) and proinflammatory (CD14++CD16+) monocytes were higher in the presence of L. infantum lines compared to L. braziliensis lines. The results also highlight proinflammatory monocytes as the cellular subpopulation of major relevance in a phagocytosis event and NO expression. It is important to note that L. infantum induced a proinflammatory cytokine profile characterised by higher levels of TNF-α in culture supernatant than L. braziliensis. Conversely, both Leishmania lines induce high levels of IL-6 in culture supernatant. Analysis of the expression profile of surface carbohydrates showed that L. braziliensis presents 4.3-fold higher expression of galactose(β1,4)N-acetylglucosamine than L. infantum line. Interestingly, the expression level of α-N-acetylgalactosamine residues was 2-fold lower in the SbIII-resistant L. braziliensis line than its counterpart WT line, indicating differences in surface glycoconjugates between these lines. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that L. braziliensis and L. infantum induce different innate immune responses and a highly inflammatory profile, which is characteristic of infection by L. infantum, the species associated with visceral disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Phagocytosis/immunology , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Monocytes/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Antimony/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Drug Resistance , Monocytes/immunology , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Innate
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190525, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136829


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a public health problem, and its prevalence is associated with the coexistence of vectors and reservoirs. CVL is a protozoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum that is endemic in the southeast region of Brazil. Thus, vector and canine reservoir control strategies are needed to reduce its burden. This study aimed to verify the CVL seroprevalence and epidemiology in a municipality in Southeast Brazil to initiate disease control strategies. METHODS: A total of 833 dogs were subjected to Dual Path Platform (DPP) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For seropositive dogs, epidemiological aspects were investigated using a questionnaire and a global position system. The data were submitted to simple logistic regression, kernel estimation, and Bernoulli spatial scan statistical analysis. RESULTS: The overall CVL-confirmed seroprevalence was 16.08%. The 28.93% in the DPP screening test was associated with dogs maintained in backyards with trees, shade, animal and/or bird feces, and contact with other dogs and cats, with sick dogs showing the highest chances of infection (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-1.98), especially in residences with elderly people. A spatial analysis identified two hotspot regions and detected two clusters in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that residences with elderly people and the presence of trees, shade, feces, and pet dogs and cats increased an individual's risk of developing CVL. The major regions where preventive strategies for leishmaniasis were to be initiated in the endemic area were identified in two clusters.

Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Endemic Diseases , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 172-176, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042499


Abstract Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania infantum are zoonotic protozoal parasites. Serum samples were obtained from 186 donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) from Portugal and assessed for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). For titration of antibodies to Leishmania spp. the direct agglutination test was used (DAT). Eleven donkeys were seropositive for T. gondii with titres of 20 (n = 7), 80 (n = 2), 640 (n = 1) and ≥ 2560 (n = 1). One donkey was seropositive for Leishmania spp. (titre of 800). Donkeys in Portugal are exposed to and can be infected with T. gondii and Leishmania spp.

Resumo Toxoplasma gondii e Leishmania infantum são protozoários parasitas com potencial zoonótico. Foram obtidas amostras de soro de 186 jumentos (Equus africanus asinus) e avaliadas para anticorpos anti-T. gondii pelo teste de aglutinação direta modificada (TADM), em Portugal. Para a titulação de anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp. foi usado o teste de aglutinação direta (TAD). Onze jumentos foram soropositivos para T. gondii com títulos de 20 (n = 7), 80 (n = 2), 640 (n = 1) e ≥ 2560 (n = 1). Um jumento foi soropositivo para Leishmania spp. (título de 800). Os jumentos em Portugal estão expostos e podem ser infectados com T. gondii e Leishmania spp.

Animals , Male , Female , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Equidae/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Portugal/epidemiology , Agglutination Tests , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180405, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984760


BACKGROUND Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease that is a significant cause of death among infants aged under 1 year and the elderly in Brazil. Serodiagnosis is a mainstay of VL elimination programs; however, it has significant limitations due to low accuracy. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate three recombinant Leishmania infantum proteins (rFc, rC9, and rA2) selected from previous proteomics and genomics analyses to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for the serodiagnosis of human VL (HVL) and canine VL (CVL). METHODS A total of 186 human (70 L. infantum-infected symptomatic, 20 other disease-infected, and 96 healthy) and 185 canine (82 L. infantum-infected symptomatic, 27 L. infantum-infected asymptomatic, and 76 healthy) sera samples were used for antibody detection. FINDINGS Of the three proteins, rA2 (91.5% sensitivity and 87% specificity) and rC9 (95.7% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity) displayed the best performance in ELISA-HVL and ELISA-CVL, respectively. ICT-rA2 also displayed the best performance for HVL diagnosis (92.3% sensitivity and 88.0% specificity) and had high concordance with immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT), ELISA-rK39, IT-LEISH®, and ELISAEXT. ICT-rFc, ICT-rC9, and ICT-rA2 had sensitivities of 88.6%, 86.5%, and 87.0%, respectively, with specificity values of 84.0%, 92.0%, and 100%, respectively for CVL diagnosis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The three antigens selected by us are promising candidates for VL diagnosis regardless of the test format, although the antigen combinations and test parameters may warrant further optimisation.

Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Chromatography, Affinity
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 570-574, Oct.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042488


Abstract The role of cats in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniasis remains unclear. To better understand the occurrence of leishmaniasis in cats, we studied the frequency of Leishmania in serum samples of 100 cats living in an endemic region for canine and human leishmaniasis by serological, parasitological, and molecular methods. Of the 100 cats, 54 were seropositive for Leishmania antibodies by immunofluorescence antibody test. None of the bone marrow aspirates collected from these cats tested positive for the parasite in culture or upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Biopsy samples of the ears also tested negative for Leishmania upon PCR analysis. These findings may indicate that the region is endemic for canine leishmaniasis and cats are infected by Leishmania; or that cross-reaction with antibodies against other parasites increases the frequency of seropositivity; or that cats respond to Leishmania infection by producing antibodies when few or no parasites are present in bone marrow and tissue samples. Overall, our results suggest that cats can be infected by Leishmania ; however, we failed to demonstrate feline parasitosis. These findings highlight the need to study leishmaniasis in cats, since sandflies feed on cats, these animals may act as a reservoir for the parasite.

Resumo O papel dos gatos no ciclo epidemiológico da leishmaniose ainda não está claro. Para entender melhor a ocorrência de leishmaniose em gatos, estudou-se a frequência de Leishmania em amostras de soro de 100 gatos, os quais vivem em uma região endêmica para leishmaniose canina e humana, por métodos sorológicos, parasitológicos e moleculares. Dos 100 gatos, 54 foram soropositivos para anticorpos de Leishmania por teste de anticorpos de imunofluorescência. Nenhum dos aspirados de medula óssea coletados desses gatos mostrou-se positivo para o parasita em cultura, ou após a realização da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Amostras de biópsia das orelhas também foram negativas para Leishmania submetidas a PCR. Esses achados indicam que na região estudada endêmica para leishmaniose canina, os gatos podem se infectar por Leishmania; ou que a reação cruzada com anticorpos contra outros parasitas aumenta a frequência de soropositividade; ou que os gatos respondem à infecção por Leishmania produzindo anticorpos quando poucos ou nenhum parasita estão presentes na medula óssea e em amostras de tecido. Em geral, os resultados sugerem que os gatos podem ser estar infectados por Leishmania spp. No entanto, não foi possível demonstrar parasitismo felino. Essas descobertas evidenciam a necessidade de estudar a leishmaniose em gatos, uma vez que, como os flebotomíneos se alimentam em gatos, e esses animais podem atuar como um reservatório para o parasita.

Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Endemic Diseases , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 680-682, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041489


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Herein, we assessed the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Leishmania infantum in dogs in Garanhuns, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Sera samples (n = 242) were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spatial distribution of dogs seropositive for anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies was evaluated using kernel density estimation. RESULTS: A total of 2.4% (6/242) of the animals were seropositive for anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The kernel map showed their distribution to be heterogeneous over the city, with a hotspot in the northeastern region. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data illustrate the circulation of parasites of the genus Leishmania in a canine population.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 712-715, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957461


Abstract This report describes the first autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Rondônia, northern Brazil. A canine resident of the municipality of Cacoal, with clinical signs and symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis, was treated by a veterinarian. Samples were analyzed by a reference laboratory. Dual-path platform (DPP) assay, indirect immunofluorescence technique (IIT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), isolation in a culture medium, and direct parasitological analysis were performed. DPP assay, IIT, and ELISA revealed positive results for Leishmania; PCR identified the species as Leishmania infantum. Based on the clinical presentation and test results, canine visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed.

Animals , Male , Dogs , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1058-1063, jun. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955451


This study aimed to verify the occurrence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in horses from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil. DNA samples from blood and conjunctival swab (CS) were tested by PCR and Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT). Although none of the horses was clinically sick, animals infected by Leishmania spp. were found and some could be characterized as infected by L. (L.) infantum. From 40 horses, 100% of the animals were positive by blood PCR, 90% (36/40) by CS PCR, and 2.5% (01/40) in serodiagnosis, by IFAT. Six from these 40 horses were L. (L.) infantum positive by blood PCR. Direct sequencing and analysis of amplicons resulted in a sequence to evolutionary analysis. Results indicate the presence of Leishmania spp. and L. (L.) infantum infecting healthy horses in Brazil. The presence of Leishmania spp. and L. (L.) infantum DNA in asymptomatic horses suggests that they can be important reservoirs of these parasites, a highly relevant finding for the epidemiological surveillance of the diseases they cause.(AU)

O estudo objetivou verificar a ocorrência de Leishmania spp. e Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum em cavalos de uma região endêmica para leishmaniose visceral do Brasil. Amostras de DNA de sangue e suabe conjuntival (SC) foram testadas pela PCR e pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Embora nenhum cavalo estivesse clinicamente doente, animais infectados por Leishmania spp. e L. (L.) infantum foram encontrados em Ilha Solteira/SP. Dos 40 cavalos, 100% (40/40) foram positivos pela PCR de sangue, 90% (36/40) pela PCR de SC, e 2,5% (01/40) no sorodiagnóstico, pela RIFI. Seis desses 40 cavalos foram positivos para L. (L.) infantum pela PCR de sangue. O sequenciamento direto e a análise dos amplicons resultaram em uma sequência para análise evolutiva. Os resultados indicam a presença de Leishmania spp. e L. (L.) infantum infectando cavalos saudáveis no Brasil. A presença de DNA de Leishmania spp. and L. (L.) infantum em cavalos saudáveis sugere que eles podem ser importantes reservatórios desses parasitas, um achado altamente relevante para a vigilância epidemiológica das doenças que causam.(AU)

Animals , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmania/classification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 197-201, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040592


Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if left untreated. Infected dogs are important reservoirs of the disease, and thus specific identification of infected animals is very important. Several diagnostic tests have been developed for canine VL (CVL); however, these tests show varied specificity and sensitivity. The present study describes the recombinant protein rLc36, expressed by Leishmania infantum, as potential antigen for more sensitive and specific diagnosis of CVL based on an immunoenzymatic assay. The concentration of 1.0 μg/mL of rLc36 enabled differentiation of positive and negative sera and showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 71% (with 95% confidence), with an accuracy of 76%.

Animals , Dogs , Mice , Protozoan Proteins/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 129-132, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895546


As leishmanioses compreendem um complexo de doenças causadas por parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios pertencentes ao gênero Leishmania. Consideradas como importante problema de saúde pública, sendo os cães domésticos os principais responsáveis pela manutenção da cadeia epidemiológica da doença, estima-se que mais da metade dos cães infectados não manifestam sinais clínicos da enfermidade. Avaliou-se o perfil de IL-10 e INF- γ de cães naturalmente infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi no município de São Luís-MA. Foram coletadas 50 amostras, sendo 20 de animais positivos e sintomáticos para Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC), 20 de animais positivos e assintomáticos e 10 de animais sabidamente negativos para a LVC. As amostras foram analisadas pelo teste imunocromatográfico rápido Dual Path Platform (DPP/Biomanguinhos®) e pelo ELISA (EIE/Biomanguinhos®) indireto para detecção de anticorpos anti-Leishmania. Após as confirmações dos testes, foi realizado o ELISA de captura para quantificação das citocinas IL-10 e INF-γ através do kit Milliplex MAP. Houve diferença estatística entre os grupos, observando um aumento de IL-10 em soros de cães sintomáticos para LVC, comparado com o grupo de animais assintomáticos, sugerindo que animais com essa expressão de IL-10 podem estar associados à susceptibilidade a doença. Assim como o aumento dos níveis de INF-γ observados em cães assintomáticos, comparado com o grupo de cães sintomáticos, poderiam estar relacionados à cronicidade da doença.(AU)

Leishmaniasis comprise a complex of diseases caused by intracellular mandatory parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Considered as an important public health problem, and domestic dogs are primarily responsible for maintaining the epidemiological chain of the disease, it is estimated that more than the half of the dogs infected do not show clinical signs of the disease. The profile of IL-10 and IFN-γ dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in São Luís/MA was evaluated. Blood samples were collected from 50 animals, 20 from positive and symptomatic dogs for leishmaniasis canine (CVL), 20 from positive asymptomatic animals and 10 negative. Samples were analyzed by immunochromatographic test Dual Path Platform (DPP/Biomanguinhos®) and by indirect ELISA (EIE/Biomanguinhos®) for detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies. After the confirmation of the tests, the capture ELISA was performed for quantification of IL-10 and IFN-γ cytokines through the Milliplex MAP kit. There was a statistical difference between the groups, observing an increase of IL-10 in blood of symptomatic dogs for CVL, compared to the group of asymptomatic animals, suggesting that animals with this expression of IL-10 may be associated with susceptibility to disease. As well as the increase in IFN-γ levels in asymptomatic dogs, compared to the symptomatic dog group, could be related to chronicity of the disease.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Immunity
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 159-170, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899273


Abstract This study was about a semi-quantitative analysis of T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells), and macrophages in the gut wall of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Thirteen dogs were divided into three groups: group 1 (G1, n=5), dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and infected with L. infantum amastigotes in the intestine; group 2 (G2, n=5), dogs with CVL but without intestinal amastigotes; and group 3 (G3, n=3), uninfected dogs (control group). There was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) on CD4+ and Treg cell numbers among the groups, whereas the levels of CD8+ T cells and macrophages were significantly higher in dogs from G1 group than in G2 and G3 (p ≤ 0.05), especially in intestinal segments with high parasite burden. Parasite burden correlated positively with levels of CD8+ T cells and macrophages (p ≤ 0.05), but was inversely correlated to levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes and FoxP3+ Treg cells. In conclusion, in the intestine of dogs with CVL, the increase of CD8+ T cells and macrophages population associated with high parasite burdens, but no changes of CD4+ T cells and FoxP3+ Treg cells suggest a possible immunoregulation by the parasite not dependent on Treg cells.

Resumo Este estudo foi uma análise semi-quantitativa de linfócitos T (CD4+, CD8+ e regulatórios - Treg FoxP3+) e macrófagos na parede intestinal de cães naturalmente infectados com Leishmania infantum. Treze cães foram divididos em três grupos: grupo 1 (G1, n=5) continha cães com leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) e com amastigotas intestinais; grupo 2 (G2, n=5) continha cães com LVC, mas sem amastigotas intestinais e o grupo 3 (G3, n=3) continha cães não infectados (grupo controle). Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa (p ≤ 0.05) no número de células CD4+ e de Treg entre os grupos, mas o número de células T CD8+ e macrófagos foi significativamente superior nos cães do grupo G1 em relação ao G2 e ao G3 (p ≤ 0,05), especialmente nos segmentos intestinais com altas cargas parasitárias. As altas cargas parasitarias correlacionaram positivamente com os números de CD8+ e macrófagos (p ≤ 0,05), mas negativamente com as células CD4+ e Treg. Em conclusão, no intestino dos cães com LVC, o aumento das populações de células T CD8+ e de macrófagos associado a altas cargas parasitárias, mas nenhuma alteração de células T CD4+ e células Treg FoxP3+ sugerem uma possível imunorregulação pelo parasita não dependente de células Treg.

Animals , Dogs , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/cytology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Macrophages/cytology , Lymphocyte Count/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 17-27, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844132


Abstract This study aimed to detect parasites from Leishmania genus, to determine the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies, to identify circulating species of the parasite, and to determine epidemiological variables associated with infection in rats caught in urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Animal capture was carried out from May to December 2006, serological and molecular methods were performed. DNA was extracted from total blood, and nested-PCR, targeting SSu rRNA from Leishmania genus, was performed in triplicate. The positive samples were sequenced twice by Sanger method to species determination. In total, 181 rodents were captured, all were identified as Rattus rattus and none showed clinical alterations. Forty-one of the 176 (23.3%) animals were positive for Leishmania by ELISA and 6/181 (3.3%) were positive by IFAT. Nine of 127 tested animals (7.1%) were positive by PCR; seven were identified as L. (L.) amazonensis, one as L. (L.) infantum. Four rats were positive using more than one test. This was the first description of synanthropic rodents naturally infected by L. (L.) amazonensis (in the world) and by L. (L.) infantum (in South Brazil). Regarding L. (L.) amazonensis, this finding provides new evidence of the urbanization of this etiological agent.

Resumo Esse estudo objetivou detectar parasitos do gênero Leishmania, determinar a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Leishmania spp., identificar as espécies circulantes do parasito e determinar variáveis epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção em ratos capturados em área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. A captura dos animais ocorreu de maio a dezembro de 2006, métodos sorológicos e moleculares foram realizados. O DNA foi extraído do sangue total, uma nested-PCR cujo alvo foi o gene SSu rRNA do gênero Leishmania, foi realizado em triplicata. As amostras positivas foram sequenciadas duas vezes pelo método de Sanger para a determinação da espécie. No total, 181 roedores foram capturados, todos foram identificados como Rattus rattus e nenhum apresentou alterações clínicas. Quarenta e um dos 176 (23,3%) animais foram positivos no ELISA para Leishmania e 6/181 (3,3%) foram positivos na RIFI. Nove dos 127 animais testados (7,1%) foram positivos na PCR; sete foram identificadas como L. (L.) amazonensis, um como L. (L.) infantum. Quatro ratos foram positivos em mais de um teste. Essa é a primeira descrição de roedores sinantrópicos naturalmente infectados por L. (L.) amazonensis (no mundo) e por L. (L.) infantum (no Sul do Brasil). Com relação a L. (L.) amazonensis, esse resultado é uma nova evidência da urbanização desse agente etiológico.

Animals , Rats/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Urbanization , Brazil , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmania/immunology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 61-66, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842819


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is endemic to the Northern, Northeastern, Central-Western, and Southeastern regions of Brazil. We aimed to assess the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in humans and dogs in indigenous villages located in the States of Mato Grosso and Tocantins using a serological survey conducted in May 2011. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 470 humans and 327 dogs living in villages of the Urubu Branco and Tapirapé Karajá indigenous reserves. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Leishmania spp. antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a crude antigen (CA) and soluble antigen (SA), and Dual Path Platform (DPP®) immunoassay for canine visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS: Of 470 human samples tested, two (0.4%) were positive using IFAT. Among 327 dog samples tested, 28 (8.6%) were positive using ELISA CA, five (1.5%) using ELISA SA, two (0.6%) using IFAT, and none using DPP® immunoassay with Leishmania infantum chagasi antigen. When Leishmania amazonensis antigen was used, 20 (6.1%) samples were positive using ELISA CA and four (1.2%) using IFAT. CONCLUSIONS: There was a low prevalence of infection in the region, and significant differences among the main serological methods used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. These findings indicated that the detection of Leishmania spp. requires further study and improvement.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adult , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Indians, South American , Prevalence , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(1): 53-63, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841749


Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%), muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%), nutritional status (51.79%), bristle condition (57.14%), pale mucosal colour (48.21%), onychogryphosis (58.93%), skin lesion (39.28%), bleeding (12.50%), muzzle depigmentation (41.07%), alopecia (39.29%), blepharitis (21.43%), and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86%) were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p < 0.001; parasite culture, p = 0.0021; and smear, p = 0.0003). Onychogryphosis (long nails) [odds ratio (OR): 3.529; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.832-6.796; p < 0.001], muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p < 0.001), and keratoconjunctivitis (OR: 5.400; 95% CI: 2.549-11.441; p < 0.001) were highly associated with CVL. Interestingly, a score cut-off value ≥ 6 had an area under the curve of 0.717 (p < 0.0001), sensitivity of 60.71%, and specificity of 73.64% for CVL diagnosis. The clinical sign-based score for CVL diagnosis suggested herein can help veterinarians reliably identify dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e39, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842782


ABSTRACT Dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum. This protozoan causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an uncontrolled urban zoonosis in Brazil. Serological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on peripheral blood were performed to identify infected dogs in scenarios of higher and lower prevalence of the disease (Teresina and Vitória). One-hundred infected and 57 non-infected animals from Teresina and 100 non-infected animals from Vitória were studied. Animal selection was not dependent on previous serology. The sensitivity (Teresina) and specificity (Teresina and Vitória) were as follows: indirect antibody fluorescence (IFAT) cut-off of 1:40 (IFAT 1:40): 96%, 18%, and 76%; IFAT 1:80: 90%, 33%, and 93%; direct agglutination test (DAT): 96%, 33%, and 98%; fast agglutination screening test (FAST): 93%, 68%, and 100%; immunochromatographic assay with a recombinant rK39 antigen (rK39): 88%, 74%, and 98%; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): 91%, 79%, and 98%; rapid dual-path platform test (TR DPP®): 98%, 60%, and 98%; and blood PCR: 29%, 93%, and 97%, respectively. In the high transmission area, none of the tests adequately discriminated L. infantum-infected from non-infected dogs. However, in the high transmission city, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of FAST, DAT, ICrK39, ELISA and TR DPP® was high.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Immunologic Techniques/methods , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): 375-382, 2017. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911890


An evaluation was made of the presence of anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies in domestic dogs from the urban and rural areas of Brazil's Pantanal wetland region using serological techniques. A total of 429 dogs were sampled in three areas of the Pantanal biome, including the municipalities of Poconé, Santo Antônio de Leverger, and Barão de Melgaço, in the state of Mato Grosso, and in the municipality of Corumbá, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used to detect antibodies (cut-off point 40) using Leishmania infantum chagasi antigen. Because of the possibility of cross-reactivity between species of the genus Leishmania, samples that were positive in the IFA against L. infantum chagasi were also tested by IFA in the same conditions, using L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis antigens. IFA-positive samples to L. infantum chagasi were also evaluated using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results showed the presence of antibodies against L. infantum chagasi in 23 (5.36%; 95% CI: 3.50%-8.05%) dogs and at least one seroreactive dog was found in each of the municipalities evaluated in this study. Antibody titers ranged from 40 to 5,120, and all IFA positive samples were positive in the ELISA. Among the 23 positive dogs, nine were also were seroreactive for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis antigens. The occurrence of anti- L. infantum chagasi antibodies in dogs was higher in rural areas (7.06%) than in urban areas (2.50%) (P < 0.05). Based on this study, we concluded that dogs from rural areas of the Pantanal wetlands were in contact with Leishmania species, which is relevant information given their importance to public health.(AU)

Neste trabalho foi realizada uma avaliação sobre a presença de anticorpos anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi em cães domésticos das áreas urbanas e rurais da região do Pantanal brasileiro usando técnicas sorológicas. Um total de 429 cães foram amostrados em três áreas do bioma do Pantanal, incluindo os municípios de Poconé, Santo Antônio de Leverger e Barão de Melgaço, em Mato Grosso, e o município de Corumbá, em Mato Grosso do Sul. A reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) foi utilizada para detectar anticorpos (ponto de corte de 40) de Leishmania infantum chagasi como antígeno. Devido à possibilidade de reação cruzada entre as espécies do gênero Leishmania, as amostras positivas na RIFI para L. infantum chagasi foram também avaliadas na RIFI utilizando L. amazonensis e L. braziliensis como antígenos. As amostras positivas na RIFI para L. infantum chagasi foram avaliadas utilizando o ensaio de imunoadsorção ligado à enzima (ELISA). Os resultados mostraram a presença de anticorpos contra L. infantum chagasi em 23 (5,36%; IC 95%: 3,50% -8,05%) cães e pelo menos um cão soro-reativo foi encontrado em todos os municípios avaliados neste estudo. Os títulos de anticorpos variaram de 40 a 5.120 e todas as amostras positivas na RIFI foram positivas no ELISA. Entre os 23 cães positivos, nove também reagiram para L. amazonensis e L. braziliensis. A ocorrência de anticorpos anti-L. infantum chagasi em cães foi maior nas áreas rurais (7,06%) do que nas áreas urbanas (2,50%) (P < 0,05). Com base neste estudo, concluímos que cães de áreas rurais do Pantanal tiveram contato com espécies de Leishmania, o que é uma informação relevante, dada a sua importância para a saúde pública.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary