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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(supl.2): S43-S50, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is most commonly presented in older adults; however, it appears 10 years earlier in Latin American countries. Clinical evolution in older adults from this populations has not been characterized. We analyzed outcomes and survival predictors. Methods: Patients ≥ 55 years old diagnosed with AML at a hematology referral center from 2005 to 2020 receiving intensive chemotherapy (IC), low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) and best supportive care (BSC) were included. Survival analysis included the Kaplan-Meier and Cox models and the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Results: Seventy-five adults were included and the overall survival (OS) was 4.87, 1.67 and 1.16 months, using IC, LDAC and BSC, respectively. The IC led to a higher OS (p < 0.001) and was a protective factor for early death, at a cost of more days spent hospitalized and more non-fatal treatment complications; non-significant differences were found between the LDAC and BSC. Eight (10.7%) patients underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation, with a higher OS (p = 0.013). Twenty (26.7%) patients achieved complete remission; 12 (60%) relapsed with a 6-month CIR of 57.9% in those < 70 years old vs. 86.5% in those ≥ 70 years old, p = 0.034. Multivariate analysis showed the white blood cell count (WBC) and IC had a significant impact on the patient survival, whereas chronological age and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) did not. Conclusion: AML in low-middle income countries demands a different approach; the IC improves survival, even with a high incidence of relapse, and should be offered as first-line treatment. Eligibility criteria should include WBC and a multidimensional evaluation. The age per se and the CCI should not be exclusion criteria to consider IC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Cytarabine , Drug Therapy
2.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 114-121, Junio 2023. Ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443459

ABSTRACT

Las Leucemias y linfomas constituyen las enfermedades oncológicas más frecuentes en pediatría y las bacteriemias representan infecciones graves en estos pacientes. Objetivos: describir los microorganismos aislados de sangre en pacientes con leucemia aguda o linfoma pediátrico; comparar la incidencia de aislamientos según enfermedad de base; detallar las variaciones en la incidencia de dichos aislamientos y la evolución de su resistencia antimicrobiana. Estudio retrospectivo, observacional. Se incluyeron 823 episodios de bacteriemia en 467 pacientes pediátricos, entre julio-2016 y junio-2022, dividido en tres períodos (período-1: años 2016- 2018, período-2: años 2018-2020, período-3: años 2020-2022). Se aislaron 880 microorganismos: 55,3% gram negativos (GN), 40% gram positivos (GP) y 4,7% levaduras. En GN predominaron: enterobacterias (72%) y en GP: estreptococos del grupo viridans (SGV) (34,1%). Se encontró asociación entre LLA-enterobacterias (p=0,009) y LMA-SGV (p<0,001). Hubo aumento de GN entre los períodos 1 y 3 (p=0,02) y 2 y 3 (p=0,002) y disminución de GP entre 2 y 3 (p=0,01). Se registraron los siguientes mecanismos de resistencia: BLEE (16,4%), carbapenemasas: KPC (2,5%); MBL (2,7%) y OXA (0,2%); meticilinorresistencia en Staphylococcus aureus (20%) y estafilococos coagulasa negativos (95%), vancomicina resistencia en Enterococcus spp. (39%), SGV no sensibles a penicilina (44%) y a cefotaxima (13%). Hubo aumento de MBL entre los períodos 1 y 2 (p=0,02) y una tendencia en disminución de sensibilidad a penicilina en SGV entre el 1 y 3 (p=0,058). El conocimiento dinámico y análisis de estos datos es esencial para generar estadísticas a nivel local, fundamentales para el diseño de guías de tratamientos empíricos (AU)


Leukemias and lymphomas are the most common cancers in children and bacteremia is a severe infection in these patients. Objectives: to describe the microorganisms isolated from blood in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma; to compare the incidence of isolates according to the underlying disease; and to detail the variations in the incidence of these isolates and the evolution of their antimicrobial resistance. Retrospective, observational study. We included 823 episodes of bacteremia in 467 pediatric patients seen between July-2016 and June-2022, divided into three periods (period-1: 2016- 2018, period-2: 2018-2020, period-3: 2020-2022). A total of 880 microorganisms were isolated: 55.3% were gram-negative (GN), 40% gram-positive (GP) and 4.7% yeasts. In GN there was a predominance of: enterobacteria (72%) and in GP viridans group streptococci (VGS) (34.1%). An association was found between ALL-enterobacteria (p=0.009) and AML-VGS (p<0.001). There was an increase in GN between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.02) and 2 and 3 (p=0.002) and a decrease in GP between 2 and 3 (p=0.01). The following resistance mechanisms were recorded: BLEE (16.4%), carbapenemases: KPC (2.5%), MBL (2.7%), and OXA (0.2%); methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and coagulase negative staphylococci (95%), vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. (39%), VGS resistant to penicillin (44%) and to cefotaxime (13%). There was an increase in MBL between periods 1 and 2 (p=0.02) and a decreasing trend in penicillin sensitivity in VGS between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.058). Dynamic knowledge and analysis of these data is essential to generate statistics at the local level, which is fundamental for the design of empirical treatment guidelines (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Lymphoid/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Febrile Neutropenia/etiology , Lymphoma/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects
3.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 149-155, Junio 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443658

ABSTRACT

A pesar de los avances en los protocolos de tratamiento y en las medidas de soporte en pacientes con Leucemia Mieloide Aguda (LMA), 27% presentan recaídas de la enfermedad. Esto se debe, entre otras causas, a la persistencia de pequeñas cantidades de células malignas (blastos) resistentes a la terapia. Estas pequeñas cantidades de blastos remanentes se denominan Enfermedad Mínima Residual (EMR). La determinación de EMR requiere de técnicas no solo muy sensibles, sino también específicas, y permite evaluar la respuesta individual a la terapia. La introducción de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y estratificación está bien definida en Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA). Por el contrario, aunque existen publicaciones sobre el impacto pronóstico de la EMR en LMA, aún no se encuentra incluida en forma sistemática en los protocolos nacionales actuales, entre otros motivos, por lo laborioso de la determinación y por la necesidad de validación de la misma. Debe tenerse en cuenta que el inmunofenotipo de los blastos mieloides suele ser más heterogéneo que el de los blastos en LLA, presentando, en muchos casos, subpoblaciones diferentes entre sí, lo cual dificulta su detección certera y no hay consenso definido en cuanto a la metodología más eficaz. En este trabajo describimos una nueva estrategia de marcación y análisis estandarizada en un estudio multicéntrico internacional para LMA y la utilidad de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y de estratificación. Asimismo, detallamos los resultados preliminares de nuestra cohorte de pacientes (AU)


Despite the improvement in treatment and supportive care of patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 27% of them relapse. This is due to the persistence of small amounts of malignant cells (blasts) resistant to therapy, among other causes. These small amounts of blasts are called Minimal Residual Disease (MRD). The determination of MRD requires not only techniques with high sensitivity but also with high specificity, and allows to evaluate the individual response to treatment. The introduction of MRD as a response parameter is well established in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), and it is used in current stratification protocols. On the other hand, even though there are some reports regarding the prognostic impact of MRD in AML, it is still not included in the current national protocols due to the lack of validation of the determination, among other causes. This is due to the fact that the immunophenotype of myeloid blasts is more heterogeneous than in ALL, presenting different subpopulations, which difficults their accurate detection. Thus, there is still no consensus regarding the most effective approach. In this article, we describe a new staining and analysis strategy standardized by an international multicentric study, and the utility of EMR as a response and stratification parameter. Additionally, we show the preliminary results of our patient cohort. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Immunophenotyping/instrumentation , Neoplasm, Residual/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation
4.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421556

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Elevated serum progranulin (PGRN) levels have been associated with a wide range of different human malignancies. However, data available on the role of PGRN in hematological malignancies are limited. Methods Measurement of the PGRN level in serum of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed. Results The mean serum PGRN level in AML patients was higher than that in controls (346.08 pg/ml ± 64.46 vs 155 pg/ml ± 63 respectively; p= 0.001). After a mean duration of follow-up equaling 140 days, patients with high serum PGRN (i.e., higher than 370.5 pg/ml) had inferior overall survival (OS) in comparison to patients with low serum PGRN (i.e., lower than 370.5 pg/ml) (OS = 25% vs 60.7%, mean survival = 107 days vs 256.5 days, p= 0.007). On the other hand, remitted patients on day 28 with high serum PGRN (i.e., higher than 307.5 pg/ml) did not differ from those with low serum PGRN (i.e., lower than 307.5 pg/ml) regarding disease-free survival (DFS) (DFS = 78.6% vs. 87.5%, mean survival = 301.3 days vs. 283.5 days, p= 0.789). Moreover, the serum PGRN level was associated with inferior OS (p= 0.024) on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Adult de novo AML patients have elevated serum PGRN levels and a high PGRN level is associated with an inferior OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Progranulins
5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(1): 77-82, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease and approximately one-third of its carriers do not have evident genetic abnormalities. The mutation of specific molecular markers, such as fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FTL3) internal tandem duplication (ITD), FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and nucleophosmin (NPM1), are associated with an adverse and favorable prognosis, respectively. Objective The objective was to determine the prevalence of FLT3/ITD and NPM1 in Chilean patients and their association with clinical data and prognosis. Method and Results Two hundred and thirty-two children were studied between 2011 and 2017, the median being 8.6 years (ranging from 1 to 18 months). Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was diagnosed in 29%. The FLT3/ITD-mutated in non-promyelocytic AML was at 10% (14/133) and the FLT3/TKD, at 3.7% (2/54). In APL, it was at 25.4% (16/63). In non-promyelocytic AML, the FLT3/ITD-mutated was associated with a high leucocyte count, the median being 28.5 x mm3 (n= 14) versus 19.4 x mm3 (n= 119), (p= 0.25), in non-mutated cases. In APL, the median was 33.6 x mm3 (n= 15) versus 2.8 x mm3 (n= 47), (p < 0.001). The five-year overall survival (OS) in non-promyelocytic AML with non-mutated and mutated FLT3/ITD were 62.7% and 21.4%, respectively, (p < 0.001); the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) were 79.5% and 50%, respectively, (p < 0.01). The five-year OS in APL with non-mutated and mutated FLT3/ITD was 84.7% and 62.5%, respectively, (p= 0.05); the 5-year EFS was 84.7% and 68.8%, respectively, (p= 0.122). The NPM1 mutation was observed in 3.2% (5/155), all non-promyelocytic AML with the normal karyotype. Conclusion The FLT3/ITD mutation was observed more frequently in APL and associated with a higher white cell count at diagnosis. However, the most important finding was that the FLT3/ITD mutation was associated with a shorter survival in non-promyelocytic AML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Nucleophosmin , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Incidence
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 832-837, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of arsenic-containing Qinghuang Powder (QHP) and low-intensity chemotherapy (LIC) in treatment of elderly acute myeloid leukemia (eAML) patients.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 80 eAML patients treated at Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from January 2015 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment scheme was designed by real world study according to patients' preference, and patients were divided into a QHP group (35 cases) and a LIC group (45 cases). The median overall survival (mOS), 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates, and incidence of adverse events were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The mOS of 80 patients was 11 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 45.51%, 17.96%, and 11.05%, respectively. The QHP and LIC groups demonstrated no significant difference in mOS (12 months vs. 10 months), 1- (48.57% vs. 39.65%), 2- (11.43% vs. 20.04%), and 3-year OS rates (5.71% vs. 13.27%, all P>0.05). Moreover, the related factors of mOS demonstrated no significant difference in patients with age>75 years (11 months vs. 8 months), secondary AML (11 months vs. 8 months), poor genetic prognosis (9 months vs. 7 months), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score ⩾ 3 (10 months vs. 7 months) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant comorbidity index ⩾ 4 (11 months vs. 7 months) between the QHP and LIC groups (all P>0.05). However, the incidence of myelosuppression was significantly lower in the QHP group than that in the LIC group (28.57% vs. 73.33%, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#QHP and LIC had similar survival rates in eAML patients, but QHP had a lower myelosuppression incidence. Hence, QHP can be an alternative for eAML patients who do not tolerate LIC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Arsenic/therapeutic use , Powders/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Prognosis , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1905-1909, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010058

ABSTRACT

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) is a research hotspot in the field of cellular immunotherapy in recent years, and CAR-T cells therapy are developing rapidly in hematological malignant tumors, but their clinical application is still limited by related risks. It is particularly important to find more optimized immunoreactive cells. Natural killer (NK) cells, as key effector cells of innate immunity, can kill tumor or infected cells quickly without prior sensitization. Autologous or allogeneic NK cell infusion has become an effective cell therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CAR-NK cells combine the advantages of CAR targeting tumor specific antigens and enhancing immune cells activity with the innate antitumor function of NK cells to enhance the targeting and lytic activity of NK cells to AML primordial cells. At present, most of the CAR-NK treatments for AML are still in the stage of specific target screening and verification. This article reviews the latest research progress of CAR-NK cell therapy in the field of AML therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Immunotherapy
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1852-1859, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010049

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze the efficacy and complications of our institution's modified nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NST) in treating intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - first complete remission (CR1) and prognostic factors.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 50 intermediate-risk AML-CR1 patients who underwent matched related NST at the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from August 2004 to April 2021 were collected, the hematopoietic recovery, donor engraftment and complications were observed, and overall survival (OS) rate, leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate, treatment-related mortality (TRM), and cumulative relapse rate were calculated. Statistical analysis of factors affecting prognosis was also preformed.@*RESULTS@#The median times for neutrophil and platelet recovery after transplantation were 10 (6-16) and 13 (6-33) days, respectively. One month after transplantation, 22 patients (44%) achieved full donor chimerism (FDC), and 22 patients (44%) achieved mixed chimerism (MC), among whom 18 cases gradually transited to FDC during 1-11 months, 4 cases maintained MC status. The overall incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 36%, with a rate of 18% for grade II-IV aGVHD and a median onset time of 45 (20-70) days after transplantation. The overall incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 34%, with 20% and 14% of patients having limited or extensive cGVHD, respectively. The incidence rates of infections, interstitial pneumonia, and hemorrhagic cystitis were 30%, 10%, and 16%, respectively. The 5-year OS rate, LFS rate, TRM, and cumulative relapse rate were 68%, 64%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The increase of the number of CD34+ cells infused had shortened the recovery time for neutrophils and platelets (r =0.563, r =0.350). The number of CD34+ cells infused significantly influenced the occurrence of extensive cGVHD (OR =1.36, 95%CI : 1.06-1.84, P =0.024).@*CONCLUSION@#Modified NST is effective in treating intermediate-risk AML-CR1 patients, however, further expansion of sample size is needed to study prognostic factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1676-1683, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the efficacy and survival of venetoclax based (VEN-based) regimen in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia(AML).@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted in patients who received VEN-based regimen and completed at least 1 course of efficacy evaluation at the The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from July 2019 to July 2022. The incidence of complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) rate, objective remission rate(ORR) and survival of patients with different risk strati- fication and gene subtypes were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 79 patients were enrolled, including 43 patients with newly diagnosed unfit AML (unfit AML) and 36 relapsed/refractory AML (R/R AML). The median age of the patients was 62(14-83) years old. 36 out of 79 patients achieved CR/CRi and the ORR of the whole cohort was 64.6%. The CR/CRi rate of unfit AML patients was significantly higher than that of R/R AML patients (60.5% vs 27.8%, P=0.004). In unfit AML cohort, the patients with NPM1 and IDH1/2 mutations were benefited, 8 out of 9 patients ahcieved CR/CRi, 7/8 and 5/8 patients achieved minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity, respectively. Six out of 9 patients with TET2 mutation achieved CR/CRi, 3/6 patients achieved MRD negativity. In R/R AML cohort, 2 out of 3 patients with RUNX1 mutation achieved CR/CRi, without MRD negative, while the CR/CRi rate of patients with other gene mutations was lower than 40%. The median follow-up time was 10.1(95%CI: 8.6-11.6) months. In whole cohort, the median overall survival (mOS) time was 9.1 months and the relapse free survival (RFS) time was not reached. The mOS and RFS of unfit AML patients were significantly longer than those of R/R AML patients (14.1 vs 6.8 months, P=0.013; not reached vs 3.3 months, P=0.000). In unfit AML cohort, the mOS of patients with NPM1 or IDH1/2 mutations was not reached, while that of patients without NPM1 or IDH1/2 mutations was 8.0 months (P=0.009; P=0.022). Furthermore, the mOS of patients with TP53 mutaion was significantly shorter than that of patients without TP53 mutation (5.2 vs 14.1 months, P=0.049). In R/R AML cohort, there was no significant difference in mOS between patients with mutation in each gene subtype and those without gene mutation (P>0.05). All patients had hematology adverse reactions, 91.1% patients had AE grade≥3. The most common non-hematology adverse reactions was infection, with an incidence of 91.1%. VEN-based regimen was tolerable for AML patients.@*CONCLUSION@#VEN-based regimen can achieve a high response rate, especially in unfit AML with acceptable safety, and some patients can achieve MRD negative. It is also effective in NPM1-, IDH1/2-positive patients with long survival time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retrospective Studies , Nucleophosmin , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Recurrence , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1657-1662, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the efficacy of veneclax combined with azacitidine in acute myeloid leukemia(AML) patients and explore the predictors of treatment response and recurrence.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 30 AML patients who received venetecla combined with azacitidine in the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University from January 2021 to September 2022 were retrospectively analyzed, composite complete remission (CRc) rate, overall response rate(ORR), and disease free survival(DFS) of patients were observed.@*RESULTS@#After one course of trea- tment, CRc was 16 cases and ORR was 23/30. Patients with TP53 mutation had poor treatment response (P=0.009). After 1-2 courses, 25 patients reached CR/CRi. Finally, 24 patients who obtained CR/CRi were included to observe the duration of remission. 17 patients had relapse, with a median recurrence time of 3.9 (0.6-15.9) months. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that MRD negative was a favorable factor for maintaining DFS status (HR=0.5647,95%CI:0.2179-1.464,P=0.007), while NRAS mutation was an adverse factor for maintaining DFS (HR=2.036,95%CI:0.6639-6.245,P=0.0003). Univariate combined multivariate cox regression analysis showed that NRAS mutation was an independent risk factor affecting DFS in patients (HR=5.569, P<0.05). In addition, the cases number of early recurrence in MRD negative group (n=8) and MRD non-negative group (n=9) was 0 and 5, respectively, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.012). There were 3 cases of early recurrence in the NRAS mutant group (n=4) and 2 cases in the NRAS wild-type group (n=13), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.022).@*CONCLUSION@#TP53 mutation is a predictor of poor response to veneclax in combination with azacitidine. With the conti-nuation of the combination chemotherapy regimen described above, NRAS mutation is an independent risk factor for DFS in patients. Moreover, the patients with non-negative MRD and NRAS mutations are at high risk of early recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Remission Induction , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Recurrence , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1639-1646, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the flow immunophenotype and clinical characteristics of leukemia patients with positive SET-CAN fusion gene.@*METHODS@#A total of 7 newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients with SET-CAN fusion gene admitted to Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 2016 to February 2020 were collected. Multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of SET-CAN fusion gene. The immunophenotype was detected by four-color flow cytometry. The case information of 17 literatures published at home and abroad was extracted for statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#Among the 7 patients, 2 cases were diagnosed as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), 2 cases as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 3 cases as T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL). Leukemia cells in bone marrow specimens of all cases expressed or partially expressed CD34, CD33 and CD7. CD5 and cytoplasmic CD3 were expressed in 5 patients except 2 patients diagnosed with AML. Bone marrow and lymph node specimens were both detected in 2 patients, and the immunophenotypes of the two specimens were not completely consistent, with differences in lineage or maturity related markers. Two patients with MPAL showed differentiated response to treatment. One AML patient gave up treatment, and another AML patient with FLT3-ITD gene mutation had a poor prognosis. All three T-ALL/LBL patients maintained a long duration of remission after induced remission, and one case underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are common characteristics of immunophenotype in patients with positive SET-CAN fusion gene. Differential expression of immunophenotype in samples from different parts is observed in some cases. The prognosis of these diseases varies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Antigens, CD34 , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Immunophenotyping
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1635-1638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the safety and the short-term efficacy of venetoclax combined with azacitidine followed by cladribine (VAC regimen) in children with refractory/ relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data, treatment outcomes, complications, and blood product consumption of 6 children with refractory/relapsed AML treated with VAC regimen in the Children's Hospital of Soochow University from August 2021 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 6 children, there were 1 male and 5 females. 5 cases were refractory AML, and 1 case was relapsed AML, which recurred again 16 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 4 children were accompanied by chromosomes or genes that predicted poor prognosis, such as RUNX1, FLT3-ITD, KMT2A exon 2-exon 8 dup, MLL-AF6, 7q-, KMT2A exon 2-exon 10 dup, etc. After received VAC regimen, 4 cases achieved CR+CRi, 1 case achieved PR (only MRD did not relieve, MRD was 0.59%), and 1 case was NR (but the proportion of bone marrow blasts decreased). All 6 patients had grade Ⅳ neutropenia, and 4 patients had grade Ⅳ thrombocytopenia. During the period of neutropenia, none of the 6 children developed symptoms of infection such as fever, cough, and diarrhea. No treatment-related death occurred.@*CONCLUSION@#Venetoclax combined with azacitidine followed by cladribine provides a new treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory AML who have poor efficacy in early induction remission theragy, showing good efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Neutropenia , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1617-1623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of miR-22 targeting formin-like protein 2 (FMNL2) on the migration and apoptosis of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.@*METHOD@#Peripheral blood samples from 11 children with AML, 10 children with immune thrombocytopenia, human AML cell lines TF-1a, HL-60, THP-1 and human bone marrow stromal cells HS-5 were used as the research objects. UniCel DxH 800 automatic hematology analyzer detected platelet count, hemoglobin, and white blood cell count in peripheral blood samples, and RT-qPCR detected miR-22 expression in peripheral blood samples and AML cells. HL-60 cells were transfected with LipofectamineTM 2000 kit, the experiments were divided into seven groups: blank (no cells transfected), miR-NC, miR-22 mimics, si-NC, si-FMNL2 , miR-22 mimics+OE-NC and miR-22 mimics+OE-FMNL2 . RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of miR-22 in each group. Transwell was used to detect cell migration. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Dual-luciferase reporter gene detection experiments verified the targeting relationship between miR-22 and FMNL2 . Western blot was used to detect the expression of FMNL2 protein.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood of children with AML was significantly increased (P <0.001), while the concentration of hemoglobin and the number of platelets were significantly decreased P <0.001). The expression level of miR-22 in peripheral blood of children with AML was significantly lower than that in control group (P <0.001). Compared with HS-5 cells, the expression levels of miR-22 in TF-1a, HL-60, and THP-1 cells were significantly decreased (P <0.05), and in HL-60 cells was the lowest. Therefore, HL-60 cells were selected for subsequent experiments. Up-regulation of miR-22 or silencing of FMNL2 could reduce the number of migrating cells and increase apoptosis rate (P <0.05). MiR-22 targeted and negatively regulated the expression of FMNL2 . FMNL2 overexpression reversed the effects of up-regulated miR-22 on migration and apoptosis of HL-60 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#MiR-22 can inhibit the migration and promote apoptosis of HL-60 cells by down regulating the expression of FMNL2 .


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Cell Movement , Hemoglobins , Cell Line, Tumor , Formins
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1608-1616, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA LINC01268 on apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and related mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of LINC01268 and miR-217 in peripheral blood samples from AML patients and AML cell lines HL-60 and KG-1 were detected by qRT-PCR. HL-60 cells were divided into pcDNA3.1-NC, pcDNA3.1-LINC01268, si-NC, si-LINC01268, miR-NC, miR-217 mimics, si-LINC01268 + inhibitor-NC and si-LINC01268+ miR-217 inhibitor groups. The mRNA expressions of LINC01268 and miR-217 were detected by qRT-PCR. The targeting relationship between LINC01268 and miR-217 was detected by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins p21, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The expression of LINC01268 in peripheral blood samples of AML patients and AML cell lines HL-60 and KG-1 was increased (P < 0.05), and the expression of miR-217 was decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with si-NC group and miR-NC group, the viability of HL-60 cells was decreased in si-LINC01268 group and miR-217 mimics group (P < 0.05), the proportion of cells in G1 phase and apoptosis rate were increased (P < 0.05), the protein expression levels of p21, Bax and caspase-3 were increased (P < 0.05), while the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was decreased (P < 0.05). LINC01268 targeted and negatively regulated the expression of miR-217, and inhibiting the expression of miR-217 partially reversed the effects of LINC01268 interference on the viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Interference with LINC01268 could inhibit the activity of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Inhibiting the expression of miR-217 could partially reverse the inhibition of LINC01268 interference on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#LINC01268 is highly expressed and miR-217 is lowly expressed in AML cells. LINC01268 can promote the activity of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, increase the survival rate and inhibit the apoptosis of AML cells by targeting miR-217 expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1599-1607, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects and molecular mechanism of circ-SFMBT2 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow samples from 35 pediatric AML patients and 35 healthy controls in Henan Provincial Children's Hospital from April 2015 to April 2017 and human bone marrow stromal cell lines (HS-5) and AML cell lines (HL-60, THP-1, U-937 and Kasumi-1) were collected. The expressions of circ-SFMBT2, miR-491-5p and homeobox A9 (HOXA9) in bone marrow samples and cells were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The Pearson method was used to analyze the correlation of circ-SFMBT2, miR-491-5p and HOXA9 mRNA expression levels in bone marrow samples of AML patients. HL-60 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into 5 groups: Control, si-NC, si-circ-SFMBT2, si-circ-SFMBT2+anti-NC and si-circ-SFMBT2+anti-miR-491-5p, HL-60 cells were transfected with si-NC, si-circ-SFMBT2, anti-NC, and miR-491-5p inhibitor with Lipofectamine™ 3000. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to detect the expression levels of circ-SFMBT2, miR-491-5p and HOXA9 in cells of each group. The proliferation activity of HL-60 cells in each group was detected by CCK-8 assay at 24, 48 and 72 h after transfection, respectively. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. The migration and invasion abilities of cells were detected by Transwell assay. The regulatory roles of circ-SFMBT2, miR-491-5p and HOXA9 in AML cells were verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, RNA pull-down and RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) experiments.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of circ-SFMBT2 and HOXA9 mRNA were increased in bone marrow samples and cell lines (HL-60, THP-1, U-937 and Kasumi-1) of children with AML (P <0.001), while the expression level of miR-491-5p was significantly decreased (P <0.001). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the expression levels of circ-SFMBT2 and miR-491-5p in bone marrow samples of AML children were negatively correlated (r =-0.905), miR-491-5p was also negatively correlated with HOXA9 mRNA (r =-0.930), while the expression levels of HOXA9 mRNA and circ-SFMBT2 was positively correlated (r =0.911). The overall survival rate of AML children with high expression of circ-SFMBT2 was significantly decreased than those with low expression of circ-SFMBT2 (P <0.05). Silencing of circ-SFMBT2 could greatly up-regulate the expression of miR-491-5p, decrease the expression of HOXA9, inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of AML cells, and promote cell apoptosis (P <0.05). Down-regulation of miR-491-5p expression greatly attenuated the inhibitory effects of circ-SFMBT2 silencing on cell proliferation, migration and invasion (P <0.05). Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, RNA pull-down and RIP experiments confirmed that circ-SFMBT2 could target miR-491-5p and negatively regulate the expression of miR-491-5p in AML, and HOXA9 was the target of miR-491-5p.@*CONCLUSION@#Silencing of circ-SFMBT2 may inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of AML cells by regulating the miR-491-5p/HOXA9 axis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Genes, Homeobox , HL-60 Cells , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Luciferases , MicroRNAs , Repressor Proteins , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Circular/genetics
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1855-1863, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although the need for consolidation chemotherapy after successful induction therapy is well established in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1), the value of consolidation chemotherapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains controversial.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively compared the effect of the number of pre-transplant consolidation chemotherapies on outcomes of human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling stem cell transplantation (MSDT) for patients with AML in CR1 in multicenters across China. In our study, we analyzed data of 373 AML patients in CR1 from three centers across China.@*RESULTS@#With a median follow-up of 969 days, patients with ≥ 3 courses of consolidation chemotherapy had higher probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) (85.6% vs . 67.0%, P < 0.001) and overall survival (89.2% vs . 78.5%, P  = 0.007), and better cumulative incidences of relapse (10.5% vs . 19.6%, P  = 0.020) and non-relapse mortality (4.2% vs . 14.9%, P  = 0.001) than those with ≤ 2 courses of consolidation chemotherapy. Pre-transplantation minimal residual disease-negative patients with AML in CR1 who received MSDT with ≥ 3 courses of consolidation chemotherapy had a higher probability of LFS (85.9% vs . 67.7%, P  = 0.003) and a lower cumulative incidence of relapse (9.6% vs . 23.3%, P  = 0.013) than those with ≤ 2 courses.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results indicate that patients with AML in CR1 who received MSDT might benefit from pre-transplant consolidation chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Consolidation Chemotherapy/methods , Siblings , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/etiology , HLA Antigens , Allografts
18.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 881-888, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013192

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical features, efficacy and prognosis factors of core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) children in South China. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Clinical data of 584 AML patients from 9 hospitals between January 2015 to December 2020 was collected. According to fusion gene results, all patients were divided into two groups: CBF-AML group (189 cases) and non-CBF-AML group (395 cases). CBF-AML group were divided into AML1-ETO subgroup (154 cases) and CBFβ-MYH11 subgroup (35 cases). Patients in CBF-AML group chosen different induction scheme were divided into group A (fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony stimulating factor and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) scheme, 134 cases) and group B (daunorubicin, cytarabine and etoposide (DAE) scheme, 55 cases). Age, gender, response rate, recurrence rate, mortality, molecular genetic characteristics and other clinical data were compared between groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and survival curve was drawn. Cox regression model was used to analyze prognostic factors. Results: A total of 584 AML children were diagnosed, including 346 males and 238 females. And a total of 189 children with CBF-AML were included, including 117 males and 72 females. The age of diagnosis was 7.3 (4.5,10.0)years, and the white blood cell count at initial diagnosis was 21.4 (9.7, 47.7)×109/L.The complete remission rate of the first course (CR1) of induction therapy, relapse rate, and mortality of children with CBF-AML were significantly different from those in the non-CBF-AML group (91.0% (172/189) vs. 78.0% (308/395); 10.1% (19/189) vs. 18.7% (74/395); 13.2% (25/189) vs. 25.6% (101/395), all P<0.05). In children with CBF-AML, the CBFβ-MYH11 subgroup had higher initial white blood cells and lower proportion of extramedullary invasion than the AML1-ETO subgroup, with statistical significance (65.7% (23/35) vs. 14.9% (23/154), 2.9% (1/35) vs. 16.9% (26/154), both P<0.05). AML1-ETO subgroup had more additional chromosome abnormalities (75/154), especially sex chromosome loss (53/154). Compared with group B, group A had more additional chromosome abnormalities and a higher proportion of tumor reduction regimen, with statistical significance (50.0% (67/134) vs. 29.1% (16/55), 34.3% (46/134) vs. 18.2% (10/55), both P<0.05). Significant differences were found in 5-years event free survival (EFS) rate and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate between CBF-AML group and non-CBF-AML group ((77.0±6.4)%vs. (61.9±6.7)%,(83.7±9.0)%vs. (67.3±7.2)%, both P<0.05).EFS and OS rates of AML1-ETO subgroup and CBFβ-MYH11 subgroup in children with CBF-AML were not significantly different (both P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed in the AML1-ETO subgroup, CR1 rate and high white blood cell count (≥50×109/L) were independent risk factors for EFS (HR=0.24, 95%CI 0.07-0.85,HR=1.01, 95%CI 1.00-1.02, both P<0.05) and OS (HR=0.24, 95%CI 0.06-0.87; HR=1.01, 95%CI 1.00-1.02; both P<0.05). Conclusions: In CBF-AML, AML1-ETO is more common which has a higher extramedullary involvement and additional chromosome abnormalities, especially sex chromosome loss. The prognosis of AML1-ETO was similar to that of CBFβ-MYH11. The selection of induction regimen group FLAG-IDA for high white blood cell count and additional chromosome abnormality can improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Chromosome Aberrations
19.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 845-850, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012242

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in remission on hematopoiesis recovery in patients with NPM1 mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after chemotherapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on 86 patients with NPM1(mut) AML newly diagnosed and treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University between July 2016 and June 2019. Their clinical data and NGS test results at diagnosis were analyzed. Moreover, bone marrow samples in remission were tested using Sanger sequencing. The log-rank test was used to analyze the difference in hematopoietic recovery, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the prognostic factors affecting hematopoietic recovery. Results: The median age of the 86 NPM1(mut) AML patients was 50 years (15-69 years). There were 39 males and 47 females. Forty-one patients were induced with intensity chemotherapy ("7 + 3"), whereas 45 patients were treated with low-dose cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy. At diagnosis, The most common mutations in the patients were FLT3, DNMT3A, TET2, and IDH1/IDH2 mutations. CH-associated mutations persisted in 21 patients during remission, and the mutations were DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, and IDH1/IDH2. The recovery time of neutrophils in patients with CH-associated mutations in remission was consistent with that in patients without CH in remission (P=0.282) but the recovery time of platelets in patients with CH in remission was significantly longer[26 (95% CI 21-32) days vs 25 (95% CI 23-26) days, P=0.032]. Furthermore, univariate analysis indicated that age, induced chemotherapy program, and CH in remission were risk factors for platelet recovery, whereas multivariate analysis indicated that induced chemotherapy program and CH in remission were independent risk factors for platelet recovery (HR=0.454, P=0.001 and HR=0.520, P=0.027, respectively) . Conclusion: CH in remission delays the hematopoietic recovery of patients with NPM1(mut) AML after chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Aged , Clonal Hematopoiesis , Hematopoiesis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Nucleophosmin , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 742-748, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012223

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, cytogenetics, molecular biology, treatment, and prognosis of patients with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML) secondary to malignancies. Methods: The clinical data of 86 patients with t-MDS/AML in West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2010 and April 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics, primary tumor types, and tumor-related therapies were analyzed. Results: The study enrolled a total of 86 patients with t-MDS/AML, including 67 patients with t-AML, including 1 patient with M(0), 6 with M(1), 27 with M(2), 9 with M(3), 12 with M(4), 10 with M(5), 1 with M(6), and 1 with M(7). Sixty-two patients could be genetically stratified, with a median overall survival (OS) of 36 (95% CI 22-52) months for 20 (29.9%) patients in the low-risk group and 6 (95% CI 3-9) months for 10 (14.9%) in the intermediate-risk group. The median OS time was 8 (95% CI 1-15) months in 32 (47.8%) patients in the high-risk group. For patients with non-acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and AML, the median OS of the low-risk group was 27 (95% CI 18-36) months, which was significantly longer than that of the non-low-risk group (χ(2)=5.534, P=0.019). All 9 APL cases were treated according to the initial treatment, and the median OS was not reached, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 100.0%, (75.0±6.2) %, and (75.0±6.2) % respectively. Of the 58 patients with non-APL t-AML (89.7%), 52 received chemotherapy, and 16 achieved complete remission (30.8%) after the first induction chemotherapy. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates of the non-APL t-AML group were (42.0 ± 6.6) %, (22.9±5.7) %, and (13.4±4.7) %, respectively. The median OS of patients who achieved remission was 24 (95% CI 18-30) months, and the median OS of those who did not achieve remission was 6 (95% CI 3-9) months (χ(2)=10.170, P=0.001). Bone marrow CR was achieved in 7 (53.8%) of 13 patients treated with vineclar-containing chemotherapy, with a median OS of 12 (95% CI 9-15) months, which was not significantly different from that of vineclar-containing chemotherapy (χ(2)=0.600, P=0.437). In 19 patients with t-MDS, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were (46.8±11.6) %, (17.5±9.1) %, and (11.7±9.1) % with a median OS of 12 (95% CI 7-17) months, which was not significantly different from that in t-AML (χ(2)=0.232, P=0.630) . Conclusions: Breast cancer, bowel cancer, and other primary tumors are common in patients with t-MDS/AML, which have a higher risk of adverse genetics. Patients with APL had a high induction remission rate and a good long-term prognosis, whereas patients without APL had a low remission rate and a poor long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/therapy , Prognosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Second Primary/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
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