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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 103-112, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010655

ABSTRACT

Neuronomodulation refers to the modulation of neural conduction and synaptic transmission (i.e., the conduction process involved in synaptic transmission) of excitable neurons via changes in the membrane potential in response to chemical substances, from spillover neurotransmitters to paracrine or endocrine hormones circulating in the blood. Neuronomodulation can be direct or indirect, depending on the transduction pathways from the ligand binding site to the ion pore, either on the same molecule, i.e. the ion channel, or through an intermediate step on different molecules. The major players in direct neuronomodulation are ligand-gated or voltage-gated ion channels. The key process of direct neuronomodulation is the binding and chemoactivation of ligand-gated or voltage-gated ion channels, either orthosterically or allosterically, by various ligands. Indirect neuronomodulation involves metabotropic receptor-mediated slow potentials, where steroid hormones, cytokines, and chemokines can implement these actions. Elucidating neuronomodulation is of great significance for understanding the physiological mechanisms of brain function, and the occurrence and treatment of diseases.


Subject(s)
Ligands , Neurons/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Ion Channels/metabolism , Hormones/metabolism
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 382-393, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007759

ABSTRACT

Aging is a significant risk factor for various diseases, including asthma, and it often leads to poorer clinical outcomes, particularly in elderly individuals. It is recognized that age-related diseases are due to a time-dependent accumulation of cellular damage, resulting in a progressive decline in cellular and physiological functions and an increased susceptibility to chronic diseases. The effects of aging affect not only the elderly but also those of younger ages, posing significant challenges to global healthcare. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with aging in different diseases is essential. One intriguing factor is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which serves as a cytoplasmic receptor and ligand-activated transcription factor and has been linked to the aging process. Here, we review the literature on several major hallmarks of aging, including mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, autophagy, mitophagy, epigenetic alterations, and microbiome disturbances. Moreover, we provide an overview of the impact of AhR on these hallmarks by mediating responses to environmental exposures, particularly in relation to the immune system. Furthermore, we explore how aging hallmarks affect clinical characteristics, inflammatory features, exacerbations, and the treatment of asthma. It is suggested that AhR signaling may potentially play a role in regulating asthma phenotypes in elderly populations as part of the aging process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Asthma , Aging , Gene Expression Regulation , Ligands
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the expression levels of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells and NKG2D soluble ligands, the soluble MHC class I chain-related molecules A and B (sMICA/sMICB) in the active stage and stable stage of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and their role in the disease activity of JIA.@*METHODS@#Nineteen children with systemic JIA and 20 children with articular JIA who were diagnosed in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from November 2019 to December 2021 were enrolled in this prospective study. Six healthy children were enrolled as the control group. After peripheral blood samples were collected, ELISA was used to measure the levels of sMICA and sMICB, and flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells. Systemic Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score-27 (sJADAS-27)/Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score-27 (JADAS-27) was used to evaluate the disease activity in children with JIA. The Pearson correlation analysis and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to assess the role of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells, sMICA and sMICB in the disease activity of JIA.@*RESULTS@#The active systemic JIA and active articular JIA groups had a significant increase in the percentage of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells compared with the control group and their corresponding inactive JIA group (P<0.05). The JIA groups had significantly higher levels of sMICA and sMICB than the control group (P<0.05), and the active articular JIA group had a significantly higher level of sMICB than the stable articular JIA group (P<0.05). In the children with JIA, the percentage of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells and the levels of sMICA and sMICB were positively correlated with sJADAS-27/JADAS-27 disease activity scores (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that sMICB had an area under the curve of 0.755 in evaluating the disease activity of JIA, with a specificity of 0.90 and a sensitivity of 0.64.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The percentage of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells and the levels of sMICA and sMICB increase in children with JIA compared with healthy children and are positively correlated with the disease activity of JIA, suggesting that CD4+NKG2D+ T cells and NKG2D ligands can be used as potential biomarkers for evaluating the disease activity of JIA.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Arthritis, Juvenile/pathology , Ligands , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 223-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971017

ABSTRACT

We identified distinct senescence-related molecular subtypes and critical genes among prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) or radical radiotherapy (RT). We conducted all analyses using R software and its suitable packages. Twelve genes, namely, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), pleiotrophin (PTN), family with sequence similarity 107 member A (FAM107A), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14), prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1), leucine zipper protein 2 (LUZP2), cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), vestigial-like family member 3 (VGLL3), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member (ALDH2), were eventually used to subtype PCa patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and GSE116918, and the molecular subtypes showed good correlations with clinical features. In terms of the tumor immune environment (TME) analysis, compared with cluster 1, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) scored significantly higher, while endothelial cells scored lower in cluster 2 in TCGA database. There was a statistically significant correlation between both CAFs and endothelial cells with biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival for PCa patients undergoing RP. For the GSE116918 database, cluster 2 had significantly lower levels of CAFs and tumor purity and higher levels of stromal, immune, and Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumor tissues using Expression data (ESTIMATE) scores than cluster 1; in addition, patients with high levels of CAFs, stromal scores, immune scores, and ESTIMATE scores and low levels of tumor purity tended to suffer from BCR. Based on the median of differentially expressed checkpoints, high expression of CD96, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2), and neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in GSE116918 and high expression of CD160 and tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 18 (TNFSF18) in TCGA database were associated with a significantly higher risk of BCR than their counterparts. In conclusion, we first constructed distinct molecular subtypes and critical genes for PCa patients undergoing RP or RT from the fresh perspective of senescence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Endothelial Cells , Ligands , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial , DNA-Binding Proteins , Transcription Factors
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009464

ABSTRACT

Lectins are proteins responsible for recognizing the signals of sugar molecules in the body. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses in the tumor microenvironment by recognizing the glycan structure containing sialic acid and mediating downstream signals through immune receptor tyrosine inhibitory motifs. In recent years, a variety of tumor treatment strategies targeting the sialic acid-Siglecs axis have been introduced, including sialoglycoprotein-mediated drug delivery and antibody mediated inhibition of Siglecs from recognizing tumor surface ligands. In the future, by combining with glycoprotein nanotherapy, antibody therapy and gene therapy, Siglecs can be used to accurately locate tumor targets and release the anti-tumor immunity, so as to achieve the purpose of effective cure of tumors.


Subject(s)
Sialic Acid Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectins/metabolism , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Immunoglobulins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic , Ligands
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009440

ABSTRACT

CD226 is an activated receptor on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. It competes with TIGIT and CD96 to bind to ligands such as CD155 on the surface of tumor cells and mediates the killing function of NK cells. Although TIGIT and CD96 have other binding ligands in the tumor microenvironment, they compete to bind CD115 ligands with higher affinity and inhibit the activity of NK cells, which allows tumor cells to evade killing. Therefore, studying the expression patterns of these three NK cell surface receptors in different tumors and monitoring their binding ability with ligands will help us to explore new tumor treatment strategies. This article reviews the role and mechanism of CD226, TIGIT, CD96 and other NK cell receptor molecules in regulating NK cell function in anti-tumor immune response.


Subject(s)
Ligands , Receptors, Immunologic , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell , Killer Cells, Natural , Antigens, CD
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008912

ABSTRACT

In resting platelets, the 17 th domain of filamin a (FLNa17) constitutively binds to the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) at its cytoplasmic tail (GPIbα-CT) and inhibits the downstream signal activation, while the binding of ligand and blood shear force can activate platelets. To imitate the pull force transmitted from the extracellular ligand of GPIbα and the lateral tension from platelet cytoskeleton deformation, two pulling modes were applied on the GPIbα-CT/FLNa17 complex, and the molecular dynamics simulation method was used to explore the mechanical regulation on the affinity and mechanical stability of the complex. In this study, at first, nine pairs of key hydrogen bonds on the interface between GPIbα-CT and FLNa17 were identified, which was the basis for maintaining the complex structural stability. Secondly, it was found that these hydrogen bonding networks would be broken down and lead to the dissociation of FLNa17 from GPIbα-CT only under the axial pull force; but, under the lateral tension, the secondary structures at both terminals of FLNa17 would unfold to protect the interface of the GPIbα-CT/FLNa17 complex from mechanical damage. In the range of 0~40 pN, the increase of pull force promoted outward-rotation of the nitrogen atom of the 563 rd phenylalanine (PHE 563-N) at GPIbα-CT and the dissociation of the complex. This study for the first time revealed that the extracellular ligand-transmitted axial force could more effectively relieve the inhibition of FLNa17 on the downstream signal of GPIbα than pure mechanical tension at the atomic level, and would be useful for further understanding the platelet intracellular force-regulated signal pathway.


Subject(s)
Filamins/metabolism , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Ligands , Protein Binding , Blood Platelets/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008845

ABSTRACT

The Baimai Ointment with the effect of relaxing sinew and activating collaterals demonstrates a definite effect on Baimai disease with pain, spasm, stiffness and other symptoms, while the pharmacodynamic characteristics and mechanism of this agent remain unclear. In this study, a rat model of chronic compression of L4 dorsal root ganglion(CCD) was established by lumbar disc herniation, and the efficacy and mechanism of Baimai Ointment in the treatment of CCD were preliminarily explored by behavioral tests, side effect evaluation, network analysis, antagonist and molecular biology verification. The pharmacodynamic experiment indicated that Baimai Ointment significantly improved the pain thresholds(mechanical pain, thermal pain, and cold pain) and gait behavior of CCD model rats without causing tolerance or obvious toxic and side effects. Baimai Ointment inhibited the second-phase nociceptive response of mice in the formalin test, increased the hot plate threshold of normal mice, and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. Network analysis showed that Baimai Ointment had synergistic effect in the treatment of CCD and was related to descending inhibition/facilitation system and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, behavioral tests, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the pain-relieving effect of Baimai Ointment on CCD may be related to the regulation of the interaction between neuroactive ligand and receptors(neuroligands) such as CHRNA7, ADRA2A, and ADRB2, and the down-regulation of the expression of NOS2/pERK/PI3K, the core regulatory element of HIF-1 signaling pathway in spinal microglia. The findings preliminarily reveal the mechanism of relaxing sinew and activating collaterals of Baimai Ointment in the treatment of Baimai disease, providing a reference for the rational drug use and further research of this agent.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Chronic Pain/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Ligands , Signal Transduction , Hyperalgesia/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008682

ABSTRACT

In order to prevent the maternal immune defenses to the semi-allogeneic fetus, the maternal body will present a special adaptive immune system change represented by acute thymic involution(ATI) during pregnancy, which can be quickly regenerated after delivery. The ATI during pregnancy is related to the level of sex hormones, which is mainly caused by progesterone. Pregnancy-induced ATI is manifested as the continuous shrinkage of thymus volume, especially the cortex, and the wrinkle and phagocytosis of the subcapsular cortical thymic epithelial cells(cTECs), while other thymic epithelial cells(TECs) remain unchanged. The postpartum thymus is regenerated by the co-mediation of forkhead box N1(FOXN1) as well as its target genes chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 25(CCL25), chemokine(C-X-C motif) ligand 12(CXCL12), δ-like ligand 4(DLL4), cathepsin L(CTSL), and serine protease 16(PRSS16). Once the postpartum thymus is poorly repaired, immune dysfunction of the maternal body and several puerperal diseases will be induced, seriously endangering the survival of the mother and the newborn. In traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), Qi and blood are the cornerstone of pregnancy, and the thymus plays a key role in regulating Qi and blood. The deficiency of Qi and blood during pregnancy and childbirth is closely related to the abnormal ATI during pregnancy and the poor regeneration of the postpartum thymus. Based on this theory, TCM has profound academic ideas and rich clinical experience in postpartum recuperation. Based on the systematic description of the mechanism of ATI regeneration during pregnancy, as well as data mining and analysis of two classic gynecological works of TCM, Wan's Gynecology and Fu Qing-zhu's Treatise on Gynecology, this study found that the commonly used TCM for postpartum included Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Among them, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma are high-frequency TCMs with positive effects on postpartum recovery.However, the mechanism of these TCMs in promoting postpartum thymus regeneration needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pregnancy , Ligands , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Postpartum Period , Chemokines
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 153-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980992

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CXC-chemokine ligand-10 (CXCL10) expression and the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control, hypoxia, LPS, and hypoxia combined with LPS groups. The LPS group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg LPS, and the hypoxia group was placed in a hypobaric hypoxia chamber (simulated altitude of 6 000 m). The serum and hippocampal tissue samples were collected after 6 h of the treatment. The levels of CXCL10 in the serum and hippocampal tissue of mice were detected by ELISA. The microglia cell line BV2 and primary microglia were stimulated with hypoxia (1% O2) and/or LPS (100 ng/mL) for 6 h. The mRNA expression level of CXCL10 and its content in culture supernatant were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins, p65 and IκBα, were detected by Western blot. Moreover, after NF-κB signaling pathway being blocked with a small molecular compound, PDTC, CXCL10 mRNA expression level was detected in the BV2 cells. The results showed that in the LPS-induced mouse inflammatory model, hypoxia treatment could promote LPS-induced up-regulation of CXCL10 in both serum and hippocampus. Compared with the cells treated with LPS alone, the expression of CXCL10 mRNA and the content of CXCL10 in the culture supernatant of BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. The CXCL10 mRNA level of primary microglial cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS was significantly up-regulated. Compared with the cells treated with hypoxia or LPS alone, the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα in the BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. PDTC blocked the induction of CXCL10 gene expression by LPS in the BV2 cells. These results suggest that hypoxia promotes LPS-induced expression of CXCL10 in both animal and cell models, and NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chemokines, CXC/pharmacology , Hypoxia , Ligands , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1177-1187, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common syndrome associated with considerable mortality and healthcare costs. Up to now, the underlying pathogenesis of ischemic AKI remains incompletely understood, and specific strategies for early diagnosis and treatment of ischemic AKI are still lacking. Here, this study aimed to define the transcriptomic landscape of AKI patients through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis in kidneys.@*METHODS@#In this study, scRNA-seq technology was applied to kidneys from two ischemic AKI patients, and three human public scRNA-seq datasets were collected as controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and cell clusters of kidneys were determined. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, as well as the ligand-receptor interaction between cells, were performed. We also validated several DEGs expression in kidneys from human ischemic AKI and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced AKI mice through immunohistochemistry staining.@*RESULTS@#15 distinct cell clusters were determined in kidney from subjects of ischemic AKI and control. The injured proximal tubules (PT) displayed a proapoptotic and proinflammatory phenotype. PT cells of ischemic AKI had up-regulation of novel pro-apoptotic genes including USP47 , RASSF4 , EBAG9 , IER3 , SASH1 , SEPTIN7 , and NUB1 , which have not been reported in ischemic AKI previously. Several hub genes were validated in kidneys from human AKI and renal I/R injury mice, respectively. Furthermore, PT highly expressed DEGs enriched in endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling. DEGs overexpressed in other tubular cells were primarily enriched in nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling, estrogen signaling, interleukin (IL)-12 signaling, and IL-17 signaling. Overexpressed genes in kidney-resident immune cells including macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells were associated with leukocyte activation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and complement activation. In addition, the ligand-receptor interactions analysis revealed prominent communications between macrophages and monocytes with other cells in the process of ischemic AKI.@*CONCLUSION@#Together, this study reveals distinct cell-specific transcriptomic atlas of kidney in ischemic AKI patients, altered signaling pathways, and potential cell-cell crosstalk in the development of AKI. These data reveal new insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies in ischemic AKI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Transcriptome/genetics , Ligands , Kidney/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 117-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969814

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of programmed death protein-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSLC) and its effect on the characteristics of tumor stem cells and tumor biological function, to explore the upstream signaling pathway regulating PD-L1 expression in LCSLC and the downstream molecular mechanism of PD-L1 regulating stem cell characteristics, also tumor biological functions. Methods: HepG2 was cultured by sphere-formating method to obtain LCSLC. The expressions of CD133 and other stemness markers were detected by flow cytometry, western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to detect the expressions of stemness markers and PD-L1. The biological functions of the LCSLC were tested by cell function assays, to confirm that the LCSLC has the characteristics of tumor stem cells. LCSLC was treated with cell signaling pathway inhibitors to identify relevant upstream signaling pathways mediating PD-L1 expression changes. The expression of PD-L1 in LCSLC was down regulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), the expression of stem cell markers, tumor biological functions of LCSLC, and the changes of cell signaling pathways were detected. Results: Compared with HepG2 cells, the expression rate of CD133 in LCSLC was upregulated [(92.78±6.91)% and (1.40±1.77)%, P<0.001], the expressions of CD133, Nanog, Oct4A and Snail in LCSLC were also higher than those in HepG2 cells (P<0.05), the number of sphere-formating cells increased on day 7 [(395.30±54.05) and (124.70±19.30), P=0.001], cell migration rate increased [(35.41±6.78)% and (10.89±4.34)%, P=0.006], the number of transmembrane cells increased [(75.77±10.85) and (20.00±7.94), P=0.002], the number of cloned cells increased [(120.00±29.51) and (62.67±16.77), P=0.043]. Cell cycle experiments showed that LCSLC had significantly more cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase than those in HepG2 [(54.89±3.27) and (32.36±1.50), P<0.001]. The tumor formation experiment of mice showed that the weight of transplanted tumor in LCSLC group was (1.32±0.17)g, the volume is (1 779.0±200.2) mm(3), were higher than those of HepG2 cell [(0.31±0.06)g and (645.6±154.9)mm(3), P<0.001]. The expression level of PD-L1 protein in LCSLC was 1.88±0.52 and mRNA expression level was 2.53±0.62, both of which were higher than those of HepG2 cells (P<0.05). The expression levels of phosphorylation signal transduction and transcription activation factor 3 (p-STAT3) and p-Akt in LCSLC were higher than those in HepG2 cells (P<0.05). After the expression of p-STAT3 and p-Akt was down-regulated by inhibitor treatment, the expression of PD-L1 was also down-regulated (P<0.05). In contrast, the expression level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in LCSLC was lower than that in HepG2 cells (P<0.01), there was no significant change in PD-L1 expression after down-regulated by inhibitor treatment (P>0.05). After the expression of PD-L1 was knockdown by siRNA, the expressions of CD133, Nanog, Oct4A and Snail in LCSLC were decreased compared with those of siRNA-negative control (NC) group (P<0.05). The number of sphere-formating cells decreased [(45.33±12.01) and (282.00±29.21), P<0.001], the cell migration rate was lower than that in siRNA-NC group [(20.86±2.74)% and (46.73±15.43)%, P=0.046], the number of transmembrane cells decreased [(39.67±1.53) and (102.70±11.59), P=0.001], the number of cloned cells decreased [(57.67±14.57) and (120.70±15.04), P=0.007], the number of cells in G(0)/G(1) phase decreased [(37.68±2.51) and (57.27±0.92), P<0.001], the number of cells in S phase was more than that in siRNA-NC group [(30.78±0.52) and (15.52±0.83), P<0.001]. Tumor formation in mice showed that the tumor weight of shRNA-PD-L1 group was (0.47±0.12)g, the volume is (761.3±221.4)mm(3), were lower than those of shRNA-NC group [(1.57±0.45)g and (1 829.0±218.3)mm(3), P<0.001]. Meanwhile, the expression levels of p-STAT3 and p-Akt in siRNA-PD-L1 group were decreased (P<0.05), while the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and β-catenin did not change significantly (P>0.05). Conclusion: Elevated PD-L1 expression in CD133(+) LCSLC is crucial to maintain stemness and promotes the tumor biological function of LCSLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Ligands , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Neoplastic Stem Cells/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation
13.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 584-592, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010967

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the ethanol extract of Herpetospermum caudigerum Wall (EHC), a Xizang medicinal plant traditionally used for treating liver diseases, can improve imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation.@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining were used to determine the effects of topical EHC use in vivo on the skin pathology of imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice. The protein levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in mouse skin samples were examined using immunohistochemical staining. In vitro, IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells with or without EHC treatment were used to evaluate the expression of keratinocyte-derived intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and chemokine CXC ligand 9 (CXCL9) using Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and proteasome inhibitor MG132 were utilized to validate the EHC-mediated mechanism underlying degradation of ICAM-1 and CXCL9.@*RESULTS@#EHC improved inflammation in the imiquimod-induced psoriasis mouse model and reduced the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17A in psoriatic lesions. Treatment with EHC also suppressed ICAM-1 and CXCL9 in epidermal keratinocytes. Further mechanistic studies revealed that EHC suppressed keratinocyte-derived ICAM-1 and CXCL9 by promoting ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation rather than transcriptional repression. Seven primary compounds including ehletianol C, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, herpetrione, herpetin, herpetotriol, herpetetrone and herpetetrol were identified from the EHC using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry.@*CONCLUSION@#Topical application of EHC ameliorates psoriasis-like skin symptoms and improves the inflammation at the lesion sites. Please cite this article as: Zhong Y, Zhang BW, Li JT, Zeng X, Pei JX, Zhang YM, Yang YX, Li FL, Deng Y, Zhao Q. Ethanol extract of Herpetospermum caudigerum Wall ameliorates psoriasis-like skin inflammation and promotes degradation of keratinocyte-derived ICAM-1 and CXCL9. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(6): 584-592.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Imiquimod/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Ligands , Psoriasis/chemically induced , Keratinocytes , Inflammation/drug therapy , Chemokines/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Aconite is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been found to inhibit the development of liver cancer; however, its exact molecular mechanisms in this process remain unclear. This study explores how aconite aqueous extract (AAE) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#An in vivo mouse model of subcutaneous liver cancer was established. After AAE treatment, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the effect of AAE on natural killer (NK) cells. Subsequently, C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the subcutaneous tumor model, and a group of these mice were treated with anti-PK163 antibody to remove NK cells, which was verified by flow cytometry and IHC. The effect of AAE on the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro was determined using cell counting kit-8. The effect of AAE on chemokine production in HCC cells was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of AAE on the migration of NK cells was determined using a transwell assay. Finally, the molecular mechanism was investigated using the Western blotting method.@*RESULTS@#We demonstrated that the ability of AAE to induce overexpression of the cytokine C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in HCC cells is fundamental to the infiltration of NK cells into the tumor bed. Mechanistically, we found that the upregulation of CCL2 was achieved by the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not extracellular regulated protein kinase or p38.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that AAE can be used as an effective immune adjuvant to enhance antitumor immunity by increasing NK cell infiltration into tumors, which could help to improve the efficacy of HCC treatments. Please cite this article as: Yang KD, Zhang X, Shao MC, Wang LN. Aconite aqueous extract inhibits the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma through CCL2-dependent enhancement of natural killer cell infiltration. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(6): 575-583.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Aconitum , Ligands , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Chemokines/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor
15.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1170-1185, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010819

ABSTRACT

OX40 is a costimulatory receptor that is expressed primarily on activated CD4+, CD8+, and regulatory T cells. The ligation of OX40 to its sole ligand OX40L potentiates T cell expansion, differentiation, and activation and also promotes dendritic cells to mature to enhance their cytokine production. Therefore, the use of agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies for cancer immunotherapy has gained great interest. However, most of the agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies in the clinic are OX40L-competitive and show limited efficacy. Here, we discovered that BGB-A445, a non-ligand-competitive agonistic anti-OX40 antibody currently under clinical investigation, induced optimal T cell activation without impairing dendritic cell function. In addition, BGB-A445 dose-dependently and significantly depleted regulatory T cells in vitro and in vivo via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In the MC38 syngeneic model established in humanized OX40 knock-in mice, BGB-A445 demonstrated robust and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy, whereas the ligand-competitive anti-OX40 antibody showed antitumor efficacy characterized by a hook effect. Furthermore, BGB-A445 demonstrated a strong combination antitumor effect with an anti-PD-1 antibody. Taken together, our findings show that BGB-A445, which does not block OX40-OX40L interaction in contrast to clinical-stage anti-OX40 antibodies, shows superior immune-stimulating effects and antitumor efficacy and thus warrants further clinical investigation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/physiology , Receptors, OX40 , Membrane Glycoproteins , Ligands , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with interstitial lung disease (ILD), and to analyze the effects of DNA methylation on Wnt/β-catenin and chemokine signaling pathways.@*METHODS@#PBMCs were collected from 19 patients with SSc (SSc group) and 18 healthy persons (control group). Among SSc patients, there were 10 patients with ILD (SSc with ILD subgroup) and 9 patients without ILD (SSc without ILD subgroup). The genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression level were analyzed by using Illumina 450K methylation chip and Illumina HT-12 v4.0 gene expression profiling chip. The effect of DNA methylation on Wnt/β-catenin and chemokine signal pathways was investigated.@*RESULTS@#Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified 71 hypermethylated CpG sites and 98 hypomethylated CpG sites in the SSc with ILD subgroup compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup. Transcriptome analysis distinguished 164 upregulated genes and 191 downregulated genes in the SSc with ILD subgroup as compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup. In PBMCs of the SSc group, 35 genes in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were hypomethylated, while frizzled-1 (FZD1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 (MAPK9), mothers against DPP homolog 2 (SMAD2), transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (WNT5B) mRNA expressions were upregulated as compared with the control group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup, the mRNA expressions of dickkopf homolog 2 (DKK2), FZD1, MAPK9 were upregulated in the SSc with ILD subgroup, but the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). In PBMCs of the SSc group, 38 genes in chemokine signaling pathway were hypomethylated, while β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16), FGR, and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1C (NCF1C) mRNA expressions were upregulated as compared with the control group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup, the mRNA expressions of ARRB1, CXCL10, CXCL16 were upregulated in the SSc with ILD subgroup, but the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles between SSc with ILD and SSc without ILD. The expression levels of multiple genes in Wnt/β- catenin and chemokine signaling pathways are upregulated, which might be associatea with the pathogenesis of SSc.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Methylation , Transcriptome , beta Catenin , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Ligands , DNA , RNA, Messenger/genetics
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981510

ABSTRACT

In this study, the authors cloned a glycosyltransferase gene PpUGT2 from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis with the ORF length of 1 773 bp and encoding 590 amino acids. The phylogenetic tree revealed that PpUGT2 belonged to the UGT80A subfamily and was named as UGT80A49 by the UDP-glycosyltransferase(UGT) Nomenclature Committee. The expression vector pET28a-PpUGT2 was constructed, and enzyme catalytic reaction in vitro was conducted via inducing protein expression and extraction. With UDP-glucose as sugar donor and diosgenin and pennogenin as substrates, the protein was found with the ability to catalyze the C-3 hydroxyl β-glycosylation of diosgenin and pennogenin. To further explore its catalytic characteristic, 15 substrates including steroids and triterpenes were selected and PpUGT2 showed its activity towards the C-17 position of sterol testosterone with UDP-glucose as sugar donor. Homology modelling and molecule docking of PpUGT2 with substrates predicted the key residues interacting with ligands. The re-levant residues of PpUGT2-ligand binding model were scanned to calculate the corresponding mutants, and the optimized mutants were obtained according to the changes in binding affinity of the ligand with protein and the surrounding residues within 5.0 Å of ligands, which had reference value for design of the mutants. This study laid a foundation for further exploring the biosynthetic pathway of polyphyllin as well as the structure of sterol glycosyltransferases.


Subject(s)
Ligands , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Sterols , Phylogeny , Ascomycota , Liliaceae/chemistry , Melanthiaceae , Diosgenin , Sugars , Glucose , Uridine Diphosphate
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3615-3627, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007981

ABSTRACT

Proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) refers to heterobifunctional small molecules that can simultaneously bind an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a target protein, enabling specific degradation of the target protein with the aid of the ubiquitin proteasome system. At present, most PROTAC drugs are in the clinical trial stage, and the ligands are mainly non-covalent compounds. PROTAC drugs have the advantage of overcoming drug resistance and degrading "undruggable" target proteins, but non-covalent ligands could lead to the hook effect that undermines drug efficacy. With its own advantages, covalent ligands can avoid the occurrence of this phenomenon, which is of great help to the development of PROTAC. This review summarizes the progress in preclinical and clinical research and application of PROTAC molecules targeting three different classes of protein targets, including intranuclear, transmembrane, and cytosolic proteins. We also offer perspective discussions to provide research ideas and references for the future development of PROTAC.


Subject(s)
Proteolysis , Proteolysis Targeting Chimera , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Ligands
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 555-568, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007771

ABSTRACT

The development of chronic liver disease can be promoted by excessive fat accumulation, dysbiosis, viral infections and persistent inflammatory responses, which can lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis and carcinogenesis. An in-depth understanding of the etiology leading to chronic liver disease and the underlying mechanisms influencing its development can help identify potential therapeutic targets for targeted treatment. Orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs) are receptors that have no corresponding endogenous ligands to bind to them. The study of these ONRs and their biological properties has facilitated the development of synthetic ligands, which are important for investigating the effective targets for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. In recent years, it has been found that ONRs are essential for maintaining normal liver function and their dysfunction can affect a variety of liver diseases. ONRs can influence pathophysiological activities such as liver lipid metabolism, inflammatory response and cancer cell proliferation by regulating hormones/transcription factors and affecting the biological clock, oxidative stress, etc. This review focuses on the regulation of ONRs, mainly including retinoid related orphan nuclear receptors (RORs), pregnane X receptor (PXR), leukocyte cell derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), Nur77, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), on the development of different types of chronic liver diseases in different ways, in order to provide useful references for the therapeutic strategies of chronic liver diseases based on the regulation of ONRs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orphan Nuclear Receptors/metabolism , Receptors, Steroid/physiology , Ligands , Liver , Liver Diseases , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1764-1770, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the significance of Tim-3 and Galectin-9 in Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).@*METHODS@#55 newly diagnosed MM patients and 20 healthy controls were included. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of Tim-3 on CD4+T cells, the proportion of Th1, Th2, Tim-3+Th1 and Tim-3+Th2 cells in peripheral blood. ELISA was used to detect the levels of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 in serum, and PCR was used to detect the level of Galectin-9 mRNA. Then the correlations between Galectin-9 mRNA expression and Th-cell subsets and related cytokine levels, as well as the relationship between Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 ratio and corresponding clinical features were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the expression of Tim-3 on CD4+T cells in peripheral blood of MM patients was significantly increased (P<0.05), the proportions of Tim-3+Th1 cells, Tim-3+Th2 cells and Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 ratio in MM patients were also increased (P<0.05), while the proportion of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio in MM patients were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The level of cytokine IFN-γ and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in MM patients were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the level of cytokine IL-4 was increased (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of Galectin-9 in MM patients were significantly increased (P<0.05). The levels of Galectin-9 mRNA were positively correlated with Tim-3+CD4+T cells (r=0.663), Tim-3+Th2 cells (r=0.492) and IL-4 (r=0.470), while negatively correlated with IFN-γ (r=-0.593). The ratios of Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 in MM patients were positively correlated with ISS stage (r=0.511), osteolytic damage (r=0.556) and chromosome abnormality (r=0.632).@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that Tim-3 and Galectin-9 are involved in Th1/Th2 imbalance in MM patients, and the high ratio of Tim-3+Th1/Tim-3+Th2 is associated with poor clinical prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/metabolism , Galectins/metabolism , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Ligands , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/metabolism
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