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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1279-1298, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-995091

ABSTRACT

Se presentan las transformaciones en la lectura y utilización de la teoría de Piaget que desarrollaron en la Argentina en la década de 1970, y cómo estas recogieron importantes problemáticas sociales de su tiempo. En primer lugar se presenta la labor de Emilia Ferreiro, sus antecedentes formativos y la investigación que dio lugar a la publicación del libro Los sistemas de escritura en el desarrollo del niño (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1979). Luego se destacan las innovaciones que ese texto produjo en la época: la introducción de una lectura novedosa de la teoría de Piaget; la utilización de conceptos de psicología genética en un campo nuevo; la realización de una investigación empírica desde el método piagetiano; la localización del problema del acceso a la lectoescritura y su relación con el fracaso escolar involucrando aspectos hasta ese momento invisibilizados, como la pobreza y la desigualdad social en América Latina. Finalmente se analiza la recepción del texto en la Argentina, donde aparecen las marcas de la dictadura militar, como el exilio, la censura y la clandestinidad; el encuentro con el texto de Ferreiro muestra una cara de la persecución ejercida sobre los intelectuales y las formas clandestinas de circulación de saberes que una generación profesional enfrentó.(AU)


O texto apresenta as transformações na leitura e utilização da teoria de Piaget na Argentina na década de 1970, e como foram estes trabalhos levantaram importantes questões sociais da época . Primeiro, introduz-se o trabalho de Ferreiro, sua formação educacional e as pesquisas que levaram à publicação do livro Psicogênese da língua escrita (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1979). Em seguida, apresentam-se as inovações que esse texto produziu na época: uma nova leitura da teoria de Piaget na mídia acadêmica da Argentina; a utilização da psicologia genética em um novo campo; a realização de uma pesquisa empírica a partir do método piagetiano; a localização do problema do acesso à alfabetização e sua relação com o fracasso escolar, envolvendo aspectos até então invisíveis, como a pobreza e a desigualdade social na América Latina. Finalmente, expomos os avatares da recepção do texto na Argentina, aí aparecendo as marcas da ditadura militar, como o exílio, a censura e a clandestinidade; o encontro com o texto de Ferreiro mostra o rosto da perseguição exercida sobre os intelectuais e as formas clandestinas de circulação de conhecimento que uma geração profissional teve que enfrentar.(AU)


Transformations in readings and use of the theory of Piaget in Argentina in the 1970s are presented, and how they collected social important problems of their time. First, we present the work of Emilia Ferreiro, his educational background and the research that led to the publication of the book Literacy before schooling (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1979). Then we highlight the innovations that that text introduced: a novel reading of Piaget's theory in the academic media of Argentina; the qualification of genetic psychology concepts in a new field; an empirical research process from the Piagetian method; To place the problem of access to literacy and its relation to school failure, involving aspects that until then have been invisible, such as poverty and social inequality in Latin America. Finally we expose the vicissitudes of the reception in Argentina, were they appeared the marks of the military dictatorship, such as exile, censorship and clandestinity; the encounter with Ferreiro's text shows one side of the persecution exerted on the intellectuals and clandestine forms of circulation of knowledge that a professional generation had to face.(AU)


Subject(s)
Literacy/psychology , Academic Failure/psychology , Reading , Handwriting
2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 704-717, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1046003

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo, investigou-se o papel do Home Literacy Environment e da Educação Infantil no desenvolvimento dos precursores da alfabetização: consciência fonológica e conhecimento de letras. Participaram da pesquisa 53 estudantes do 1º ano de escolas municipais de nível socioeconômico baixo e seus cuidadores, sendo analisadas: 1) as relações entre Home Literacy Environment e os precursores, por meio de correlações de Pearson, as quais não foram significativas; 2) a contribuição da Educação Infantil no desenvolvimento dos precursores, medida por meio de Testes t, comparando-se as diferenças entre os grupos 0 (pouca experiência) e 1 (com experiência em Educação Infantil), onde se obteve correlações significativas entre o conhecimento das letras e Consciência Fonológica. Esses dados sugerem que o Home Literacy Environment dessas crianças pode ser insuficiente para o desenvolvimento desses preditores, e, portanto, cursar a Educação Infantil influencia a alfabetização.(AU)


In this study the role of Home Literacy Environment and Childhood Education in the development of literacy precursors was investigated: Phonological Awareness and knowledge of letters. 53 students of the 1st Year of municipal schools of low socioeconomic level and their caregivers took part in he research, there were analyzed: 1) the relation between Home Literacy Environment and the precursors through Pearson correlations; 2) the contribution of Childhood Education to the development of literacy precursors. The results of mean's comparisons with t-test shows significant differences between groups with little experience and with experience in Pre-school Child Education for Phonological Awareness and letter knowledge. Pearson correlations were not significant. The data analysis suggests that environment of these children may be insufficient for the development of these predictors, and therefore attending Early Childhood Education influences literacy.(AU)


Este estudio investigó el papel del Home Literacy Environment y la educación de la primera infancia en el desarrollo de los precursores de la alfabetización: Consciencia Fonological y el conocimiento de las letras. Participaron en la investigación, 53 estudiantes del primero año de escuelas municipales de bajo nivel socioeconómico y sus cuidadores, siendo analizados: : 1) las relaciones entre del Home Literacy Environment y los precursores, por medio de correlaciones de Pearson, el que no eran significativas; 2) la contribución de la educación de la primera infancia en el desarrollo de precursores, medido a través de pruebas t, comparando las diferencias entre los grupos 0 (poca experiencia) y 1 (con experiencia en educación infantil), donde obtuvimos correlaciones significativas entre el Conocimiento de las letras y la conciencia fonológica. Estos datos sugieren que el ambiente de alfabetización en la casa (Home Literacy) de estos niños puede ser insuficiente para el desarrollo de estos predictores, y por lo tanto para asistir a la educación de la primera infancia influye en la alfabetización.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Rearing , Literacy , Learning
3.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 10(2): 3-19, ago.2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1025330

ABSTRACT

A compreensão de leitura e a consciência morfológica são habilidades que contribuem para o processo de ensino-aprendizagem. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a proficiência em compreensão de leitura de 70 alunos (2º ao 5º ano) de uma escola pública paulista e verificar as diferenças de desempenho e as correlações existentes entre esta habilidade e a consciência morfológica. Os instrumentos utilizados foram dois testes de Cloze e as Tarefas de Avaliação da Consciência Morfológica. Os resultados indicaram aumento crescente em compreensão de leitura e consciência morfológica, conforme o avanço dos anos escolares. No 2º e 3º ano, os alunos obtiveram maiores escores na consciência morfológica derivacional e no 4º e 5º ano na flexional. Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significativas entre essas habilidades apenas no 3º e 5º ano. Sugere-se a continuidade nas investigações sobre o papel da consciência morfológica para o desenvolvimento da compreensão de leitura (AU).


Reading comprehension and morphological awareness are skills that contribute to the teaching and learning process. The present study aimed to investigate the reading comprehension proficiency of 70 students (2nd to 5th grades) of a public school in São Paulo and verify the differences in performance and correlations between this skill and the morphological awareness. The instruments were two Cloze tests and the Morphological Consciousness Assessment Tasks. The results indicated an increase in reading comprehension and morphological awareness, with grade level progression. In the 2nd and 3rd grade the students obtained higher scores in the derivational morphological awareness and in the 4th and 5th grade in the flexional. There were statistically significant correlations between these abilities only in the 3rd and 5th grade. It is suggested continuity in the investigations about the role of morphological awareness for the development of reading comprehension (AU).


Debido a la importancia del lenguaje y las habilidades metalingüísticas para el proceso de aprendizaje, este estudio investigó la competencia de los estudiantes de educación básica en comprensión de lectura. También se verificaron las diferencias de rendimiento en la comprensión lectora y la conciencia morfológica y las correlaciones existentes entre estas habilidades. Se evaluaron 70 alumnos (2º al 5º año) de una escuela publica en São Paulo. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: prueba de Cloze y Tareas de Evaluación de la Conciencia Morfológica. Los resultados indicaron un aumento creciente en comprensión de lectura y conciencia morfológica, conforme el avance de los años escolares. En el 2º y 3º año los alumnos obtuvieron mayores escores en la conciencia morfológica derivativa y en el 4º y 5º año en la flexional. Las correlaciones entre estas habilidades fueron estadísticamente significativas entre estas habilidades solo en el 3º y 5º año. Se sugiere la continuidad en las investigaciones sobre el papel de la conciencia morfológica para el desarrollo de la comprensión de la lectura (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Education, Primary and Secondary , Comprehension , Literacy/psychology
4.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(2): 295-301, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1013134

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the difference among geographical units and the evolution of infant mortality rate (IMR) based on Ecuadorian censuses (1990-2001-2010). Methods: artificial Neural Network analyzed the impact of sociodemographic factors over the variability of IMR. Poisson regression analyzed the variation of the standardized IMR (sIMR). Results: the decrease in the national IMR was 63.8%; however, 42.8% provinces showed an increase in 2001-2010. The variability was explained mainly by illiteracy decrease. The adjusted RR between provincial sIMR with illiteracy and poverty revealed a trend towards the unit. Conclusions: the variation of IMR reflects a complex interaction of the sociodemographic factors.


Resumen Objetivos: analizar las diferencias de la evolución de la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI) entre unidades geográficas basada en los censos ecuatorianos (1990-2001-2010). Métodos: la red neuronal artificial analizó el impacto de los factores sociodemográficos sobre la variabilidad de la TMI. La regresión de Poisson analizó la cuantificación de la variación de la TMI estandarizada (TMIs). Resultados: la disminución en la TMI nacional fue de 63.8%; sin embargo, 42.8% de las provincias mostraron un incremento en el periodo 2001-2010. La variabilidad se explica principalmente por la disminución del analfabetismo. El RR ajustado entre TMIs provincial con analfabetismo y pobreza reveló una tendencia hacia la unidad. Conclusiones: la variación de la TMI refleja una interacción compleja de los factores sociodemográficos estudiados.


Subject(s)
Child , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Infant Mortality , Morbidity , Poisson Distribution , Neural Networks (Computer) , Ecuador , Literacy
5.
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-200952

ABSTRACT

Background: Research shows that poor health literacy (HL) can be a threat to health and health care. Health literacy is under-researched and poorly understood in developing countries, including South Africa, because of the absence of language and context-specific HL tests. Aim: The researchers aimed to develop an appropriate HL test for use among South African public health service users with Sesotho as their first language. Setting: The test was developed in the Free State Province of South Africa, for use among Sesotho speakers. Methods: Mixed methods were employed to develop the Sesotho Health Literacy Test (SHLT). The process of developing the test was carried out in distinctive methodological steps. Results: The stepwise process set out by identifying abstracts (n = 206) referring to HL tests. Sourcing of HL tests followed a tapered process resulting in the use of 17 HL tests. Elements within a conceptual framework guided HL test item selection (n = 47). Two Delphi sessions assisted in reaching consensus regarding final HL test items (n = 40). The readability testing of the SHLT tested 4.19 on the Coleman–Liau Index score. A context-suitable and comprehensive SHLT ensued from this work. Conclusion: The SHLT assessment instrument development creates a platform for HL testing among Sesotho first language speakers in South Africa. The context-sensitive methodology is entrenched in a theoretical framework, distributing HL test items between identified competencies and related skill dimensions and domains. The methodology can be applied to the development of HL tests for other languages and population groups in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Health , Literacy , Africa , State
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739632

ABSTRACT

Since chronic diseases have emerged as a major cause of death worldwide, people has been exposed to large amounts of information on healthy eating practices that are important aspects of its prevention and management. Food literacy, the functional, interactive, and critical ability to manage dietary information with the aim of improving health, is of global interest. In South Korea (hereafter Korea), there is currently a lack of food literacy research, despite its pertinence for the development of public health policies that are tailored to recipients' ability to understand and address health and nutrition issues. In this study, the research trend and policy implications of food literacy are derived through reviewing preceding studies related to food literacy in Korea and elsewhere. Existing literature on food literacy in Korea placed much emphasis on the functional ability of food literacy. Future research on the operational definitions of interactive and critical food literacy and their health effects in Korea is necessary. In addition, there is a lack of research on the development and validation of measurement tools that evaluate integrative concepts of food literacy. To accurately examine the relationships among food literacy, diet, and health, standardized measurement tools that can comprehensively evaluate food literacy frameworks for various Korean sub-population groups should be developed. Based on such future studies, an investigation of health promotion programs or policies on reducing the cognitive burden of food literacy would contribute to improving heathy eating practices in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Chronic Disease , Consumer Health Information , Diet , Eating , Food Labeling , Health Education , Health Literacy , Health Promotion , Korea , Literacy , Public Health
7.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring nursing information literacy competency, and then to examine the validity and reliability of the instrument. METHODS: The developmental process of the instrument includes construction of a conceptual framework, generation of initial items, verification of content validity, preliminary study, extraction of final items, and psychometric testing. Its content validity was verified by three experts from nursing and nursing informatics. Its construct, convergent, and discriminant validity was examined in confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, its criterion validity was measured with Pearson's correlation. The tool's reliability was examined by Cronbach's α. The participants include 382 nurses from four hospitals and one university hospital. RESULTS: Twenty seven items in total were selected for the final scale, and the results of the confirmatory factor analysis were supported with acceptable model fit, which were named competency for identifying problem, potential sources for information, searching fine information, evaluating information, acquising and managing of information, using information ethically, and integrating new information. The convergent, discriminant and criterion validities were also supported. The Cronbach's α coefficient was .93. CONCLUSION: The instrument is valid and reliable to comprehensively assess nurses' information literacy competency, and to provide a basic direction for developing nursing information literacy program.


Subject(s)
Information Literacy , Literacy , Nursing Informatics , Nursing , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to analyze the effect that oral health literacy of adults has on perceived oral health state and to identify the factors that affect perceived oral health status. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was distributed to 554 adults who lived in the Daegu or Gyeongbuk areas and visited dental institutions located in the Daegu area. For adults who were 60 years old or older, direct interviews were conducted. Statistical analysis was performed with t-tests, analysis of variance, and multiple regression using SPSS RESULTS: Between oral health literacy and perceived oral health status, a significant positive correlation was revealed (r=0.142, P<0.01). A significant positive correlation was revealed between oral health literacy and knowledge (r=0.397, P<0.01). A significant but weakly positive correlation was revealed between oral health knowledge and perceived oral health status (r=0.086, P<0.05). To identify factors affecting perceived oral health status, multiple regression analysis was conducted, and the result showed that oral health literacy was a statistically significant factor (β=0.105, p<0.05). Among general characteristics, age was a statistically significant negatively affecting factor, as it showed a negative relationship with perceived oral health status (β=−0.140, P=0.001, adjusted R2=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: When these study results are taken into consideration, oral health literacy is a factor affecting perceived oral health status, and as such, oral health literacy of the research targets should be taken into consideration when implementing oral health education to promote oral health.


Subject(s)
Adult , Education , Health Literacy , Humans , Literacy , Oral Health
9.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 22(3): 477-484, set.-dez. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-976614

ABSTRACT

Profissionais de Educação Infantil frequentemente recomendam que educadores adotem práticas que favoreçam o desenvolvimento da linguagem oral nos currículos, mas o mesmo não ocorre com a linguagem escrita, que embora também esteja presente no cotidiano das crianças, é majoritariamente assunto posposto e controverso. Essas posições frequentemente ignoram pesquisas recentes da Psicologia Cognitiva e das Neurociências que se dedicam ao estudo das relações entre o desenvolvimento cognitivo e da linguagem. Trata-se de estudos que trazem novas explicações e abrem perspectivas para a prevenção de dificuldades e a preparação da alfabetização. Neste artigo teórico são discutidas algumas dessas contribuições voltadas para o entendimento dos processos cognitivos e mecanismos cerebrais presentes na aprendizagem da leitura e da escrita em sistemas alfabéticos, como é o caso do português brasileiro.


The Early Childhood professionals often recommend that educators adopt practices that favor the development of oral language in curricula, but the same does not occur with written language, which although it is also present in children's daily lives, is mostly a postponed and controversial subject. These positions often ignore recent research from Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience that is devoted to the study of the relationships between cognitive and language development. These are studies that bring new explanations and open perspectives for the prevention of difficulties and the preparation of literacy. This theoretical article discusses some of these contributions aimed at understanding the cognitive processes and brain mechanisms present in the learning of reading and writing in alphabetical systems, as is the case of Brazilian Portuguese.


Profesionales de Educación Infantil frecuentemente recomiendan que educadores adopten prácticas que favorezcan el desarrollo del lenguaje oral en los currículos, sin embargo, igual no ocurre con el lenguaje escrita, aunque también estén presente en el cotidiano de los niños, es mayoritariamente tema pospuesto y polémico. Esas posiciones frecuentemente ignoran investigaciones recientes de la Psicología Cognitiva y de las Neurociencias que se dedican al estudio de las relaciones entre el desarrollo cognitivo y del lenguaje. Se trata de estudios que traen nuevas explicaciones y abren perspectivas a la prevención de dificultades y la preparación de la alfabetización. En este artículo teórico se discute algunas de esas contribuciones volcadas al entendimiento de los procesos cognitivos y mecanismos cerebrales presentes en el aprendizaje de la lectura y de la escritura en sistemas alfabéticos, como es el caso del portugués brasileño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychology , Child Rearing , Cognition , Literacy
10.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 70(3): 51-65, set./dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-981826

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo examina as relações entre alfabetização e a consciência metatextual, considerando que o desenvolvimento desta consciência envolve conhecimentos epilinguístico e metalinguístico. Crianças alfabetizadas e não alfabetizadas realizaram tarefas que avaliavam esses dois tipos de conhecimento em relação a histórias. Histórias completas e incompletas foram apresentadas, sendo as crianças solicitadas a emitir julgamentos acerca de suas partes constituintes, justificando seus julgamentos. Ambos os grupos tiveram desempenho semelhante na tarefa epilinguística, porém as crianças não alfabetizadas tiveram dificuldades na tarefa metalinguística, enquanto as crianças alfabetizadas tiveram um bom desempenho nas duas tarefas, sobretudo na metalinguística. Concluiu-se que, embora haja um conhecimento epilinguístico mesmo entre as crianças ainda não alfabetizadas, a alfabetização contribui para o desenvolvimento da consciência metatextual como um todo


This present study investigates the relationship between literacy and metatextual awareness. The study takes into account the fact that this type of awareness involves both epilinguistic and metalinguistic knowledge, so that seven-year-old literate and illiterate children were asked to solve tasks which evaluated these two types of knowledge in relation to narrative texts. Complete and incomplete stories were presented, and the children were asked to make judgments about their constituent parts, explaining the basis for their judgments. Both groups had similar performance in the epilinguístic task, but the illiterate children had difficulties in the metalinguistic task, while the literate children performed well in both tasks, especially in the metalinguistic one. Thus it was concluded that although there is an epilinguistic knowledge even among illiterate children, literacy contributes to the development of metatextual awareness as a whole


El presente estudio examina las relaciones entre alfabetización e la conciencia metatextual, considerando que el desarrollo de esta conciencia implica el conocimiento epilingüístico y metalingüístico. Niños alfabetizados e analfabetos realizan tareas que evaluaron esos dos tipos de conocimiento acerca de historias. Fueron presentadas historias completas e incompletas, solicitando a los niños hacer juicios acerca de sus partes constituyentes, justificando su juicio. Em la tarea epilinguistica, ambos grupos tuvieron desempeños similares, sin embargo, em la tarea metalinguística los niños analfabetos tuvieron dificultades, mientras que los niños alfabetizados tuvieron um buen desempeño em las dos tareas, especialmente em la de metalingüística. Se concluyó que, aunque haya un conocimiento epilingüístico incluso entre los niños aún analfabetos, la alfabetización contribuye en el desarrollo de la conciencia metatextual como un todo


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Child Rearing , Comprehension , Literacy
11.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 22(2): 337-346, maio-ago. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-955702

ABSTRACT

Este artigo focaliza a alfabetização à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, estabelecendo relações entre a mesma e o desenvolvimento cultural do psiquismo destacando os vínculos existentes entre fala e escrita. Objetiva apresentar elementos que corroborem a compreensão dos processos psíquicos que medeiam a aprendizagem da escrita explorando o trânsito cultural que avança das expressões gráficas primevas, denominadas por Alexander Romanovich Luria como "pré-história da escrita", à escrita simbólica. Haja vista que o legado por este autor confere centralidade aos primórdios do desenvolvimento da escrita, identificamos na literatura histórico-cultural a existência de um hiato no tratamento dispensado, especificamente, à transição entre a pré-história e a escrita simbólica, dado que nos conduz à busca de aclaramentos sobre esta.Fundamentando-se no método materialista histórico-dialético, adotaram-se como procedimentos de pesquisa: análise conceitual do referencial bibliográfico adotado e contraposição da referida análise a dados empíricos advindos de registros de campo de duas professoras alfabetizadoras.


This article focuses on literacy in the light of Historical-Cultural Psychology, establishing relationships between it and the cultural development of the psyche, highlighting the links between speech and writing. It aims to present elements that corroborate the understanding of the psychic processes that mediate the learning of the writing exploring the cultural traffic that advances from the primeval graphic expressions, denominated by Alexander Romanovich Luria like "prehistory of the writing", to the symbolic writing. Since the legacy of this author confers centrality to the early development of writing, we have identified in the historical-cultural literature the existence of a hiatus in the treatment, specifically, of the transition between prehistory and symbolic writing, since it leads us the search for clarifications about it. Based on the historical-dialectical materialist method, we adopted as research procedures: the conceptual analysis of the bibliographic references adopted and the analysis of empirical data derived from the field records of two literacy teachers.


En este artículo se focaliza la alfabetización a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-Cultural, estableciendo relaciones entre esta y el desarrollo cultural del psiquismo destacando los vínculos existentes entre el habla y la escritura. Se tiene por objetivo presentar elementos que corroboren a la comprensión de los procesos psíquicos que arbitran el aprendizaje de la escritura explotando el tránsito cultural que avanza de las expresiones gráficas primevas, denominadas por Alexander Romanovich Luria como "pre-historia de la escritura", a la escritura simbólica. Haya vista que el legado por este autor confiere centralidad a los principios del desarrollo de la escritura, identificamos en la literatura histórico-cultural la existencia de un hiato en el tratamiento dispensado, específicamente, a la transición entre la pre-historia y la escritura simbólica, dato que nos conduce a la búsqueda de aclaramientos sobre esta. Fundamentándose en el método materialista histórico-dialéctico, se adoptó como procedimientos de investigación: análisis conceptual del referencial bibliográfico adoptado y contraposición del referido análisis a datos empíricos advenidos de registros de campo de profesoras alfabetizadoras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychology , Literacy , Human Development
12.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(2): 608-623, maio-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-986352

ABSTRACT

Este estudo investigou a contribuição única da consciência morfológica em palavras com diferentes regras ortográficas no português do Brasil. Participaram do estudo 114 crianças do 2º e 4º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública. As crianças foram avaliadas quanto ao seu conhecimento ortográfico por meio de um ditado de palavras com diferentes dificuldades ortográficas (regras contextuais, morfológicas e palavras irregulares), consciência fonológica, consciência morfológica e inteligência (verbal e não verbal). Os resultados mostraram que, para ortografia de palavras com regras contextuais, morfológicas e irregulares, a consciência morfológica tem uma contribuição pequena, mas independente da consciência fonológica. A contribuição da consciência fonológica foi maior nas palavras contextuais e morfológicas. Nas palavras com ortografias irregulares, a contribuição da consciência morfológica foi maior do que a fonológica. Esses resultados sugerem que o conhecimento explícito das unidades mínimas de significado na palavra pode ser uma habilidade chave para o desenvolvimento da ortografia.(AU)


This study investigates the unique contribution of morphological awareness in the different spellings of the Portuguese in Brazil. The study included 114 children of 2 and 4 years of elementary education at a public school. The children were evaluated on orthographic knowledge measure by spelling test with different orthographic difficulties, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities. The results showed that morphological awareness has a small but independent contribution of phonological awareness for spelling words with contextual, morphological and irregular rules. The influence of phonological awareness was higher in contextual and morphological words. In the words with irregular spellings, morphological awareness of the contribution was higher than the phonological awareness. These results suggest that awareness of minimum units of meaning in the word can be a key skill for the spelling development.(AU)


Este estudio investigó la contribución única de la conciencia morfológica en palabras con diferentes reglas ortográficas en el portugués de Brasil. El estudio incluyó a 114 niños de 2 y 4 años de educación primaria en una escuela pública. Los niños fueron evaluados en cuanto a su conocimiento ortográfico por medio de un dictado de palabras con diferentes dificultades ortográficas (reglas contextuales, morfológicas y palabras irregulares), conciencia fonológica, conciencia morfológica e inteligencia (verbal y no verbal). Los resultados mostraron que la conciencia morfológica tiene una pequeña contribución más independiente de la conciencia fonológica de las palabras de ortografía contextuales y reglas morfológicas irregulares. El influencia de la conciencia fonológica fue mayor en palabras contextuales y morfológicos. En las palabras con ortografía irregular conciencia morfológica de la contribución era más alta que la conciencia fonológica. Estos resultados sugieren que el conocimiento explícito de las unidades mínimas de significado en la palabra puede ser una habilidad clave para el desarrollo de la ortografía.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Learning , Linguistics , Child Language , Literacy/psychology
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740825

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a ‘patient empowerment program for schizophrenia (PEPS)’ to improve problem solving ability, quality of life, and mental health literacy for hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The study was a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design. Study participants were recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Republic of Korea. Of 56 participants, 20 were assigned to the experimental group and 36 to the control group. Data were collected from September, 2017 to January, 2018. Data analyses included chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, and repeated measure ANOVA with SPSS/WIN 21.0 program. RESULTS: After participating PEPS, the experimental group showed a significant increase in quality of life and mental health literacy compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in problem solving ability between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Findings show that patients with schizophrenia receive benefits from PEPS in terms of quality of life and mental health literacy. However, further research is necessary to develop clinical strategies to improve their problem solving abilities.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Literacy , Mental Health , Power (Psychology) , Problem Solving , Psychotherapy , Quality of Life , Republic of Korea , Schizophrenia , Statistics as Topic
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine oral health literacy in a sample of Korean of 5th and 6th grade elementary school children. METHODS: Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 274 5(th) and 6(th) grade children from two elementary schools located in Seoul and Uijeongbu. The oral health literacy assessment tool for children of Korea (OHLC-K) takes approximately 11 minutes to complete, and consists of 20 self-report questions with a score range of 0 to 20. Item analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression were performed using SPSS 23.0 and testAn 1.0. RESULTS: The lowest and highest percentage of correct answers were found in “Definition of periodontal disease (19.3%)” and “Definition of halitosis (92.7%),” respectively. The mean score for oral health literacy was found to be 14.95 ± 2.83, corresponding to a score of approximately 75% correct answers. The correlation coefficient for Korean and OHLC-K scores was high (r=.73, P < .01). In the multiple linear regression, oral health literacy was associated with grade and gender. CONCLUSION: The present findings revealed that a quarter of the subjects were likely to misunderstand oral health information. Oral health education is indispensable to all children and, therefore, it is necessary to pay greater attention to children who exhibit poor oral health literacy.


Subject(s)
Child , Education , Halitosis , Humans , Korea , Linear Models , Literacy , Oral Health , Periodontal Diseases , Seoul
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-716104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find out the knowledge, attitude, practice, and barriers of cervical cancer screening in mid-western rural, Nepal. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Women aged 20 or more were interviewed using a structured questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic information, knowledge, attitude, practice, and barriers to the cervical cancer screening. RESULTS: Total of 360 participants were recruited for this study, mean age was 30.13±10.4 years. More than 87% of participants had inadequate knowledge, but around 72% had a favorable attitude towards cervical cancer screening. There was a significant portion of women (86.4%) had never done any cervical cancer screening test. Despite being higher literacy rate of Brahmin and Chhetri ethnic group, they were less likely to attend the cervical cancer screening than Dalit and Janajati (p < 0.001); and those who had a positive family history of cancer were more likely to attend the cervical cancer screening (p < 0.001). Similarly, married women, who had adequate knowledge and or favorable attitude, were more likely to practice cervical cancer screening, though statistically not significant. Factors such as “No symptoms,”“Lack of awareness,”“Embarrassment,” etc. were the most common barriers for the cervical cancer screening. CONCLUSION: The adequate knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening were meager among rural Nepalese women, but most of them had a favorable attitude. There is an imperative need for related awareness programs to promote the uptake of cervical cancer screening tests.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Ethnic Groups , Female , Humans , Literacy , Mass Screening , Nepal , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine (1) the patterns of online health information search with respect to seeking and scanning, and (2) how online search, along with eHealth literacy, predicts perceived information usefulness in the context of diet and weight control. METHODS: Online survey was conducted with 299 adults from the consumer panel recruited for the purpose of quality assessment of the Korean National Health Information Portal in 2016. We conducted paired sample t-test and multiple logistic regression to address the research questions. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and SAS ver. 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). RESULTS: Of the respondents, 38.8% were ‘high seek-high scanners,’ 35.8% were ‘low seek-low scanners,’ 13.0% were ‘high seek-low scanners,’ and 12.4% were ‘low seek-high scanners.’ eHealth literacy was a significant, positive predictor of online information scanning (odds ratio [OR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41–4.29), but not for online information seeking (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00–3.05). With respect to perceived usefulness of online information seeking, online seeking (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 2.19–11.00) and eHealth literacy (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.11–4.75) were significant predictors. Perceived usefulness of online scanning had a significant association with online scanning (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.08–5.22), but not with eHealth literacy. CONCLUSION: To increase the effectiveness of the health policy for online information search and related outcomes in the context of diet and weight control, it is important to develop education programs promoting eHealth literacy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diet , Education , Health Policy , Humans , Information Seeking Behavior , Literacy , Logistic Models , Statistics as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Weight Loss
17.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 22(supl.1): 1387-1398, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-954320

ABSTRACT

Este estudo se propôs a compreender a evolução temporal da educação e sua influência na saúde da população do Grande Bom Jardim (GBJ), Fortaleza, estado do Ceará, Brasil, território marcado pela vulnerabilidade social. Baseou-se na abordagem qualitativa, com utilização de grupo focal e entrevista semiestruturada, aplicados a 45 participantes. Realizou-se análise de conteúdo, o que possibilitou a categorização dos dados a partir da técnica de análise temática. Os resultados mostraram repercussão positiva na saúde do morador, decorrente da implementação de políticas sociais que reduziram o analfabetismo e propiciaram o avanço no acesso à escola, que possui papel fundamental na criação de ambientes saudáveis, na perspectiva da promoção da saúde. Entretanto, ainda há grande demanda pela educação de qualidade como veículo mediador de desenvolvimento do potencial humano.(AU)


The objective of this study was to understand the temporal evolution of education and its impact on the health of Grande Bom Jardim (GBJ) population, in Fortaleza, state of Ceara, Brazil, a territory marked by social vulnerability. It was based on qualitative approach with a focus group and semi-structured interviews applied to 45 participants. Content analysis was carried out, which allowed data classification through the thematic analysis technique. The results showed a positive impact on the health of local residents, as a result of the implementation of social policies that reduced the illiteracy rate and provided an improvement in access to school, which plays an important role for the creation of healthy environments in the perspective of health promotion. However, there is still a great demand for quality education as a vehicle for mediating the development of human potential.(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender la evolución temporal de la educación y su influencia sobre la salud de la población de Grande Bom Jardim (GBJ), FFortaleza, estado de Ceará, Brasil, territorio señalado por la vulnerabilidad social. Se basó en el abordaje cualitativo, con utilización de grupo focal y de entrevista semi-estructurada, con 45 participantes. Se realizó análisis de contenido, lo que posibilitó la categorización de los datos a partir de la técnica de análisis temático. Los resultados mostraron repercusión positiva en la salud del morador, proveniente de la implementación de políticas sociales que redujeron el analfabetismo y propiciaron el avance en el acceso a la escuela que tiene un papel fundamental en la creación de ambientes saludables, en la perspectiva de la promoción de la salud. No obstante, todavía hay gran demanda por la educación de calidad como vehículo mediador de desarrollo del potencial humano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Public Policy , Health , Health Education , Social Vulnerability , Education , Literacy
18.
Psico USF ; 23(3): 567-578, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-948286

ABSTRACT

Este estudo investigou as implicações do nível socioeconômico (NSE) na alfabetização, na inserção de crianças em atividades oferecidas por organizações não governamentais (ONGs) e os impactos dessas ações no desempenho escolar. A amostra da pesquisa foi composta por 560 estudantes do segundo ano de escolarização de oito escolas municipais de Belo Horizonte (MG), sendo que 301 eram do sexo masculino e 259 do sexo feminino. Os dados utilizados foram os resultados da Provinha Brasil e os NSEs das escolas. Os resultados indicaram que a taxa de alunos alfabetizados não ultrapassou 62,00% do total da amostra, a interferência do NSE no rendimento acadêmico e na vinculação dos estudantes com as ONGs. Conclui-se que o NSE impacta no desempenho escolar no início da alfabetização, na busca das famílias por locais para deixar suas crianças em segurança, como as ONGs, e as ações dessas instituições influenciaram indiretamente o processo de alfabetização. (AU)


This study investigated the implications of socioeconomic status (SES) on literacy, in the inclusion of children in activities offered by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the impact of these actions on school performance. The research sample consisted of 560 students attending the second year of elementary school in eight municipal schools in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, including 301 male and 259 female participants. The data used were the results of Provinha Brasil and the SES of the schools. The results indicated that the rate of literacy in students did not exceed 62% of the total sample and the interference of SES in the academic performance and in the students' association with NGOs. It is concluded that SES impacts school performance at the beginning of literacy, on the search by families for places to leave their children safely, such as NGOs, and the actions of these institutions indirectly influenced the literacy process. (AU)


Este estudio investigó implicaciones del nivel socioeconómico (NSE) en la alfabetización, también en la inclusión de niños en actividades que ofrecen las organizaciones no gobernamentales (ONGs) y el impacto de esas acciones en el desempeño escolar. La muestra fue compuesta por 560 estudiantes de segundo año escolar de ocho escuelas públicas de Belo Horizonte (MG), siendo 301 de sexo masculino y 259 de sexo femenino. Los datos utilizados fueron los resultados de la Provinha Brasil y los NSEs de las escuelas. Los resultados indicaron que el índice de alumnos alfabetizados no superó el 62,00% del total de la muestra, la interferencia del NSE en el desempeño escolar y la vinculación de los estudiantes con las ONGs. Se concluye que el impacto del NSE en el desempeño escolar en la alfabetización temprana, la búsqueda de las familias por lugares para dejar a sus hijos seguros, tales como las ONG, y las acciones de esas instituciones, indirectamente influyeron en el processo de alfabetización. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Class , Literacy/psychology , Academic Performance/psychology , Leisure Activities/psychology , Students/psychology , Organizations , Education, Primary and Secondary
19.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 49(3): 285-293, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-967493

ABSTRACT

A autorregulação refere-se aos pensamentos, sentimentos e ações que são planejados e ciclicamente adaptados para o alcance dos objetivos traçados pelo indivíduo. Dentro dessa totalidade, encontra-se o monitoramento metacognitivo, habilidade pela qual o sujeito "acompanha" e avalia sua própria cognição. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o monitoramento de adultos em processo de alfabetização por meio do julgamento, entendido como uma medida do monitoramento metacognitivo, sobre o desempenho em tarefas cognitivas que avaliam o fator geral de inteligência, a velocidade de processamento e a memória de curto prazo. Também foi investigada a existência de diferenças nas relações entre desempenhos reais e estimados e em quais tarefas cognitivas o desempenho real mais se relaciona ao desempenho estimado. Participaram do estudo 34 alunos de um programa de alfabetização para adultos, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 40 e 60 anos. Os materiais utilizados para a coleta de dados foram: Entrevista Inicial (EI), Teste R-1 e os subtestes Código, Procurar Símbolos e Dígitos da Escala Wechsler de Inteligência para Adultos III (WAIS III), e Registro de Julgamento de 0 a 100. Os resultados indicaram que os escores reais dos participantes foram mais baixos quando comparados com sujeitos de maior escolaridade das amostras normativas dos instrumentos. A partir das correlações de Pearson, observou-se correlação significativa entre o desempenho real e o julgamento do desempenho no subteste Códigos.


Self-regulation refers to thoughts, feelings and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted so as to make the individual reach their goals. Within the self-regulation is the metacognitive monitoring, the ability with which the individual follows and evaluates their own cognition. The present study aimed to investigate the metacognitive monitoring of illiterate adults using the metacognitive judgement, a measure of the metacognitive monitoring, in cognitive tasks that evaluate the general factor of intelligence, processing speed and short-term memory. The relation between the real performance and the estimated performance was also investigated, in which cognitive task the real performance related more to the estimated performance. The participants of the study included 34 students in a literacy program for adults, from both genders, and age between 40 and 60 years old. The instruments utilized were: Initial Interview, R-1 Test and subtests Digit Symbol-Coding, Symbol Search and Digit Span from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III), and Judgement Register from 0 to 100. Results indicated that the real performance of the subjects were lower when compared to subjects with a greater level of education. According to the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, there was a significant correlation between the real performance and the estimated performance in the subtest Digit Symbol-Coding


La autorregulación se refiere a los pensamientos, sentimientos y acciones que son planificados y cíclicamente adaptados para el logro de los objetivos trazados por el individuo. Dentro de esa totalidad, se encuentra el monitoreo metacognitivo, que es la habilidad por la cual el sujeto "acompaña" y evalúa su propia cognición. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el monitoreo de adultos en proceso de alfabetización, a través del juicio, entendido como una medida del monitoreo metacognitivo, sobre el desempeño en tareas cognitivas que evalúan el factor general de inteligencia, la velocidad de procesamiento y la memoria de corto plazo. También se investigó la existencia de diferencias en las relaciones entre desempeños reales y estimados y en cuáles tareas cognitivas el desempeño real más se relaciona con el desempeño estimado. Participaron del estudio 34 alumnos de un programa de alfabetización para adultos, de ambos géneros y con edad entre 40 y 60 años. Los materiales utilizados para la recolección de datos fueron: Entrevista Inicial (EI), Prueba R-1 y los subtestes Código, Buscar Símbolos y Dígitos de la Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Adultos III (WAIS III) y Registro de Juicios de 0 a 100. Los resultados indicaron que los puntajes reales de los participantes fueron más bajos cuando comparados con sujetos de mayor escolaridad de las muestras normativas de los instrumentos. A partir de las correlaciones de Pearson, se observó una correlación significativa entre el desempeño real y el juicio del desempeño en el subtest Códigos.


Subject(s)
Psychology , Cognition , Literacy
20.
Psico USF ; 22(3): 437-448, set.-dez. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-878072

ABSTRACT

O principal objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de um programa de treino de escrita inventada na aprendizagem de habilidades iniciais de alfabetização em crianças pré-escolares falantes de língua portuguesa. Participaram 79 crianças de educação infantil em Portugal e no Brasil. Constituíram-se quatro grupos (um grupo experimental e um grupo controle em cada país) equivalentes no conhecimento do alfabeto, inteligência não verbal e consciência fonológica (silábica e fonêmica). Foi realizado um pré/pós-teste de escrita e leitura. No período intermédio, os grupos experimentais participaram de atividades de escrita inventada e os grupos controle na leitura de livros infantis. No pós-teste, os resultados dos grupos experimentais foram superiores aos dos grupos controle nas tarefas de escrita e leitura. Além disso, os resultados foram equivalentes nos dois países, o que sugere que as atividades de escrita inventada promovem habilidades de alfabetização de pré-escolares falantes de duas variantes do português: europeu e brasileiro.(AU)


The main goal of this study was to assess the effects of an invented spelling training programme in the early stages of literacy of preschool Portuguese-speaking children. It encompassed 79 children from Portugal and Brazil. There were four equivalente groups (one experimental group and one control group in each country) and various control measures: knowledge of the alphabet, non-verbal intelligence and phonological awareness (syllabic and phonemic). A reading and spelling pre/post-test was carried out. During the intermediate period the experimental groups participated in invented spelling activities, and the control groups read children's books. The results of the post-test have shown that the experimental groups reached higher levels in both reading and spelling as compared to the control groups. This evolution pattern was found in both countries, thus suggesting that invented spelling activities promote early literacy skills of preschool children speaking two Portuguese variants: European and Brazilian.(AU)


El principal objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de un programa de entrenamiento de escritura inventada, en el aprendizaje de habilidades iniciales de alfabetización, en niños preescolares que hablan lengua portuguesa. Participaron 79 niños de educación infantil en Portugal y Brasil. Se constituyeron cuatro grupos (un grupo experimental y un grupo control en cada país) equivalentes en conocimiento de alfabeto, inteligencia no verbal y conciencia fonológica (silábica y fonémica). Fue realizado un pre/post-test de escritura y lectura. En el período intermedio, los grupos experimentales participaron en actividades de escritura inventada y los grupos de control en la lectura de libros infantiles. En el post-test, los grupos experimentales tuvieron resultados superiores a los grupos de control, en lo que se refiere a tareas de escritura y lectura. Además, los resultados fueron equivalentes en los dos países, lo que sugiere que las actividades de escritura inventada promueven habilidades de alfabetizació de preescolares que hablan las dos variantes de portugués: europeo y brasileño.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child Rearing/psychology , Handwriting , Literacy/psychology , Reading
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