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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Extracellular Traps , Epithelial Cells , Lung
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1157-1170, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364677

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the role of period, geographic and socio demographic factors in cancer-related mortality by prostate, breast, cervix, colon, lung and esophagus cancer in Brazilians capitals (2000-2015). Ecological study using data of Brazilian Mortality Information. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the adjusted risk of cancer mortality. Mortality rate levels were higher in males for colon, lung and esophageal cancers. Mortality rates were highest in the older. Our results showed an increased risk of colon cancer mortality in both sexes from 2000 to 2015, which was also evidenced for breast and lung cancers in women. In both genders, the highest mortality risk for lung and esophageal cancers was observed in Southern capitals. Midwestern, Southern and Southeastern capitals showed the highest mortality risk for colon cancer both for males and females. Colon cancer mortality rate increased for both genders, while breast and lung cancers mortality increased only for women. The North region showed the lowest mortality rate for breast, cervical, colon and esophageal cancers. The Midwest and Northeast regions showed the highest mortality rates for prostate cancer.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o papel de fatores temporais, geográficos e sociodemográficos na mortalidade por câncer de próstata, mama, colo do útero, cólon, pulmão e esôfago nas capitais brasileiras (2000-2015). Estudo ecológico utilizando informações brasileiras de mortalidade. Modelos de Poisson multinível foram usados ​​para estimar o risco ajustado de mortalidade por câncer. Os níveis de mortalidade foram maiores em homens para câncer de cólon, pulmão e esôfago. As taxas de mortalidade foram mais altas nos idosos. Nossos resultados mostraram risco aumentado de mortalidade por câncer de cólon em ambos os sexos de 2000 a 2015, o que também foi evidenciado para câncer de mama e de pulmão em mulheres. Em ambos os sexos, o maior risco de mortalidade para câncer de pulmão e esôfago foi observado nas capitais do Sul. As capitais do Centro-Oeste, Sul e Sudeste apresentaram o maior risco de mortalidade por câncer de cólon tanto para homens quanto para mulheres. A taxa de mortalidade por câncer de cólon aumentou para ambos os sexos, enquanto a mortalidade por câncer de mama e de pulmão aumentou apenas para as mulheres. A região Norte apresentou a menor taxa de mortalidade por câncer de mama, colo do útero, cólon e esôfago. As regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste apresentaram as maiores taxas de mortalidade por câncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate , Cervix Uteri , Colon , Esophagus , Multilevel Analysis , Lung
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(1): e20210280, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365051

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of the association of the breath stacking (BS) technique associated with routine physiotherapy on pulmonary function, lung volumes, maximum respiratory pressures, vital signs, peripheral oxygenation, thoracoabdominal mobility, and pain in the surgical incision in patients submitted to upper abdominal surgery during the postoperative period, as well as to analyze BS safety. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial involving 34 patients divided into a control group (CG; n = 16), who underwent conventional physiotherapy only, and the BS group (BSG; n = 18), who underwent conventional physiotherapy and BS. Both groups performed two daily sessions from postoperative day 2 until hospital discharge. The primary outcomes were FVC and Vt. The safety of BS was assessed by the incidence of gastrointestinal, hemodynamic, and respiratory repercussions. Results: Although FVC significantly increased at hospital discharge in both groups, the effect was greater on the BSG. Significant increases in FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEF, and FEF25-75% occurred only in the BSG. There were also significant increases in Ve and Vt in the BSG, but not when compared with the CG values at discharge. MIP and MEP significantly increased in both groups, with a greater effect on the BSG. There was a significant decrease in RR, as well as a significant increase in SpO2 only in the BSG. SpO2 acutely increased after BS; however, no changes were observed in the degree of dyspnea, vital signs, or signs of respiratory distress, and no gastrointestinal and hemodynamic repercussions were observed. Conclusions: BS has proven to be safe and effective for recovering pulmonary function; improving lung volumes, maximum respiratory pressures, and peripheral oxygenation; and reducing respiratory work during the postoperative period after upper abdominal surgery.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da técnica de breath stacking (BS) associada à fisioterapia de rotina na função pulmonar, volumes pulmonares, pressões respiratórias máximas, sinais vitais, oxigenação periférica, mobilidade toracoabdominal e dor na incisão cirúrgica em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal alta, bem como analisar a segurança do BS. Métodos: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico randomizado com 34 pacientes divididos em grupo controle (n = 16), que realizou apenas a fisioterapia convencional, e grupo BS (n = 18), que realizou a fisioterapia convencional e BS. Ambos os grupos realizaram duas sessões diárias desde o 2º dia do pós-operatório até a alta hospitalar. Os desfechos primários foram CVF e Vt. A segurança do BS foi avaliada pela incidência de repercussões gastrointestinais, hemodinâmicas e respiratórias. Resultados: Embora a CVF tenha aumentado significativamente no momento da alta hospitalar em ambos os grupos, o efeito foi maior no grupo BS. Aumentos significativos do VEF1, VEF1/CVF, PFE e FEF25-75% ocorreram apenas no grupo BS. Também houve aumentos significativos do Ve e do Vt no grupo BS, mas não em comparação com os valores do grupo controle no momento da alta. A PImáx e a PEmáx aumentaram significativamente em ambos os grupos, com efeito maior no grupo BS. Houve uma diminuição significativa da FR e um aumento significativo da SpO2 apenas no grupo BS. A SpO2 aumentou agudamente após o BS; entretanto, não foram observadas alterações no grau de dispneia, sinais vitais e sinais de desconforto respiratório, e não foram observadas repercussões gastrointestinais e hemodinâmicas. Conclusões: O BS mostrou-se seguro e eficaz na recuperação da função pulmonar; melhoria dos volumes pulmonares, pressões respiratórias máximas e oxigenação periférica; e redução do trabalho respiratório no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal alta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dyspnea , Lung , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Lung Volume Measurements
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 525-529, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364338

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) foi relatada em quase todos os países do mundo desde dezembro de 2019. A infecção por SARS-CoV-2 é frequentemente assintomática ou com sintomas leves, mas também pode levar à hipóxia, um estado hiperinflamatório e coagulopatia. Os parâmetros de coagulação anormais estão associados a complicações trombóticas, incluindo embolia pulmonar na COVID-19, mas pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos. A semelhança dos sintomas iniciais de ambas as doenças também pode ser confusa, portanto, os médicos devem estar cientes do potencial para condições concomitantes. Apresentamos aqui um caso que não apresentava opacidades em vidro fosco nos pulmões, mas apresentava embolia pulmonar e derrame pleural em associação com infecção por COVID-19.


Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in almost every country in the world since December 2019. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is often asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, but it may also lead to hypoxia, a hyperinflammatory state, and coagulopathy. The abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with thrombotic complications, including pulmonary embolism in COVID-19, but little is known about the mechanisms. The similarity of initial symptoms of both diseases can also be confusing, therefore the physicians should be aware of the potential for concurrent conditions. Herein, we present a case who did not have ground-glass opacities in the lungs, yet presented with pulmonary embolism and pleural effusions in association with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 435-445, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364333

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O pterostilbeno (PS), um composto polifenólico natural e antioxidante, surge como uma intervenção promissora para minimizar danos do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho do PS na promoção da homeostase redox nos pulmões e no ventrículo direito (VD) de animais infartados. Métodos Ratos Wistar machos (60 dias de idade) foram randomizados em três grupos: SHAM, IAM (infarto) e IAM+PS (IAM + pterostilbeno). Sete dias após o procedimento de IAM, os ratos foram tratados com PS (100 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem por oito dias. Os animais foram depois sacrificados e os pulmões e VD foram coletados para análise do balanço redox (diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando p<0,05). Resultados Nossos resultados mostram que o IAM desencadeia a interrupção redox no VD e nos pulmões, o que pode contribuir para danos induzido pelo IAM nesses órgãos. Consistentemente, o PS mitigou o estresse oxidativo e restaurou as defesas antioxidantes (Glutationa - GSH nos pulmões: SHAM = 0,79 ± 0,07; IAM = 0,67 ± 0,05; IAM + PS = 0,86 ± 0,14; p<0,05), indicando seu papel protetor neste cenário. Conclusão Nosso trabalho evidencia o potencial do uso de PS como abordagem terapêutica adjuvante após IAM para proteção dos tecidos pulmonares e cardíacos direitos.


Abstract Background Pterostilbene (PS), a natural and antioxidant polyphenolic compound emerges as a promising intervention in improving the myocardial infarction (MI) damages. Objetives This study aimed to evaluate PS actions in promoting redox homeostasis in lungs and right ventricle (RV) of infarcted animals. Methods Male Wistar rats (60 day-old) were randomized into three groups: SHAM, MI (infarcted), and MI+PS (MI+pterostilbene). Seven days after MI procedure, rats were treated with PS (100 mg/kg/day) via gavage for eight days. Animals were euthanized and the lungs and RV were harvested for analyses of redox balance (Differences were considered significant when p<0.05). Results Our results show that MI triggers a redox disruption scenario in RV and lungs, which can contribute to MI-induced damage on these organs. Consistently, PS mitigated oxidative stress and restored antioxidant defenses (GSH in lungs: SHAM= 0.79±0.07; MI=0.67±0.05; MI+PS=0.86±0.14; p<0.05), indicating its protective role in this scenario. Conclusions Our work evidences the PS potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic approach after MI focusing on protecting pulmonary and right-sided heart tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 572-582, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357194

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a influência dos esforços musculares respiratórios e do ajuste da frequência respiratória no ventilador sobre o volume corrente e as pressões de distensão alveolar ao final da inspiração e expiração com ventilação sob os modos controle por volume e controle por pressão na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Métodos: Utilizou-se um simulador mecânico de pulmão (ASL 5000™) conectado a cinco tipos de ventiladores utilizados em unidade de terapia intensiva, em um modelo de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Os esforços musculares respiratórios (pressão muscular) foram configurados de três formas distintas: sem esforço (pressão muscular: 0cmH2O), apenas esforços inspiratórios (pressão muscular: - 5cmH2O, tempo inspiratório neural de 0,6 segundos) e esforços musculares inspiratórios e expiratórios (pressão muscular:-5/+5cmH2O). Foram configuradas ventilação sob os modos controle por volume e ventilação com controle por pressão para oferecer um volume corrente de 420mL e pressão positiva expiratória final de 10cmH2O. Avaliaram-se o volume corrente fornecido aos pulmões, as pressões alveolares no final da inspiração e as pressões alveolares no final da expiração. Resultados: Quando disparado pelo paciente simulado, o volume corrente mediano foi 27mL menor do que o volume corrente ajustado (variação-63 a +79mL), e ocorreu uma variação nas pressões alveolares com mediana de 25,4cmH2O (faixa de 20,5 a 30cmH2O). Nos cenários simulados com esforço muscular tanto inspiratório quanto expiratório e com frequência respiratória mandatória inferior à dos esforços do paciente simulado, o volume corrente mediano foi maior com ventilação controlada. Conclusão: O ajuste do esforço muscular respiratório e da frequência respiratória no ventilador em um valor acima da frequência respiratória do paciente nos modos de ventilação assistida/controlada gerou maiores variações no volume corrente e nas pressões pulmonares, enquanto o modo controlado não mostrou variações nesses desfechos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influences of respiratory muscle efforts and respiratory rate setting in the ventilator on tidal volume and alveolar distending pressures at end inspiration and expiration in volume-controlled ventilation and pressure-controlled ventilation modes in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods: An active test lung (ASL 5000™) connected to five intensive care unit ventilators was used in a model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory muscle efforts (muscle pressure) were configured in three different ways: no effort (muscle pressure: 0cmH2O); inspiratory efforts only (muscle pressure:-5cmH2O, neural inspiratory time of 0.6s); and both inspiratory and expiratory muscle efforts (muscle pressure:-5/+5cmH2O). Volume-controlled and pressure-controlled ventilation modes were set to deliver a target tidal volume of 420mL and positive end-expiratory pressure of 10cmH2O. The tidal volume delivered to the lungs, alveolar pressures at the end of inspiration, and alveolar pressures at end expiration were evaluated. Results: When triggered by the simulated patient, the median tidal volume was 27mL lower than the set tidal volume (range-63 to +79mL), and there was variation in alveolar pressures with a median of 25.4cmH2O (range 20.5 to 30cmH2O). In the simulated scenarios with both spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory muscle efforts and with a mandatory respiratory rate lower than the simulated patient's efforts, the median tidal volume was higher than controlled breathing. Conclusion: Adjusting respiratory muscle effort and pulmonary ventilator respiratory rate to a value above the patient's respiratory rate in assisted/controlled modes generated large variations in tidal volume and pulmonary pressures, while the controlled mode showed no variations in these outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Ventilators, Mechanical , Respiration, Artificial , Tidal Volume , Lung
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 557-564, out.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357192

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o conhecimento de profissionais de saúde relacionado com doação de pulmão e manejo do doador. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo descritivo, transversal, com base em levantamento anônimo conduzido entre março e setembro de 2019 envolvendo profissionais de saúde registrados na Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Resultados: Dentre os 736 participantes, a média de idade foi de 30,5 anos (desvio-padrão de 8,9), sendo 61,3% do sexo feminino. Dentre os participantes, 60% eram médicos, 21,5% enfermeiros e 17,9% fisioterapeutas. Dentre os participantes, 68% se consideravam adequadamente informados com relação à procura de órgãos, e 79,8% afirmaram estar cientes do manejo de um potencial doador sob terapia intensiva. Os critérios relativos a um doador de pulmão foram respondidos corretamente por 71,3% dos participantes. Entretanto, após a morte cerebral do doador, 51% dos participantes não fariam modificações nos parâmetros de ventilação mecânica, 22,9% não sabiam quais parâmetros reprogramar, e 44,5% escolheriam um volume corrente de 6 - 8mL/kg e pressão positiva expiratória final de 5cmH2O. Para 85% dos profissionais de saúde, o tipo de teste de apneia escolhido foi desconexão do ventilador, e apenas 18,5% utilizariam um protocolo de controle. As intervenções mais frequentemente utilizadas no caso de pressão parcial de oxigênio/fração inspirada de oxigênio < 300 foram titulação da pressão positiva expiratória final, aspiração traqueal em circuito fechado e manobras de recrutamento. Conclusão: Os profissionais de saúde que participaram deste levantamento na Argentina responderam corretamente à maior parte das questões relacionadas aos critérios para o doador de pulmão. Contudo, faltou-lhes um conhecimento detalhado relativo aos parâmetros ventilatórios, às estratégias ventilatórias e aos protocolos para doadores de pulmão. Programas educacionais são fundamentais para otimizar a doação de múltiplos órgãos e devem focalizar a proteção dos pulmões do doador, com objetivo de incrementar o número de órgãos disponíveis para transplante.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe health care providers' knowledge about lung donation and donor lung management. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study based on an anonymous survey was conducted between March and September 2018 among health care professionals registered to Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Results: Of the 736 respondents, the mean age was 40.5 years (standard deviation 8.9), and 61.3% were female. Sixty percent were physicians, 21.5% were nurses, and 17.9% were physiotherapists. Seventy-eight percent considered themselves appropriately informed about organ procurement, and 79.8% stated that they knew potential organ donor critical care management. The lung donor criteria were answered correctly by 71.3% of the respondents. However, after the donor's brain death, 51% made no changes to ventilator parameters, 22.9% were not aware of which parameters to reprogram, and 44.5% selected tidal volume of 6 - 8mL/kg and positive end expiratory pressure of 5cmH2O. For 85% of the health care providers, the type of apnea test chosen was disconnection from the ventilator, and only 18.5% used a lung management protocol. The most frequent interventions used in the case of arterial oxygen partial pressure/fractional inspired oxygen < 300 were positive end expiratory pressure titration, closed-circuit endotracheal suctioning, and recruitment maneuvers. Conclusion: Health care professionals surveyed in Argentina correctly answered most of the questions related to lung donor criteria. However, they lacked detailed knowledge about ventilatory settings, ventilatory strategies, and protocols for lung donors. Educational programs are key to optimizing multiorgan donation and should be focused on protecting the donor lungs to increase the numbers of organs available for transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tissue Donors , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Personnel , Lung
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 715-721, oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351042

ABSTRACT

Abstract There are few data regarding the repercussion in the pulmonary function of patients who had severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia. The objective was to describe these patients´ pulmonary function and establish an association with the severity of the disease (patients with severe or critical pneumonia), the presence of comorbidities, the tomographic involvement and the persistence of dyspnoea. Fifty-five patients were included, 40 (73%) male, media of age 54.9 (11.6) years old and body mass index (BMI) 33.1 (6.09) kg/m2. Fifty (90%) had 1 comorbidity, obesity 67%, arterial hypertension 36%, and diabetes mellitus 35%. Twenty-five (45%) had critical pneumonia. Fifteen (27%) had a spirometric alteration that suggested restriction and 32 (58%) had gas exchange defect. The latter had forced volume capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) values significantly lower. Ninety percent presented some degree of involvement in the chest CT scan, ground glass-opacities the most frequent finding. A moderate negative correlation was found between the severity of the tomographic involvement and the DLCO levels. Thirty patients (55%) referred some degree of dyspnoea. Patients with this symptom had DLCO and KCO values below those who did not have dyspnoea: 70.5 vs. 85.1 p = 0.02 and 88 vs. 104 p = 0.02. The presence of abnormal gas exchange is the main characteristic of patients with pulmonary sequelae due to COVID-19. Our study does not show either predictor of evolution towards pulmonary sequelae or an association with the severity of the disease.


Resumen Se conocen pocos datos acerca de la repercusión en la función pulmonar de pacientes que cursaron una neumonía grave o crítica por COVID-19. El objetivo fue describir la función pulmonar de estos pacientes y establecer si existe asociación con la gravedad (neumonía grave o crítica), comorbilidades, compromiso tomográfico y persistencia de disnea. Se incluyeron 55 pacientes, 40 (73%) varones, media de edad 54.9 (11.6) años e índice de masa corporal (IMC) 33.1 (6.09) kg/m2. Cincuenta (90%) tenían una comorbilidad, obesidad 67%, hipertensión arterial 36% y diabetes mellitus 35%. Veinticinco (45%) presentaron neumonía crítica. Se hallaron 15 (27%) con una alteración que sugiere restricción y 32 (58%) presentaron trastorno del intercambio gaseoso. Aquellos con trastorno del intercambio gaseoso, tenían valores de capacidad vital forzada (FVC), volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (FEV1) y difusión de monóxido de carbono (DLCO) significativamente menores. El 90% tenía algún grado de compromiso en TAC de tórax siendo vidrio esmerilado el hallazgo más frecuente. Se encontró moderada correlación negativa entre gravedad del compromiso tomográfico y nivel de DLCO. A la consulta, 30 (55%) referían algún grado de disnea. Los pacientes con disnea presentaban valores de DLCO y KCO inferiores respecto a los que no referían disnea 70.5 vs. 85.1 p = 0.02 y 88 vs. 104 p = 0.02. La presencia de intercambio anormal de gases es la característica principal de los pacientes con secuelas pulmonares por COVID-19. De nuestro trabajo no surgen predictores para evolución hacia secuela pulmonar ni pudimos asociarlo a la gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Middle Aged , COVID-19 , Respiratory Function Tests , Forced Expiratory Volume , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung
11.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 461-468, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347304

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A respiração espontânea pode ser prejudicial para pacientes com pulmões previamente lesados, especialmente na vigência de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Mais ainda, a incapacidade de assumir a respiração totalmente espontânea durante a ventilação mecânica e a necessidade de voltar à ventilação mecânica controlada se associam com mortalidade mais alta. Existe uma lacuna no conhecimento em relação aos parâmetros que poderiam ser úteis para predizer o risco de lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente e detecção da incapacidade de assumir a respiração espontânea. Relata-se o caso de um paciente com lesão pulmonar autoinflingida e as correspondentes variáveis, básicas e avançadas, de monitoramento da mecânica do sistema respiratório, além dos resultados fisiológicos e clínicos relacionados à respiração espontânea durante ventilação mecânica. O paciente era um homem caucasiano com 33 anos de idade e história clínica de AIDS, que apresentou síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo e necessitou ser submetido à ventilação mecânica invasiva após falha do suporte ventilatório não invasivo. Durante os períodos de ventilação controlada, adotou-se estratégia de ventilação protetora, e o paciente mostrou evidente melhora, tanto do ponto de vista clínico quanto radiográfico. Contudo, durante cada período de respiração espontânea sob ventilação com pressão de suporte, apesar dos parâmetros iniciais adequados, das regulagens rigorosamente estabelecidas e do estrito monitoramento, o paciente desenvolveu hipoxemia progressiva e piora da mecânica do sistema respiratório, com deterioração radiográfica claramente correlacionada (lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente). Após falha de três tentativas de respiração espontânea, o paciente faleceu por hipoxemia refratária no 29° dia. Neste caso, as variáveis básicas e avançadas convencionais não foram suficientes para identificar a aptidão para respirar espontaneamente ou predizer o risco de desenvolver lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente durante a ventilação de suporte parcial.


ABSTRACT Spontaneous breathing can be deleterious in patients with previously injured lungs, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, the failure to assume spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation and the need to switch back to controlled mechanical ventilation are associated with higher mortality. There is a gap of knowledge regarding which parameters might be useful to predict the risk of patient self-inflicted lung injury and to detect the inability to assume spontaneous breathing. We report a case of patient self-inflicted lung injury, the corresponding basic and advanced monitoring of the respiratory system mechanics and physiological and clinical results related to spontaneous breathing. The patient was a 33-year-old Caucasian man with a medical history of AIDS who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and needed invasive mechanical ventilation after noninvasive ventilatory support failure. During the controlled ventilation periods, a protective ventilation strategy was adopted, and the patient showed clear clinical and radiographic improvement. However, during each spontaneous breathing period under pressure support ventilation, despite adequate initial parameters and a strictly adjusted ventilatory setting and monitoring, the patient developed progressive hypoxemia and worsening of respiratory system mechanics with a clearly correlated radiographic deterioration (patient self-inflicted lung injury). After failing three spontaneous breathing assumption trials, he died on day 29 due to refractory hypoxemia. Conventional basic and advanced monitoring variables in this case were not sufficient to identify the aptitude to breathe spontaneously or to predict the risk and development of patient self-inflicted lung injury during partial support ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Lung Injury , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Lung
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 301-303, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287286

ABSTRACT

Resumen La proteinosis alveolar pulmonar (PAP) es una enfermedad pulmonar difusa, infrecuente, secundaria a una alteración en la homeostasis del surfactante. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 69 años que ingresó a sala de internación por disnea progresiva hasta clase funcional III, de tres meses de evolución, asociada a tos no productiva. Se constató insuficiencia respiratoria tipo I. Como hallazgos en tomografía de tórax se evidenció engrosamiento del intersticio pulmonar intra e interlobulillar, opacidades en vidrio esmerilado y áreas con tendencia a la consolidación bilateral. Se realizó biopsia pulmonar con diagnóstico histológico de PAP y se efectuó tratamiento con lavado pulmonar total, logrando mejoría clínica. Se destaca la necesidad de tener presente diagnósticos diferenciales de insuficiencia respiratoria e infiltrados pulmonares en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19, incluidas las entidades muy poco prevalentes como lo es la PAP.


Abstract Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare, diffuse pulmonary disease due to abnormal surfactant homeostasis. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital for progressive dyspnea with marked limitation in activity, and non-productive cough, of three months of evolution. Type I respiratory failure was confirmed. Chest tomography findings were interlobular and intralobular septal thickening, ground glass opacities and bilateral consolidation. Histological diagnosis was made and whole-lung lavage was performed with clinical improvement. We highlight the need to keep in mind differential diagnoses of respiratory failure and pulmonary infiltrates during COVID-19 pandemic, even rare entities such as PAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/therapy , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung
14.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e500, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a potentially fatal paediatric emergency. Our objective was to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to difficult/doubtful diagnosis. Case report 34-month-old girl referred for urgent rigid bronchoscopy after suspected metallic blade ingestion (found chewing on it). She had a previous recurrent history of wheezing. The physical examination revealed face/lip wounds, traces of powder on her teeth but no breathing difficulty. The plain X-Ray revealed radiopaque images of the upper pulmonary field and gastric chamber. In the absence of FBA clinical signs but considering a previous history of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a direct digital radiographic study was performed. There were no images compatible with foreign bodies: the results were interpreted as artefacts and no bronchoscopy was performed. Conclusions A careful pre-anaesthetic evaluation, a high level of suspicion and excellent multidisciplinary communication led to the recognition of false radiologic findings. A conservative approach was followed and invasive procedures in a remote location, with high anaesthetic risk for the paediatric population were avoided.


Resumen Introducción La aspiración de cuerpo extraño (ACE) es una emergencia pediátrica potencialmente fatal. La intención del presente artículo es resaltar la importancia de un abordaje multidisciplinario en caso de un diagnóstico difícil/dudoso. Reporte de caso Se trata de una paciente de 4 meses de edad remitida para broncoscopia rígida de urgencia, luego de la sospecha de ingestión de una hojilla metálica (se encontró a la bebé mordiéndola). La paciente tenía antecedentes de sibilancia. Al examen físico se encontraron heridas en la cara y los labios, rastros de polvo en los dientes, pero no había dificultad respiratoria. El examen de rayos-x mostraba imágenes radio opacas en el cuadrante superior derecho del pulmón y en la cámara gástrica. En virtud de la ausencia de signos clínicos de ACE en una paciente con antecedentes de hiperresponsividad bronquial, se realizó un estudio radiográfico digital. No hubo imágenes compatibles con cuerpos extraños: los resultados se interpretaron como artefactos y no se realizó la broncoscopia. Conclusiones Un cuidadoso examen pre-anestesia, el alto grado de sospecha y una excelente comunicación multidisciplinaria, permitieron el reconocimiento de hallazgos radiológicos falsos. Se siguió un abordaje conservador, evitando así procedimientos invasivos en lugares remotos con alto grado de riesgo para la población pediátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Respiration , Respiratory Sounds , Eating , Emergencies , Foreign Bodies , Wounds and Injuries , X-Rays , Bronchoscopy , Risk , Artifacts , Absenteeism , Lung , Mastication
15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 261-266, may.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346105

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La implementación del ultrasonido pulmonar (LUS) en los pacientes con COVID-19 puede ayudar a establecer el grado de afectación pulmonar, evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento y estimar el desenlace intrahospitalario. Objetivo: Evaluar la aplicación de un protocolo LUS en pacientes con infección por COVID-19 para predecir mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Métodos: El estudio se realizó del 1 de abril al 1 de agosto de 2020 en pacientes con infección por COVID-19, ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva. Se realizó evaluación pulmonar por médicos entrenados en ultrasonografía crítica. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fue del sexo masculino, la edad mediana fue de 56 años y 59 % requirió ventilación mecánica. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue de 39.4 % y en aquellos con puntuación de LUS ≥ 19, de 50 %. El modelo de regresión logística múltiple mostró que la puntuación de LUS ≥ 19 se asoció significativamente a mortalidad (cociente de riesgo = 2.55, p = 0.01). Conclusiones: El LUS es una herramienta clínica segura y rápida que puede realizarse al lado de la cama de los pacientes con infección por COVID-19, para establecer el grado de afectación parenquimatosa y predecir la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Lung ultrasound (LUS) implementation in patients with COVID-19 can help to establish the degree of pulmonary involvement, evaluate treatment response and estimate in-hospital outcome. Objective: To evaluate the application of LUS in patients with COVID-19 infection to predict in-hospital mortality. Methods: The study was carried out from April 1 to August 1, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Lung evaluation was carried out by physicians trained in critical care ultrasonography. Results: Most patients were males, median age was 56 years, and 59 % required mechanical ventilation. In-hospital mortality was 39.4 %, and in those with a LUS score ≥ 19, mortality was higher (50 %). The multiple logistic regression model showed that a LUS score ≥ 19 was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio = 2.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: LUS is a safe and fast clinical tool that can be applied at bedside in patients with COVID-19 infection to establish the degree of parenchymal involvement and predict mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ultrasonography , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 583-588, May-June 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278349

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diseases in free-ranging wild canids that were roadkill on highways in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. PCR tests were performed for the detection of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. in the spleen. Morphological evaluation and identification of parasites was performed in the liver and lung. Twenty specimens of C. thous were necropsied at the Animal Pathology Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. There was no PCR amplification of genomic DNA sequences of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. using DNA extracted from the spleen as template. Histologically, lesions associated with parasitism by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. were observed in the liver and lung, respectively. This is the first report of Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. parasitism in C. thous in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Therefore, this study demonstrated parasitism of crab-eating foxes by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. Importantly, no evidence of infection with Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. was obtained by PCR analysis.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de doenças em canídeos silvestres de vida livre que foram atropelados em rodovias no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Testes de PCR foram realizados para a detecção de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. no baço. A avaliação morfológica e a identificação de parasitas foram realizadaa no fígado e no pulmão. Vinte espécimes de C. thous foram necropsiados no Setor de Patologia Animal do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Amostras de tecido foram processadas para exame histopatológico e análise de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Não houve amplificação por PCR das sequências de DNA genômico de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. usando-se DNA extraído do baço como modelo. Histologicamente, lesões associadas ao parasitismo por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. foram observadas no fígado e no pulmão, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro relato de Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. parasitismo em C. thous no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Portanto, este estudo demonstrou parasitismo de cachorro-do-mato por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. É importante detacar que não há evidências de infecção por Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. por análise de PCR.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesia/isolation & purification , Brucella/isolation & purification , Canidae/blood , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Autopsy/veterinary , Spleen/virology , Accidents, Traffic , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology , Animals, Wild/blood
17.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(2): 261-271, Maio 25, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284175

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Uma doença altamente infecciosa do trato respiratório, a doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) pode causar disfunção respiratória, física e psicológica em pacientes. Portanto, a reabilitação pulmonar é crucial para pacientes admitidos e que recebem alta da COVID-19. As sequelas de longo prazo são desconhecidas, mas as evidências de surtos anteriores de CoV demonstram comprometimento da função pulmonar e física, redução da qualidade de vida e sofrimento emocional. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura realizada através de busca digital em artigos publicados em revistas impressas e eletrônicas, ensaios clínicos, estudos randomizados, revisões sistemáticas, no período compreendido entre os anos de 2003 e 2020. Resultados: Muitos sobreviventes da COVID-19 que necessitam de cuidados críticos podem desenvolver comprometimentos psicológicos, físicos e cognitivos. Conclusão: Existe uma clara necessidade de orientação sobre a reabilitação dos sobreviventes da COVID-19. (AU)


Introduction: A highly infectious disease of the respiratory tract, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause respiratory, physical, and psychological dysfunction in patients. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation is crucial for patients admitted and discharged from COVID-19. The long-term sequelae of COVID-19 are unknown, but evidence of previous CoV outbreaks demonstrates impaired lung and physical function, reduced quality of life and emotional distress. Methods: This is a systematic review of the literature carried out through digital bibliographic search of scientific articles published in printed and electronic journals, clinical trials, randomized studies, systematic reviews, in the period between the years 2003 and 2020. Results: Many survivors of COVID-19 that require critical care can develop psychological, physical, and cognitive impairments. Conclusion: There is a clear need for guidance on the rehabilitation of COVID-19 survivors. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rehabilitation , Respiratory System , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Critical Care , Lung
18.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 67-76, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178627

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Enfermedades Neuromusculares se caracterizan por la pérdida progresiva de la fuerza muscular, la morbi-mortalidad aumenta con la exageración de la debilidad muscular determinando mayor riesgo de complicaciones respiratorias. Es de suma importancia evaluar e interpretar adecuadamente la función pulmonar y ventilatoria para poder realizar intervenciones que pueda prevenir dichas complicaciones. Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio fue reportar el estado funcional respiratorio de un grupo de pacientes con ENM en control ambulatorio y relacionar estos hallazgos con umbrales clínicamente relevantes de complicaciones respiratorias, reforzando intervenciones basadas en opiniones de expertos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio Descriptivo-Observacional de corte transversal, donde fueron evaluados en forma ambulatoria, de marzo del 2017 a agosto del 2018, 30 niños y adolescentes con enfermedades neuromusculares. Resultados: El 46% del total de pacientes presenta capacidad tusígena no funcional con alto riesgo de complicaciones. No obstante, sólo el 10% del total de pacientes fueron aptos para realizar adecuadamente estudios de espirometría. Durante las pruebas espirométricas, sólo el 50% de los pacientes logró mantener 6 segundos la espiración. Conclusión: Si bien la espirometría es la principal prueba de función pulmonar y una alta proporción de pacientes presentó alteraciones en su morfología, su realización en estados avanzados de enfermedad fue poco factible. Para detectar umbrales de complicaciones respiratorias graves, la medición del flujo generado durante la tos resultó mejor. Conclusión: Si bien la espirometría es la principal prueba de función pulmonar y una alta proporción de pacientes presentó alteraciones en su morfología, su realización en estados avanzados de enfermedad fue poco factible. Para detectar umbrales de complicaciones respiratorias graves, la medición del flujo generado durante la tos resultó mejor.


Introduction: Neuromuscular Diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass, morbidity and mortality increases with the progress of muscle weakness due to the increased risk of respiratory complications, so it is very important to properly evaluate and interpret the measurements of lung functions and ventilation to be able to carry out a specific treatment that can reduce respiratory complications. Objectives: The purpose of this work is to present the results of the measurements of flows, volumes, respiratory capacities and spirometric patterns in outpatients with neuromuscular diseases and to verify their usefulness to detect vital risks. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional Descriptive-Observational study was carried out, where 30 children and adolescents with neuromuscular diseases were evaluated on an outpatient basis, from March 2017 to August 2018. Results: 46% of all patients presented a non-functional cough with a high risk of complications and only 10% of all patients were eligible for spirometry studies. During the spirometric tests, 50% of the patients managed to maintain expiration for 6 seconds. In 70% of the patients, abnormalities in the Flow-Volume curve could be detected. Conclusion: Although spirometry is the main pulmonary function test, its usefulness and efficacy in neuromuscular diseases depends on the findings of specific alterations in the morphology of the flow-volume curve, which in many cases are not possible to distinguish.


Subject(s)
Spirometry , Cough , Lung , Neuromuscular Diseases , Respiratory Function Tests , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Control
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 200-206, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Covid-19 became a pandemic, and researchers have not been able to establish a treatment algorithm. The pregnant population is also another concern for health care professionals. There are physiological changes related to pregnancy that result in different laboratory levels, radiological findings and disease progression. The goal of the present article is to determine whether the laboratory results and radiological findings were different in non-pregnant women (NPWs) of reproductive age and pregnant women (PWs) diagnosed with the Covid-19 infection. Methods Out of 34 patients, 15 (44.11%) PWs and 19 (55.8%) NPWs were included in the study. Age, comorbidities, complaints, vitals, respiratory rates, computed tomography (CT) findings and stages, as well as laboratory parameters, were recorded from the hospital database. Results Themean age of the PWs was of 27.6 ± 0.99 years, and that of the NPWs was of 37.63 ± 2.00; when agewas compared between the groups, a statistically significant difference (p=0.001) was found. The mean systolic blood pressure of the PWs was of 116.53 ± 11.35, and that of the NPWs was of 125.53 ± 13.00, and their difference was statistically significant (p=0.05). The difference in the minimum respiratory rates of the patients was also statistically significant (p=0.05). The platelet levels observed among the PWs with Covid-19 were lower than those of the NPWs (185.40 ± 39.09 x 109/mcL and 232.00 ± 71.04 x 109/mcL respectively; p=0.05). The mean D-dimer value of the PWs was lower in comparison to that of the NPWs (p<0.05). Conclusion The laboratory findings and imaging studiesmay differ between pregnant and non-pregnant populations. It is important to properly interpret these studies. Future studies with a higher number of patients are required to confirm these preliminary data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , COVID-19/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 240-242, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248742

ABSTRACT

Abstract Small vessel vasculitis with anti-proteinase antibodies 3 is an atypical clinical presentation of tuberculosis. The authors present the case of a 47-year-old male patient, with palpable purpura and palmoplantar hemorrhagic blisters, with subsequent dissemination. He presented severe pulmonary symptoms with cavitation, fever, hemoptysis, and high levels of anti-proteinase 3. Histopathological assessment of the skin revealed small vessel vasculitis; pulmonary histopathology showed granulomas with caseation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was positive for alcohol-acid-fast bacilli. In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, the presence of autoantibodies in a patient with vasculitis, fever, and pulmonary cavitation requires investigation of infectious causes.


Subject(s)
Vasculitis/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Vascular , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Myeloblastin , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Hemoptysis/etiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
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