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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 23-30, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551185

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La EBUS ha sido el foco de numerosos estudios destinados a evaluar su utilidad y rendimiento diagnóstico en diversas patologías. Objetivo principal: Identificación de las características ganglionares evaluadas en el procedimiento de Ultrasonido Endobronquial (EBUS) y su relación con el diagnóstico de malignidad en pacientes del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de Colombia del 1 de enero de 2017 al 31 de marzo de 2021.Métodos: Estudio analítico observacional transversal. La recopilación de datos implicó un muestreo de casos consecutivos no probabilísticos entre individuos que cumplían los criterios de inclusión.Resultados: Un total de 75 pacientes fueron sometidos a EBUS. Se identificaron 6 características ecográficas de los ganglios de la biopsia asociadas a malignidad destacándose los ganglios mayores de 1 cm, márgenes mal definidos, ecogenicidad heterogénea, ausencia de una estructura hiliar central, presencia de signos de necrosis o coagulación y presencia de conglomerado ganglionar. Conclusión: Este estudio caracterizó la frecuencia de los hallazgos en la ultrasonografía endobronquial destacando algunas características ecográficas de los ganglios mediastínicos que podrían predecir patología maligna.


Introduction: The EBUS has been the focus of numerous studies aiming to evaluate its utility and diagnostic performance across various pathologies. Objective: Identification of the node characteristics evaluated in the Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) procedure and their relationship with malignancy diagnosis in patients at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia from January 1st, 2017, to March 31st, 2021. Methods: Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Data collection involved non-probabilistic consecutive case sampling among individuals meeting the inclusion criteria.Results: A total of 75 patients underwent the EBUS procedure. Our findings revealed six predictors of malignancy based on sonographic features of biopsy nodes, including nodes larger than 1 cm, poorly defined margins, heterogeneous echogenicity, absence of a central hilar structure, presence of signs indicating necrosis or coagulation, and the presence of a ganglion conglomerate. Conclusions: This study showed that endobronchial ultrasonography has several sonographic characteristics at the time of evaluating mediastinal nodes that could predict malignant and benign pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Colombia , Neoplasm Staging/methods
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(1): 94-99, 20240102. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526827

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La gastrectomía y disección ganglionar es el estándar de manejo para los pacientes con cáncer gástrico. Factores como la identificación de ganglios por el patólogo, pueden tener un impacto negativo en la estadificación y el tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el recuento ganglionar de un espécimen quirúrgico después de una gastrectomía completa (grupo A) y de un espécimen con un fraccionamiento por grupos ganglionares (grupo B). Métodos. Estudio de una base de datos retrospectiva de pacientes sometidos a gastrectomía D2 en el Servicio de Cirugía gastrointestinal de la Liga Contra el Cáncer seccional Risaralda, Pereira, Colombia. Se comparó el recuento ganglionar en especímenes quirúrgicos con y sin división ganglionar por regiones anatómicas previo a su envío a patología. Resultados. De los 94 pacientes intervenidos, 65 pertenecían al grupo A y 29 pacientes al grupo B. El promedio de ganglios fue de 24,4±8,6 y 32,4±14,4 respectivamente (p=0,004). El porcentaje de pacientes con más de 15 y de 25 ganglios fue menor en el grupo A que en el grupo B (27 vs 57, p=0,432 y 19 vs 24, p=0,014). El promedio de pacientes con una relación ganglionar menor 0,2 fue mayor en el grupo B (72,4 % vs 55,4 %, p=0,119). Conclusiones. Los resultados de nuestro estudio mostraron que una división por grupos ganglionares previo a la valoración del espécimen por el servicio de patología incrementa el recuento ganglionar y permite establecer de manera certera el pronóstico de los pacientes, teniendo un impacto positivo en su estadificación, para evitar el sobretratamiento


Introduction. A gastrectomy and lymph node dissection is the standard of management for patients with gastric cancer. Factors such as the identification of nodes by the pathologist can have a negative impact on staging and treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the lymph node count of a surgical specimen after a complete gastrectomy (group A) and of a specimen with lymph node by groups (group B). Methods. Study of a retrospective database of patients undergoing D2 gastrectomy in the Risaralda section of the Liga Contra el Cancer Gastrointestinal surgical service, Pereira, Colombia. The lymph node count was compared in surgical specimens with and without lymph node division by anatomical regions, prior to sending them to pathology. Results. Of the 94 patients who underwent surgery, 65 were from group A and 29 patients were from group B. The average number of nodes was 24.4±8.6 and 32.4±14.4, respectively (p=0.004). The percentage of patients with more than 15 and 25 nodes was lower in group A than in group B (27 vs 57, p=0.432 and 19 vs 24, p=0.014). The average number of patients with a nodal ratio less than 0.2 was higher in group B (72.4% vs 55.4%, p=0.119). Conclusions. The results of our study showed that a division by lymph node groups prior to the evaluation of the specimen by the pathology service increases the lymph node count and allows the prognosis of patients to be accurately established, having a positive impact on their staging, to avoid overtreatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging , Gastrectomy , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
3.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1-14, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010130

ABSTRACT

Lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) is common in mid-low rectal cancer and is also a major cause of postoperative local recurrence. Currently, there is still controversy regarding the diagnosis and treatment of LLNM in rectal cancer. This consensus, based on the "Chinese Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Lateral Lymph Node Metastasis in Rectal Cancer (2019 edition)," incorporates the latest domestic and international research findings and revises aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment strategies, follow-up, and management of recurrence of LLNM in rectal cancer. A total of 42 domestic colorectal cancer experts participated in this consensus. It proposes 18 consensus statements on the diagnosis and treatment of LLNM, using the evaluation criteria of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force for grading recommendations. The aim is to standardize further the diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies for LLNM in rectal cancer. Unresolved issues in this consensus require further clinical practice and active engagement in high-quality clinical research to explore and address them progressively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Consensus , Lymph Nodes , Rectal Neoplasms , China
4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 23: e243908, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553393

ABSTRACT

Aim: To carry out a retrospective analysis of the frequency and severity of clinical signs of radioiodine (131I)-induced damage to the salivary glands in the early and long-term post-radiation periods, and identify risk factors for their occurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Methods: A total of 330 patients underwent thyroidectomy with dissection of lymphatic nodes. One month after surgery, all the patients received radioiodine therapy. The dose and number of courses varied depending on the stage and morphological type of the tumor. In the late post-radiation period, the patients were surveyed with the use of a standard questionnaire, which allowed retrospective assessment of the nature and severity of symptoms of radiationinduced damage, as well as the time of their onset/subsidence. Results: Radiation-induced sialoadenitis of the salivary glands was observed in 51.2% of patients treated with 131I. The main symptoms included pain and discomfort in the salivary glands (51.2% of patients), swelling (48.8%), transient or permanent dry mouth (38%), and distortion of taste (38%). There were statistically significant correlations between the presence and severity of the main clinical symptoms of salivary gland irradiation. A significant relationship (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) was found between swelling of the salivary glands and the feeling of pain or discomfort, which was indicative of inflammation and retention of saliva. Conclusion: The main factors influencing the formation of chronic radiation-induced sialoadenitis and the severity of the inflammatory process included the tumor stage, the total dose of radiopharmaceuticals, and the duration following radioiodine therapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Radiotherapy , Salivary Glands , Xerostomia , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Lymph Nodes
5.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 251-255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970187

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of digestive system with poor prognosis,and surgical resection is still the only hope for a radical cure. Although the current consensus and guidelines describe in detail the standard and extended range of lymph node dissection,the selection of specific range of lymph node dissection and its impact on prognosis are still controversial. Current studies have not only proposed some improved extent of lymph node dissection, such as total mesopancreas excision and Heidelberg triangle dissection, but also suggested different extent of lymph node dissection for ventral and dorsal pancreatic head cancer. In addition, the prognosis of pancreatic head cancer in uncinate process and non-uncinate process is different after para-aortic lymph node dissection, which is worthy of further study. Neoadjuvant therapy or conversion therapy provides more surgical opportunities for patients with pancreatic cancer. For these patients, Heidelberg triangle dissection has potential value in improving prognosis. This paper summarizes the exploration and latest progress of standard and extended lymph node dissection, lymph node dissection of specific site of pancreatic head cancer and the extent of lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant/transformation therapy in recent years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Pancreas/pathology , Prognosis
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 82-87, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969809

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of superior mediastinal lymph node metastases (sMLNM) in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Methods: This retrospective analysis enrolled the patients who were treated for sMLNM of MTC in our hospital from May 2012 to January 2021. All patients were suspected of sMLNM due to preoperative imaging. According to the pathological results, the patients were divided into two groups named sMLNM group and the negative superior-mediastinal-lymph-node group. We collected and analyzed the clinical features, pathological features, pre- and post-operative calcitonin (Ctn), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels of the two groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors, and receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to determine the optimal cut-off values of preoperative Ctn and preoperative CEA for predicting sMLNM. Results: Among the 94 patients, 69 cases were in the sMLNM group and 25 cases were in the non-SMLNM group. Preoperative Ctn level (P=0.003), preoperative CEA level (P=0.010), distant metastasis (P=0.022), extracapsular lymph node invasion (P=0.013), the number of central lymph node metastases (P=0.002) were related to sMLNM, but the multivariate analysis did not find any independent risk factors. The optimal threshold for predicting sMLNM by pre-operative Ctn is 1500 pg/ml and AUC is 0.759 (95% CI: 0.646, 0.872). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of diagnosis are 61.2%, 77.3%, 89.1%, 39.5%, respectively. In patients who underwent mediastinal lymph node dissection through transsternal approach, the metastatic possibility of different levels from high to low were level 2R (82.3%, 28/34), level 2L (58.8%, 20/34), level 4R (58.8%, 20/34), level 3 (23.5%, 8/34), level 4L (11.8%, 4/34). Postoperative complications occurred in 41 cases (43.6%), and there was no perioperative death in all cases. 14.8% (12/81) of the patients achieved biochemical complete response (Ctn≤12 pg/ml) one month after surgery, 5 of these patients were in sMLNM group. Conclusions: For patients who have highly suspicious sMLNM through imaging, combining with preoperative Ctn diagnosis can improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially for patients with preoperative Ctn over 1 500 pg/ml. The superior mediastinal lymph node dissection for the primary sternotomy should include at least the superior mediastinal levels 2-4 to avoid residual lesions. The strategy of surgery needs to be cautiously performed. Although the probability of biochemical cure in sMLNM cases is low, nearly 40% of patients can still benefit from the operation at the biochemical level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods
7.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 736-741, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To review the research progress of supraclavicular vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT).@*METHODS@#The research literature related to supraclavicular VLNT at home and abroad in recent years was extensively reviewed, and the anatomy of supraclavicular lymph nodes, clinical applications, and complications of supraclavicular VLNT were summarized.@*RESULTS@#The supraclavicular lymph nodes are anatomically constant, located in the posterior cervical triangle zone, and the blood supply comes mainly from the transverse cervical artery. There are individual differences in the number of supraclavicular lymph nodes, and preoperative ultrasonography is helpful to clarify the number of lymph nodes. Clinical studies have shown that supraclavicular VLNT can relieve limb swelling, reduce the incidence of infection, and improve quality of life in patients with lymphedema. And the effectiveness of supraclavicular VLNT can be improved by combined with lymphovenous anastomosis, resection procedures, and liposuction.@*CONCLUSION@#There are a large number of supraclavicular lymph nodes, with abundant blood supply. It has been proven to be effective for any period of lymphedema, and the combined treatment is more effective. The more clinical studies are needed to clarify the effectiveness of supraclavicular VLNT alone or in combination, as well as the surgical approach and timing of the combined treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Lymphedema/surgery , Lymph Nodes/blood supply , Lymphatic Vessels/surgery , Extremities
8.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 464-470, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981292

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is a common malignant tumor of the urinary system.The prognosis of patients with positive lymph nodes is worse than that of patients with negative lymph nodes.An accurate assessment of preoperative lymph node statushelps to make treatmentdecisions,such as the extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Imaging examination and pathological examination are the primary methods used to assess the lymph node status of bladder cancer patients before surgery.However,these methods have low sensitivity and may lead to inaccuate staging of patients.We reviewed the research progress and made an outlook on the application of clinical diagnosis,imaging techniques,radiomics,and genomics in the preoperative evaluation of lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer patients at different stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Cystectomy/methods , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology
9.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 355-360, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981278

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a nomogram for predicting the risk of cervical lymph node metastasis in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods The patients with complete clinical data of DTC and cervical lymph node ultrasound and diagnosed based on pathological evidence from January 2019 to December 2021 were assigned into a training group (n=444) and a validation group (n=125).Lasso regression was performed to screen the data with differences between groups,and multivariate Logistic regression to establish a prediction model with the factors screened out by Lasso regression.C-index and calibration chart were employed to evaluate the prediction performance of the established model. Results The predictive factors for establishing the model were lymph node short diameter≥0.5 cm,long-to-short-axis ratio<2,disappearance of lymph node hilum,cystic transformation,hyperechogenicity,calcification,and abnormal blood flow (all P<0.001).The established model demonstrated a good discriminative ability,with the C index of 0.938 (95%CI=0.926-0.961) in the training group. Conclusion The nomogram established based on the ultrasound image features of cervical lymph nodes in DTC can accurately predict the risk of cervical lymph node metastasis in DTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nomograms , Lymphatic Metastasis , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Neck/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 871-878, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007381

ABSTRACT

Surgical resection remains the cornerstone of the multidisciplinary treatment for patient with localized esophageal cancer. Lymphadenectomy is a pivotal step of radical esophagectomy, which is advanced technique required. Although the consensus on mediastinal lymph node dissection in the radical esophagectomy had been published in China, no agreement or consensus are available on the abdominal lymph node dissection. Based on the latest guidelines or consensuses, available clinical evidence, and agreements from Chinese expert panel of abdominal lymph node dissection in the radical esophagectomy, Chinese Society of Esophageal Cancer, China Anti-cancer Association organized experts to discuss and write this consensus. The expert consensus focuses on the key points of and makes recommendations for surgical approach, extent of lymphadenectomy, quality control and complication management for abdominal lymph node dissection in the radical esophagectomy in China. Applying a standard and efficient abdominal lymph node dissection in the radical surgical resection for patient with esophageal cancer is important and indispensable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophagectomy/methods , Consensus , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , China , Lymph Nodes/pathology
11.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 733-741, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012282

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationships between molecular types of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) of patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) and lymph node metastasis and other clinicopathological features. Methods: The clinical pathological information of 295 patients with EC who underwent initial inpatient surgical treatment and accepted the detection of the molecular types of TCGA with next-generation sequencing technology at Peking University People's Hospital were collected during April 2016 and May 2022. The TCGA molecular typing of EC was divided into four types: POLE-ultramutated (15 cases), high microsatellite instability (MSI-H; 50 cases), copy-number low (CNL; 175 cases), and copy-number high (CNH; 55 cases). The differences of clinical pathological features among different molecular types and the risk factors of lymph node metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Among 295 patients with EC, the average age was (56.9±0.6) years. (1) There was a statistically significant difference in lymph node metastasis (0, 8.0%, 10.3% and 25.5%) among the four molecular types (χ2=12.524, P=0.006). There were significant differences in age, stage, pathological type, grade (only endometrioid carcinoma), myometrium invasion, lymphatic vascular space infiltration, and estrogen receptor among the EC patients of four molecular types (all P<0.05). Among them, while in the patients with CNH type, the pathological grade was G3, the pathological type was non-endometrioid carcinoma, and the proportion of myographic infiltration depth ≥1/2 were higher (all P<0.05). (2) Univariate analysis suggested that pathological type, grade, myometrium infiltration depth, cervical interstitial infiltration, lymphatic vascular space infiltration, and progesterone receptor were all factors which significantly influence lymph node metastasis (all P<0.01); multivariate analysis suggested that the lymphatic vascular space infiltration was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis (OR=5.884, 95%CI: 1.633-21.211; P=0.007). (3) The factors related to lymph node metastasis were different in patients with different molecular types. In the patients with MSI-H, the non-endometrioid carcinoma of pathological type was independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis (OR=29.010, 95%CI: 2.067-407.173; P=0.012). In the patients with CNL, myometrium infiltration depth≥1/2 (OR=4.995, 95%CI: 1.225-20.376; P=0.025), lymphatic vascular space infiltration (OR=14.577, 95%CI: 3.603-58.968; P<0.001) were the independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. While in the CNH type patients pathological type of non-endometrioid carcinoma (OR=7.451, 95%CI: 1.127-49.281; P=0.037), cervical interstitial infiltration (OR=22.938, 95%CI: 1.207-436.012; P=0.037), lymphatic vascular space infiltration (OR=9.404, 95%CI: 1.609-54.969; P=0.013), were the independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: POLE-ultramutated EC patients have the lowest risk of lymph node metastasis, and CNH patients have the highest risk of lymph node metastasis. The risk factors of lymph node metastasis of different molecular types are different. According to preoperative pathological and imaging data, lymph node metastasis is more likely to occur in patients with non-endometrioid carcinoma in MSI-H and CNH type patients, and lymph node metastasis is more likely to occur in patients with myometrium infiltration depth ≥1/2 in CNL type patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Molecular Typing
12.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 796-800, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011045

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between preoperative platelet parameters and the clinicopathological features of differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with thyroid tumors admitted to Zhongda Hospital affiliated to Southeast University and healthy adults with normal physical examination results in our hospital from January 2019 to December 2020, and collected their general information and preoperative blood routine data. Patients with undifferentiated thyroid cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hematological diseases, kidney diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic diseases, infectious diseases, other systemic tumors, hepatitis or cirrhosis, or those taking anticoagulants were excluded. The exclusion criteria for healthy adults were the absence of the above diseases and normal physical examination results. Differences in platelet parameters among the three groups were compared, and the correlation between clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer, accompanying cervical lymph node metastasis, and platelet parameters of patients was analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors of thyroid cancer with cervical lymph node metastasis. Results:A total of 117 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer were collected, including 33 males and 84 females, with an average age of (41.64±12.25) years; 46 patients had benign thyroid tumors, including 15 males and 31 females, with an average age of (41.35±12.52) years; 50 healthy adults with normal physical examination results in our hospital during the same period were also included, including 18 males and 32 females, with an average age of(42.02±9.62) years, without underlying diseases. The platelet count of the differentiated thyroid cancer group was higher than that of the benign thyroid tumor group(t=-2.219, P=0.028) and the normal control group(t=2.069, P=0.04), while the platelet distribution width of the differentiated thyroid cancer group was lower than that of the benign thyroid tumor group(t=2.238, P=0.027) and the normal control group(t=-2.618, P=0.002). These differences were statistically significant. Preoperative age ≤45 years(χ²=4.225, P=0.04), tumor diameter>1 cm(χ²=4.415, P=0.036), PLT(t=-4.018, P<0.01) increase, and PDW(t=4.568, P<0.01) decrease were significantly correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer and had statistical significance. Univariate analysis showed that age ≤45 years(OR=0.447, 95%CI 0.206-0.970, P=0.042), tumor diameter>1 cm(OR=2.3, 95%CI 1.050-5.039, P=0.037), PLT(OR=1.012, 95%CI 1.005-1.019, P=0.001), and PDW(OR=0.693, 95%CI 0.518-0.827, P<0.01) were risk factors for cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. The results of multifactorial logistic regression analysis showed that PLT(OR=1.008, 95%CI 1.001-1.016, P=0.026) and PDW(OR=0.692, 95%CI 0.564-0.848, P<0.01) were independent risk factors for thyroid cancer with cervical lymph node metastasis. Conclusion:PLT and PDW may be useful predictive factors for the differentiation of thyroid cancer malignancy and central lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Neck/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Adenocarcinoma
13.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 667-670, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011028

ABSTRACT

A case of laryngeal cancer complicated with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated in the Department of Otolaryngology Head and neck surgery of the First Hospital of Jilin University was reported. Under general anesthesia, right vertical partial laryngectomy, bilateral neck lymph node functional dissection and temporary tracheotomy were performed. No recurrence was found in laryngoscope and color Doppler ultrasound of neck lymph nodes 3 and 5 months after operation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Hodgkin Disease/complications , Neck/pathology , Neck Dissection , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Laryngectomy , Carcinoma/pathology
14.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 985-997, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010577

ABSTRACT

Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first station of lymph nodes that extend from the breast tumor to the axillary lymphatic drainage. The pathological status of these LNs can predict that of the entire axillary lymph node. Therefore, the accurate identification of SLNs is necessary for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) to replace axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The quality of life and prognosis of breast cancer patients are related to proper surgical treatment after the precise identification of SLNs. Some of the SLN tracers that have been identified include radioisotope, nano-carbon, indocyanine green (ICG), and methylene blue (MB). However, these tracers have certain limitations, such as pigmentation, radiation dangers, and the requirement for costly detection equipment. Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have good specificity and sensitivity, and thus can compensate for some shortcomings of the mentioned tracers. This technique is also being applied to SLNB in patients with breast cancer, and can even provide an initial judgment on SLN status. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has the advantages of high distinguishability, simple operation, no radiation harm, low cost, and accurate localization; therefore, it is expected to replace the traditional biopsy methods. In addition, it can significantly enhance the accuracy of SLN localization and shorten the operation time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Lymph Nodes/surgery
15.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 675-679, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986836

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with skip metastasis at esophageal resection margin during radical gastrectomy. Methods: This is a descriptive study of case series. Relevant data from 2006 to 2022 were collected from two major gastric cancer consultation and treatment centers: Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital and Jinling Hospital.Characteristics, surgical approach, number of dissected lymph nodes, immunohistochemical staining, and pathological staging were summarized and analyzed. The distribution of residual tumor cells at the esophageal margins was further analyzed at the cellular and tissue levels. Skip metastasis at the esophageal resection margin was defined as a negative esophageal margin with a positive margin in the cephalad donut. Results: Thirty (0.33%, 30/8972) eligible patients, 24 (80.0%) of whom were male, were identified in the two centers. The mean age was 63.9±11.0 years. Seventeen (56.7%) of these patients had papillary or tubular adenocarcinomas, including 13 (43.3%) poorly- and four (13.3%) moderately-differentiated tumors; four (13.3%) had signet-ring cell carcinomas; four (13.3%) mucinous adenocarcinomas; three (10.0%) mixed adenocarcinomas, including two with poorly-differentiated tubular adenocarcinomas mixed with signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma; and one had a poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma mixed with signet-ring cell carcinoma. Two patients (6.7%) had other types of cancer, namely adenosquamous carcinoma in one patient and undifferentiated carcinoma in the other one. The predominant tumor sites were the lesser curvature (n=26, 86.7%) and the cardia (n=24, 80.0%). The mean tumor diameter was 6.6 cm, mean distance between tumor and esophageal resection margin was 1.5 cm, and proportions of tumor invasion into the dentate line, nerves, and vessels were 80.0% (24/30), 86.7%(26/30), and 93.3% (28/30), respectively. The mean number of lymph nodes resected was 20.4±8.9. The pathological stage was mainly T4 (n=18, 60.0%) and N3 (n=21, 70.0%), the median Ki67 was 52.7%, and the rates of positivity for HER2, EGFR, VEGFR, E-cadherin and PD-L1 were 40.0% (12/30), 46.7% (14/30), 80.0% (24/30), 86.7% (26/30) and 16.7% (5/30), respectively. At the cellular level, cancer cells were mainly distributed in small focal areas, as cell masses, or as tumor thrombi; large numbers of widely distributed atypic cells were seldom observed. At the tissue level, cancer cells were located in the mucosal layer in seven patients (23.3%), in the submucosal layer in 18 (60.0%), and in the muscular layer in five (16.7%); no cancer cells were identified in the outer membrane. Five of the seven tumors were located in the lamina propria, two in the muscularis mucosae, and none in the mucosal epithelium. Conclusion: Patients with skip metastasis at the esophageal resection margin at radical gastrectomy have unfavorable tumor biology and a high proliferation index, are at a late pathological stage, and the residual cancer is mostly located in the submucosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Margins of Excision , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrectomy , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 644-649, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986833

ABSTRACT

Radical resection of gastrointestinal tumors based on the membrane anatomy theory has significantly reduced the postoperative recurrence rate and improved the surgical efficacy. However, the theory of membrane anatomy has not been widely adopted in radical surgery for esophageal cancer. Our study found that the esophagus also has a membranous anatomical structure. As a foregut organ, the esophagus also has a mesenteric structure, and there is also a fifth metastasis pathway within the esophageal mesentery for esophageal cancers. The leak and metastasis of cancer caused by destruction of the mesenteric integrity may be the fundamental reason for the high postoperative recurrence rate. Using the nano carbon and indocyanine green fluorescence tracing technique, we demonstrated the lymphatic drainage of the upper esophageal segment to the left gastric artery mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, in the radical resection of esophageal cancer, we used the membrane anatomy theory for guidance to completely remove the esophageal cancer, esophageal mesentery, left gastric artery and its mesentery, as well as all structures within the mesentery, preventing the spread of cancer cells through the blood vessels, lymphatic system, and mesentery, and improving the efficacy and prognosis. This article elaborates on the theoretical basis of the anatomical structure of the esophageal membrane, embryonic development, imaging, autopsy, and endoscopic observation of the structure, as well as the application effect of the esophageal membrane anatomical theory in esophageal cancer radical surgery. It elucidates the anatomical structure of the esophageal membrane and the lymphatic drainage characteristics of esophageal cancer, reveals the law of lymphatic metastasis in esophageal cancer, optimizes lymphatic dissection strategies, and improves the efficacy of esophageal cancer radical surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Nodes , Endoscopy , Dissection
17.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 633-638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986831

ABSTRACT

There is a consensus that selectively perform splenic lymph node dissection is necessary for high-risk patients with proximal gastric cancer to achieve radical treatment. However, there are still some outstanding issues that need to be solved during the practice of splenic lymph node dissection. These include poorly defined boundaries, technical difficulties, and blurred boundaries in No. 10 and No. 11 lymph nodes, etc. Membrane anatomy has achieved successful applications in the field of gastric and colorectal surgery in recent years. The study of membrane anatomy in the splenic hilum region is controversial due to the special location of the splenic hilum, which involves multiple organs and affiliated mesentery undergoing complex rotation, folding, and fusion during embryonic development. In this manuscript, we summarize the following points based on existing research and personal experience regarding membrane anatomy. 1. There is a membrane anatomical structure that can be used for lymph node dissection in the splenic hilum region. 2. The membrane structure in the splenic hilum region can be divided into two layers: the superficial layer is composed of the dorsal mesogastrium, and the deep layer is composed of Gerota fascia, the tail of the pancreas, and the mesentery of the transverse colon (from head to tail). 3. There is a loose space between the two layers that can be used for separation during surgery. The resection of the dorsal mesogastrium belongs to D2 dissection. The No. 10 lymph node in the deeper layer belongs to the duodenal mesentery, and the resection of the No.10 lymph node exceeds D2 dissection. The complete excision of the gastric dorsal mesentery is consistent with the D2+CME surgical mode proposed by Gong Jianping's group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Laparoscopy , Gastrectomy , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Node Excision
18.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 492-498, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986817

ABSTRACT

Early colorectal cancers refer to invasive cancers that have infiltrated into the submucosa without invading muscularis propria, and approximately 10% of these patients have lymph node metastases that cannot be detected by conventional imaging. According to the guidelines of Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Colorectal Cancer, early colorectal cancer cases with risk factors for lymph node metastasis (poor tumor differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, deep submucosal invasion and high-grade tumor budding) should receive salvage radical surgical resection; however, the specificity of this risk-stratification is inadequate, making most patients undergo unnecessary surgery. Firstly, this review focuses on the definition, oncological impact importance and controversy of the above "risk factors". Then, we introduce the progress of the risk stratification system for lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer, including the identification of new pathological risk factors, the construction of new risk quantitative models based on pathological risk factors, artificial intelligence and machine learning technology and the discovery of novel molecular markers associated with lymph node metastasis based on gene test or liquid biopsy. Aim to enhance clinicians' understanding of the risk assessment of lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer; we suggest to take the patient's personal situation, tumor location, anti-cancer intention and other factors into account to make individualized treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Artificial Intelligence , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Lymph Nodes/pathology
19.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 325-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986793

ABSTRACT

Due to the anatomical specificity of esophagus, esophagectomy can be carried out using different approaches, such as left transthoracic, right transthoracic and transhiatal approaches. Each surgical approach is associated with a different prognosis due to the complex anatomy. The left transthoracic approach is no longer the primary choice due to its limitations in providing adequate exposure, lymph node dissection, and resection. The right transthoracic approach is capable of achieving a larger number of dissected lymph nodes and is currently considered the preferred procedure for radical resection. Although the transhiatal approach is less invasive, it could be challenging to perform in a limited operating space and has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Minimally invasive esophagectomy offers a wider range of surgical options for treating esophageal cancer. This paper reviews different approaches to esophagectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/methods
20.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 319-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986792

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor in China. For resectable ones, surgery is still the primary treatment. At present, the extent of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Extended lymphadenectomy makes metastatic lymph nodes more likely to be resected, which contributed to pathological staging and postoperative treatment. However,it may also increase the risk of postoperative complications and affect prognosis. Therefore, it is controversial how to balance the optimal extent/number of dissected lymph nodes for radical resection with the lower risk of severe complications. In addition, whether the lymph node dissection strategy should be modified after neoadjuvant therapy needs to be investigated, especially for patients who have a complete response to neoadjuvant therapy. Herein, we summarize the clinical experience on the extent of lymph node dissection in China and worldwide, aiming to provide guidence for the extent of lymph node dissection in esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Esophagectomy
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