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Diagn. tratamento ; 29(1): 40-42, jan-mar. 2024. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1551779


Contexto: A rotura da inserção distal do tendão semimembranoso é uma lesão ocasionada no tendão de um dos músculos do grupo isquiotibiais, acarretando dor no joelho. Para o diagnóstico da lesão do tendão semimembranoso, a ressonância magnética é a principal modalidade de imagem. Descrição do caso: Homem de 63 anos acusa dor no joelho esquerdo há 1 semana. Apresenta melhora da dor com repouso e medicação. Ao exame físico, apresenta teste de Waldron positivo e testes de McMurray e Appley negativos, com edema articular, sem hematomas, apresentando limitação à movimentação devido à dor. A ressonância magnética apresenta a rotura do semimembranoso, e o tratamento foi realizado com medicação analgésica e anti-inflamatória. Discussão: Essa rotura é rara, e surge de uma força em valgo em uma perna hiperextendida externamente. O uso de esteroides anabolizantes pode aumentar o risco de rotura do tendão. Contudo, a ultrassonografia é um método de fácil acesso e é cada vez mais utilizada. O diagnóstico é realizado por meio de ressonância magnética. Seu tratamento pode ser realizado com anti-inflamatórios ou reparo cirúrgico. Conclusão: Relatamos um caso de rotura do tendão semimembranoso, composta por uma sintomatologia como dor no joelho, que pode ser tratada com anti-inflamatório ou reparo cirúrgico.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rupture , Tendons , Pain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Knee Joint
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202202978, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525840


El síndrome de Brown-Séquard es el conjunto de signos y síntomas causado por hemisección medular de diversos orígenes. Puede generarse por múltiples causas; las traumáticas son las más frecuentes. Las causas menos frecuentes son patología inflamatoria, isquémica, tumoral o infecciosa. Se presenta un niño de 12 años, con instauración aguda y progresiva de un síndrome de hemisección medular derecho, con parálisis hipo/arrefléctica homolateral y afectación de sensibilidad termoalgésica contralateral. En la resonancia magnética de médula espinal, se observó compromiso inflamatorio en hemimédula derecha a nivel de segunda y tercera vértebras torácicas. Con diagnóstico de mielitis transversa idiopática, inició tratamiento con corticoide intravenoso a altas dosis con evolución clínica favorable y restitución de las funciones neurológicas.

Brown-Séquard syndrome refers to a set of signs and symptoms caused by hemisection of the spinal cord from various sources. It may have multiple causes; traumatic injuries are the most frequent ones. The less common causes include inflammation, ischemia, tumors, or infections. This report is about a 12-year-old boy with an acute and progressive course of right hemisection of the spinal cord, with ipsilateral hypo/areflexic paralysis and contralateral loss of thermalgesic sensation. The MRI of the spinal cord showed inflammation in the right side of the spinal cord at the level of the second and third thoracic vertebrae. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic transverse myelitis and was started on intravenous high-dose corticosteroids; he showed a favorable clinical course and recovered neurological functions.

Humans , Male , Child , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Brown-Sequard Syndrome/diagnosis , Brown-Sequard Syndrome/etiology , Myelitis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Inflammation/complications
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 50-64, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010668


The organization of the brain follows a topological hierarchy that changes dynamically during development. However, it remains unknown whether and how cognitive training administered over multiple years during development can modify this hierarchical topology. By measuring the brain and behavior of school children who had carried out abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training for five years (starting from 7 years to 12 years old) in pre-training and post-training, we revealed the reshaping effect of long-term AMC intervention during development on the brain hierarchical topology. We observed the development-induced emergence of the default network, AMC training-promoted shifting, and regional changes in cortical gradients. Moreover, the training-induced gradient changes were located in visual and somatomotor areas in association with the visuospatial/motor-imagery strategy. We found that gradient-based features can predict the math ability within groups. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic nature of network recruitment impacted by long-term cognitive training during development.

Child , Humans , Cognitive Training , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain , Brain Mapping , Motor Cortex
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 157-170, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010660


In this study, we investigated how empathic neural responses unfold over time in different empathy networks when viewing same-race and other-race individuals in dynamic painful conditions. We recorded magnetoencephalography signals from Chinese adults when viewing video clips showing a dynamic painful (or non-painful) stimulation to Asian and White models' faces to trigger painful (or neutral) expressions. We found that perceived dynamic pain in Asian models modulated neural activities in the visual cortex at 100 ms-200 ms, in the orbitofrontal and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices at 150 ms-200 ms, in the anterior cingulate cortex around 250 ms-350 ms, and in the temporoparietal junction and middle temporal gyrus around 600 ms after video onset. Perceived dynamic pain in White models modulated activities in the visual, anterior cingulate, and primary sensory cortices after 500 ms. Our findings unraveled earlier dynamic activities in multiple neural circuits in response to same-race (vs other-race) individuals in dynamic painful situations.

Adult , Humans , Brain Mapping , Pain , Empathy , Racism , Gyrus Cinguli/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain/physiology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 465-472, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007760


BACKGROUND@#To perform anatomical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), tunnels should be placed relatively higher in the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint based on the findings of direct and indirect femoral insertion. But the clinical results of higher femoral tunnels (HFT) in double-bundle ACLR (DB-ACLR) remain unclear. The purpose was to investigate the clinical results of HFT and lower femoral tunnels (LFT) in DB-ACLR.@*METHODS@#From September 2014 to February 2016, 83 patients who underwent DB-ACLR and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into HFT-ACLR (group 1, n = 37) and LFT-ACLR (group 2, n = 46) according to the position of femoral tunnels. Preoperatively and at the final follow-up, clinical scores were evaluated with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Tegner activity, and Lysholm score. The stability of the knee was evaluated with KT-2000, Lachman test, and pivot-shift test. Cartilage degeneration grades of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Graft tension, continuity, and synovialization were evaluated by second-look arthroscopy. Return-to-sports was assessed at the final follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Significantly better improvement were found for KT-2000, Lachman test, and pivot-shift test postoperatively in group 1 ( P >0.05). Posterolateral bundles (PL) showed significantly better results in second-look arthroscopy regarding graft tension, continuity, and synovialization ( P <0.05), but not in anteromedial bundles in group 1. At the final follow-up, cartilage worsening was observed in groups 1 and 2, but it did not reach a stastistically significant difference ( P >0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in IKDC subjective score, Tegner activity, and Lysholm score between the two groups. Higher return-to-sports rate was found in group 1 with 86.8% (32/37) vs. 65.2% (30/46) in group 2 ( P = 0.027).@*CONCLUSION@#The HFT-ACLR group showed better stability results, better PL, and higher return-to-sports rate compared to the LFT-ACLR group.

Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Knee Joint/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 73-81, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007745


BACKGROUND@#Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has a high mortality rate and is the most common indication for heart transplantation. Our study sought to develop a multiparametric nomogram to assess individualized all-cause mortality or heart transplantation (ACM/HTx) risk in DCM patients.@*METHODS@#The present study is a retrospective cohort study. The demographic, clinical, blood test, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data of DCM patients in the tertiary center (Fuwai Hospital) were collected. The primary endpoint was ACM/HTx. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression model was applied for variable selection. Multivariable Cox regression was used to develop a nomogram. The concordance index (C-index), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to evaluate the performance of the nomogram.@*RESULTS@#A total of 218 patients were included in the present study. They were randomly divided into a training cohort and a validation cohort. The nomogram was established based on eight variables, including mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index, free triiodothyronine, and N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide. The AUCs regarding 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year ACM/HTx events were 0.859, 0.831, and 0.840 in the training cohort and 0.770, 0.789, and 0.819 in the validation cohort, respectively. The calibration curve and DCA showed good accuracy and clinical utility of the nomogram.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We established and validated a circulating biomarker- and CMRI-based nomogram that could provide a personalized prediction of ACM/HTx for DCM patients, which might help risk stratification and decision-making in clinical practice.

Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Gadolinium , Ventricular Function, Left , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Biomarkers , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Singapore medical journal ; : 23-29, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007306


INTRODUCTION@#Ultrasonography (US) is the current standard of care for imaging surveillance in patients at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been explored as an alternative, given the higher sensitivity of MRI, although this comes at a higher cost. We performed a cost-effective analysis comparing US and dual-sequence non-contrast-enhanced MRI (NCEMRI) for HCC surveillance in the local setting.@*METHODS@#Cost-effectiveness analysis of no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance was performed using Markov modelling and microsimulation. At-risk patient cohort was simulated and followed up for 40 years to estimate the patients' disease status, direct medical costs and effectiveness. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were calculated.@*RESULTS@#Exactly 482,000 patients with an average age of 40 years were simulated and followed up for 40 years. The average total costs and QALYs for the three scenarios - no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance - were SGD 1,193/7.460 QALYs, SGD 8,099/11.195 QALYs and SGD 9,720/11.366 QALYs, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Despite NCEMRI having a superior diagnostic accuracy, it is a less cost-effective strategy than US for HCC surveillance in the general at-risk population. Future local cost-effectiveness analyses should include stratifying surveillance methods with a variety of imaging techniques (US, NCEMRI, contrast-enhanced MRI) based on patients' risk profiles.

Humans , Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
Singapore medical journal ; : 9-15, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007298


INTRODUCTION@#A previous prospective, randomised controlled trial showed that animated videos shown to children before magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan reduced the proportion of children needing repeated MRI sequences and improved confidence of the children staying still for at least 30 min. Children preferred the interactive video. We hypothesised that the interactive video is non-inferior to showing two videos (regular and interactive) in improving children's cooperativeness during MRI scans.@*METHODS@#In this Institutional Review Board-approved prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial, 558 children aged 3-20 years scheduled for elective MRI scan from June 2017 to March 2019 were randomised into the interactive video only group and combined (regular and interactive) videos group. Children were shown the videos before their scan. Repeated MRI sequences, general anaesthesia (GA) requirement and improvement in confidence of staying still for at least 30 min were assessed.@*RESULTS@#In the interactive video group ( n = 277), 86 (31.0%) children needed repeated MRI sequences, two (0.7%) needed GA and the proportion of children who had confidence in staying still for more than 30 min increased by 22.1% after the video. In the combined videos group ( n = 281), 102 (36.3%) children needed repeated MRI sequences, six (2.1%) needed GA and the proportion of children who had confidence in staying still for more than 30 min increased by 23.2% after the videos; the results were not significantly different between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#The interactive video group demonstrated non-inferiority to the combined videos group.

Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Young Adult , Anesthesia, General , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Simulation Training , Video Recording
Cir. Urug ; 8(1): e302, 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1550202


El Adenoma Hepatocelular (AH) es un tumor hepático benigno, su diagnóstico ha avanzado gracias a los avances en los métodos moleculares, facilitaron dividirlos en subtipos, con diferentes pronósticos e indicaciones terapéuticas. Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente, de 40 años con hallazgo ecográfico de tumor hepático, la Tomografía de Abdomen y Pelvis voluminosa lesión sólida heterogénea, en la Resonancia Magnética compatible con Adenoma esteatósico (asociado a mutación HNF1 alfa). Se decide tratamiento quirúrgico, con resección de los segmentos 6 y 7. La Anatomía patológica concluye: Compatible con el subtipo inflamatorio. Los Adenoma hepáticos (AH) son tumores raros, solitarios de estirpe epitelial, benignos. Se presentan en mujeres de edad fértil y asociado al consumo de anticonceptivos orales y estrógenos. Estos tumores predominan en hígado derecho, con proliferación de células parecidas a los hepatocitos normales, pero desorganizados y sin arquitectura lobular normal, sin ductos biliares ni tejido conectivo de sostén. Los AH así como el resto de los tumores hepáticos benignos, han aumentado su incidencia de la mano con el avance de la imagenología abdominal. La importancia de la diferenciación con el resto de los tumores hepáticos benignos surge del potencial maligno de éstos. Podemos clasificar a los pacientes según el perfil molecular asociado a marcadores inmunohistoquímicos. Los estudios de imagen son fundamentales para la diferenciación tumoral en diagnóstico y planear la terapéutica. El tratamiento será individualizado, determinada por la clínica, la variedad de subtipos, y la evolución. Debido a la complejidad de la enfermedad, el tratamiento de la HA es uno de los mejores ejemplos de abordaje individualizado en unidades hepatobiliares.

Hepatocellular adenoma (HA) is a benign liver tumor, its diagnosis has advanced thanks to advances in molecular methods, which facilitated its division into subtypes, with different prognoses and therapeutic indications. We present the clinical case of a 40-year-old patient with an ultrasound finding of a liver tumor, a voluminous heterogeneous solid lesion on a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis, compatible with a steatotic adenoma on MRI (associated with HNF1 alpha mutation). Surgical treatment was decided, with resection of segments 6 and 7. The pathology concluded in short: Compatible with the inflammatory subtype. Hepatic adenomas (HA) are rare, solitary, benign epithelial tumors. They occur in women of childbearing age and associated with the consumption of oral contraceptives and estrogens. These tumors predominate in the right liver, with proliferation of cells similar to normal hepatocytes, but disorganized and without normal lobular architecture, without bile ducts or supporting connective tissue. HA, as well as the rest of the benign liver tumors, have increased their incidence in the hand with the advancement of abdominal imaging. The importance of differentiation with the rest of the benign liver tumors arises from the malignant potential of these. We can classify patients according to the molecular profile associated with immunohistochemical markers. Imaging studies are fundamental for tumor differentiation in diagnosis and therapeutic planning. The treatment will be individualized, determined by the clinic, the variety of subtypes, and the evolution. Due to the complexity of the disease, the treatment of AH is one of the best examples of an individualized approach in hepatobiliary units.

O adenoma hepatocelular (AH) éum tumor benigno do fígado, seu diagnóstico avançougraçasaosavanços dos métodos moleculares, que facilitaramsuadivisão em subtipos, com diferentes prognósticos e indicaçõesterapêuticas. Apresentamos o caso clínico de umadoente de 40 anoscomachadoultrassonográfico de tumor hepático, volumosalesão sólida heterogénea à TC de abdómen e pelve, compatívelcom adenoma esteatótico à RM (associado a mutação HNF1 alfa ). Optou-se por tratamentocirúrgico, comressecção dos segmentos 6 e 7. A patologiaconcluiu-se resumidamente: Compatívelcom o subtipo inflamatório. Os adenomas hepáticos (AH) são tumores epiteliais raros, solitários e benignos. Ocorrem em mulheres em idadereprodutiva e associadasao consumo de anticoncepcionaisorais e estrogênios. Esses tumores predominam no fígadodireito, comproliferação de células semelhantesaoshepatócitosnormais, porém desorganizados e semarquitetura lobular normal, sem ductos biliares outecido conjuntivo de sustentação. O HA, assim como os demais tumores hepáticos benignos, têm aumentado suaincidêncianamãocom o avanço da imagem abdominal. A importância da diferenciaçãocom os demais tumores hepáticos benignos decorre do potencial maligno destes. Podemos classificar os pacientes de acordocom o perfil molecular associado a marcadores imuno-histoquímicos. Os estudos de imagemsãofundamentais para a diferenciação tumoral no diagnóstico e planejamentoterapêutico. O tratamento será individualizado, determinado pela clínica, variedade de subtipos e evolução. Pela complexidade da doença, o tratamento da HA é um dos melhoresexemplos de abordagem individualizada nas unidades hepatobiliares.

Humans , Female , Adult , Adenoma, Liver Cell/surgery , Adenoma, Liver Cell/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography , Treatment Outcome
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1531280


Introducción: La cirugía mínimamente invasiva de columna se ha vuelto cada vez más popular en los últimos años. Se han desarrollado técnicas nuevas y menos invasivas que se han convertido en procedimientos de elección para determinadas enfermedades. El tamaño del corredor aorto-psoas es un factor determinante al elegir la técnica oblicua de fusión intersomática. Objetivos: Describir las modificaciones en el tamaño del corredor aorto-psoas en decúbito lateral derecho y decúbito supino mediante resonancia magnética y su asociación con el índice de masa corporal. materiales y métodos: Se realizó una resonancia magnética de los espacios discales de L1-L2 a L4-L5 a 13 voluntarios en decúbito supino y decúbito lateral derecho. Se midió el corredor y se comparó el tamaño en cada nivel. Resultados: El tamaño del corredor aorto-psoas y de la distancia arteria-disco tuvo un aumento estadísticamente significativo al posicionar al paciente en decúbito lateral derecho. Conclusiones: La resonancia magnética es de suma importancia en la planificación prequirúrgica, pues deja en evidencia la movilidad de las estructuras abdominales. Se producen cambios significativos en el corredor aorto-psoas y la distancia arteria-disco al ubicar al paciente en decúbito lateral derecho. Sin embargo, estos cambios no tienen una relación significativa con el índice de masa corporal. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) has gained popularity in recent years. New and less invasive techniques have emerged as the preferred procedures for certain pathologies. The size of the aorta-psoas corridor is decisive when choosing the oblique interbody fusion technique. Objectives: To describe the changes in the size of the aorta-psoas corridor in the right lateral decubitus and supine decubitus positions by magnetic resonance imaging and their association with body mass index. materials and methods: 13 volunteers underwent MRI of the disc spaces from L1-L2 to L4-L5 in the supine and right lateral decubitus positions. The corridor was measured, and the sizes at each level were compared. Results: A statistically significant increase in the size of the aorta-psoas corridor and the artery-disc distance was obtained when positioning the patient in the right lateral decubitus position. However, these have no significant relationship with BMI. Conclusions: The use of MRI in pre-surgical planning is extremely important. This study reveals the mobility of the abdominal structures. We can conclude that, as stated in the objective of the study, significant changes occur in the aorta-psoas corridor and the artery-disc distance when the patient is positioned in the right lateral decubitus position. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Fusion , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Lumbar Vertebrae
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(6): 351-358, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530033


Objetivo: Reportar el resultado a largo plazo de una serie de fetos con agenesia del septum pellucidum aislada (ASP), con medición de su quiasma óptico mediante neurosonografía fetal (NSG). Método: Se incluyeron todas las pacientes con ASP y NSG evaluadas desde el año 2008 a la fecha y con seguimiento hasta su edad escolar. En todos los casos se consignaron los datos clínicos de NSG y de resonancia magnética (RM), cuando esta se realizó. Se entrevistó telefónicamente a los padres. Resultados: Nueve pacientes cumplieron los criterios: cuatro con displasia septo-óptica (DSO) (rango de seguimiento: 5-14 años) y cinco sin DSO (rango de seguimiento: 7-10 años). Un décimo caso se excluyó por tener solo 6 meses de seguimiento. Ninguna de las ASP tuvo otra anomalía detectada en su seguimiento. Ninguno de los casos con DSO tuvo alteración del tamaño de su quiasma óptico en la NSG ni anormalidad en la vía óptica en la RM. Conclusiones: En nuestra población, el riesgo residual de DSO frente a ASP es del 44,4%. En el seguimiento, nuestra definición de ASP por NSG no tuvo falsos negativos con relación a otras anomalías de aparición posnatal, a excepción de la DSO.

Objective: To report the long-term outcome of a series of fetuses with isolated septum pellucidum agenesis (ASP) with measurement of their optic chiasm by fetal neurosonography (NSG). Method: All patients with ASP and NSG evaluated from 2008 to date and with follow-up until their school age were included. In all cases, clinical, NSG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were recorded. Parents were interviewed by telephone. Results: Nine patients met the criteria: four with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) (follow-up range: 5-14 years) and five without SOD (follow-up range: 7-10 years). A tenth case was excluded because only 6 months of follow-up. None of the ASP cases had another anomaly detected in their follow-up. None of the cases with DSO had anomaly of the size of their optic chiasm on NSG or abnormality in the optical pathway in the MRI. Conclusions: In our population, the residual risk of DSO versus ASP is 44.4%. At follow-up, our NSG definition of ASP had no false negatives in relation to other postnatal-onset anomalies, except for SOD.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Optic Chiasm/diagnostic imaging , Septum Pellucidum/abnormalities , Septum Pellucidum/diagnostic imaging , Septo-Optic Dysplasia/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fetus
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202853, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518733


Se informa de un lipoblastoma perineal en una niña de 5 años localizado en el labio mayor derecho. La lesión aumentó gradualmente en 6 meses. En la ecografía y la resonancia magnética (RM), se observó un tumor heterogéneo sólido limitado con componente graso. Tras su extirpación quirúrgica, el estudio anatomopatológico confirmó un lipoblastoma. El lipoblastoma es un tumor mesenquimatoso benigno poco frecuente de la lactancia y la primera infancia. Los síntomas varían en función de la localización; pueden observarse signos de compresión de los órganos adyacentes. Este tipo de tumores inusuales de los tejidos blandos son más frecuentes en menores de 3 años. Los lipoblastomas se localizan predominantemente en las extremidades, pero también pueden encontrarse en la cabeza y el cuello, el tronco, el mediastino, el riñón, el mesenterio, el retroperitoneo y el perineo. Se debe sospechar su presencia en función de los hallazgos de la ecografía y la RM.

We reported a perineal lipoblastoma in a 5-year-old girl located in the right labia mayor. The lesion gradually increased within 6 months. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a limited solid heterogenous tumor with fatty component. After it had been surgically removed, the anatomopathological examination confirmed that it was a lipoblastoma. Lipoblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of infancy and early childhood. Symptoms vary depending on localization; signs of compression of adjacent organs may be seen. This type of unusual soft tissue tumors occurred most often in under 3 years old. The localization of lipoblastomas is predominantly in the extremities but may be also found in other sites including the head and neck, trunk, mediastinum, kidney, mesentery, retropritoneum and perineum. The suspicion should be considered according to ultrasound and MRI findings.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Lipoblastoma/surgery , Lipoblastoma/diagnosis , Lipoblastoma/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Kidney/pathology , Neck/pathology
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533510


Introducción: La enfermedad asociada a anticuerpos contra la glicoproteína de mielina del oligodendrocito (MOGAD, por sus siglas en inglés) es una entidad clínica recientemente identificada. La frecuencia de presentación del MOGAD es desconocida, pero se considera baja con respecto a otras enfermedades inflamatorias desmielinizantes. Materiales y métodos: Revisión narrativa de la literatura. Resultados: Las manifestaciones clínicas de esta condición son heterogéneas e incluyen neuritis óptica, mielitis, desmielinización multifocal del sistema nervioso central y encefalitis cortical. Se han descrito algunos hallazgos radiológicos que aumentan la sospecha diagnóstica, como el realce perineural del nervio óptico, el signo de la H en el cordón espinal y la resolución de lesiones T2 con el tiempo. El diagnóstico se basa en la detección de inmunoglobulinas G específicas contra MOG, en el contexto clínico adecuado. El tratamiento consiste en manejo de los ataques agudos con dosis altas de corticoides y en algunos casos se deberá considerar la inmunosupresión crónica, considerar la inmunosupresión crónica en pacientes con recurrencia o con discapacidad severa residual tras el primer evento. Conclusiones: En esta revisión narrativa se resumen los aspectos clave con respecto a la fisiopatología, las manifestaciones, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la MOGAD.

Introduction: The disease associated with antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOGAD) is a recently identified clinical entity, with unknown frequency, but is considered low compared to other demyelinating inflammatory diseases. Materials And Methods: Narrative review. Results: The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous, ranging from optic neuritis or myelitis to multi-focal CNS demyelination or cortical encephalitis. There have been described characteristic MRI features that increase the diagnostic suspicion, such as perineural optic nerve enhancement, spinal cord H-sign or T2-lesion resolution over time. The diagnosis is based on the detection of specific G- immunoglobulins against MOG, in the suggestive clinical context. Acute treatment is based on high dose steroids and maintenance treatment is generally reserved for relapsing cases or patients with severe residual disability after the first attack. Conclusions: In this narrative review, fundamental aspects of pathophysiology, clinical and radiological manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MOGAD are discussed.

Optic Neuritis , Oligodendrocyte-Myelin Glycoprotein , Myelitis , Serology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Immunosuppression Therapy
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (En línea) ; 43(4): 209-213, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537564


La amiloidosis siempre ha representado un desafío diagnóstico. En el año 2020, el Grupo de Estudio de Amiloidosis (GEA), confeccionó la Guía de Práctica Clínica para el Diagnóstico de Amiloidosis. Nuevas líneas de investigación se han desarrollado posteriormente. Esta revisión narrativa tiene como intención explorar el estado del arte en el diagnóstico de la amiloidosis. En pacientes con amiloidosis se recomienda la tipificación de la proteína mediante espectrometría de masa, técnica de difícil ejecución por requerir de microdisectores láser para la preparación de la muestra. Algunas publicaciones recientes proponen otros métodos para obtener la muestra de amiloide que se va a analizar, permitiendo prescindir de la microdisección. Por otra parte, en pacientes con Amiloidosis ATTR confirmada, la recomendación de secuenciar el gen amiloidogénico se encontraba destinada a los casos sospechosos de ATTR hereditaria (ATTRv,), pero actualmente esta se ha extendido a todos los pacientes sin importar la edad. En lo que respecta a los estudios complementarios orientados al diagnóstico de compromiso cardíaco, se ha propuesto el uso de la inteligencia artificial para su interpretación, permitiendo la detección temprana de la enfermedad y el correcto diagnóstico diferencial. Para el diagnóstico de neuropatía, las últimas publicaciones proponen el uso de la cadena ligera de neurofilamento sérica, que también podría resultar un indicador útil para seguimiento. Finalmente, con referencia a la amiloidosis AL, la comunidad científica se encuentra interesada en definir qué características determinan el carácter amiloidogénico de las cadenas livianas. La N-glicosilación de dichas proteínas impresiona ser uno de los determinantes en cuestión. (AU)

Amyloidosis has always represented a diagnostic challenge. In 2020, the Amyloidosis Study Group (ASG) developed the "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis". New lines of research have subsequently emerged. This narrative review aims to explore the state of the art in the diagnosis of amyloidosis diagnosis. In patients with amyloidosis, protein typing by mass spectrometry is recommended, a technique hard to perform because it requires laser microdissection for sample preparation. Recent publications propose other methods to obtain the amyloid sample to be analyzed, making it possible to dispense with microdissection. On the other hand, in patients with confirmed TTR amyloidosis (aTTR), the recommendation to sequence the amyloidogenic gene was intended for suspected cases of hereditary aTTR but has now been extended to all patients regardless of age. (AU)

Humans , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry , Biopsy , Glycosylation , Artificial Intelligence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1452-1460, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521031


Lograr determinar el volumen total de un hígado (VHT), o volumetría hepática, pasa a ser de relevancia en diversas situaciones, tales como, vigilancia del progreso de una enfermedad de carácter crónico, planificación de resecciones y trasplantes hepáticos; y observación del clearance hepático de algunos fármacos hepatotropos. La VHT se puede realizar utilizando métodos de segmentación en el curso de una tomografía computarizada (TC), ya sean estos manual, automáticos, y semiautomáticos; mediante resonancia nuclear (RN), utilizando softwares de distintas generaciones (1ª a 4ª). La medición de VHT está indicada en pacientes sometidos a resecciones hepáticas mayores, en el contexto del tratamiento de neoplasias (carcinoma hepatocelular, colangiocarcinoma, metástasis hepáticas o tumores benignos de gran tamaño), abscesos (piogénicos, amebianos), y después de un traumatismo hepático complejo; así como también en la etapa preoperatoria de un trasplante hepático. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de estudio sobre métodos para determinar volumetría hepática.

SUMMARY: Being able to determine the total hepatic volume (THV), or THV, becomes relevant in various situations, such as monitoring the progress of a chronic disease, planning resections and liver transplants; and observation of the hepatic clearance of some hepatotropic drugs. THV can be performed using segmentation methods in the course of a computed tomography (CT), whether manual, automatic, or semi-automated; by nuclear resonance (NR), using software from different generations (1st to 4st). THV measurement is indicated in patients undergoing major liver resections, in the context of treatment of neoplasms (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, liver metastases or large benign tumors), abscesses (pyogenic, amoebic), and after liver trauma complex, as well as in the preoperative stage of a liver transplant. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document regarding methods for determine hepatic volumetry.

Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(5): 719-726, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529950


Abstract Objective The objectives of this study are to compare absolute values of acromial index (AI) and critical shoulder angle (CSA) obtained in both radiographs and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the shoulder; and to compare the interobserver and intra-observer agreement for AI and CSA values measured in these image modalities. Methods Patients who had medical indication of investigating shoulders conditions through radiographs and MRI were included. Images were taken to two fellowship-trained shoulder surgeons, which conducted measurements of AI and CSA in radiographs and in MRI. Twelve weeks after the first evaluation, a second evaluation was conducted. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was presented as an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and agreement was classified according to Landis & Koch criteria. The differences between two measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results 134 shoulders in 124 subjects were included. Mean intra-observer ICC for CSA in X-rays and in MRI were 0.936 and 0.940, respectively; for AI, 0.908 and 0.022. Mean inter-observer ICC for CSA were 0.892 and 0.752 in X-rays and MRI respectively; for AI, ICC values were 0.849 and 0.685. All individual analysis reached statistical power (p< 0.001). Mean difference for AI values measured in X-rays and in MRI was 0.01 and 0.03 for observers 1 and 2, respectively. Mean difference for CSA values obtained in X-rays and MRI was 0.16 and 0.58 for observers 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion Both MRI and X-rays provided high intra- and interobserver agreement for measurement of AI and CSA. Absolute values found for AI and CSA were highly correlated in both image modalities. These findings suggest that MRI is a suitable method to measure AI and CSA. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Study.

Resumo Objetivo Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar os valores absolutos do índice acromial (IA) e do ângulo crítico do ombro (ACO) obtidos em radiografias e ressonâncias magnéticas (RM) do ombro e comparar a concordância interobservador e intraobservador dos valores de IA e ACO medidos nessas modalidades de imagem. Métodos Pacientes com indicação médica de investigação de doenças dos ombros por meio de radiografias e RM foram incluídos no estudo. As imagens foram levadas para dois cirurgiões de ombro treinados que realizaram medidas de IA e ACO em radiografias e RM. Doze semanas após a primeira avaliação, uma segunda avaliação foi realizada. A confiabilidade inter e intraobservador foi apresentada como coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI) e a concordância foi classificada segundo os critérios de Landis e Koch. As diferenças entre duas medidas foram avaliadas por meio de gráficos de Bland-Altman. Resultados Cento e trinta e quatro ombros de 124 indivíduos foram incluídos no estudo. O CCI intraobservador médio para ACO em radiografias e RM foi 0,936 e 0,940, respectivamente; para IA, foi 0,908 e 0,022. O CCI interobservador médio para ACO foi 0,892 e 0,752 em radiografias e RM, respectivamente; para IA, os valores de CCI foram 0,849 e 0,685. Todas as análises individuais apresentaram poder estatístico (p < 0,001). A diferença média dos valores de IA em radiografias e RM foi 0,01 e 0,03 para os observadores 1 e 2, respectivamente. A diferença média dos valores de ACO em radiografias e RM foi 0,16 e 0,58 para os observadores 1 e 2, respectivamente. Conclusão Tanto a RM quanto as radiografias tiveram alta concordância intra e interobservador para medida de IA e ACO. Os valores absolutos de IA e ACO foram altamente correlacionados em ambas as modalidades de imagem. Esses achados sugerem que a RM é um método adequado para determinação de IA e ACO. Nível de Evidência II, Estudo Diagnóstico.

Humans , Acromion , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Shoulder Impingement Syndrome , Rotator Cuff Injuries
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1166-1170, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514353


SUMMARY: Sex determination of unknown persons plays an important role in forensic science. As most bones used for sex determination are recovered in incomplete state, it is often necessary to use bones that are recovered intact e.g., the sphenoid sinus. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of sphenoid sinuses dimensions for sex determination using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images in Chinese adults. MRI images of 79 sphenoid sinuses (from 44 men and 35 women) were retrospectively selected. The height, anterior-posterior diameter, area, and perimeter were measured in the midsagittal view of the sphenoid sinuses. All data were subjected to descriptive and discriminative functional analysis with unpaired t-test and canonical discriminant. Comparison between male and female groups showed significant statistical differences regarding the height, anterior-posterior diameter, area, and perimeter of sphenoid sinuses. The predictive accuracy rate of the sphenoid sinus to identify sex was 63.6 % in males and 62.9 % in females with an overall accuracy of 63.3 %. This study proposed the importance of sexual dimorphism of sphenoid sinus dimensions, especially if other methods are not available. It suggested using MRI in forensics science thus obviating the complete dependence on the usage of conventional computed tomography (CT) and facilitating the study of forensic anatomy at the level of soft tissue.

La determinación del sexo de personas desconocidas juega un papel importante en la ciencia forense. Como la mayoría de los huesos utilizados para la determinación del sexo se recuperan en un estado incompleto, a menudo es necesario utilizar huesos recuperados intactos, por ejemplo, el seno esfenoidal. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el valor diagnóstico de las dimensiones de los senos esfenoidales para la determinación del sexo utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética en individuos adultos chinos. Se seleccionaron retrospectivamente imágenes de resonancia magnética de 79 senos esfenoidales (de 44 hombres y 35 mujeres). La altura, el diámetro anteroposterior, el área y el perímetro de los senos esfenoidales, se midieron en vista mediana sagital. Todos los datos se sometieron a análisis funcional descriptivo y discriminativo con prueba t no pareada y discriminante canónico. La comparación entre los grupos de hombres y mujeres mostró diferencias estadísticas significativas en cuanto a la altura, el diámetro anteroposterior, el área y el perímetro de los senos esfenoidales. La tasa de precisión predictiva del seno esfenoidal para identificar el sexo fue del 63,6 % en hombres y del 62,9 % en mujeres, con una precisión general del 63,3 %. Este estudio propuso la importancia del dimorfismo sexual de las dimensiones del seno esfenoidal, especialmente si no se dispone de otros métodos. Se sugiere utilizar la resonancia magnética en la ciencia forense, obviando así la dependencia total del uso de la tomografía computarizada convencional y facilitando con esto el estudio de la anatomía forense a nivel de los tejidos blandos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sphenoid Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Sphenoid Sinus/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Prospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Sciences
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1267-1272, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514354


SUMMARY: In the study, it was aimed to predict sex from hand measurements using machine learning algorithms (MLA). Measurements were made on MR images of 60 men and 60 women. Determined parameters; hand length (HL), palm length (PL), hand width (HW), wrist width (EBG), metacarpal I length (MIL), metacarpal I width (MIW), metacarpal II length (MIIL), metacarpal II width (MIIW), metacarpal III length (MIIL), metacarpal III width (MIIIW), metacarpal IV length (MIVL), metacarpal IV width (MIVW), metacarpal V length (MVL), metacarpal V width (MVW), phalanx I length (PILL), measured as phalanx II length (PIIL), phalanx III length (PIIL), phalanx IV length (PIVL), phalanx V length (PVL). In addition, the hand index (HI) was calculated. Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and Naive Bayes (NB) were used as MLAs. In the study, the KNN algorithm's Accuracy, SEN, F1 and Specificity ratios were determined as 88 %. In this study using MLA, it is understood that the highest accuracy belongs to the KNN algorithm. Except for the hand's MIIW, MIIIW, MIVW, MVW, HI variables, other variables were statistically significant in terms of sex difference.

En el estudio, el objetivo era predecir el sexo a partir de mediciones manuales utilizando algoritmos de aprendizaje automático (MLA). Las mediciones se realizaron en imágenes de RM de 60 hombres y 60 mujeres. Parámetros determinados; longitud de la mano (HL), longitud de la palma (PL), ancho de la mano (HW), ancho de la muñeca (EBG), longitud del metacarpiano I (MIL), ancho del metacarpiano I (MIW), longitud del metacarpiano II (MIIL), ancho del metacarpiano II (MIIW), longitud del metacarpiano III (MIIL), ancho del metacarpiano III (MIIIW), longitud del metacarpiano IV (MIVL), ancho del metacarpiano IV (MIVW), longitud del metacarpiano V (MVL), ancho del metacarpiano V (MVW), longitud de la falange I (PILL), medido como longitud de la falange II (PIIL), longitud de la falange III (PIIL), longitud de la falange IV (PIVL), longitud de la falange V (PVL). Además, se calculó el índice de la mano (HI). Regresión logística (LR), Random Forest (RF), Análisis discriminante lineal (LDA), K-vecino más cercano (KNN) y Naive Bayes (NB) se utilizaron como MLA. En el estudio, las proporciones de precisión, SEN, F1 y especificidad del algoritmo KNN se determinaron en un 88 %. En este estudio que utiliza MLA, se entiende que la mayor precisión pertenece al algoritmo KNN. Excepto por las variables MIIW, MIIIW, MIVW, MVW, HI de la mano, otras variables fueron estadísticamente significativas en términos de diferencia de sexo.

Humans , Male , Female , Carpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Finger Phalanges/diagnostic imaging , Metacarpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Algorithms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Carpal Bones/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Logistic Models , Finger Phalanges/anatomy & histology , Metacarpal Bones/anatomy & histology , Machine Learning , Random Forest
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1171-1176, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514356


SUMMARY: Volumetric assessment of brain structures is an important tool in neuroscience research and clinical practice. The volumetric measurement of normally functioning human brain helps detect age-related changes in some regions, which can be observed at varying degrees. This study aims to estimate the insular volume in the normally functioning human brain in both genders, different age groups, and side variations. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted on 42 adult Sudanese participants in Al-Amal Hospital, Sudan, between May to August 2022, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and automatic brain segmentation through a software program (BrainSuite). The statistical difference in total insular volume on both sides of the cerebral hemisphere was small. The insular volume on the right side was greater in males, while the left side showed no difference between both genders. A statistically significant difference between males and females was found (p > 0.05), and no statistical difference in different age groups was found according to the one-way ANOVA test (p>0.05). Adult Sudanese males showed a larger insular volume than females. MRI can be used to morphometrically assess the insula to detect any pathological variations based on volume changes.

La evaluación volumétrica de las estructuras cerebrales es una herramienta importante en la investigación y la práctica clínica de la neurociencia. La medición volumétrica del cerebro humano, que funciona normalmente, ayuda a detectar cambios relacionados con la edad en algunas regiones, las cuales se pueden observar en diversos grados. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo estimar el volumen insular en el cerebro humano que funciona normalmente, en ambos sexos, de diferentes grupos de edad y sus variaciones laterales. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo transversal en 42 participantes sudaneses adultos en el Hospital Al-Amal, Sudán, entre mayo y agosto de 2022, utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética y segmentación automática del cerebro a través de un software (BrainSuite). Fue pequeña la diferencia estadística en el volumen insular total, en los hemisferios cerebrales. El volumen insular del lado derecho fue mayor en los hombres, mientras que el lado izquierdo no mostró diferencia entre ambos sexos. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre hombres y mujeres (p > 0,05), y no se encontró diferencia estadística en los diferentes grupos de edad, según la prueba de ANOVA de una vía (p> 0,05). Los hombres sudaneses adultos mostraron un mayor volumen insular que las mujeres. La resonancia magnética se puede utilizar para evaluar morfométricamente la ínsula y para detectar cualquier variación patológica basada en cambios de volumen.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Software , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(2): 89-92, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510662


El linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central es una forma de enfermedad extraganglionar originada en el cerebro, la leptomeninges, la médula espinal o los ojos. Los tumores espinales son neoplasias de baja prevalencia y pueden causar una morbimortalidad neurológica considerable. El linfoma aislado que surge dentro del conducto dural es la forma menos común de linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central: representa aproximadamente el 1% de los casos y se observa más a menudo en el contexto de diseminación secundaria que como el sitio primario de origen. Los síntomas son inespecíficos y dependen del nivel espinal involucrado. La presentación es insidiosa e incluye dorsalgia, debilidad y dificultad progresiva para la deambulación. La resonancia magnética es la modalidad de elección para búsqueda de lesiones dentro del conducto espinal/raquídeo, en pacientes que presentan síntomas neurológicos. El tratamiento quirúrgico no resulta útil, y el objetivo principal de la cirugía es conocer el diagnóstico histológico. (AU)

A primary central nervous system lymphoma is a form of extranodal disease originating in the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, or eyes. Spinal tumors are low-prevalence neoplasms and can cause considerable neurological morbidity and mortality. An isolated lymphoma emerging within the dural canal is the rarest form of primary central nervous system lymphoma: it accounts for approximately 1% of cases occurring more often in the context of secondary dissemination than as the primary site of origin. Symptoms are nonspecific and depend on the spinal level involved. The presentation is insidious and includes dorsalgia, weakness, and progressive difficulty in ambulatory function. MRI is the modality of choice to search for lesions within the spinal/rachial canal in patients presenting with neurological symptoms. Surgical treatment is not helpful, and the main objective of surgery is to know the histological diagnosis. (AU)

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Central Nervous System/pathology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Laminectomy