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1.
Singapore medical journal ; : 23-29, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007306

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Ultrasonography (US) is the current standard of care for imaging surveillance in patients at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been explored as an alternative, given the higher sensitivity of MRI, although this comes at a higher cost. We performed a cost-effective analysis comparing US and dual-sequence non-contrast-enhanced MRI (NCEMRI) for HCC surveillance in the local setting.@*METHODS@#Cost-effectiveness analysis of no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance was performed using Markov modelling and microsimulation. At-risk patient cohort was simulated and followed up for 40 years to estimate the patients' disease status, direct medical costs and effectiveness. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were calculated.@*RESULTS@#Exactly 482,000 patients with an average age of 40 years were simulated and followed up for 40 years. The average total costs and QALYs for the three scenarios - no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance - were SGD 1,193/7.460 QALYs, SGD 8,099/11.195 QALYs and SGD 9,720/11.366 QALYs, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Despite NCEMRI having a superior diagnostic accuracy, it is a less cost-effective strategy than US for HCC surveillance in the general at-risk population. Future local cost-effectiveness analyses should include stratifying surveillance methods with a variety of imaging techniques (US, NCEMRI, contrast-enhanced MRI) based on patients' risk profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1171-1176, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514356

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Volumetric assessment of brain structures is an important tool in neuroscience research and clinical practice. The volumetric measurement of normally functioning human brain helps detect age-related changes in some regions, which can be observed at varying degrees. This study aims to estimate the insular volume in the normally functioning human brain in both genders, different age groups, and side variations. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted on 42 adult Sudanese participants in Al-Amal Hospital, Sudan, between May to August 2022, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and automatic brain segmentation through a software program (BrainSuite). The statistical difference in total insular volume on both sides of the cerebral hemisphere was small. The insular volume on the right side was greater in males, while the left side showed no difference between both genders. A statistically significant difference between males and females was found (p > 0.05), and no statistical difference in different age groups was found according to the one-way ANOVA test (p>0.05). Adult Sudanese males showed a larger insular volume than females. MRI can be used to morphometrically assess the insula to detect any pathological variations based on volume changes.


La evaluación volumétrica de las estructuras cerebrales es una herramienta importante en la investigación y la práctica clínica de la neurociencia. La medición volumétrica del cerebro humano, que funciona normalmente, ayuda a detectar cambios relacionados con la edad en algunas regiones, las cuales se pueden observar en diversos grados. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo estimar el volumen insular en el cerebro humano que funciona normalmente, en ambos sexos, de diferentes grupos de edad y sus variaciones laterales. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo transversal en 42 participantes sudaneses adultos en el Hospital Al-Amal, Sudán, entre mayo y agosto de 2022, utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética y segmentación automática del cerebro a través de un software (BrainSuite). Fue pequeña la diferencia estadística en el volumen insular total, en los hemisferios cerebrales. El volumen insular del lado derecho fue mayor en los hombres, mientras que el lado izquierdo no mostró diferencia entre ambos sexos. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre hombres y mujeres (p > 0,05), y no se encontró diferencia estadística en los diferentes grupos de edad, según la prueba de ANOVA de una vía (p> 0,05). Los hombres sudaneses adultos mostraron un mayor volumen insular que las mujeres. La resonancia magnética se puede utilizar para evaluar morfométricamente la ínsula y para detectar cualquier variación patológica basada en cambios de volumen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Software , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 181-184, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515478

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Castleman (EC) describe una serie de desórdenes linfoproliferativos de patrones histológicos similares, pero de etiologías, presentaciones clínicas y enfrentamientos notoriamente variables. Se presenta el caso de un paciente que consultó por masa cervical, cuyo estudio final concluyó EC unicéntrica, la cual se resolvió de forma quirúrgica. Además, se presenta una revisión actualizada del tema, con foco en la enfermedad unicéntrica.


Castleman's disease (CD) describes several lymphoproliferative disorders with similar histological patterns, but with notoriously variable etiologies, clinical presentations, and management. We present the case of a patient who consulted with cervical mass, whose final study concluded with unicentric CD, which was treated surgically. In addition, an updated review of the subject is presented, focusing on unicentric disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Submandibular Gland/pathology , Castleman Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Castleman Disease/pathology
4.
FEMINA ; 51(4): 228-232, 20230430.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512396

ABSTRACT

PONTOS-CHAVE As lesões mamárias compreendem uma ampla variedade de diagnósticos que apresentam comportamentos diversos. As lesões mamárias podem ser classificadas como lesões benignas, de potencial de malignidade indeterminado (B3), carcinoma in situ e carcinoma invasor. Na era da medicina personalizada, individualizar e obter um diagnóstico preciso faz grande diferença no desfecho final da paciente, principalmente no caso do câncer de mama. Exames de imagem direcionados e de qualidade, métodos de biópsia adequadamente selecionados e análises de anatomopatologia convencional, imuno-histoquímica e até molecular são determinantes no diagnóstico e no manejo das pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Diseases/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mammography , Mammary Glands, Human/diagnostic imaging , Cell Biology
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431950

ABSTRACT

El colesteatoma congénito (CC) es una lesión benigna de epitelio escamoso queratinizado que puede afectar diferentes aéreas del hueso temporal con predominio en el oído medio. El CC es una patología poco frecuente que se presenta en pacientes pediátricos y clínicamente se manifiesta como una lesión blanquecina detrás de un tímpano indemne. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta historia de hipoacusia, otorrea, infección, perforación o cirugía otológica previa. Se analiza el caso de un prescolar con CC que consultó con trastorno de sueño sin sintomatología otológica, pero con otoscopía alterada como hallazgo clínico. En la resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) con secuencia de difusión, se evidenciaron hallazgos sugerentes de lesión colesteatomatosa en oído medio. Se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico endoscópico combinado con remoción completa de la lesión compatible histológicamente con CC y reconstrucción funcional con prótesis inactiva con resultado auditivo satisfactorio. El CC requiere alta sospecha diagnóstica por pediatras y otorrinolaringólogos, siendo imprescindible realizar un examen físico acucioso que incluya otoscopía de rutina, aunque el paciente no manifieste síntomas otológicos. El tratamiento es quirúrgico y debe considerar uso de endoscópico para asegurar una extracción completa de la lesión. En algunos casos es requerido realizar una reconstrucción auditiva para asegurar un óptimo resultado funcional.


Congenital cholesteatoma (CC) is a benign lesion of keratinized squamous epithelium that can affect different areas of the temporal bone, predominantly in the middle ear. CC is a rare pathology that occurs in pediatric patients and clinically manifests as a white lesion behind an intact eardrum. Most patients do not have a history of hearing loss, otorrhea, infection, perforation, or previous otologic surgery. The following, is the case of an infant with CC who consulted with a sleep disorder without otological symptoms but with altered otoscopy as a clinical finding. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with diffusion sequence with findings compatible with a cholesteatomatous lesion in the middle ear. Endoscopic surgical treatment was performed combined with complete removal of the lesion histologically compatible with CC and functional reconstruction with inactive prosthesis with satisfactory hearing results. CC requires high diagnostic suspicion by paediatrics and otorhinolaryngologists, and it is essential to perform a thorough physical examination that includes routine otoscopy even if the patient does not show otological symptoms. Treatment is surgical and endoscopic use should be considered to ensure complete removal of the lesion. In some cases, hearing reconstruction is required to ensure optimal functional results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Cholesteatoma/congenital , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/congenital , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cholesteatoma/diagnostic imaging , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 41-50, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431952

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad relacionada con inmunoglobulina (Ig) G4 es una enfermedad de reciente conocimiento que puede comprometer cualquier órgano teniendo preferencias por ciertas regiones del cuerpo, donde la región de cabeza y cuello es uno de sus principales puntos afectados, pudiendo comprometer tanto la órbita, glándulas salivales, glándulas lagrimales, glándula tiroides, cavidades paranasales, hueso temporal, faringe y laringe. Este último órgano es infrecuentemente comprometido, solo existiendo 12 casos registrados en la literatura antes de la publicación de este escrito. Presentamos un caso de una mujer de 49 años con historia de disnea frente a esfuerzo, diagnosticándose una estenosis subglótica la cual fue manejada quirúrgicamente con una reconstrucción laringotraqueal. En el estudio histopatológico se evidenció histología compatible con enfermedad relacionada con IgG4, por lo que se inició tratamiento médico con corticotera- pia oral por un lapso de 2 meses en conjunto con inmunología. Paciente luego de 4 años de seguimiento, no ha presentado recaídas, manteniendo un lumen subglótico adecuado.


Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease is a medical condition of recent knowledge that can compromise any organ, having preferences for certain regions of the body, where the head and neck region is one of the main affected points, being able to affect orbit, salivary glands, lacrimal glands, thyroid gland, paranasal cavities, temporal bone, pharynx and larynx. The latter is infrequently compromised, with only 12 cases registered in the literature before the publication of this writing. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman with a history of exertional dyspnea, diagnosed with a sub- glottic stenosis which was managed surgically with laryngotracheal reconstruction. The histopathological study revealed histology compatible with IgG4-related disease, so medical treatment with oral corticosteroid therapy was started for a period of 2 months in conjunction with immunology. After 4 years of follow-up, the patient has not presented relapses, maintaining an adequate subglottic lumen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/immunology , Neck/pathology , Neck/diagnostic imaging
7.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 60-65, mar. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431954

ABSTRACT

El tumor de Pott es una entidad rara, definida como un absceso subperióstico asociado a osteomielitis del hueso frontal. Suele presentarse como complicación de sinusitis aguda o crónica del seno frontal, y se describe con mayor incidencia en población pediátrica, siendo una complicación grave por su alta morbimortalidad. Se presenta a un paciente pediátrico con tumor de Pott y absceso cerebral posterior a una sinusitis aguda de foco odontogénico, en la que los pilares de tratamiento son drenaje quirúrgico precoz y antibioticoterapia prolongada. Se describe la clínica, manejo médico-quirúrgico y seguimiento posterior, ya que, en ausencia de antecedentes, se debe buscar dirigida- mente enfermedad periodontal y realizar un estudio de inmunodeficiencia primaria.


Pott's tumor is a rare entity, defined as a subperiosteal abscess associated with osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. It usually presents as a complication of acute or chronic sinusitis of the frontal sinus and it is described with a higher incidence in the pediatric population, being a serious complication due to its high morbidity and mortality. We present a pediatric patient with Pott's tumor and brain abscess after acute sinusitis of odontogenic focus, in which the pillars of treatment are an early surgical drainage and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The clinic, medical-surgical management and subsequent follow-up are described, since in the absence of antecedents, periodontal disease should be sought directly and a study of primary immunodeficiency performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Frontal Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Pott Puffy Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Frontal Sinusitis/drug therapy , Pott Puffy Tumor/drug therapy , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 36(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1522006

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infiltración del nervio óptico como forma inicial de recaída de la leucemia linfoblástica aguda es rara, aunque altamente indicativa de que el sistema nervioso central está involucrado. Objetivo: Actualizar el conocimiento sobre infiltración del nervio óptico como forma inicial de recaída de la leucemia linfoblástica aguda. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de las publicaciones más relevantes relacionadas con el tema durante los últimos años. La búsqueda y la localización de la información se apoyaron en la elección de palabras clave/descriptores que configuraron el perfil de búsqueda. Se utilizó el MeSH Database de PubMed. Se realizó una extensa revisión en Google Académico y otros megabuscadores de revisión sistemática mediante TripDatabase y Cochrane. Conclusiones: La infiltración directa de células tumorales y las alteraciones hematológicas propias de la enfermedad constituyen los mecanismos fundamentales de la fisiopatogenia. El edema del disco óptico es su signo oftalmoscópico más distintivo. La imagen por resonancia magnética de cráneo, el análisis citológico del fluido cerebroespinal y la biopsia de médula ósea negativas no deben excluir el diagnóstico. La terapia combinada que incluye la radiación localizada constituye una buena opción de tratamiento. Un número considerable de ojos recuperan su agudeza visual y muestran resolución del cuadro infiltrativo(AU)


Introduction: Optic nerve infiltration as an initial form of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is rare, although it is highly indicative of central nervous system involvement. Objective: To update the knowledge about optic nerve infiltration as an initial form of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: A review of the most relevant publications related to the subject during the last years was carried out. The search and localization of information was supported by the choice of keywords/descriptors that configured the search profile. The MeSH Database of PubMed was used. An extensive review was performed in Google Scholar and other systematic review mega search engines using TripDatabase and Cochrane. Conclusions: Direct tumor cell infiltration and disease-specific hematologic alterations are the fundamental mechanisms of pathophysiology. Optic disc edema is the most distinctive ophthalmoscopic sign. Negative cranial magnetic resonance imaging, cytologic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and bone marrow biopsy should not exclude the diagnosis. Combination therapy including localized radiation is a good treatment option. A considerable number of eyes recover visual acuity and show resolution of the infiltrative picture(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/physiopathology , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
9.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 838-842, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic value of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) 4 lesion in prostate peripheral zone.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of patients with PI-RADS 4 lesion in prostate peripheral zone who underwent prostate biopsy from January 2018 to September 2021 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively included. According to DCE status, the patients were divided into the conventional group (4 points for diffusion-weighted imaging) and the comprehensive group (3 points for diffusion-weighted imaging + 1 point for DCE positive). Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for comparison was conducted between prostate cancer and non-cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression were performed to analyze the correlation of positive biopsy with age, total prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA/total PSA (f/tPSA), prostate volume (PV), PSA density (PSAD) and DCE status.@*RESULTS@#Among the 267 prostate biopsy patients, 217 cases were diagnosed as prostatic cancer (81.27%) and 50 cases were non-cancer (18.73%). Statistical analysis between the prostatic cancer group and the non-cancer group showed that there were significant differences in age, tPSA, PV and PSAD (all P < 0.05), but no significant differences in f/tPSA between the two groups. About different PI-RADS 4 lesion groups, the conventional group and the comprehensive group showed significant difference in biopsy results (P=0.001), and the conventional group had a higher positive rate. The PV of comprehensive group was larger than that of the conventional group. Among the prostate cancer patients diagnosed by biopsy, statistical analysis between the conventional group and comprehensive group showed that there were not significant differences in International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade and distinguishing clinically significant prostate cancer (all P > 0.05). Logistic univariate analysis showed that the diagnosis of prostate cancer was related to age, tPSA, f/tPSA, PV and DCE group status (all P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that age, tPSA, PV and DCE group status (all P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for the diagnosis of prostatic cancer.@*CONCLUSION@#tPSA, f/tPSA, PV and PSAD are the indicators to improve the diagnosis of prostatic cancer with PI-RADS 4 lesion in peripheral zone lesions. DCE status is worth considering, so that we can select patients for biopsy more accurately, reduce the rate of missed diagnosis of prostate cancer as well as avoid unnecessary prostate puncture.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies
10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 812-817, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of targeted biopsy (TBx), systematic biopsy (SBx), TBx+6-core SBx in prostate cancer (PCa) / clinically significant prostate cancer (cs-PCa) for patients with prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score of 5, and thereby to explore an optimal sampling scheme.@*METHODS@#The data of 585 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) with at least one lesion of PI-RADS score 5 at Peking University First Hospital from January 2019 to June 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent mpMRI / transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) cognitive guided biopsy (TBx+SBx). With the pathological results of combined biopsy as the gold standard, we compared the diagnostic efficacy of TBx only, SBx only, and TBx+6-core SBx for PCa/csPCa. The patients were grouped according to mpMRI T-stage (cT2, cT3, cT4) and the detection rates of different biopsy schemes for PCa/csPCa were compared using Cochran's Q and McNemar tests.@*RESULTS@#Among 585 patients with a PI-RADS score of 5, 560 (95.7%) were positive and 25(4.3%) were negative via TBx+SBx. After stratified according to mpMRI T-stage, 233 patients (39.8%) were found in cT2 stage, 214 patients (36.6%) in cT3 stage, and 138 patients (23.6%) in cT4 stage. There was no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of PCa/csPCa between TBx+6-core SBx and TBx+SBx (all P>0.999). Also, there was no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of PCa/csPCa between TBx and TBx+SBx in the cT2, cT3, and cT4 subgroups (PCa: P=0.203, P=0.250, P>0.999; csPCa: P=0.700, P=0.250, P>0.999). The missed diagnosis rate of SBx for PCa and csPCa was 2.1% (12/560) and 1.8% (10/549), and that of TBx for PCa and csPCa was 1.8% (10/560) and 1.4% (8/549), respectively. However, the detection rate of TBx+6-core SBx for PCa and csPCa was 100%. Compared with TBx+SBx, TBx and TBx+6-core SBx had a fewer number of cores and a higher detection rate per core (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#For patients with a PI-RADS score of 5, TBx and TBx+6-core SBx showed the same PCa/csPCa detection rates and a high detection rates per core as that of TBx+SBx, which can be considered as an optimal scheme for prostate biopsy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 410-415, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981956

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings of prostate cancer (PCa) guided by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and to improve the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) system for avoiding unnecessary mpMRI-guided targeted biopsy (TB). From January 2018 to October 2019, fusion mpMRI and TRUS-guided biopsies were performed in 162 consecutive patients. The study included 188 suspicious lesions on mpMRI in 156 patients, all of whom underwent mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-guided TB and 12-core transperineal systematic biopsy (SB). Univariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between TRUS features and PCa. Then, logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was performed to determine the independent predictors of PCa and obtain the fitted probability of PCa. The detection rates of PCa based on TB alone, SB alone, and combined SB and TB were 55.9% (105 of 188), 52.6% (82 of 156), and 62.8% (98 of 156), respectively. The significant predictors of PCa on TRUS were hypoechogenicity (odds ratio [OR]: 9.595, P = 0.002), taller-than-wide shape (OR: 3.539, P = 0.022), asymmetric vascular structures (OR: 3.728, P = 0.031), close proximity to capsule (OR: 3.473, P = 0.040), and irregular margins (OR: 3.843, P = 0.041). We propose subgrouping PI-RADS score 3 into categories 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d based on different numbers of TRUS predictors, as the creation of PI-RADS 3a (no suspicious ultrasound features) could avoid 16.7% of mpMRI-guided TBs. Risk stratification of PCa with mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-directed ultrasound features could avoid unnecessary mpMRI-TBs.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods
12.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(3): 249-253, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522101

ABSTRACT

El neumoencéfalo es una patología que comúnmente se presenta después de cirugía neuroquirúrgica y ocasionalmente endonasal. Estos se suelen manejar de manera conservadora, sin embargo, se pueden asociar a distintas etiologías las cuales los hacen recurrir. En este reporte presentamos dos casos de neumoencéfalo tardío post quirúrgico asociado a fístulas de LCR de bajo flujo, donde se discute su clínica, etiología y manejo posterior.


Pneumocephalus is a pathology that commonly occurs after endonasal surgery, these are usually managed conservatively, however they can be associated with different etiologies which make them recur. In this report we present two cases of post-surgical late pneumocephalus associated with low-flow CSF fistulae, where its symptoms, etiology, and subsequent management are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumocephalus/surgery , Fistula/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumocephalus/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray/methods
13.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 371-375, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore relationship between bone marrow edema(BME) and osteoporosis in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis.@*METHODS@#Unmatched case-control study was conducted. Totally 160 patients with severe knee osteoarthritis who had undergone knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone mineral density examination (BMD) from January 2020 to March 2021 were included. Eighty patients complicated with BME were included in BME group, and 80 patients without BME were selected as NBME group. In BME group, there were 12 males and 68 females, aged from 51 to 80 years old with an average of(66.58±8.10) years old;the courses of disease ranged from 5 to 40 months with an average of (15.61±9.25) months;body mass index(BMI) ranged from 21.81 to 34.70 with an average of (27.79±3.00) kg·m-2;25 patients classified to grade Ⅲ and 55 patients grade Ⅳ according to Kellgren- Lawrence(K-L). In NBME group, there were 15 males and 65 females, aged from 50 to 80 years old with an average of(67.82±8.05) years old;the course of disease ranged from 6 to 37 months with an average of(15.75±8.18) months;BMI ranged from 21.39 to 34.46 with an average of (28.26±3.13) kg·m-2;25 patients were K-L Ⅲ and 55 patients with K-L Ⅳ. The degree of bone marrow edema was evaluated by knee whole oragan magnetic resonance imaging score(WORMS). Osteoporosis was diagnosed and BMD was evaluated by DXA T value. To explore the relationship between bone marrow edema and osteoporosis by comparing prevalence rate of osteoporosis between two groups, and to further explore relationship between BME and BMD by Spearman correlation analysis of BME WORMS score and DXA T value in BME group.@*RESULTS@#The complete case data were obtained on the first diagnosis, and there was no significant difference in sex, age, courses of disease and BMI between two groups (P>0.05). The proportion of K-L Ⅳ in BME group was significantly higher than that in NBME (P<0.05). The prevalence rate of osteoporosis in BME group was significantly higher than in NBME group with the same K-L grade (P<0.001), and there was a strong negative correlation between BME WORMS score and DXA BMD T value (r=-0.812, |r|=0.812 >0.8, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Osteoporosis is one of the risk factors of bone marrow edema in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, and the lower the bone mineral density is, the easier it is to be complicated with bone marrow edema.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Osteoarthritis, Knee/diagnostic imaging , Bone Marrow/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Bone Marrow Diseases/etiology , Osteoporosis/complications , Edema/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
14.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 329-335, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore correlation between femoral mechanical axis and Blumensaat line (FMBL) angle of knee joint (angle between Blumensaat line and femoral mechanical axis), α angle (angle between Blumensaat line and axis of distal femur in sagittal plane) on EOS biplane imaging and non-contact anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) injury, and evaluate angle for its accuracy in predicting the populations prone to non-contact ACL injury.@*METHODS@#From February 2018 to October 2020, EOS imaging and clinical data from 88 patients (176 knees) with unilateral non-contact ACL injury were retrospectively analyzed, including 53 males and 35 females, aged from 18 to 45 years old with an average of (30.3±6.2) years old, 48 patients on the left side and 40 patients on the right side. The patients were divided into ACL-affected group and ACL-health group according to side of ACL injuries, and 51 patients (51 knees) with non-ACL identified from EOS database were included in normal control group, including 28 males and 23 females, aged from 20 to 44 years old with an average of (31.6±5.5) years old, 26 patients on the left side and 25 patients on the right side. Full-length EOS imaging of skeleton extremitatis inferioris among three groups were reconstructed to 3D images of skeletal system with EOS software, and then FMBL angle and α angle were measured on the images. Univariate binary Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of the univariate(FMBL angle or α angle) on ACL status(normal or torn). And the angle cutoff value for univariate was selected based on receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) to got the best accuracy.@*RESULTS@#There was no statistically significant difference in age, gender and side distribution between ACL-injured group and normal control group(P>0.05). Statistical analyses (one-way ANOVA) indicated no significant difference in FMBL angle between ACL-injured knee group (32.8±2.3)° and ACL-injured contralateral knee group(32.5±2.3)°(P>0.05), but the values between two groups were significantly lower than that in normal control group (37.0±2.0)°(P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in α angle among three groups (P>0.05). Univariate binary Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FMBL angle was risk factor for non-contact ACL injury[OR=0.433, 95%CI(0.330, 0.569), P<0.001]. The area under ROC curve for FMBL angle was 0.909[95%CI(0.861, 0.958), P<0.001], and the sensitivity and specificity were 70.5% and 98.0% respectively, cut-off value was 33.7°.@*CONCLUSION@#FMBL angle formed by Blumensaat line and femoral mechanical axis is one of the risk factors for non-contact ACL injury and has good predictive accuracy. The general population with FMBL angle below 33.7° may be increased risk for ACL injury.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/diagnostic imaging , Knee Joint/diagnostic imaging
15.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 551-555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the feasibility of MRI three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model in quantifying glenoid bone defect by comparing with CT 3D reconstruction model measurement.@*METHODS@#Forty patients with shoulder anterior dislocation who met the selection criteria between December 2021 and December 2022 were admitted as study participants. There were 34 males and 6 females with an average age of 24.8 years (range, 19-32 years). The injury caused by sports injury in 29 cases and collision injury in 6 cases, and 5 cases had no obvious inducement. The time from injury to admission ranged from 4 to 72 months (mean, 28.5 months). CT and MRI were performed on the patients' shoulder joints, and a semi-automatic segmentation of the images was done with 3D slicer software to construct a glenoid model. The length of the glenoid bone defect was measured on the models by 2 physicians. The intra-group correlation coefficient ( ICC) was used to evaluate the consistency between the 2 physicians, and Bland-Altman plots were constructed to evaluate the consistency between the 2 methods.@*RESULTS@#The length of the glenoid bone defects measured on MRI 3D reconstruction model was (3.83±1.36) mm/4.00 (0.58, 6.13) mm for physician 1 and (3.91±1.20) mm/3.86 (1.39, 5.96) mm for physician 2. The length of the glenoid bone defects measured on CT 3D reconstruction model was (3.81±1.38) mm/3.80 (0.60, 6.02) mm for physician 1 and (3.99±1.19) mm/4.00 (1.68, 6.38) mm for physician 2. ICC and Bland-Altman plot analysis showed good consistency. The ICC between the 2 physicians based on MRI and CT 3D reconstruction model measurements were 0.73 [95% CI (0.54, 0.85)] and 0.80 [95% CI (0.65, 0.89)], respectively. The 95% CI of the difference between the two measurements of physicians 1 and 2 were (-0.46, 0.49) and (-0.68, 0.53), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The measurement of glenoid bone defect based on MRI 3D reconstruction model is consistent with that based on CT 3D reconstruction model. MRI can be used instead of CT to measure glenoid bone defects in clinic, and the soft tissue of shoulder joint can be observed comprehensively while reducing radiation.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Joint Instability , Shoulder Joint/diagnostic imaging , Shoulder Dislocation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
16.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 378-383, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981553

ABSTRACT

Magnetic ferrite nanoparticles (MFNPs) have great application potential in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, targeted drugs, magnetothermal therapy and gene delivery. MFNPs can migrate under the action of a magnetic field and target specific cells or tissues. However, to apply MFNPs to organisms, further modifications on the surface of MFNPs are required. In this paper, the common modification methods of MFNPs are reviewed, their applications in medical fields such as bioimaging, medical detection, and biotherapy are summarized, and the future application directions of MFNPs are further prospected.


Subject(s)
Ferric Compounds , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetics , Magnetite Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles
17.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 226-233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981533

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an important tool for prostate cancer diagnosis, and accurate segmentation of MR prostate regions by computer-aided diagnostic techniques is important for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this paper, we propose an improved end-to-end three-dimensional image segmentation network using a deep learning approach to the traditional V-Net network (V-Net) network in order to provide more accurate image segmentation results. Firstly, we fused the soft attention mechanism into the traditional V-Net's jump connection, and combined short jump connection and small convolutional kernel to further improve the network segmentation accuracy. Then the prostate region was segmented using the Prostate MR Image Segmentation 2012 (PROMISE 12) challenge dataset, and the model was evaluated using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff distance (HD). The DSC and HD values of the segmented model could reach 0.903 and 3.912 mm, respectively. The experimental results show that the algorithm in this paper can provide more accurate three-dimensional segmentation results, which can accurately and efficiently segment prostate MR images and provide a reliable basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
18.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 217-225, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981532

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. Neuroimaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most intuitive and reliable methods to perform AD screening and diagnosis. Clinical head MRI detection generates multimodal image data, and to solve the problem of multimodal MRI processing and information fusion, this paper proposes a structural and functional MRI feature extraction and fusion method based on generalized convolutional neural networks (gCNN). The method includes a three-dimensional residual U-shaped network based on hybrid attention mechanism (3D HA-ResUNet) for feature representation and classification for structural MRI, and a U-shaped graph convolutional neural network (U-GCN) for node feature representation and classification of brain functional networks for functional MRI. Based on the fusion of the two types of image features, the optimal feature subset is selected based on discrete binary particle swarm optimization, and the prediction results are output by a machine learning classifier. The validation results of multimodal dataset from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) open-source database show that the proposed models have superior performance in their respective data domains. The gCNN framework combines the advantages of these two models and further improves the performance of the methods using single-modal MRI, improving the classification accuracy and sensitivity by 5.56% and 11.11%, respectively. In conclusion, the gCNN-based multimodal MRI classification method proposed in this paper can provide a technical basis for the auxiliary diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , Neuroimaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
19.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 208-216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981531

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the problems of missing important features, inconspicuous details and unclear textures in the fusion of multimodal medical images, this paper proposes a method of computed tomography (CT) image and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image fusion using generative adversarial network (GAN) and convolutional neural network (CNN) under image enhancement. The generator aimed at high-frequency feature images and used double discriminators to target the fusion images after inverse transform; Then high-frequency feature images were fused by trained GAN model, and low-frequency feature images were fused by CNN pre-training model based on transfer learning. Experimental results showed that, compared with the current advanced fusion algorithm, the proposed method had more abundant texture details and clearer contour edge information in subjective representation. In the evaluation of objective indicators, Q AB/F, information entropy (IE), spatial frequency (SF), structural similarity (SSIM), mutual information (MI) and visual information fidelity for fusion (VIFF) were 2.0%, 6.3%, 7.0%, 5.5%, 9.0% and 3.3% higher than the best test results, respectively. The fused image can be effectively applied to medical diagnosis to further improve the diagnostic efficiency.


Subject(s)
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Algorithms
20.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 202-207, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981530

ABSTRACT

The registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images and intraoperative ultrasound (US) images is very important in the planning of brain tumor surgery and during surgery. Considering that the two-modality images have different intensity range and resolution, and the US images are degraded by lots of speckle noises, a self-similarity context (SSC) descriptor based on local neighborhood information was adopted to define the similarity measure. The ultrasound images were considered as the reference, the corners were extracted as the key points using three-dimensional differential operators, and the dense displacement sampling discrete optimization algorithm was adopted for registration. The whole registration process was divided into two stages including the affine registration and the elastic registration. In the affine registration stage, the image was decomposed using multi-resolution scheme, and in the elastic registration stage, the displacement vectors of key points were regularized using the minimum convolution and mean field reasoning strategies. The registration experiment was performed on the preoperative MR images and intraoperative US images of 22 patients. The overall error after affine registration was (1.57 ± 0.30) mm, and the average computation time of each pair of images was only 1.36 s; while the overall error after elastic registration was further reduced to (1.40 ± 0.28) mm, and the average registration time was 1.53 s. The experimental results show that the proposed method has prominent registration accuracy and high computational efficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Algorithms , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods
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