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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 27: e20220198, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1404746

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo analizar las experiencias de enfermeras en la toma de las citologías cervicales y otros factores organizacionales durante una intervención educativa asistida por metodologías B-learning. Método estudio cualitativo realizado en San Luis Potosí, México. Participaron 15 enfermeras. La recolección de datos se hizo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con base en una sistematización de experiencias. Para el análisis de la información se utilizó el programa Taguette y como referente teórico las metodologías B-learning. Resultados se identificaron debilidades en factores relacionados con la accesibilidad de las usuarias al servicio, insumos, infraestructura, bioseguridad, capacitación del personal de salud, entrega de resultados a las pacientes y conocimiento del programa por parte de las usuarias. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica el cáncer cervical es un problema de salud pública. La citología cervical es la prueba de tamizaje más utilizada; sin embargo, existen limitantes en la calidad, por lo que se proponen acciones para mejorar los conocimientos y habilidades del personal de enfermería que tiene como función la toma. La intervención educativa fue efectiva para fomentar el aprendizaje integral sobre la toma de las citologías cervicales y permitió al personal de enfermería compartir sus experiencias.


Resumo Objetivo analisar as experiências das enfermeiras na realização de esfregaços cervicais e outros fatores organizacionais durante uma intervenção educacional assistida por metodologias de b-learning. Método estudo qualitativo realizado em San Luis Potosí, México. Participaram 15 enfermeiras. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas a partir de uma sistematização de experiências. Para a análise das informações, utilizou-se o programa Taguette e metodologias de b-learning como referencial teórico. Resultados foram identificadas fragilidades em fatores relacionados com a acessibilidade dos usuários ao serviço, insumos, infraestrutura, biossegurança, capacitação da equipe de saúde, entrega de resultados aos pacientes e conhecimento do programa pelos usuários. Conclusões e implicações para a prática o câncer do colo do útero é um problema de saúde pública. A citologia cervical é o teste de triagem mais utilizado; no entanto, existem limitações na qualidade, por isso são propostas ações para aprimorar os conhecimentos e habilidades das enfermeiras que estejam desempenhando essa função. A intervenção educacional foi eficaz para promover o aprendizado integral sobre a realização do esfregaço cervical e permitiu que as enfermeiras compartilhassem suas experiências.


Abstract Objective to analyze the nursing staff's experiences in taking cervical smears and other organizational factors during an educational intervention assisted by B-learning methodologies. Method a qualitative study was carried out in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with 15 nurses. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews based on a systematization of experiences. The Taguette program and B-learning methodologies as theoretical references were used to analyze the information. Results weaknesses were identified in factors related to the accessibility of users to the service, supplies, infrastructure, biosafety, training of health personnel, delivery of results to patients, and knowledge of the program by the users. Conclusions and implications for practice cervical cancer is a public health problem. Cervical cytology is the most widely used screening test; however, there are limitations in quality, so actions are proposed to improve the knowledge and skills of the nursing staff in their functions. The educational intervention effectively promoted comprehensive learning about taking cervical smears and allowed the nursing staff to share their experiences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Vaginal Smears/nursing , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Cervix Uteri/cytology , Papanicolaou Test/nursing , Inservice Training , Nurses , Mass Screening , Women's Health , Papillomavirus Infections
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378520

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: avaliar a cobertura e os fatores associados à não realização do exame citopatológico do colo do útero entre mulheres de 18 a 39 anos no Brasil. Métodos: estudo transversal, de base populacional, com dados de inquérito domiciliar com 2.002 mulheres alfabetizadas de áreas urbanas, selecionadas por amostragem aleatória por conglomerados em 2016. Foram avaliados a prática do exame nos três anos anteriores e os fatores associados à não realização, com cálculo de razão de prevalência ajustada (RPaj) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) por regressão de Poisson. Resultados: a cobertura do exame entre mulheres de 18-39 anos foi de 66,5%, sendo mais elevada naquelas de 35-39 anos (76,8%). Mulheres com renda familiar até 1 salário-mínimo (RPaj=2,08;IC95% 1,72-2,54), que estudaram até a 4a série (RPaj=2,30;IC95% 1,22-2,67), residentes na região Nordeste (RPaj=1,79;IC95% 1,34-2,09) e em municípios com até 20.000 habitantes (RPaj=3,15;IC95% 2,33-3,96) apresentaram maior prevalência de não realização do exame. Conclusão: a cobertura do exame citopatológico esteve abaixo do recomendado, com disparidades socioeconômicas e geográficas. Os dados sugerem necessidade de oportunizar o rastreamento entre mulheres jovens de maior risco para o câncer do colo do útero.


Objectives: to evaluate the coverage and factors associated with non-performing Pap smear test among women aged 18-39 years in Brazil. Methods: cross-sectional, population-based study with household survey data with 2,002 literate women from urban areas, selected by random sampling by clusters in 2016. The practice of Pap test in the previous three years and associated factors with non-participation were evaluated, with calculation of adjusted prevalence ratio (PRad) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by Poisson regression. Results: coverage of Pap tests among women 18-39 years was 66.5%, being higher in those aged 35-39 years (76.8%). Women with a family income up to 01 minimum wage (PRad=2.08; 95%CI 1.72-2.54), who studied up to 4th grade (PRad=2.30; 95%CI 1.22-2.67) and residents in the Northeast region (PRad=1.79; 95%CI 1.34-2.09) and in municipalities up to 20,000 inhabitants (PRad=3.15; 95%CI 2.33-3.96) had a higher prevalence of non-participation in screening. Conclusions: the coverage of the Pap smear test was below recommended, with socioeconomic and geographical disparities. The data suggest the need to provide screening among young women at higher risk for cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Papanicolaou Test , Women , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cervix Uteri , Mass Screening , Health Surveys
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-12, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378476

ABSTRACT

Objective: Analyze lysosomotropic agents and their action on COVID-19 targets using the molecular docking technique. Methods: Molecular docking analyses of these lysosomotropic agents were performed, namely of fluoxetine, imipramine, chloroquine, verapamil, tamoxifen, amitriptyline, and chlorpromazine against important targets for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The results revealed that the inhibitors bind to distinct regions of Mpro COVID-19, with variations in RMSD values from 1.325 to 1.962 Å and binding free energy of -5.2 to -4.3 kcal/mol. Furthermore, the analysis of the second target showed that all inhibitors bonded at the same site as the enzyme, and the interaction resulted in an RMSD variation of 0.735 to 1.562 Å and binding free energy ranging from -6.0 to -8.7 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Therefore, this study allows proposing the use of these lysosomotropic compounds. However, these computer simulations are just an initial step toward conceiving new projects for the development of antiviral molecules.


Objetivo: aAnalisar agentes lisossomotrópicos e sua ação em alvos de COVID-19 usando a técnica de docking molecular. Métodos: Foram realizadas análises de docagem molecular destes agentes lisossomotrópicos, nomeadamente de fluoxetina, imipramina, cloroquina, verapamil, tamoxifeno, amitriptilina e clorpromazina contra alvos importantes para a patogenia do SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram que os inibidores se ligam a regiões distintas do Mpro COVID-19, com variações nos valores de RMSD de 1.325 a 1.962 Å e energia livre de ligação de -5,2 a -4,3 kcal/mol. Além disso, a análise do segundo alvo mostrou que todos os inibidores se ligaram no mesmo sítio da enzima, e a interação resultante em uma variação de RMSD de 0,735 a 1.562 Å e energia livre de ligação variando de -6,0 a -8,7 kcal/mol. Conclusão: Portanto, este estudo permite propor o uso desses compostos lisossomotrópicos. No entanto, essas simulações em computador são apenas um passo inicial para a concepção de novos projetos para o desenvolvimento de moléculas antivirais.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , Chloroquine , Mass Screening , Fluoxetine , Amitriptyline , Imipramine
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 212-225, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399001

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil dos casos de câncer de mama no estado do Acre no período de 2015 a 2019. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo com delineamento transversal. A amostra foi constituída por todos os casos de câncer de mama registrados no Acre e inseridos no Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (DATASUS) no período de 2015 a 2019. Foram identificados no período 293 casos da doença, com maior número de casos registrados no ano de 2019 (25,0%), sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (98,0%), na faixa etária de 40 a 49 anos (29,0%). O tempo decorrido desde o diagnóstico até o início do tratamento foi de mais de 60 dias (51,0%). A modalidade terapêutica mais utilizada foi a quimioterapia (55,0%). O local da realização do tratamento ocorreu capital do estado Rio Branco (80,0%). A maior parte dos acometidos, ainda encontra-se em tratamento (56,0%), no entanto (44,0%) evoluiu para óbito. O aumento da doença com o passar dos anos é notável no Acre. É importante destacar que ações voltadas para a prevenção e controle do câncer de mama continuam sendo fundamentais para auxiliar na diminuição do número de casos, como o rastreamento e diagnóstico precoce.


This study aimed to analyze the profile of breast cancer cases in the state of Acre in the period from 2015 to 2019. This is a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of all breast cancer cases registered in Acre and inserted in the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) in the period from 2015 to 2019. In the period 293 cases of the disease were identified, with a greater number of cases registered in 2019 (25.0%), with the majority being female (98.0%), aged 40 to 49 years (29.0%). The time elapsed from diagnosis to the start of treatment was more than 60 days (51.0%). The most used therapeutic modality was chemotherapy (55.0%). The place where the treatment was performed took place in the state of Rio Branco (80.0%). Most of the people affected are still under treatment (56.0%), however (44.0%) died. The increase in the disease over the years is notable in Acre. It is important to highlight that actions aimed at the prevention and control of breast cancer continue to be fundamental to assist in reducing the number of cases, such as screening and early diagnosis.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el perfil de los casos de cáncer de mama en el estado de Acre en el período de 2015 a 2019. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo con diseño transversal. La muestra consistió en todos los casos de cáncer de mama registrados en Acre e ingresados en el Departamento de Informática del Sistema Único de Salud (DATASUS) en el período de 2015 a 2019. En el periodo se identificaron 293 casos de la enfermedad, siendo el mayor número de casos registrados en 2019 (25,0%), siendo la mayoría mujeres (98,0%), en el grupo de edad de 40 a 49 años (29,0%). El tiempo transcurrido desde el diagnóstico hasta el inicio del tratamiento fue superior a 60 días (51,0%). La modalidad terapéutica más utilizada fue la quimioterapia (55,0%). El lugar donde se realizó el tratamiento fue Rio Branco, la capital del estado (80,0%). La mayoría de los pacientes afectados siguen en tratamiento (56,0%), sin embargo, (44,0%) fallecieron. El aumento de la enfermedad a lo largo de los años es notable en Acre. Es importante destacar que las acciones dirigidas a la prevención y control del cáncer de mama siguen siendo fundamentales para ayudar a reducir el número de casos, como el cribado y el diagnóstico precoz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Profile , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Therapeutics/instrumentation , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Mass Screening , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Morbidity , Early Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Disease Prevention
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 794-808, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399468

ABSTRACT

O câncer do colo do útero é considerado um dos cânceres mais comuns entre mulheres, representando um grande problema de saúde global, sendo a quarta causa mais frequente de morte por câncer na população feminina. Mediante a um estudo quantitativo e retrospectivo de dados pré- analíticos e analíticos das requisições do exame citopatológico do colo do útero, objetivou-se avaliar os resultados de exames citopatológicos de mulheres usuárias do SUS de um município do oeste do Paraná, realizados no período antes da pandemia COVID-19, de março de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020 e durante a pandemia COVID-19, de março de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021, dos exames citopatológicos alterados. Foram utilizadas as requisições de exames citopatológicos do Programa Nacional de Controle do CCU e o sistema eletrônico SISCAN como ferramentas de busca. Dentre os resultados, totalizaram-se 20.425 amostras processadas no período antes da pandemia, sendo 19.908 consideradas satisfatórias para análise oncótica, onde 1.148 (5,76%) amostras apresentaram alteração citológica. No período da pandemia, totalizaram-se 11.315 amostras processadas, sendo 11.149 amostras satisfatórias para análise oncótica, das quais 721 (6,47%) apresentaram alteração citológica. No período da pandemia, o estudo demostra que metade da população de mulheres usuárias do SUS em um município do oeste do Paraná encontra-se na faixa etária da população-alvo preconizada pelo MS, sendo que a maioria delas realizou seu exame citopatológico por motivo de rastreamento. Contudo, mesmo com a interrupção dos atendimentos eletivos, as mulheres continuaram realizando seus exames citopatológicos, sendo elucidado um discreto aumento de 0,71% das alterações citológicas no período da pandemia, quando comparado ao período anterior, demonstrando o cenário deste programa na pandemia COVID-19.


Cervical cancer is considered one of the most common cancers among women, representing a major global health problem, being the fourth most frequent cause of cancer death in the female population. Through a quantitative and retrospective study of pre-analytical and analytical data of requests for cervical cytopathological examination, the objective was to evaluate the results of cytopathological examinations of women using the SUS in a city in western Paraná, carried out in the period before during the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 2019 to February 2020, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 2020 to February 2021, from the altered cytopathological exams. Requests for cytopathological exams from the National Control Program of the CCU and the SISCAN electronic system were used as search tools. Among the results, a total of 20.425 samples were processed in the period before the pandemic, 19.908 of which were considered satisfactory for oncotic analysis, where 1.148 (5,76%) samples showed cytological alterations. During the pandemic period, a total of 11.315 samples were processed, of which 11.149 were satisfactory for oncotic analysis, of which 721 (6,47%) showed cytological alterations. During the pandemic period, the study shows that half of the population of women using the SUS in a municipality in western Paraná is in the target population age group recommended by the MS, and most of them underwent their cytopathological examination due to tracking. However, even with the interruption of elective care, women continued to perform their cytopathological exams, with a slight increase of 0,71% in cytological changes during the pandemic period, when compared to the previous period, demonstrating the scenario of this program in the COVID-19 pandemic.


El cáncer de cuello uterino se considera uno de los cánceres más comunes entre las mujeres, representando un importante problema de salud mundial, siendo la cuarta causa más frecuente de muerte por cáncer en la población femenina. Mediante el estudio cuantitativo y retrospectivo de los datos preanalíticos y analíticos de los requisitos del examen citopatológico del útero, se evaluaron los resultados de los exámenes citopatológicos de las usuarias del SUS de un municipio del oeste de Paraná, realizados en el período anterior a la pandemia COVID-19, de marzo de 2019 a febrero de 2020, y durante la pandemia COVID-19, de marzo de 2020 a febrero de 2021, de los exámenes citopatológicos alterados. Se utilizaron como herramientas de búsqueda las requisiciones de exámenes citopatológicos del Programa Nacional de Control de UCC y el sistema electrónico SISCAN. Entre los resultados, un total de 20.425 muestras fueron procesadas en el período anterior a la pandemia, de las cuales 19.908 fueron consideradas satisfactorias para el análisis oncológico, donde 1.148 (5,76%) muestras presentaron alteración citológica. En el periodo de la pandemia, se procesaron un total de 11.315 muestras, de las cuales 11.149 fueron satisfactorias para el análisis oncológico, y 721 (6,47%) presentaron alteraciones citológicas. En el período de la pandemia, el estudio demuestra que la mitad de la población de mujeres usuarias del SUS en una ciudad del oeste de Paraná está en la franja de edad de la población objetivo recomendada por el MS, y la mayoría de ellas se sometió a un examen citopatológico con fines de cribado. Sin embargo, aún con la interrupción de la atención electiva, las mujeres continuaron realizando sus exámenes citopatológicos, siendo dilucidado un leve aumento de 0,71% de alteraciones citológicas en el período pandémico, cuando comparado con el período anterior, demostrando el escenario de este programa en la pandemia COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Women , World Health Organization/organization & administration , Unified Health System , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Causality , Retrospective Studies
6.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(4): 673-683, 20220906. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396476

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las pruebas diagnósticas de tamizaje son aquellas pruebas que son capaces de identificar un factor de riesgo o mutaciones genéticas que predicen el inicio ulterior de la enfermedad, así como también las pruebas que ponen de manifiesto alteraciones estructurales de la enfermedad antes que la enfermedad progrese y se vuelva sintomática. Métodos. Se hizo una revisión de la literatura para establecer los fundamentos teóricos científicos que sustentan a las pruebas de diagnóstico de tamizaje y las condiciones y requisitos que se deben cumplir para introducirlas en el ámbito clínico o como programas de salud pública. Resultados. Se estableció la diferencia conceptual entre la detección precoz y el diagnóstico temprano y la diferencia entre tamizaje de prevalencia y tamizaje de incidencia. Se dieron a conocer las indicaciones y criterios científicos para la realización de las pruebas de tamizaje. Se puntualizó la importancia de la duración del tiempo de adelanto en la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas de detección precoz. Se argumentaron las razones por las cuales era necesario la realización de experimentos clínicos aleatorizados para evaluar la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas de detección precoz en la prevención secundaria de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Las pruebas diagnósticas de tamizaje hacen posible la introducción de intervenciones en el ámbito de la prevención primaria, como también en el escenario de la prevención secundaria de las enfermedades.


Introduction. Screening diagnostic tests are those tests that help to identify a risk factor or genetic mutations that predict the subsequent onset of the disease, as well as tests that reveal structural alterations of the disease before the disease progresses and becomes symptomatic. Methods. A literature review was performed to establish the scientific theoretical fundamentals that support diagnostic screening tests and the conditions and requirements that must be met to introduce them in the clinical setting or as public health programs. Results. The conceptual difference between early detection and early diagnosis and the difference between prevalence screening and incidence screening was established. Indications and scientific criteria for conducting screening tests were presented. The importance of the duration of the lead time in the efficacy of early detection diagnostic tests was pointed out. The reasons why it was necessary to carry out a randomized clinical experiment to evaluate the efficacy of early detection diagnostic tests for early diagnosis in the secondary prevention of the disease were confronted. Conclusions. Screening diagnostic tests make it possible to introduce interventions in the field of primary prevention, as well as in the setting of secondary prevention of diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Early Diagnosis
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(3): e38305, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1409862

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: en Uruguay el cáncer de mama (CM) ocupa el primer lugar en incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer en la mujer. Objetivo: conocer la implementación del tamizaje del CM en la práctica clínica habitual y el grado de adhesión a las recomendaciones planteadas en el año 2015 por el Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP) para la detección temprana del CM entre los médicos del primer nivel de atención. Material y métodos: se trata de un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal. Se aplicó una encuesta dirigida a médicos del primer nivel de atención, de carácter anónimo. Resultados: se incluyeron 169 médicos, 89,4% (151) considera que el uso de la mamografía de tamizaje disminuye la mortalidad por CM, 54,4% (92) indica la mamografía a partir de los 40 años de edad y 38,5% (65) a partir de los 50 años. El 56,8% (96) indica la mamografía cada 2 años en la población de mujeres que se encuentran entre 50 y 69 años. El 65,7% de los encuestados (111) conoce la guía nacional y 47,9% (81) la utiliza, mientras que el 18,9% (32) utiliza recomendaciones de otras sociedades científicas. Conclusión: el presente estudio evidenció que los médicos del primer nivel de atención hacen un uso correcto de las distintas herramientas de tamizaje del CM. Se necesitan medidas activas para desarrollar programas educativos para el personal de salud, que podrían permitirles difundir conocimientos e influir positivamente en las actitudes de los pacientes.


Summary: Introduction: in Uruguay, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality in women. Objective: to understand the implementation of BC screening among primary care physicians in routine clinical practice and the degree of adherence to the recommendations put forward in 2015 by the Ministry of Public Health (MPH) for the early detection of BC. Materials and methods: this was a descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study. An anonymous survey was administered to physicians working in primary care. Results: 169 physicians were included, 89.4% (151) consider the use of screening mammography decreases mortality from BC, 54.4% (92) indicate mammography from 40 years of age and 38.5% (65) from 50 years of age. The majority (56.8%, 96) indicate mammography every 2 years in the population of women aged 50-69 years. Of the respondents, 65.7% (111) were aware of the national guidelines and 47.9% (81) followed them, while 18.9% (32) followed recommendations from other scientific bodies. Conclusion: this study showed that primary care physicians make correct use of the different BC screening tools. Active measures are needed to develop educational programs for healthcare personnel, which may enable them to disseminate knowledge and positively influence patients' attitudes.


Resumo: Introdução: o câncer de mama (CM) ocupa o primeiro lugar em incidência e mortalidade por câncer em mulheres no Uruguai. Objetivo: conhecer a implementação do rastreamento do CM na prática clínica de rotina e o grau de adesão às recomendações de 2015 do Ministério da Saúde Pública para detecção precoce do CM entre os médicos do primeiro nível de atenção. Material e métodos: trata-se de um estudo observacional descritivo e transversal. Foi aplicada uma pesquisa anônima destinada aos médicos do primeiro nível de atenção. Resultados: foram incluídos 169 médicos; 89,4% (151) consideram que o uso da mamografia de rastreamento diminui a mortalidade por CM, 54,4% (92) indicam mamografia a partir dos 40 anos e 38,5% (65) a partir dos 50 anos; 56,8% (96) indicam mamografia a cada 2 anos na população de mulheres entre 50 e 69 anos. 65,7% dos respondentes (111) conhecem o guia nacional e 47,9% (81) o utilizam, enquanto 18,9% (32) utilizam recomendações de outras sociedades científicas. Conclusão: este estudo mostrou que os médicos do primeiro nível de atenção fazem uso correto das diferentes ferramentas de rastreamento do CM. São necessárias medidas ativas para desenvolver programas educacionais para os profissionais de saúde, que possam permitir que eles disseminem o conhecimento e influenciem positivamente as atitudes dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Primary Health Care , Mammography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guideline Adherence
8.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 357-361, jul.-sep. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410015

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo de la investigación fue describir la producción científica sobre estudios psicométricos de instrumentos de tamizaje para la depresión en población peruana. Para ello, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de la literatura científica en Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed y SciELO, con descriptores para depresión, propiedades psicométricas y Perú. Luego del proceso de revisión se incluyeron 22 estudios. Se encontraron validaciones de instrumentos de tamizaje en adultos mayores, adultos, adultos con depresión, mujeres adultas, mujeres embarazadas, profesionales de salud, estudiantes universitarios, estudiantes de secundaria y niños. El Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) fue el instrumento más estudiado. A pesar de que los estudios psicométricos cubren la mayoría de las poblaciones, quedan pendientes los pueblos originarios y poblaciones clínicas. El PHQ-9, por sus características, podría implementarse en las políticas de salud mental del Perú.


ABSTRACT The aim of the research was to describe the scientific output of psychometric studies on screening instruments for depression in the Peruvian population. We carried out a descriptive study of the scientific literature in Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed and SciELO, with descriptors for depression, psychometric properties, and Peru. After the review process, we included 22 studies. We found validations of screening instruments for older adults, adults, adults with depression, adult women, pregnant women, health professionals, university students, high school students and children. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was the most widely used instrument. Psychometric studies cover most populations; however, native people and clinical populations remain to be studied. The PHQ-9, due to its characteristics, could be implemented in mental health policies in Peru.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychometrics , Mass Screening , Depression , Peru , Mental Health , Validation Study , Depressive Disorder , Evaluation Studies as Topic
9.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(3): 265-273, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1408051

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar la adherencia a las recomendaciones de tamización para la prevención de la sepsis neonatal, describir la prevalencia de colonización por estreptococo del grupo B y los desenlaces perinatales asociados a la colonización por esta bacteria. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva que incluyó gestantes a término y sus recién nacidos, en una clínica universitaria privada de alta complejidad en Bogotá, entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2019. Se evaluó la adherencia a la tamización y a la profilaxis antibiótica intraparto para las gestantes colonizadas con EGB, la prevalencia de colonización y los desenlaces perinatales adversos tempranos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.928 mujeres. La adherencia a la tamización fue de 68,0 % (IC 95 %: 66-70,1), a la administración de antibióticos intraparto de 87,9 % (IC 95 %: 87,8 -88), pero hubo uso no indicado de antibióticos en 14,7 % de mujeres para una adherencia final a profilaxis antibiótica de 86,3 %. La prevalencia de colonización por EGB fue 12,5 % (IC 95 %: 10,7-14,3), la incidencia de hospitalización neonatal fue de 27,5 % (IC 95 %: 16,3-33,7); no hubo casos de mortalidad ni sepsis neonatal temprana atribuibles al estado de tamización, colonización o profilaxis antibiótica para EGB. Conclusiones: Se requieren nuevos estudios en otras instituciones para determinar la adherencia a esta guía, en especial en aquellas regiones que atienden usuarias adscritas al régimen subsidiado, con cobertura a la población más vulnerable, así como nuevos estudios poblacionales de prevalencia de EGB y costo-efectividad de la estrategia de tamización universal en comparación con la profilaxis antibiótica basada en factores de riesgo.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess adherence to screening recommendations for the prevention of neonatal sepsis, and describe the prevalence of colonization by Group B streptococcus (GBS) as well as the perinatal outcomes associated with colonization by this bacterium. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort study that included pregnant women at term and their newborns, seen at a private high-complexity clinic in Bogota, between July 1 and December 31, 2019. Adherence to screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus, as well as the prevalence of colonization and early adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed. Results: Overall, 1928 women were included. Adherence to screening was 68.0 % (95 % CI: 66-70.1) and 87.9 % to intrapartum antibiotic administration (95 % CI: 87.8-88); non-indicated use of antibiotics occurred in 14.7 % of the women, for 86.3 % final adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 12.5 % (95 % CI: 10.7-14.3); the incidence of neonatal hospitalization was 27.5 % (95 % CI: 16.3-33.7). There were no cases of mortality or early neonatal sepsis attributable to screening status, colonization or prophylactic antibiotics for GBS. Conclusions: Additional studies in other centers are required in order to determine adherence to this guideline, particularly in those that receive users affiliated to the subsidized regime which covers the most vulnerable population. Also, new population studies of GBS prevalence and cost-effectiveness of universal screening compared to risk factor-based antibiotic prophylaxis are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Streptococcus agalactiae , Mass Screening , Neonatal Sepsis , Bacteria , Pregnancy , Carrier State
10.
Rev. APS ; 25(Supl. 2): 21-39, 16/08/2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393131

ABSTRACT

Em relação à última diretriz brasileira do Instituto Nacional do Câncer/Ministério da Saúde sobre a detecção precoce do câncer de mama, destacamos as incertezas sobre a tomada de decisão compartilhada relativas a benefícios e riscos do rastreamento mamográfico. Este artigo expressa as percepções de usuárias de serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde sobre a decisão compartilhada nesse cenário, sendo resultado de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utilizou grupos focais, como instrumentos de produção de dados, e análise de conteúdo temática, para a sistematização de resultados. As participantes revelaram não participarem dedecisão compartilhada no rastreamento mamográfico, o que nos leva a ressaltar a importância de nortear os cuidados em saúde com base em tecnologias leves, ou seja, tecnologias relacionais, e a valorizar, também, a necessidade de implementação de certos aspectos conceituais e de princípios fundamentais, que precisam ser discutidos e realçados para que a decisão compartilhada seja implementada.


According to the latest Brazilian guidelines from the National Cancer Institute/Ministry of Health on early detection of breast cancer, we highlight the uncertainties about shared decision-making concerning the benefits and risks of mammographic screening. This article expresses the perceptions of users of Primary Health Care services concerning shared decision-making in this scenario. As a result of qualitative research, it used focus groups as an instrument for data production and thematic content analysis to systematize the results. The participants revealed that there is no shared decision-making concerning mammographic screening, which leads us to emphasize that health care guidelines should be based on light technologies,that is, relational technologies. They should also discuss and highlight related conceptual aspects and fundamental principles so that shared decision-making can be implemented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Primary Health Care , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mammography , Mass Screening , Decision Making, Shared , Focus Groups , Qualitative Research , Early Detection of Cancer
11.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(2): e2583, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408990

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Al día de hoy no se ha alcanzado un consenso sobre el mejor enfoque para realizar el tamizaje y la detección precoz del Cáncer de Próstata (CaP), en la población. No obstante, hay programas que recomiendan la utilización de la prueba de antígeno prostático específico rápida para la detección de CaP sin un análisis de correlación frente a la prueba sérica. Objetivo: Identificar la correlación entre las pruebas de antígeno prostático específico rápida y sérica, en la población mexicana. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo, bajo un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. En el período comprendido entre el 25 de mayo al 13 de julio de 2017. Se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación punto biserial (r pb ) y phi (r phi ). Resultados: Se incluyeron 1 635 registros, principalmente de la Ciudad de México y del Estado de México (n= 1 398; 85,5 por ciento, IC95 por ciento 81-89,9). La edad promedio fue de 51 años (DE= 7,68). El valor promedio de antígeno prostático sérico fue de 1,49 ng/mL (DE= 1,91). La proporción de hombres con una prueba rápida positiva (n=60; 3,7 por ciento; IC95 por ciento 2,9-4,6) fue menor (p= 0,0415) en comparación con la proporción de pacientes con una prueba sérica ≥ 4 ng/mL (n=85; 5,2 por ciento; IC95 por ciento 4,1-6,3). El número de casos dobles negativos fue de 1 530 (93,6 por ciento; IC95 por ciento 92,3-94,6) y de dobles positivos fue de 40 (2,4 por ciento; IC95 por ciento1,7-3,2). Los coeficientes de correlación punto biserial y phi mostraron una correlación baja entre la prueba rápida y la prueba sérica de antígeno prostático (rpb= 0,469; p < 0,001; r2= 0,2199 y r ph i= 0,540; p < 0,001; r2= 0,2916). Conclusiones: La prueba de antígeno prostático específico rápida es una herramienta conveniente para los programas de detección de alteración prostática en unidades médicas del primer nivel de atención, donde la prueba sérica no se puede realizar, al ser una prueba con una baja sensibilidad y con un bajo coeficiente de correlación respecto de la prueba de antígeno prostático específico sérica, esto es un punto importante que debe considerarse al diseñar programas de detección oportuna de cáncer de próstata(AU)


Introduction: To date, no consensus has been reached on the best approach for screening and early detection of Prostate Cancer (PCa) in the population. However, there are programs recommending the use of the rapid prostate-specific antigen test for the detection of PCa without a correlation analysis versus the serum test. Objective: To identify the correlation between rapid and serum prostate specific antigen tests in the Mexican population. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out, under a non-probabilistic convenience sampling from May 25 to July 13, 2017. The correlation coefficients of point biserial (rpb) and phi (rphi) were calculated. Results: One thousand six hundred thirty five (1,635) records were included, mainly from Mexico City and the State of Mexico (n= 1,398; 85.5 percent, 95 percent CI 81-89.9). The average age was 51 years (SD= 7.68). The mean value of serum prostate antigen was 1.49 ng/ml (SD= 1.91). The proportion of men with positive rapid test (n=60; 3.7 percent; 95 percent CI 2.9-4.6) was lower (p= 0.0415) compared to the proportion of patients with a serum test ≥ 4 ng/ml (n= 85; 5.2 percent; 95 percent CI 4.1-6.3). The number of double negative cases was 1,530 (93.6 percent; CI95 percent 92.3-94.6) and of double positives was 40 (2.4 percent; CI95 percent 1.7-3.2). The point biserial and phi correlation coefficients showed low correlation between the rapid test and the serum prostate antigen test (rpb= 0.469; p < 0.001; r2= 0.2199 and rphi= 0.540; p < 0.001; r2= 0. 2916). Conclusions: The rapid prostate-specific antigen test is a convenient tool for prostatic alteration detection programs in primary care medical units, where the serum test cannot be performed, however, as it is a test with low sensitivity and with low correlation coefficient with respect to serum prostate-specific antigen testing, this is an important point to consider when designing prostate cancer early detection programs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Mexico
12.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 152-160, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395065

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Documentar cuantitativamente el grado de concordancia con las recomendaciones del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (INC) de los mensajes institucionales emitidos en redes sociales de Argentina durante octubre de 2019, en el contexto de las campañas de prevención del cáncer mamario, y analizar cualitativamente los elementos icónicos y textuales que conforman sus piezas de difusión. Materiales y métodos. Análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de 171 piezas de difusión emitidas durante octubre de 2019 por 54 instituciones, a partir de la evaluación de su concordancia con las recomendaciones del INC, la descripción de las principales recomendaciones discordantes (análisis cuantitativo) y el análisis cualitativo de 30 piezas. Resultados. Ninguno de los mensajes emitidos mencionó potenciales daños del tamizaje. Solamente los del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación fueron totalmente concordantes con las recomendaciones del INC, mientras que los restantes recomendaban realizar mamografías a edades más tempranas o a intervalos más breves. El autoexamen mamario fue la recomendación más frecuente entre las discordantes. Predominaron las imágenes de cuerpos femeninos vinculadas con los estereotipos predominantes de género y belleza, y los discursos paternalistas que apelan al miedo y a la culpa. Conclusiones. Los mensajes emitidos en las piezas de difusión analizadas no fueron concordantes con las recomendaciones del INC, a pesar de que estas últimas están respaldadas por evidencia científica. Por otro lado, los mensajes refuerzan los estereotipos de género y belleza, la culpa y el modelo médico-hegemónico.


Objectives. To quantitatively document the degree of compliance of institutional messages broadcast on social networks with the recommendations of the National Cancer Institute (INC) in Argentina during October 2019, in the context of breast cancer prevention campaigns, and to qualitatively analyze the pictorial and textual elements that make up their dissemination pieces. Materials and methods. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 171 dissemination pieces issued during October 2019 by 54 institutions, based on the evaluation of their compliance with INC recommendations, the description of the main discordant recommendations (quantitative analysis) and the qualitative analysis of 30 pieces. Results. None of the issued messages mentioned potential screening harms. Only the messages of the National Ministry of Health complied completely with the INC recommendations, while the remaining ones recommended mammograms at younger ages or at shorter intervals. Breast self-examination was the most frequent recommendation among those who didn't comply. The images of female bodies linked to common stereotypes of sex and beauty, and paternalistic discourses appealing to fear and guilt were predominant. Conclusions. The messages broadcasted in the analyzed diffusion pieces did not comply with the INC recommendations, despite the fact that the latter are supported by scientific evidence. On the other hand, the messages reinforce sex and beauty stereotypes, guilt and the medical-hegemonic model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Social Networking , Awareness , Mammography , Mass Screening , Communications Media , Information Dissemination
13.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(2): 203-222, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1394964

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes A partir del 2014 en Colombia se incorporó la Tamización primaria con prueba de Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH) desde los 30 hasta los 65 años, cuando la prueba es positiva se hace triage con citología para remisión a colposcopia. Actualmente se discute la conveniencia de iniciar la tamización con prueba de ADN de VPH a partir de los 25 años. De esta manera, el objetivo de esta evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias es analizar la evidencia disponible en torno a la seguridad, efectividad, costoefectividad, valores y preferencias, dilemas éticos y aspectos relacionados con la implementación para el contexto colombiano de la prueba ADN-VPH como estrategia de tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Dominios a evaluar Eficacia clínica y seguridad 1. Tasa acumulada de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) grado 2 o más avanzado luego de 2 rondas de tamización. 2. Tasas acumuladas de cáncer invasor de cérvix luego de 2 rondas de tamización. 3. Seguridad: remisión a colposcopia. Costo-efectividad Costo efectividad para Colombia. Otros dominios considerados Aspectos éticos asociados a la tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Aspectos organizacionales y del individuo. Barreras y facilitadores relacionados con la implementación en el contexto colombiano de la tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Métodos Evaluación de efectividad y seguridad clínicas Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura en MEDLINE, Embase y CENTRAL de revisiones sistemáticas y ensayos clínicos. Se calificó el cuerpo de la evidencia con la aproximación GRADE. Posteriormente, se convocó a un grupo interdisciplinario a una mesa de trabajo en donde se presentó la evidencia recuperada, dando paso a la discusión y a la construcción de las conclusiones, siguiendo los lineamientos de un consenso formal acorde a la metodología RAND/UCLA. Estudio económico Se hizo una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura de estudios que hubieran evaluado el costo-efectividad para Colombia. Resultados De 7.659 referencias recuperadas se incluyeron 8 estudios. Resultados clínicos Se realizó un análisis integrativo de 5 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que cumplieron con los citerios de inclusión. Cuando se compara frente a la citología, la tamización primaria con ADN-VPH en mujeres menores de 30 años, podría asociarse con una mayor frecuencia de detección de lesiones NIC2+ durante la primera ronda de cribado (RR: 1.57; IC: 1,20 a 2,04; certeza en la evidencia baja), con una menor incidencia de NIC2+ (RR:0,67; IC: 0,48 a 0,92; certeza en la evidencia baja) y se asocia con una menor frecuencia de carcinoma invasor al término del seguimiento (RR: 0,19; IC: 0,07 a 0,53; certeza en la evidencia alta). Resultados económicos Desde el punto de vista económico, la alternativa de ADN-VPH y triage con citología desde los 25 años quizás representa la alternativa más costo-efectiva para Colombia (razón costo-efectividad incremental $8.820.980 COP año 2013). Otras implicaciones Dos estudios sugieren que las barreras de implementación, atribuibles a circunstancias de intermediación, de orden público y de carácter geográfico, podrían ser solventadas por nuevas tecnologías o estrategias de cribado. Es importante considerar alternativas de forma de administración y de prestación de servicios para solventar algunas barreras de aceptabilidad y acceso. Todo programa de tamización cervical debe contemplar los principios éticos de no maleficencia, beneficencia, autonomía y equidad. Futuros estudios deben enfocarse en analizar nuevas tecnologías de cribado con énfasis en población menor de 30 años. Conclusiones El uso de la prueba ADN-VPH como estrategia de tamización en mujeres menores de 30 años es una intervención probablemente efectiva y costoefectiva para Colombia. Futuros estudios deben enfocarse en analizar nuevas tecnologías de cribado con énfasis en población menor de 30 años.


Background Primary screening with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing was introduced in Colombia in 2014 for individuals between 30 and 65 years of age. When the result is positive, cytology triage is performed for colposcopy referral. The convenience of initiating HPV-DNA testing for screening at 25 years of age is currently a subject of discussion. Therefore, the objective of this health technology assessment (HTA) is to analyze the available evidence regarding safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, values and preferences, ethical dilemmas and considerations pertaining to the implementation of the HPV-DNA test as a cervical screening strategy in women under 30 years of age in the Colombian context. Domains to be assessed Clinical efficacy and safety 1. Cumulative rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or high-er after 2 screening rounds. 2. Cumulative rates of invasive cancer of the uterine cervix after 2 screening rounds. 3. Safety: referral to colposcopy Cost-effectiveness Cost-effectiveness for Colombia. Other domains considered Ethical considerations associated with cervical screening in women under 30 years of age. Organizational and individual considerations. Barriers and facilitators pertaining to the implementation of cervical screening in women under 30 years of age in the Colombian context. Methods Clinical efficacy and safety assessment A systematic literature search of systematic reviews and clinical trials was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL. The body of evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. An interdisciplinary team was then convened to create a working group to review the retrieved evidence. This led to the discussion and construction of the conclusions following the guidelines of a formal consensus in accordance with the RAND/UCLA methodology. Economic study Systematic literature research of studies that had assessed cost-effectiveness for Colombia. Results Out of the 7,659 references retrieved, 8 studies were included. Clinical outcomes An integrative analysis of 5 randomized clinical trials that met the inclusion critera was performed. Compared with cytology, primary HPV-DNA testing in women under 30 years of age could be associated with a lower frequency of CIN+2 lesions during the first screening round (RR: 1.57; CI: 1.20 to 2.04; low evidence certainty), and a lower incidence of CIN+2 (RR: 0.67; CI: 0.48 to 0.92; low evidence certainty). Moreover, it is associated with a lower frequency of invasive carcinoma at the end of follow-up (RR: 0.19; CI: 0.07 to 0.53; high evidence certainty). Economic results From the financial point of view, the use of HPVDNA testing plus cytology-based triage starting at 25 years of age is perhaps the most cost-effective option for Colombia (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, COP 8,820,980 in 2013). Other implications Two studies suggest that barriers to implementation attributable to intermediation, public unrest and geographic considerations could be overcome with the use of new screening technologies or strategies. It is important to consider administration and service provision alternatives in order to overcome some acceptability and access barriers. Any cervical screening program must take into consideration ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy and equity. Future studies should focus on analyzing new screening techniques with emphasis on the population under 30 years of age. Conclusions The use of HPV-DNA testing as a screening strategy in women under 30 years of age is a potentially efficacious and cost-effective intervention for Colombia. Future studies should focus on analyzing new screening technologies, with emphasis on the population under 30 years of age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Mass Screening , Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Costs and Cost Analysis , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasms
14.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(2): e53867, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396709

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As doenças pulmonares são frequentemente associadas com aumento da morbidade e mortalidade pelo comprometimento ventilatório e impacto negativo na proteção de via aérea inferior, além de favorecer uma dissincronia entre a deglutição e respiração comprometendo a função, prazer, qualidade de vida, podendo levar ao óbito. Objetivo: Identificar o risco de disfagia em pacientes com doenças pulmonares. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de março/2016 a julho/2019, em um Hospital Universitário. Foram incluídos pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, de ambos os sexos, independente de fatores associados, com estado de alerta suficiente para responder o instrumento; e excluídos pacientes com dificuldades quanto à compreensão das sentenças e/ou instruções, com rastreios prévios, em acompanhamento fonoaudiológico, indisponibilidade para participar do estudo, ausência no leito ou instabilidade do quadro clínico. Foram coletados os dados sociodemográficos, as variáveis clínicas e aplicado o instrumento Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Para análise estatística foi considerado o nível de 5% de significância. Resultados: Participaram 99 pacientes com prevalência do sexo masculino (54,5%), idade acima de 60 anos (57,6%) e diagnóstico de tuberculose (16,1%). Houve risco de disfagia em 15 (15,2%) pacientes com prevalência de enfisema pulmonar (26,6%) e pneumonia (20%). Não foi observada associação entre risco de disfagia e sexo, idade, intubação orotraqueal, traqueostomia, via alternativa de alimentação, refluxo gastroesofágico, disfonia e doença de base pulmonar. Conclusão: Por meio de uma ferramenta rápida e simples de rastreamento foi observada a presença do risco de disfagia em 15,2% dos pacientes com doenças pulmonares.


Introduction: Lung diseases are often associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to ventilatory impairment and a negative impact on lower airway protection, in addition to favoring a desynchrony between swallowing and breathing, compromising function, pleasure, quality of life, and possibility of death. Objective: To identify the risk of dysphagia in patients with lung diseases. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study, carried out from March 2016 to July 2019, in a University Hospital. Patients aged 18 years or over, of both sexes, regardless of associated factors, with sufficient alertness to respond to the instrument were included, and patients with difficulties in understanding sentences and/or instructions, with previous screenings, undergoing speech therapy, unavailability to participate in the study, out of bed or with instability of the clinical condition were excluded. Sociodemographic data and clinical variables were collected, and the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) was applied. For statistical analysis, a 5% level of significance was considered. Results: 99 patients participated with a prevalence of males (54.5%), aged over 60 years (57.6%) and diagnosed with tuberculosis (16.1%). There was risk of dysphagia in 15 (15.2%) patients with a prevalence of pulmonary emphysema (26.6%) and pneumonia (20%). There was no association between risk of dysphagia and sex, age, orotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, alternative feeding route, gastroesophageal reflux, dysphonia and underlying lung disease. Conclusion: Through a quick and simple screening tool, the presence of risk of dysphagia was observed in 15.2% of patients with lung diseases.


Introducción: Las enfermedades pulmonares se asocian con un aumento de la morbimortalidad por deterioro ventilatorio y un impacto negativo en la protección de las vías respiratorias inferiores, además de favorecer una disincronía entre la deglución y la respiración, comprometiendo la función, el placer, la calidad de vida y pudiendo conducir a la muerte. Objetivo: Identificar el riesgo de disfagia en pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, realizado de marzo/2016 a julio/2019, en un Hospital Universitario. Se incluyeron pacientes con edad igual o superior a 18 años, de ambos sexos, independientemente de los factores asociados, con estado de alerta suficiente para responder al instrumento,y se excluyeron pacientes con dificultades en la comprensión de frases y/o instrucciones, con tamizaje previo, en tratamiento logopédico, indisponibilidad para participar en el estudio, ausencia en la cama o inestabilidad del cuadro clínico. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos y variables clínicas y se aplicó el Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Para el análisis estadístico se consideró un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: Participaron 99 pacientes con predominio del sexo masculino (54,5%), mayores de 60 años (57,6%) y diagnosticados de tuberculosis (16,1%). Hubo riesgo de disfagia en 15 (15,2%) pacientes con predominio de enfisema pulmonar (26,6%) y neumonía (20%). No hubo asociación entre riesgo de disfagia y sexo, edad, intubación orotraqueal, traqueotomía, vía alternativa de alimentación, reflujo gastroesofágico, disfonía y enfermedad pulmonar subyacente. Conclusión: A través de una herramienta de tamizaje rápida y sencilla se observó la presencia de riesgo de disfagia en el 15,2% de los pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Lung Diseases/complications , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Self Evaluation
15.
Rev. APS ; 25(Supl 1): 135-146, 2022-05-06.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370872

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a síndrome da apneia-hipopneia obstrutiva do sono (SAHOS) é o distúrbio respiratório do sono mais comum, associado a condições facilmente identificáveis, como a hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Objetivo: determinar prevalência de rastreamento positivo para SAHOS e identificar fatores associados em hipertensos em serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Métodos: estudo transversal com 326 hipertensos adscritos a uma unidade de APS. Foram obtidas variáveis antropométricas, clínicas e sociodemográficas e utilizados os questionários Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults, para identificar o letramento em saúde; a Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, para a adesão medicamentosa e o Snoring, Tiredness, Observed Apnea, High Blood Pressure, Bodymass index, Age, Neck Circumference, and Gender -STOP-Bang, para rastreamentoda SAHOS. Resultados: o sexo feminino foi majoritário (66,3%). A média temporal de tratamento para hipertensão arterial sistêmica alcançou 12,51 ± 9,83 anos. Constatou-se prevalência de 86,5% de rastreio positivo para SAHOS e o sexo masculino e a obesidade como fatores associados a essa condição (p<0,01). Conclusão: o rastreamento sistemático da SAHOS na APS deve ser incorporado à prática dos profissionais de saúde, assim como é feito para outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis 1.


Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common sleep breathing disorder, associated with easily identifiable conditions such as systemic arterial hypertension. Objective: To determine the prevalence of positive screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) and to identify associated factors in the hypertensive population in the Primary Health Care (PHC) service. Method: This was a cross-sectional study with 326 hypertensive individuals assigned to a PHC unit in a medium-sized city in the state of Minas Gerais. Anthropometric, clinical, and sociodemographic variables were obtained. The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults questionnaire was used to identify literacy in health; the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used for medication adherence; and the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed Apnea, High Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, Age, Neck Circumference, and Gender -STOP-Bang questionnaire was used for the screening of OSAHS. Results: The majority was female (66.3%) and the treatment time average for high blood pressure was 12.51 ± 9.83 years. The study identified the prevalence of 86.5% of positive screening for OSAHS, and male sex and obesity as factors associated with this condition (p <0.01). Conclusion: The systematic screening of OSAHS in PHC services should be incorporated into the practice of health professionals, as itis done for other chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Primary Health Care , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Mass Screening , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Hypertension
16.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 26: e1449, abr.2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1394542

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to measure the level of psychoactive substance dependence of healthcare students from a public federal university and to verify relationships with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach carried out with 527 students from seven undergraduate courses in the health area at a federal public university in the Brazilian South region. Collection was carried out virtually by means of a questionnaire for sociodemographic and academic characterization, the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test and the Mental Health Inventory. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis. Results: during the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the students presented occasional and suggestive of abuse consumption of tobacco products, alcoholic beverages, marijuana and hypnotics/sedatives. The lowest mean mental health scores corresponded to the students who had their addiction level classified as suggestive of abuse, and the highest mean scores were found in those who did not use these substances during the pandemic (no consumption/pandemic). Conclusion: given that higher mean scores point to better mental health, it can be inferred that worse mental health is associated with higher psychoactive substance consumption.


RESUMEN Objetivo: medir el nivel de dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas entre estudiantes de salud de una Universidad Pública Federal y verificar las relaciones con la salud mental durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: Estudio transversal con enfoque cuantitativo realizado con 527 alumnos de siete cursos de pregrado del área de salud de una Universidad Pública Federal del sur de Brasil. La recogida se realizó de forma virtual a través de un cuestionario de caracterización sociodemográfica y académica, el Test de Detección de Consumo de Alcohol, Tabaco y Sustancias, y el Inventario de Salud Mental. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudiantes durante la pandemia de COVID-19 tenían un consumo ocasional y sugestivo de productos de tabaco, bebidas alcohólicas, marihuana e hipnóticos/sedantes. Las puntuaciones medias de salud mental más bajas fueron las de los estudiantes cuyo nivel de dependencia se clasificó como sugestivo de abuso, y las puntuaciones más altas las de aquellos que no consumieron durante la pandemia (sin consumo/pandemia). Conclusión: teniendo en cuenta que las medias más altas apuntan a una mejor salud mental, se puede deducir que una peor salud mental está asociada a un mayor consumo de sustancias psicoactivas.


RESUMO Objetivo: mensurar o nível de dependência de substâncias psicoativas dos estudantes da área da saúde de uma universidade pública federal e verificar relações com a saúde mental durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Método: estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa realizado com 527 estudantes de sete cursos de graduação da área da saúde de uma universidade pública federal da região Sul do Brasil. A coleta foi realizada de forma virtual por meio de um questionário de caracterização sociodemográfica e acadêmica, o Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test e o Mental Health Inventory. Para análise dos dados, foi utilizada a estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: a maioria dos estudantes, durante a pandemia da COVID-19, apresentou uso ocasional e sugestivo de abuso para derivados do tabaco, bebidas alcoólicas, maconha e hipnóticos/sedativos. As menores médias de saúde mental foram dos estudantes que tiveram seu nível de dependência classificado como sugestivo de abuso, e as maiores médias foram dos que não fizeram uso dessas substâncias durante a pandemia (sem uso/pandemia). Conclusão: tendo em vista que médias mais elevadas apontam para uma melhor saúde mental, pode-se inferir que uma pior saúde mental está associada ao maior uso de substâncias psicoativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Social Isolation , Students , Universities , World Health Organization , Mass Screening , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , Alcohol Drinking in College
17.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(1): 4-5, 04-abr-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1378885

ABSTRACT

En esta carta al editor, se discute la metodología y las características de los adultos mayores mexicanos en el estudio "Percepción de los adultos mayores acerca de su calidad de vida. Una perspectiva desde el contexto familiar".


In this letter to the editor, it is discussed the methodology and the characteristics of Mexican older adults of the study "Perception of older adults about their quality of life. A perspective from the familial context".


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Research/standards , Mass Screening/methods , Sampling Studies , Health Research Evaluation , Mexico
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 244-262, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364955

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This review aimed to analyze interventions raised within primary and tertiary prevention concerning the disease's incidence, progression, and recurrence of Prostate Cancer (PCa). Priority was given to the multidisciplinary approach of PCa patients with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. Materials and Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review in the following databases: Embase, Central, and Medline. We included the most recent evidence assessing cohort studies, case-control studies, clinical trials, and systematic reviews published in the last five years. We only included studies in adults and in vitro or cell culture studies. The review was limited to English and Spanish articles. Results: Preventive interventions at all levels are the cornerstone of adherence to disease treatment and progression avoidance. The relationship in terms of healthy lifestyles is related to greater survival. The risk of developing cancer is associated to different eating habits, determined by geographic variations, possibly related to different genetic susceptibilities. Discussion: PCa is the second most common cancer in men, representing a leading cause of death among men in Latin America. Prevention strategies and healthy lifestyles are associated with higher survival rates in PCa patients. Also, screening for anxiety and the presence of symptoms related to mood disorders is essential in the patient's follow-up concerning their perception of the condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Incidence , Risk Factors , Life Style
19.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 21, 2022. 4 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1366980

ABSTRACT

Informe que presenta la situación epidemiológica El Salvador al 18 de abril de 2022 (Datos preliminares) Principales causas de consulta, acumuladas desde el 11 de abril a la fecha, años 2021 ­ 2022 Total consultas, emergencias y referencias, Semana Santa El Salvador 2020 ­ 2021 Informe de COVID-19 I. Contexto mundial de COVID -19 II. Contexto Centroamérica y República Dominicana III. Situación Nacional, Programación semanal de tamizajes comunitarios, semana santa 2022 Recursos Humanos a disposición para este periodo del sistema integrado de salud


Report presenting the epidemiological situation of El Salvador as of April 18, 2022 (Preliminary data) Main causes of consultation, accumulated from April 11 to date, years 2021 - 2022 Total queries, emergencies and referrals, Easter El Salvador 2020 ­ 2021 COVID-19 Report I. Global Context of COVID -19 II. Context Central America and the Dominican Republic III. National Situation, Weekly programming of community screening, Holy Week 2022 Human resources available for this period of the integrated health system


Subject(s)
Health , Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Holidays , Infections , Mass Screening , El Salvador , Preliminary Data
20.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(1): 11-19, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388167

ABSTRACT

Resumen El uso de escalas de predicción clínica puede incrementar la detección temprana de enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC). Su rendimiento en población latinoamericana ha sido pobremente estudiado. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la validez y reproducibilidad del cuestionario PUMA, como herramienta de tamización en atención primaria en población colombiana, mediante un estudio tipo corte transversal; donde se establecieron las características operativas del cuestionario, área bajo la curva de características operativas del receptor (ACOR) y el mejor punto de corte para esta población. 1.980 sujetos fueron incluidos en el análisis. La prevalencia de EPOC correspondió a 18,9%. La capacidad discriminatoria del cuestionario fue de 0,69 (IC95%: 0,66-0,72), para un punto de corte óptimo mayor de 5, con una sensibilidad del 60%, especificidad 66% y un valor predictivo negativo de 88%. La escala PUMA para tamizaje de pacientes en riesgo de EPOC tiene una capacidad discriminatoria moderada y una excelente reproducibilidad en la población estudiada.


The use of clinical prediction scales may increase the early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The performance characteristics of these scales in the Latin American population is poorly studied. We aimed to evaluate validity and reproducibility of PUMA questionnaire as a screening tool in primary care in a Colombian population. A cross-sectional study was performed. Operational characteristics of the questionnaire, the area under the received operator curve (AUROC), and the best cut-off point of the score were calculated. 1,980 individuals were included in this analysis. Prevalence of COPD was 18.9%. AUROC of the questionary was 0.69 (CI95%: 0.66-0.72), with an optimal cut-off point greater than 5 (sensitivity 60%, specificity 66%); predictive negative value was 88%. PUMA's scale for the screening of patients at risk of COPD has a moderate accuracy and an excellent reproducibility in the studied population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colombia/epidemiology
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