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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 70 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553846

ABSTRACT

A utilização de agrotóxicos ao redor do mundo é elevada, estimada em mais 2 milhões de toneladas e somente o continente americano emprega 1,2 milhão de toneladas de produtos. O Brasil possui na agricultura a sua principal atividade econômica e utilizou em 2021 aproximadamente 700 mil toneladas de agrotóxicos. O tomate é um dos vegetais mais cultivados e consumidos no mundo e o Brasil figura como o 10º maior produtor. O consumo anual médio de tomate do brasileiro é de 4,2 kg, é um vegetal nutritivo e com propriedades associadas à prevenção de câncer. O tomate é uma das culturas com maior uso de agrotóxicos e durante o período desse estudo, era autorizado o uso de 123 agrotóxicos. Os resíduos desses produtos nos alimentos podem acarretar em diversos problemas à saúde, mesmo em curta exposição (< 24h). Desse modo, uma das maneiras de garantir a segurança alimentar da população é a realização da avaliação de risco de contaminação dietética. No processo de validação 73 ingredientes ativos respeitaram os critérios do protocolo adotado. Para a realização da estimativa de risco de exposição dietética aguda, foram coletadas 30 amostras de tomate in natura e 11 de tomate pelado, entre setembro de 2021 e março de 2022. Para a extração dos compostos de interesse foi utilizado o método QuEChERS e para avaliação dos resíduos, a cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Das amostras de tomate in natura, somente seis (20 %) estavam isentas dos compostos pesquisados; 18 (60 %) apresentaram resíduo(s) abaixo do limite (LMR) estabelecido e seis amostras (20 %) foram consideradas impróprias ao consumo. Das amostras de tomate pelado, três estavam isentas dos agrotóxicos pesquisados e oito (72 %) apresentaram resíduo de carbendazim abaixo do LMR. Nenhuma das amostras mostrou potencial de contaminação aguda por agrotóxicos, apesar disso não é possível afirmar que não há risco, pois não há como estimar os potenciais efeitos adversos provenientes do consumo de um alimento com múltiplos compostos.


More than 2 million tons of pesticide products are used annually through the world and only the America continent was used 1,2 million tons of these products. The agriculture is the main economic activity in Brazil, this way in 2021 approximately 700 thousand tons of pesticide were applied in its crops. Tomato is one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables in the world and Brazil is the 10th largest producer. The Brazilian people consumes an average of 4.2 kg of tomatoes by year, it is a nutritious vegetable with anti-cancer properties. Tomato crop is one of the which highest pesticide usages, during this study 123 compounds were permitted for this crop. Pesticide residues in food may causes several health problems, even in short-term exposition (< 24h), thus one of the ways to ensure the food safety to population is performing the dietary contamination risk assessment. In the validation process 73 active ingredients were within the established criteria. To perform the acute risk assessment of dietary exposure, were collected samples of: fresh tomato (30) and whole peeled tomato (11) in between September of 2021 and March of 2022. To extraction of interest substances was used the QuEChERS method and to residue evaluation the liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Of the fresh tomato samples, only six (20 %) were free of searched analytes; 18 (60 %) showed residue(s) bellow the established limits (MRL) and six (20 %) were considered unfit to consumption. Of the whole peeled tomato samples, three were free of searched substances and eight (72 %) showed residue of carbendazim bellow the MRL. None of the samples showed potential for acute contamination by pesticide, however it is not possible to say that there is no risk, as there is no way to estimate the potential adverse effects on health arising from the consumption of a food with several compounds.


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Solanum lycopersicum , Risk Assessment
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010715

ABSTRACT

The human oral microbiome harbors one of the most diverse microbial communities in the human body, playing critical roles in oral and systemic health. Recent technological innovations are propelling the characterization and manipulation of oral microbiota. High-throughput sequencing enables comprehensive taxonomic and functional profiling of oral microbiomes. New long-read platforms improve genome assembly from complex samples. Single-cell genomics provides insights into uncultured taxa. Advanced imaging modalities including fluorescence, mass spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy have enabled the visualization of the spatial organization and interactions of oral microbes with increasing resolution. Fluorescence techniques link phylogenetic identity with localization. Mass spectrometry imaging reveals metabolic niches and activities while Raman spectroscopy generates rapid biomolecular fingerprints for classification. Culturomics facilitates the isolation and cultivation of novel fastidious oral taxa using high-throughput approaches. Ongoing integration of these technologies holds the promise of transforming our understanding of oral microbiome assembly, gene expression, metabolites, microenvironments, virulence mechanisms, and microbe-host interfaces in the context of health and disease. However, significant knowledge gaps persist regarding community origins, developmental trajectories, homeostasis versus dysbiosis triggers, functional biomarkers, and strategies to deliberately reshape the oral microbiome for therapeutic benefit. The convergence of sequencing, imaging, cultureomics, synthetic systems, and biomimetic models will provide unprecedented insights into the oral microbiome and offer opportunities to predict, prevent, diagnose, and treat associated oral diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phylogeny , Biomimetics , Dysbiosis , Homeostasis , Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010597

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is among the most malignant cancers, and thus early intervention is the key to better survival outcomes. However, no methods have been derived that can reliably identify early precursors of development into malignancy. Therefore, it is urgent to discover early molecular changes during pancreatic tumorigenesis. As aberrant glycosylation is closely associated with cancer progression, numerous efforts have been made to mine glycosylation changes as biomarkers for diagnosis; however, detailed glycoproteomic information, especially site-specific N-glycosylation changes in pancreatic cancer with and without drug treatment, needs to be further explored. Herein, we used comprehensive solid-phase chemoenzymatic glycoproteomics to analyze glycans, glycosites, and intact glycopeptides in pancreatic cancer cells and patient sera. The profiling of N-glycans in cancer cells revealed an increase in the secreted glycoproteins from the primary tumor of MIA PaCa-2 cells, whereas human sera, which contain many secreted glycoproteins, had significant changes of glycans at their specific glycosites. These results indicated the potential role for tumor-specific glycosylation as disease biomarkers. We also found that AMG-510, a small molecule inhibitor against Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) G12C mutation, profoundly reduced the glycosylation level in MIA PaCa-2 cells, suggesting that KRAS plays a role in the cellular glycosylation process, and thus glycosylation inhibition contributes to the anti-tumor effect of AMG-510.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glycosylation , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/metabolism , Glycoproteins , Mass Spectrometry , Biomarkers/metabolism , Polysaccharides
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (En línea) ; 43(4): 209-213, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537564

ABSTRACT

La amiloidosis siempre ha representado un desafío diagnóstico. En el año 2020, el Grupo de Estudio de Amiloidosis (GEA), confeccionó la Guía de Práctica Clínica para el Diagnóstico de Amiloidosis. Nuevas líneas de investigación se han desarrollado posteriormente. Esta revisión narrativa tiene como intención explorar el estado del arte en el diagnóstico de la amiloidosis. En pacientes con amiloidosis se recomienda la tipificación de la proteína mediante espectrometría de masa, técnica de difícil ejecución por requerir de microdisectores láser para la preparación de la muestra. Algunas publicaciones recientes proponen otros métodos para obtener la muestra de amiloide que se va a analizar, permitiendo prescindir de la microdisección. Por otra parte, en pacientes con Amiloidosis ATTR confirmada, la recomendación de secuenciar el gen amiloidogénico se encontraba destinada a los casos sospechosos de ATTR hereditaria (ATTRv,), pero actualmente esta se ha extendido a todos los pacientes sin importar la edad. En lo que respecta a los estudios complementarios orientados al diagnóstico de compromiso cardíaco, se ha propuesto el uso de la inteligencia artificial para su interpretación, permitiendo la detección temprana de la enfermedad y el correcto diagnóstico diferencial. Para el diagnóstico de neuropatía, las últimas publicaciones proponen el uso de la cadena ligera de neurofilamento sérica, que también podría resultar un indicador útil para seguimiento. Finalmente, con referencia a la amiloidosis AL, la comunidad científica se encuentra interesada en definir qué características determinan el carácter amiloidogénico de las cadenas livianas. La N-glicosilación de dichas proteínas impresiona ser uno de los determinantes en cuestión. (AU)


Amyloidosis has always represented a diagnostic challenge. In 2020, the Amyloidosis Study Group (ASG) developed the "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis". New lines of research have subsequently emerged. This narrative review aims to explore the state of the art in the diagnosis of amyloidosis diagnosis. In patients with amyloidosis, protein typing by mass spectrometry is recommended, a technique hard to perform because it requires laser microdissection for sample preparation. Recent publications propose other methods to obtain the amyloid sample to be analyzed, making it possible to dispense with microdissection. On the other hand, in patients with confirmed TTR amyloidosis (aTTR), the recommendation to sequence the amyloidogenic gene was intended for suspected cases of hereditary aTTR but has now been extended to all patients regardless of age. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry , Biopsy , Glycosylation , Artificial Intelligence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 308-318, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430503

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Gastrin plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Its expression is up-regulated in GC tissues and several GC cell lines. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of gastrin in GC proliferation. Gastrin-overexpressing GC cell model was constructed using SGC7901 cells. Then the differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ analysis. Next, we use flow cytometry and immunofluorescence to study the effect of gastrin on the mitochondrial potential and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Finally, we studied the underlying mechanism of gastrin regulating mitochondrial function using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence. Overexpression of gastrin promoted GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. A total of 173 proteins were expressed differently between the controls and gastrin- overexpression cells and most of these proteins were involved in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Among them, Cox17, Cox5B and ATP5J that were all localized to the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in gastrin-overexpression cells. Furthermore, gastrin overexpression led to mitochondrial potential decrease and mitochondria-derived ROS increase. Additionally, gastrin-induced ROS generation resulted in the inhibition of cell apoptosis via activating NF-kB, inhibiting Bax expression and promoting Bcl-2 expression. Finally, we found gastrin interacted with mitochondrial membrane protein Annexin A2 using Co-IP and mass spectrometry. Overexpr ession of gastrin inhibits GC cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction through interacting with mitochondrial protein Annexin A2, then up-regulating ROS production to activate NF-kB and further leading to Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decrease.


La gastrina juega un papel vital en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico (CG). Su expresión está regulada al alza en tejidos de CG y en varias líneas celulares de CG. Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente aun no se ha investigado. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el papel y el mecanismo de la gastrina en la proliferación de CG. El modelo de células CG que sobre expresan gastrina se construyó usando células SGC7901. Luego, las proteínas expresadas diferencialmente se identificaron mediante análisis iTRAQ. A continuación, utilizamos la citometría de flujo y la inmunofluorescencia para estudiar el efecto de la gastrina en el potencial mitocondrial y la producción de ROS derivada de las mitocondrias. Finalmente, estudiamos el mecanismo subyacente de la gastrina que regula la función mitocondrial utilizando Co-IP, espectrometría de masas e inmunofluorescencia. La sobreexpresión de gastrina promovió la proliferación de células CG in vitro e in vivo. Un total de 173 proteínas se expresaron de manera diferente entre los controles y las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina y la mayoría de estas proteínas estaban implicadas en la tumorigenesis y la proliferación celular. Entre estas, Cox17, Cox5B y ATP5J, todas localizadas en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, estaban reguladas a la baja en las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina. Además, la sobreexpresión de gastrina provocó una disminución del potencial mitocondrial y un aumento de las ROS derivadas de las mitocondrias. Por otra parte, la generación de ROS inducida por gastrina resultó en la inhibición de la apoptosis celular mediante la activación de NF-kB, inhibiendo la expresión de Bax y promoviendo la expresión de Bcl-2. Finalmente, encontramos que la gastrina interactuaba con la proteína de membrana mitocondrial Anexina A2 usando Co-IP y espectrometría de masas. La sobreexpresión de gastrina inhibe la apoptosis de las células CG al inducir la disfunción mitocondrial a través de la interacción con la proteína mitocondrial Anexina A2, luego regula el aumento de la producción de ROS para activar NF-kB y conduce aún más a la disminución de la relación Bax/Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrins/metabolism , Annexin A2/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Mass Spectrometry , NF-kappa B , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoprecipitation , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Flow Cytometry
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21626, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429969

ABSTRACT

Abstract n our study, we aimed to validate a method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to quantify spironolactone (SPI) and its active metabolite canrenone (CAN) simultaneously in plasma samples to support in vivo experiments. Compounds were separated by using a C18 column with the isocratic elution of a mobile phase composed of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in methanol-water (60:40 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL min−1. SPI and CAN were detected in na electrospray interface operating in a positive ionization mode and quantified using the selective ion mode monitoring of mass-charge ratios (m/z) of 439.0 for SPI and 363.1 for CAN. After calculating the matrix effect using theoretical equations, we observed the strong interference of plasma in the equipment-generated signal, which required creating analytical curves using the matrix as a solvent. The method was nevertheless linear (r 2 > 0.999) in a concentration range of 0.4-5.0 µg mL−1, as well as precise, with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. SPI's and CAN's recovery rates from the plasma ranged from 87.4% to 112.1%, while their limits of detection (i.e., 0.07 µg mL−1 and 0.03 µg mL−1, respectively) and quantification (i.e., 0.20 µg mL−1 and 0.08 µg mL−1, respectively) in the presence of plasma contaminants were low. Therefore, the bioanalytical method seems to be feasible for quantifying SPI and CAN in plasma


Subject(s)
Plasma , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spironolactone/analysis , Canrenone/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Pharmacokinetics , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 81 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437408

ABSTRACT

Com base nas perturbações fosfoproteômicas de moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular em células infectadas pelo coronavírus causador da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARSCoV)-2, a hipótese de inibidores do ciclo celular como uma terapia potencial para a doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) foi proposta. No entanto, o cenário das alterações do ciclo celular em COVID-19 permanece inexplorado. Aqui, realizamos uma análise integrativa de sistemas imunológicos de proteoma publicamente disponível (espectrometria de massa) e dados de transcriptoma (sequenciamento de RNA em massa e de célula única [scRNAseq]), com o objetivo de caracterizar mudanças globais na assinatura do ciclo celular de pacientes com COVID-19. Além de módulos de co-expressão de genes significativos enriquecidos associados ao ciclo celular, encontramos uma rede interconectada de proteínas diferencialmente expressas associadas ao ciclo celular (DEPs) e genes (DEGs) integrando dados moleculares de 1.480 indivíduos (974 pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 e 506 controles [controles saudáveis ou indivíduos com outras doenças respiratórias]). Entre esses DEPs e DEGs estão várias ciclinas (CCNs), ciclo de divisão celular (CDCs), quinases dependentes de ciclinas (CDKs) e proteínas de manutenção de minicromossomos (MCMs). Embora os pacientes com COVID-19 compartilhem parcialmente o padrão de expressão de algumas moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular com outras doenças respiratórias, eles exibiram uma expressão significativamente maior de moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular relacionadas à gravidade da doença. Notavelmente, a assinatura do ciclo celular predominou nos leucócitos do sangue dos pacientes, mas não nas vias aéreas superiores. Os dados de scRNAseq de 229 indivíduos (159 pacientes com COVID- 19 e 70 controles) revelaram que as alterações das assinaturas do ciclo celular predominam nas células B, T e NK. Esses resultados fornecem uma compreensão global única das alterações nas moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular em pacientes com COVID-19, sugerindo novas vias putativas para intervenção terapêutica


Based on phosphoproteomics perturbations of cell cycle-associated molecules in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2-infected cells, the hypothesis of cell cycle inhibitors as a potential therapy for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been proposed. However, the landscape of cell cycle alterations in COVID-19 remains mostly unexplored. Here, we performed an integrative systems immunology analysis of publicly available proteome (mass spectrometry) and transcriptome data (bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing [scRNAseq]), aiming to characterize global changes in the cell cycle signature of COVID-19 patients. Beyond significant enriched cell cycle-associated gene co-expression modules, we found an interconnected network of cell cycle-associated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and genes (DEGs) by integrating molecular data of 1,480 individuals (974 SARS-CoV- 2 infected patients and 506 controls [either healthy controls or individuals with other respiratory illness]). Among these DEPs and DEGs are several cyclins (CCNs), cell division cycle (CDCs), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs). Although COVID-19 patients partially shared the expression pattern of some cell cycleassociated molecules with other respiratory illnesses, they exhibited a significantly higher expression of cell cycle-associated molecules associated with disease severity. Notably, the cell cycle signature predominated in the patients blood leukocytes but not in the upper airways. The scRNAseq data from 229 individuals (159 COVID-19 patients and 70 controls) revealed that the alterations of cell cycle signatures predominate in B, T, and NK cells. These results provide a unique global comprehension of the alterations in cell cycle-associated molecules in COVID-19 patients, suggesting new putative pathways for therapeutic intervention


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , Cell Cycle/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Killer Cells, Natural/classification , Chromosomes/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA/instrumentation , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Proteome/analysis , Transcriptome/immunology
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 131 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437606

ABSTRACT

myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Primulaceae) conhecida popularmente como capororoquinha ou capororoca, é amplamente distribuída nas regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil. As espécies desse gênero apresentam um potencial antioxidante e anti-inflamatório, que pode ser acessado na busca de novos ativos para o tratamento de desordens pigmentares da pele. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial antitirosinase e antioxidante de extratos e frações de M. coriacea e identificar os possíveis compostos responsáveis por essas atividades. Foram realizados ensaios para avaliar o potencial antioxidante das amostras através do método do DPPH, enquanto a capacidade hipopigmentante das amostras foi avaliado pela inibição da enzima tirosinase. Como complemento, foram determinados os teores de compostos fenólicos totais e flavonoides através dos métodos colorimétricos empregando o reagente Folin-Ciocalteau e AlCl3. Adicionalmente, os extratos de M. coriacea tiveram avaliados seus potenciais citotóxicos utilizando diferentes linhagens tumorais humanas. O perfil fitoquímico de M. coriacea foi analisado por cromatografia a gás acoplada com espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD) com padrões. Nessas análises foram identificados 34 compostos, sendo o ácido palmítico e o palmitato de etila os compostos majoritários nas amostras de M. coriacea. O extrato bruto das folhas apresentou o maior teor de fenólicos totais, enquanto a fração de acetato de etila das folhas teve o maior teor de flavonoides. Contudo, o extrato bruto dos frutos apresentou a melhor atividade antioxidante de todas as amostras analisadas, apresentando também a melhor atividade antitirosinase. Dentre os compostos anotados, mandenol, ácido -linoleico e o linolenato de etila foram os compostos considerados como possíveis inibidores da tirosinase, com boa interação molecular com a enzima nas análises de ancoragem molecular in silico. Das amostras analisadas com relação a inibição de crescimento frente as células tumorais, a amostra da fração de clorofórmio das folhas foi a que apresentou potencial antitumoral frente as células de adenocarcinoma de cólon (HCT116)


myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Primulaceae) popularly known as capororoquinha or capororoca, is widely distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Myrsine species have an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which can be accessed in the search for new actives for the treatment of skin pigmentation disorders. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the antityrosinase and antioxidant potential from extracts and fractions of M. coriacea and to identify the probable compounds responsible for these activities. Assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the samples using the DPPH method, while the hypopigmentation capacity of the samples was evaluated by the tyrosinase inhibition. As a complement, the amounts of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined through colorimetric methods using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and AlCl3. Additionally, M. coriacea extracts had their cytotoxic potential evaluated using different human tumor cell lines. M. coriacea phytochemical profile was obtained by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) with standards. In these analyses, 34 compounds were identified, with palmitic acid and ethyl palmitate as the major compounds in M. coriacea samples. The leaf crude extract presented the highest total phenolics contents, while the leaf ethyl acetate fraction had the highest flavonoid amounts. However, the fruit crude extract showed the best antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of all analyzed samples. Among the annotated compounds, mandenol, -linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were the compounds considered as putative tyrosinase inhibitors, presenting good molecular interaction with the enzyme active site in the in silico molecular docking analysis. The leaf chloroform fraction was the only sample that showed an antitumor potential against colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT116)


Subject(s)
Monophenol Monooxygenase/analysis , Primulaceae/metabolism , Myrsine/classification , Fruit/classification , Antioxidants/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Skin Pigmentation/immunology , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Hypopigmentation/pathology
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23017, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505848

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infusion solutions must be stable from the production stage until the infusion stage. Some infusion fluids contain degradation products, known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs); however, it is unknown whether AGEs exist in parenteral nutrition solutions. We aimed to investigate this question and test the effect of infusion conditions on AGE formation in parenteral nutrition solution. Nine parenteral nutrition solutions were supplied by the pharmacy with which we collaborated. To simulate the infusion conditions, the solutions were held in a patient room with standard lighting and temperature for 24 hours. Samples were taken at the beginning (group A) and the end (24th hour, group B) of the infusion period. The degradation products were 3-deoxyglucosone, pentosidine, N-carboxymethyl lysine, and 4-hydroxynonenal, which we investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and Q-TOF LC/MS methods. Two of four degradation products, 4-hydroxynonenal and N-carboxymethyl lysine, were detected in all samples, and Group B had higher levels of both compounds compared to Group A, who showed that the quantities of these compounds increased in room conditions over time. The increase was significant for 4-hydroxynonenal (p=0.03), but not for N-carboxymethyl lysine (p=0.23). Moreover, we detected in the parenteral nutrition solutions a compound that could have been 4-hydroxy-2-butynal or furanone


Subject(s)
Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Glycation End Products, Advanced/analysis , Parenteral Nutrition Solutions/administration & dosage , Pharmacy/classification , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Patients' Rooms/classification , Lighting/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21283, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439509

ABSTRACT

Abstract The anecdotal use of Alternanthera sessilis L. as a relief for diabetes has been known in the Philippines for generations, and antidiabetic activity of similar varieties in other countries is likewise documented. However, the compounds responsible for this activity remain unclear. This study aims to isolate the anti-hyperglycemic fraction of local A. sessilis leaves and identify the compounds in this fraction. Methanol extract of A. sessilis leaves and its hexane, ethyl acetate (ASE), and water fractions were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic mice. ASE (250mg/kg) had the highest anti-hyperglycemic activity at 6-h post-treatment (25.81%±12.72%), with almost similar blood glucose reduction rate as metformin (30.13±3.75%, p=0.767). Repeated fractionation employing chromatographic separation techniques followed by in vivo anti-hyperglycemic assay yielded partially purified subfractions. A. sessilis ethyl acetate subfraction 4-2 (100mg/kg) displayed remarkable suppression of blood glucose rise in diabetic mice at 6-h post-treatment (26.45±3.75%, p<0.0001), with comparable activity with metformin (100mg/kg, 27.87±5.65%, p=0.652). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed eight distinct peaks, with four peaks annotated via the Traditional Chinese Medicine library and custom library for A. sessilis. Among these, luteolin, apigenin, ononin, and sophorabioside were identified as putative compounds responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic activity. This result provided basis for the reported anecdotal claims and potential utility of the local variety of A. sessilis leaves as sources of anti-hyperglycemic agents


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Biological Assay/methods , Plant Leaves/classification , Amaranthaceae/adverse effects , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Apigenin/agonists
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21726, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pterocarpus santalinoides is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine to treat diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to establish the antidiabetic property of the plant, and isolate and characterize its active principle. Dried and pulverized leaves (500 g) of P. santalinoides were extracted with 1.8 L of 80 % hydromethanol by cold maceration. The dried extract (10 g) was partitioned into n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water. Antidiabetic activitiy-guided isolation by column chromatographic separation of the EtOAc soluble and purification of the sub-fractions by repeated preparative thin layer chromatography (pTLC) yielded a C-glycosyl flavonoid, identified as isovitexin. The chemical structure was elucidated based on high-resolution mass spectroscopy, 1D, and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Alloxan-induced diabetic rat model was adopted for antidiabetic screening. The extract of P. santalinoides (100-200 mg/kg), fraction F4 (50 mg/kg), sub-fraction F4.3 (10 mg/kg), and the semi-purified compound F4.3.2 (5 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) reduced the fasting blood glucose of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, causing 48.4, 69.4, 57.7 and 64.5 % antidiabetic activity respectively, compared with > 68 % recorded in glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) control. These results reveal that isovitexin is the antidiabetic principle in P. santalinoides


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Pterocarpus/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Acetates/pharmacology
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21088, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed at conducting phytochemical analysis and evaluating the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of J. oxycedrus L. Hydro-distillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fruits of Juniper oxycedrus. The essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was determined in vitro using varying concentrations of the essential oil and vitamin C as a standard antioxidant compound. A disc diffusion test was employed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oil against two test fungal strains, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus niger. The results revealed that 49 constituents were identified in fruit oil, representing 91.56% of the total oil and the yield was 1.58%. Juniper fruit oil was characterized by having high contents of ß-pinene (42.04%), followed by limonene (15.45%), sabinene (9.52%), α-pinene (5.21%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.77%), ρ-cymene (1.56%), caryophyllene oxide (2.02%), and myrcene (1.02%). The radical scavenging activity (% inhibition) of the essential oil was highest (81.87± 2.83%) at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. The essential oil of J. oxycedrus exhibited antifungal activity against A. niger and P. citrinum with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) ranging from 2.89 to 85.01 µl/mL. The findings of the study reveal that the antioxidant and antifungal properties of J. oxycedrus essential oil and their chemical composition are significantly correlated


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Juniperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970572

ABSTRACT

The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to conduct the qualitative analysis of the monoterpene chemical components from Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Gradient elution was performed on C_(18) HD(2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.5 μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid(A) and acetonitrile(B). The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 30 ℃. MS analysis was conducted in both positive and negative ionization modes using electrospray ionization(ESI) source. Qualitative Analysis 10.0 was used for data processing. The identification of chemical components was realized by the combination of standard compounds, fragmentation patterns, and mass spectra data reported in the literature. Forty-one monoterpenoids in Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract were identified. Among them, 8 compounds were reported in Paeoniae Radix Rubra for the first time and 1 was presumed to be the new compound 5″-O-methyl-galloylpaeoniflorin or its positional isomer. The method in this study realizes the rapid identification of monoterpenoids from Paeoniae Radix Rubra and provides a material and scientific basis for quality control and further study on the pharmaceutical effect of Paeoniae Radix Rubra.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry , Monoterpenes
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970480

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents in stem leaf, root, and flower of Ixeris sonchifolia were identified by the ultra performance li-quid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry(UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS~n). The separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with a mobile phase of water(containing 0.1% formic acid, A)-acetonitrile(B) with gradient elution. With electrospray ionization source, the data of 70% methanol extract from stem leaf, root and flower of I. sonchifolia were collected by high-resolution full-scan Fourier transform spectroscopy, data dependent acquisition, precursor ion scan, and selected ion monitoring in the negative and positive ion modes. The compounds were identified based on accurate molecular weight, retention time, fragment ions, comparison with reference standard, Clog P and references. A total of 131 compounds were identified from the 70% methanol extract of I. sonchifolia, including nucleosides, flavonoids, organic acids, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoids, and 119, 110, and 126 compounds were identified from the stem leaf, root and flower of I. sonchifolia, respectively. In addition, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-7-O-sambubioside and caffeylshikimic acid were discovered from I. sonchifolia for the first time. This study comprehensively analyzed and compared the chemical constituents in different parts of I. sonchifolia, which facilitated the discovery of effective substances and the development and application of medicinal material resources of I. sonchifolia.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Methanol , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Mass Spectrometry , Asteraceae
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971678

ABSTRACT

Angelicae Sinensis Radix (AS) is reproted to exert anti-depression effect (ADE) and nourishing blood effect (NBE) in a rat model of depression. The correlation between the two therapeutic effects and its underlying mechanisms deserves further study. The current study is designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of correlation between the ADE and NBE of AS based on hepatic metabonomics, network pharmacology and molecular docking. According to metabolomics analysis, 30 metabolites involved in 11 metabolic pathways were identified as the potential metabolites for depression. Furthermore, principal component analysis and correlation analysis showed that glutathione, sphinganine, and ornithine were related to pharmacodynamics indicators including behavioral indicators and hematological indicators, indicating that metabolic pathways such as sphingolipid metabolism were involved in the ADE and NBE of AS. Then, a target-pathway network of depression and blood deficiency syndrome was constructed by network pharmacology analysis, where a total of 107 pathways were collected. Moreover, 37 active components obtained from Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Triple-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS) in AS extract that passed the filtering criteria were used for network pharmacology, where 46 targets were associated with the ADE and NBE of AS. Pathway enrichment analysis further indicated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in the ADE and NBE of AS. Molecular docking analysis indciated that E-ligustilide in AS extract exhibited strong binding activity with target proteins (PIK3CA and PIK3CD) in sphingolipid metabolism. Further analysis by Western blot verified that AS regulated the expression of PIK3CA and PIK3CD on sphingolipid metabolism. Our results demonstrated that sphingolipid metabolic pathway was the core mechanism of the correlation between the ADE and NBE of AS.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics/methods , Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981409

ABSTRACT

To study the quality control of three traditional Chinese medicines derived from Gleditsia sinensis [Gleditsiae Sinensis Fructus(GSF), Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis(GFA), and Gleditsiae Spina(GS)], this paper established a multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) approach based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Trap-MS). Using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm), gradient elution was performed at 40 ℃ with water containing 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase running at 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and the separation and content determination of ten chemical constituents(e.g., saikachinoside A, locustoside A, orientin, taxifolin, vitexin, isoquercitrin, luteolin, quercitrin, quercetin, and apigenin) in GSF, GFA, and GS were enabled within 31 min. The established method could quickly and efficiently determine the content of ten chemical constituents in GSF, GFA, and GS. All constituents showed good linearity(r>0.995), and the average recovery rate was 94.09%-110.9%. The results showed that, the content of two alkaloids in GSF(2.03-834.75 μg·g~(-1)) was higher than that in GFA(0.03-10.41 μg·g~(-1)) and GS(0.04-13.66 μg·g~(-1)), while the content of eight flavonoids in GS(0.54-2.38 mg·g~(-1)) was higher than that in GSF(0.08-0.29 mg·g~(-1)) and GFA(0.15-0.32 mg·g~(-1)). These results provide references for the quality control of G. sinensis-derived TCMs.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981322

ABSTRACT

This paper explored the chemical constituents of Boswellia carterii by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data such as infrared radiation(IR), ultra violet(UV), mass spectrometry(MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR). Seven diterpenoids were isolated and purified from n-hexane of B. carterii. The isolates were identified as(1S,3E,7E,11R,12R)-11-hydroxy-1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-15-oxabicyclo[10.2.1]pentadeca-3,7-dien-5-one(1),(1R,3S,4R,7E,11E)-4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-14-oxabicyclo[11.2.1]hexadeca-7,11-dien-4-ol(2), incensole(3),(-)-(R)-nephthenol(4), euphraticanoid F(5), dilospirane B(6), and dictyotin C(7). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were new and their absolute configurations were determined by comparison of the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroisms(ECDs). Compounds 6 and 7 were obtained from B. carterii for the first time.


Subject(s)
Molecular Structure , Boswellia/chemistry , Diterpenes/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986016

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of trace cobalt and tungsten in human urine. Methods: The authors used 1% nitric acid solution as diluent in October-December 2021, the sample dilution factor and internal standard element were optimized by single factor rotation experiment, and the difference between the working curve and the standard curve was compared. Results: The method uses working curve to determine cobalt and tungsten in urine, the linear range of this method was 0.0~10.0 μg/L, the correlation coefficient was 0.999 9, the detection limits respectively were 0.005 μg/L (cobalt) and 0.09 μg/L (tungsten), the recoveries of samples respectively were 87.0%~100.2% (cobalt) and 89.4%~104.8% (tungsten), the relative standard deviations respectively were 0.4%~4.4% (cobalt) and 0.6%~3.8% (tungsten) . Conclusion: A simple and rapid method for determination of cobalt and tungsten in urine has been established. This method has the advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity, low detection limit and good stability. It is suitable for determination of cobalt and tungsten in urine of all kinds of people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cobalt/analysis , Tungsten/analysis , Spectrum Analysis , Nitric Acid , Mass Spectrometry
19.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 406-416, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009373

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the types and quantities of fentanyl analogs have increased rapidly. It has become a hotspot in the illicit drug control field of how to quickly identify novel fentanyl analogs and to shorten the blank regulatory period. At present, the identification methods of fentanyl analogs that have been developed mostly rely on reference materials to target fentanyl analogs or their metabolites with known chemical structures, but these methods face challenges when analyzing new compounds with unknown structures. In recent years, emerging machine learning technology can quickly and automatically extract valuable features from massive data, which provides inspiration for the non-targeted screening of fentanyl analogs. For example, the wide application of instruments like Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and other instruments can maximize the mining of the characteristic data related to fentanyl analogs in samples. Combining this data with an appropriate machine learning model, researchers may create a variety of high-performance non-targeted fentanyl identification methods. This paper reviews the recent research on the application of machine learning assisted non-targeted screening strategy for the identification of fentanyl analogs, and looks forward to the future development trend in this field.


Subject(s)
Fentanyl , Substance Abuse Detection/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Illicit Drugs/analysis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008776

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix-Coptidis Rhizoma(SR-CR) herbal pair is commonly used in many compound prescriptions for their synergistic heat-clearing and dampness-drying properties. During the decoction process, a substantial amount of precipitate is generated. However, there have been no explicit reports on the composition, morphology, and potential effects of this precipitate on the in vivo behavior of SR-CR decoction. This study employed high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), high-resolution mass spectrometry, and other techniques to analyze the composition of the co-precipitate in the decoction of SR-CR. Scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging were used to analyze its appearance and morphology. Additionally, rats were used to investigate the effects of the co-precipitate on the in vivo behavior of the main components in the SR-CR decoction. The research findings indicated that eight components, including coptisine, berberine, epiberberine, palmatine, baicalin, oroxylin A-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, wogonoside and baicalein, constituted the primary composition of the co-precipitate. Among these, baicalin and berberine hydrochloride were the most abundant, accounting for about 60% of the total weight. Moreover, the co-precipitate contained 18% tannins. Morphological analysis revealed that the particles in the SR-CR decoction precipitate were spherical microparticles with an average diameter of around 600 nm. Pharmacokinetic research demonstrated that there were significant differences in the AUC, C_(max), t_(1/2), and T_(max) of baicalin, a major component, in rats administered with lyophilized powders of the combined decoction and single decoctions of SR-CR orally, suggesting that the precipitate generated during the decoction process can affect the in vivo behavior of the main components of the SR-CR decoction. It can reduce the absorption of baicalin in the body, decrease the extent of rapid drug release, and to a certain extent, prevent adverse reactions or side effects.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Berberine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Mass Spectrometry
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