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2.
Psicol. USP ; 352024. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1537769

ABSTRACT

A Psicologia como campo de saber é chamada para compreender processos de invisibilização e subalternização de experiências, tais como o processo de masculinização de homens. A partir da análise de pesquisas em masculinidade(s) e sobre homens realizadas pelos programas de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia no Brasil disponíveis no Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações da Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, compreendemos a importância de se introduzir critérios socioculturais como filtros em catálogos de indexação de pesquisas. Essa estratégia possibilita entender quem tem pesquisado sobre determinado campo teórico e dialogar de maneira mais afinado com as(os) interlocutoras(es) em uma pesquisa, auxiliando na promoção da inserção social, critério de avaliação estabelecido por essa fundação


Psychology as a field of knowledge is called upon to understand processes of invisibilization and subalternization of experiences, such as the process of masculinization of men. Based on an analysis of research into masculinity(ies) and men carried out by Postgraduate Programs in Psychology in Brazil, available in the Theses and Dissertations Catalog of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) Foundation, we understood the importance of introducing sociocultural criteria as filters in search indexing catalogs. This strategy makes it possible to understand who has been researching a given theoretical field and to engage in a more attuned dialogue with the interlocutor(s) in a piece of research, helping to promote social inclusion, an evaluation criterion established by CAPES


La Psicología como campo de conocimiento se utiliza para comprender los procesos de invisibilidad y subordinación de experiencias, como el proceso de masculinización de los hombres. A partir del análisis de estudios sobre masculinidad(es) y sobre hombres realizados por los Programas de Posgrado en Psicología en Brasil, disponibles en el Catálogo de Tesis de la Coordinación para el Perfeccionamiento del Personal de Educación Superior, entendemos la importancia de introducir criterios culturales, como filtros en los catálogos de indexación de búsqueda. Esta estrategia permite comprender a quienes vienen investigando sobre un determinado campo teórico y dialogar más de cerca con el(los) interlocutor(es) en una investigación, contribuyendo a promover la inclusión social, criterio de evaluación establecido por esta entidad


La Psicología como campo de conocimiento se utiliza para comprender los procesos de invisibilidad y subordinación de experiencias, como el proceso de masculinización de los hombres. A partir del análisis de estudios sobre masculinidad(es) y sobre hombres realizados por los Programas de Posgrado en Psicología en Brasil, disponibles en el Catálogo de Tesis de la Coordinación para el Perfeccionamiento del Personal de Educación Superior, entendemos la importancia de introducir criterios culturales, como filtros en los catálogos de indexación de búsqueda. Esta estrategia permite comprender a quienes vienen investigando sobre un determinado campo teórico y dialogar más de cerca con el(los) interlocutor(es) en una investigación, contribuyendo a promover la inclusión social, criterio de evaluación establecido por esta entidad


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Education, Graduate , Masculinity , Men , Psychology , Scientific and Technical Activities
3.
Actual. osteol ; 19(2): 144-159, sept. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1523956

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures are common in glucocorticoids (GC) treated patients. Oral GC treatment leads to bone loss, particularly of trabecular bone. The benefits of GC used in rheumatological and traumatological disorders are known but they would have possible negative effects on bone. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of epidural steroid injections (ESI), and intra-articular and intramuscular GC administration on bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures. A systematic review of Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, and LILACS up to November 2020 was conducted. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies comparing the effect of ESI, intra-articular or intramuscular GC used compared to a control group or baseline measurements were included. Results: A total of 8272 individuals were included among the 13 selected articles (10 about ESI and 3 about intra-articular GC; no article was found evaluating intramuscular GC). Only a few studies showed a negative effect of ESI on bone in the qualitative analysis considering osteopenia and osteoporosis in lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip and BMD as surrogate outcomes. On the other hand, the qualitative analysis showed that most studies found an increased risk of fragility fracture. However, only two studies could be included in the quantitative analysis, in which there were no differences between patients exposed to ESI versus controls in all evaluated regions. In conclusion, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that ESI and intra-articular GC, unlike oral GC, negatively affect bone mass. Longitudinal studies are needed to obtain more knowledge regarding the effect of ESI or intra-articular GC on BMD and fragility fractures. (AU)


La osteoporosis y las fracturas vertebrales y no vertebrales son comunes en pacientes tratados con glucocorticoides (GC). El tratamiento oral con GC conduce a la pérdida ósea, particularmente del hueso trabecular. Los beneficios de los GC utilizados en patologías reumatológicas y traumatológicas son conocidos, pero tendrían posibles efectos negativos sobre el hueso. Esta revisión sistemática tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos de las inyecciones epidurales de esteroides (ESI), GC intraarticulares e intramusculares sobre la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) y las fracturas por fragilidad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de Medline/PubMed, Cochrane y LILACS hasta noviembre de 2020. Se incluyeron metanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas, ensayos controlados aleatorizados y no aleatorizados, estudios prospectivos y retrospectivos que compararon el efecto de ESI, GC intraarticular o intramuscular utilizado en comparación con un grupo de control o mediciones iniciales. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 8272 individuos entre los 13 artículos seleccionados (10 sobre ESI y 3 sobre GC intraarticular; no se encontró ningún artículo que evaluara GC intramuscular). Solo unos pocos estudios mostraron un efecto negativo del ESI sobre el hueso en el análisis cualitativo considerando la osteopenia y la osteoporosis en la columna lumbar, el cuello femoral y la cadera total y la DMO como un resultado indirecto. Por otro lado, el análisis cualitativo mostró que la mayoría de los estudios encontraron un mayor riesgo de fractura por fragilidad. Sin embargo, solo dos estudios pudieron incluirse en el análisis cuantitativo, en los que no hubo diferencias entre los pacientes expuestos a ESI versus los controles en todas las regiones evaluadas. En conclusión, no hallamos datos suficientes para sugerir que la ESI y los GC intraarticulares, a diferencia de los GC orales, afectan negativamente a la pérdida ósea. Se necesitan estudios longitudinales para obtener más conocimiento sobre el efecto de ESI o GC intraarticular en la DMO y las fracturas por fragilidad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoporosis/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteoporotic Fractures/chemically induced , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Review Literature as Topic , Bias , Drug Administration Routes , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Clinical Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Densitometry , Estrogens/adverse effects
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(5): 734-741, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529940

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To provide a current overview of the Bristow-Latarjet surgery in Brazil. Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on an electronic questionnaire with 26 items, which was sent to active members of the Brazilian Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia do Ombro e Cotovelo, SBCOC, in Portuguese). The questionnaire addressed training, surgical technique, complications, and postoperative management. Results We sent the questionnaire to 845 specialists from April 20 to May 12, 2021, and 310 of them answered i in full. During their specialization, most specialists participated in up to ten Bristow-Latarjet procedures. The most frequent complication was graft fracture, while the most common technical difficulty was screw positioning. In total, 50.6% and 73.9% reported having experienced intraoperative and postoperative complications respectively; 57.1% declared performing subscapularis suture; 99.7% indicated postoperative immobilization; and 61.9% considered graft consolidation fundamental. Conclusion Most specialists participated in up to ten Bristow-Latarjet procedures during the specialization, but 13.5% of them graduated without participating in the surgery. The most frequent complication was graft fracture. The most common technical difficulty was screw positioning. Most participants prefer postoperative immobilization since they believe graft consolidation is essential to resume the practiced of sports. The highest complication rate occurred with specialists who have obtained their titles 11 to 15 years ago. In Brazil, the Southeast region is the largest producer of specialists and has the highest concentration of these professionals.


Resumo Objetivo Traçar um panorama atual da cirurgia de Bristow-Latarjet no Brasil. Materiais e Métodos Estudo transversal no qual um questionário eletrônico com 26 perguntas sobre aspectos de formação, técnica cirúrgica, complicações e manejo pós-cirúrgico foi enviado a membros ativos da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia do Ombro e Cotovelo (SBCOC). Resultados Entre 20 de abril e 12 de maio de 2021, o questionário foi enviado a 845 especialistas, e obteve-se 310 respostas completas. Durante a especialização, a maior parte dos especialistas participou de até dez procedimentos de Bristow-Latarjet. A complicação mais frequente foi a fratura do enxerto, e a dificuldade técnica, o posicionamento dos parafusos. Ao todo, 50,6% já tiveram complicações no intraoperatório; 73,9% já tiveram complicações no pós-operatório; 57,1% fazem a sutura do subescapular; 99,7% indicam a imobilização no pós-operatório; e 61,9% consideram a consolidação do enxerto fundamental. Conclusão A maior parte dos especialistas participou de até dez procedimentos de Bristow-Latarjet durante a especialização, mas 13,5% se formaram sem ter participado de nenhuma cirurgia. A complicação mais frequente foi a fratura do enxerto. A dificuldade técnica mais frequente foi o posicionamento dos parafusos. Imobilização no pós-operatório é a preferência da maioria dos participantes, que consideram fundamental a consolidação do enxerto para o retorno ao esporte. O maior número de complicações ocorreu com especialistas que obtiveram o título de 11 a 15 anos atrás. A região Sudeste é a maior formadora de especialistas e onde está concentrada a maior parte deles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Shoulder Dislocation/therapy , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Brazil , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Joint Instability/surgery
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1240-1253, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514343

ABSTRACT

La expansión y consolidación de la práctica clínica basada en la evidencia ha llevado entre otras, a la necesidad de realizar una variedad cada vez mayor de tipos de revisión de la literatura científica; lo que permite avanzar en el conocimiento y comprender la amplitud de la investigación sobre un tema de interés, teniendo en cuenta que una de las propiedades del conocimiento es su carácter acumulativo. Sin embargo, la diversidad de la terminología utilizada genera confusión de términos y conceptos. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue proporcionar un listado de los tipos de revisiones de la literatura más frecuentemente utilizados con sus características y algunos ejemplos de ellas. Revisión cualitativa. Se examinaron de forma dirigida las bases de datos PubMed, WoS y Scopus, en búsqueda de términos asociados a tipos de revisiones y síntesis de la literatura científica. Se encontraron 21 tipos de revisión; y 29 variantes y sinonimias asociadas; las que ilustran los procesos de cada una de ellas. Se da una descripción general de las características de cada cual, junto con las fortalezas y debilidades percibidas. No obstante, se verificó que sólo algunos tipos de revisión poseen metodologías propias y explícitas. Este enfoque, proporciona un punto de referencia para quienes realizan o interpretan revisiones en el ámbito sanitario, y sugiere dos tipos de propuestas de clasificación.


SUMMARY: The expansion and consolidation of evidence-based clinical practice has led, among other things, to the need to carry out an increasing variety of types of literature reviews, which allows advancing in knowledge and understanding the breadth of research on a topic of interest. However, the diversity of the terminology used generates confusion of terms and concepts. The aim of this manuscript was to provide a list of the most frequently used review types with their characteristics and some examples. Qualitative review. PubMed, WoS and Scopus databases were examined in a directed way, searching for terms associated with types of reviews and syntheses of the scientific literature. Twenty-one types of review, and 29 variants and associated synonymies were found; those that illustrate the processes of each of them. An overview of the characteristics of each is given, along with perceived strengths and weaknesses. However, it was verified that only some types of review have their own explicit methodologies. This approach, provides a point of reference for those who perform or interpret reviews in the health field and suggests two classification proposals.


Subject(s)
Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Systematic Reviews as Topic
6.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(1): 40-60, jan-mar. 2023. ilus 27, tab 2
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1413212

ABSTRACT

Contexto: O aumento de casos de varíola dos macacos fora do continente africano tem causado preocupação às autoridades sanitárias pela maior agressividade, sugerindo a necessidade de maiores cuidados, envolvendo maior risco de evolução desfavorável. Objetivos: Avaliar a efetividade dos mecanismos metabuscadores ao fornecer um mapeamento de evidências com foco em revisões sistemáticas e uma identificação dessas sínteses de evidência para responder questões atreladas à varíola dos macacos para a prática clínica de profissionais de saúde. Métodos: Trata-se de revisão de literatura. Foram pesquisadas cinco ferramentas eletrônicas: Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos, WorldWideScience, Portal Regional BVS e PubMed ­ Clinical Queries. O foco de busca envolveu apenas as sínteses de evidência em revisões sistemáticas. Foi utilizada a terminologia oficial em língua inglesa nos Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS) e no Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): Monkeypox. Resultados: Os metabuscadores obtiveram os resultados para a identificação das sínteses: PubMed: 16 revisões sistemáticas; Tripdatabase: 4 revisões sistemáticas, nas quais somente 3, de fato, eram sobre a varíola dos macacos; Epistemonikos: 19 revisões sistemáticas; WorldWideScience: 35 revisões sistemáticas e Portal Regional BVS: 22 revisões sistemáticas. Discussão: A maior sensibilidade das ferramentas metabuscadoras alavancou os resultados, tornando possível um melhor cenário para profissionais de saúde tomarem decisões. Recomenda-se que essas ferramentas sejam utilizadas como rotina nas estratégias de busca. Conclusão: A análise estratégica de busca, a partir da varíola dos macacos, demonstrou que as ferramentas metabuscadoras apresentam excelente abrangência e cobertura no que tange à obtenção das melhores informações científicas, focadas em evidências, recomendando-se sua utilização como fonte inicial para as buscas de evidências e, também, no aprimoramento das perguntas de pesquisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Databases, Bibliographic , Mpox (monkeypox) , Evidence-Based Practice , Search Engine , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
FEMINA ; 51(1): 57-64, jan. 31, 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428686

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Discutir o uso dos progestagênios em mulheres com perda gestacional de repetição (PGR) sem causa aparente, abordando tipos de progestagênios e resultados de ensaios clínicos, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão não sistemática de artigos publicados nas bases eletrônicas PubMed, Cochrane e SciELO nos últimos cinco anos, utilizando-se os seguintes descritores: "progesterone", "dydrogesterone", "recurrent pregnancy loss" e "recurrent abortion". Resultados: Duas grandes metanálises encontraram uma redução da taxa de abortamento e aumento da taxa de nascidos vivos com o uso do progestágeno sintético em pacientes com PGR inexplicada, porém essa conclusão foi contestada em uma metanálise mais recente. Entretanto, a progesterona vaginal micronizada poderia aumentar a taxa de nascidos vivos em mulheres com ameaça de aborto e com história de um ou mais abortos anteriores (risco relativo [RR]: 1,08, intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%: 1,02-1,15). O benefício foi maior no subgrupo de mulheres com três ou mais perdas anteriores. Conclusão: Ainda restam dúvidas sobre o uso de "progesterona" nas pacientes com PGR inexplicada. Sua administração deve ser discutida individualmente com cada mulher, levando-se em conta especialmente a idade materna, o número de abortos prévios e a história de sangramento na gestação em curso, evitando-se tratamentos que trazem custos e não são isentos de efeitos colaterais.(AU)


Objective: To discuss the use of progestins in women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) with no apparent cause, addressing types of progestins, and results of clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Methods: This is a non-systematic review of articles published in the PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO electronic databases in the last five years, using the following descriptors: "progesterone", "dydrogesterone", "recurrent pregnancy loss", and "recurrent abortion". Results: Two large meta-analyses found a reduction in the rate of miscarriage, and an increase in the rate of live births with the use of synthetic progestin in patients with unexplained RPL, but this conclusion was challenged in a more recent meta-analysis. However, micronized vaginal progesterone could increase the rate of live births in women with a threatened miscarriage and a history of one or more previous miscarriages (RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.15). The benefit was greatest in the subgroup of women with three or more previous losses. Conclusion: There are still doubts about the use of "progesterone" in patients with unexplained RPL. Its administration should be discussed individually with each woman, taking into account especially the maternal age, number of previous abor tions, and history of bleeding during pregnancy, avoiding treatments that bring costs and are not free from side effects.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Progesterone/therapeutic use , Abortion, Habitual/drug therapy , Clinical Protocols , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Risk Factors , Clinical Trials as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
10.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(2): e007052, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510036

ABSTRACT

El hipotiroidismo primario, caracterizado por una disminución en la síntesis de hormonas tiroideas, es el trastorno endocrinológico más frecuente, y la levotiroxina, el tratamiento de elección. Usualmente se recomienda su administración por la mañana, una hora antes del desayuno. A partir de la consulta de una paciente con dificultades para la adherencia ala toma de la medicación en ayunas, la autora de este artículo lleva a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica para revisar la evidencia que avala la administración de levotiroxina antes de acostarse. (AU)


Primary hypothyroidism, characterized by a decrease in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, is the most common endocrine disorder, and levothyroxine being the treatment of choice. Its administration is usually recommended in the morning, one hour before breakfast. Based on the consultation of a patient with difficulties in sticking to taking medication on an empty stomach, the author of this article carried out a bibliographic search to review the evidence that supports the administrationof levothyroxine before bedtime. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Patient Preference
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1209-1216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the methodological quality, report quality and evidence quality of the Meta-analysis and systematic reviews of acupuncture and moxibustion for children with cerebral palsy, aiming to provide decision-making basis for clinical treatment.@*METHODS@#The systematic reviews and Meta-analysis of acupuncture and moxibustion for children with cerebral palsy were searched in CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMbase. The retrieval time was from the database establishment to June 30th, 2022. AMSTAR 2 (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews) was used to evaluate the methodological quality, and PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) was used to evaluate the report quality, and GRADE was used to evaluate the quality of evidence.@*RESULTS@#A total of 14 systematic reviews were included, including 37 primary outcome indexes. According to AMSTAR 2 evaluation results, there were 4 low quality studies, 10 very low quality studies, and low scores on items 2, 4, 7, 10 and 16. PRISMA scores ranged from 15 to 25, and the main reporting problems reflected in structured abstracts, program and registration, retrieval, and funding sources, etc. According to the GRADE classification results, there were 3 high quality evidences, 7 medium quality evidences, 10 low quality evidences and 17 very low quality evidences. The main downgrading factors were limitations, imprecision and publication bias.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture and moxibustion has a certain effect for cerebral palsy in children, but the quality of methodology, reporting and evidence in the included literature is poor, and the comparison of curative effect between different acupuncture and moxibustion methods is unclear.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Cerebral Palsy/therapy , Moxibustion/methods , Publication Bias , Research Report , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic
13.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 223-231, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To re-evaluate the systematic review/Meta-analysis of acupuncture and moxibustion for childhood autism (CA), aiming to provide decision-making basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#The systematic review and/or Meta-analysis of acupuncture and moxibustion for CA were searched in PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, CNKI and Wanfang databases. The retrieval time was from the database establishment to May 5th, 2022. PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) was used to evaluate the report quality, and AMSTAR 2 (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews 2) was used to evaluate the methodological quality, bubble map was used to construct the evidence map and GRADE was used to evaluate the quality of evidence.@*RESULTS@#A total of 9 systematic reviews were included. The PRISMA scores ranged from 13 to 26. The report quality was low, and there was a serious lack in the aspects of program and registration, search, other analysis and funding. The main problems in methodology included not making prespecified protocol, incomplete retrieval strategy, not providing a list of excluded literatures, and incomplete explanation on heterogeneity analysis and bias risk. The evidence map showed that 6 conclusions were valid, 2 conclusions were possible valid and 1 conclusion was uncertain valid. The overall quality of evidence was low, and the main factors leading to the downgrade were limitations, followed by inconsistency, imprecision and publication bias.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture and moxibustion has a certain effect for CA, but the quality of reporting, methodology and evidence in included literature need to be improved. It is suggested to perform high-quality and standardized research in the future to provide evidence-based basis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Autistic Disorder , Moxibustion/methods , Publication Bias , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic
14.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 302-311, jul.-sep. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410008

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la exactitud de gota gruesa (GG) frente a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa para la malaria asociada al embarazo (MAE). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de pruebas diagnósticas en nueve bases de datos. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica con QUADAS. Se estimó sensibilidad, especificidad, cociente de probabilidad positivo (CPP) y negativo (CPN), razón de odds diagnóstica (ORD) y área bajo la curva ROC. Se determinó la heterogeneidad con el estadístico Q de Der Simonian-Laird y la incertidumbre con el porcentaje de peso de cada estudio sobre el resultado global. Resultados. Se incluyeron diez estudios con 5691 gestantes, 1415 placentas y 84 neonatos. En los estudios con nPCR (PCR anidada) y qPCR (PCR cuantitativa) como estándar, los resultados de exactitud diagnóstica fueron estadísticamente similares, con sensibilidad muy baja (50 y 54%, respectivamente), alta especificidad (99% en ambos casos), alto CPP y deficiente CPN. Usando nPCR la OR diagnóstica fue 162 (IC95%=66-401) y el área bajo la curva ROC fue 95%, mientras que con qPCR fueron 231 (IC95%=27-1951) y 78%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Mediante un protocolo exhaustivo se demostró el bajo desarrollo de investigaciones sobre la exactitud diagnóstica de la GG en MAE. Se demostró que la microscopía tiene un desempeño deficiente para el diagnóstico de infecciones asintomáticas o de baja parasitemia, lo que afianza la importancia de implementar otro tipo de técnicas en el seguimiento y control de las infecciones por malaria en las gestantes, con el fin de lograr el control y posible eliminación de la MAE.


ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the accuracy of thick smear (TS) versus quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Materials and methods. We carried out a systematic review of diagnostic tests in nine databases. Methodological quality was evaluated with QUADAS. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the ROC curve were estimated. Heterogeneity was determined with the Der Simonian-Laird Q method and uncertainty with the weighted percentage of each study on the overall result. Results. We included 10 studies with 5691 pregnant women, 1415 placentas and 84 neonates. In the studies with nested PCR (nPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as the standard, the diagnostic accuracy results were statistically similar, with very low sensitivity (50 and 54%, respectively), high specificity (99% in both cases), high PLR and poor NLR. When nPCR was used, the DOR was 162 (95%CI=66-401) and the area under the ROC curve was 95%, while with qPCR it was 231 (95%CI=27-1951) and 78%, respectively. Conclusions. We demonstrated that research on the diagnostic accuracy of TS in PAM is limited. Microscopy showed poor performance in the diagnosis of asymptomatic or low parasitemia infections, which reinforces the importance of implementing other types of techniques for the follow-up and control of malaria infections in pregnant women, in order to achieve the control and possible elimination of PAM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Malaria/diagnosis , Placenta/parasitology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology
15.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 42-58, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363401

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, excepto los glucocorticoides, ningún otro tratamiento farmacológico ha demostrado disminución de la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 grave-crítico. Con el objetivo de discutir su utilidad en la terapéutica, se realizó una revisión y lectura crítica de los estudios publicados más significativos sobre el uso de tocilizumab.Se llevó adelante una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas priorizando la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas y ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados (ERC) que analizaran el efecto del tocilizumab en COVID-19 en diferentes puntos de valoración.Se incluyeron 5 ERC y 4 metaanálisis en la evaluación, todos ellos incluyeron pacientes con COVID-19 confirmado y mayoritariamente graves-críticos. El punto de valoración principal (PVP) fue la mortalidad a los 28 días y como resultado secundario de relevancia, la progresión a ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI). Se analizó, además, la seguridad de la intervención, fundamentalmente a nivel de la ocurrencia de infecciones secundarias.Del análisis surge que la mayor posibilidad de beneficio parece estar circunscripta a pacientes con enfermedad grave-crítica, que reciben corticoides, con marcadores de inflamación elevados (PCR >10 mg/dL) y enfermedad rápidamente progresiva. Existe alto grado de certeza respecto del impacto del tocilizumab en evitar la progresión a VMI, con una pequeña magnitud del efecto y moderado grado de certeza respecto de su impacto en la mortalidad; además de que resultó una medicación segura


Up until now, other than corticosteroids, no other pharmacological treatment has shown a decrease in mortality rate in patients with severe-critical COVID-19. In order to discuss its place in therapy, a review and critical reading of the most significant published studies on the use of tocilizumab was carried out.Search was done in the main bibliographic databases, prioritizing the inclusion of systematic reviews and randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs); that analyzed the effect of tocilizumab on COVID-19 at different endpoints.5 RCTs and 4 meta-analysis were considered in the evaluation, all of them including patients with confirmed COVID-19 and predominantly severe-critical illness. The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality and, as a secondary outcome of relevance, progression to invasive mechanical ventilation. The safety of the intervention was also analyzed, mainly the occurrence of secondary infections.From our analysis it appears that the greatest possibility of benefit seems to be limited to patients with severe-critical illness, who receive corticosteroids, with high markers of inflammation values (CRP> 10 mg/dL) and rapidly progressive disease. There is high certainty regarding the impact of tocilizumab in preventing progression to IMV, with a small effect size and moderate certainty regarding its impact on mortality. Moreover, it was a well-tolerated and safe medication


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19/mortality
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