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Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 42-58, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363401


A la fecha, excepto los glucocorticoides, ningún otro tratamiento farmacológico ha demostrado disminución de la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 grave-crítico. Con el objetivo de discutir su utilidad en la terapéutica, se realizó una revisión y lectura crítica de los estudios publicados más significativos sobre el uso de tocilizumab.Se llevó adelante una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas priorizando la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas y ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados (ERC) que analizaran el efecto del tocilizumab en COVID-19 en diferentes puntos de valoración.Se incluyeron 5 ERC y 4 metaanálisis en la evaluación, todos ellos incluyeron pacientes con COVID-19 confirmado y mayoritariamente graves-críticos. El punto de valoración principal (PVP) fue la mortalidad a los 28 días y como resultado secundario de relevancia, la progresión a ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI). Se analizó, además, la seguridad de la intervención, fundamentalmente a nivel de la ocurrencia de infecciones secundarias.Del análisis surge que la mayor posibilidad de beneficio parece estar circunscripta a pacientes con enfermedad grave-crítica, que reciben corticoides, con marcadores de inflamación elevados (PCR >10 mg/dL) y enfermedad rápidamente progresiva. Existe alto grado de certeza respecto del impacto del tocilizumab en evitar la progresión a VMI, con una pequeña magnitud del efecto y moderado grado de certeza respecto de su impacto en la mortalidad; además de que resultó una medicación segura

Up until now, other than corticosteroids, no other pharmacological treatment has shown a decrease in mortality rate in patients with severe-critical COVID-19. In order to discuss its place in therapy, a review and critical reading of the most significant published studies on the use of tocilizumab was carried out.Search was done in the main bibliographic databases, prioritizing the inclusion of systematic reviews and randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs); that analyzed the effect of tocilizumab on COVID-19 at different endpoints.5 RCTs and 4 meta-analysis were considered in the evaluation, all of them including patients with confirmed COVID-19 and predominantly severe-critical illness. The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality and, as a secondary outcome of relevance, progression to invasive mechanical ventilation. The safety of the intervention was also analyzed, mainly the occurrence of secondary infections.From our analysis it appears that the greatest possibility of benefit seems to be limited to patients with severe-critical illness, who receive corticosteroids, with high markers of inflammation values (CRP> 10 mg/dL) and rapidly progressive disease. There is high certainty regarding the impact of tocilizumab in preventing progression to IMV, with a small effect size and moderate certainty regarding its impact on mortality. Moreover, it was a well-tolerated and safe medication

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19/mortality
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 416-426, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939902


BACKGROUND@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly spreading disease that has caused an extensive burden to the world. Consequently, a large number of clinical trials have examined the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating and preventing COVID-19, with coinciding proliferation of reviews summarizing these studies.@*OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to evaluate the methodological quality and evidence quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the efficacy of TCM.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#Seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP, Wanfang Data and SinoMed, were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses in October 2021. Search terms such as "Chinese medicine," "Lianhua Qingwen" and "COVID-19" were used.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of TCM treatment of COVID-19 were included.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews Version 2.0 (AMSTAR 2) was used to evaluate the methodological quality. The quality of evidence was graded using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Data extraction and analysis were performed by two reviewers independently.@*RESULTS@#There were 17 meta-analyses included in our overview. The intervention group was defined as TCM combined with Western medicine, while the control group was Western medicine alone. The methodological quality of all the included studies was moderate to poor. A total of 89 outcome indicators were evaluated, of which, 8 were rated as moderate quality, 39 as low quality, and 41 as very low quality. Only one outcome measure was graded as being of high quality. The moderate quality of evidence indicated that, for the treatment of COVID-19, the clinical efficacy of TCM in combination with Western medicine was better, in terms of lung recovery, rate of conversion to severe/critical cases, symptom scores, duration of symptoms, mortality, and length of hospital stay.@*CONCLUSION@#Evidence from the included studies shows that, compared with conventional Western medical therapy alone, the addition of TCM to COVID-19 treatment may improve clinical outcomes. Overall, the quality of evidence of TCM for COVID-19 was moderate to poor. Meta-analyses of the use of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19 can be used for clinical decision making by accounting for the experiences of clinical experts, medical policies, and other factors.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935271


The evaluation methods of immune persistence include direct evaluation, indirect evaluation, model prediction, and meta-analysis and so on. Direct evaluation is the gold standard for evaluating the immune persistence of vaccines by quantifying the protective effect of vaccines on the onset and (or) infection of preventable diseases. Indirect evaluation of immune persistence by immunological surrogate indicators is more widely used in practice. In addition, mathematical models and meta-analysis can also be used to evaluate the immune persistence of vaccines. It is of great significance to select the appropriate evaluation method to analyze the immune persistence of the vaccine according to the specific situation.

Humans , Immunity , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Vaccines/immunology
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 213-220, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929225


BACKGROUND@#Acupuncture has been widely used to relieve migraine-related symptoms. However, the findings of previous systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are still not completely consistent. Their quality is also unknown, so a comprehensive study is needed.@*OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the reporting and methodological quality of these MAs concerning acupuncture for migraine, and summarize evidence about the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for migraine.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Databases, Wanfang Data, and VIP databases were searched from inception to September 2020, with a comprehensive search strategy.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#The pairwise MAs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning migraine treated by acupuncture or acupuncture-based therapies, with a control group that received sham acupuncture, medication, no treatment, or acupuncture at different acupoints were included.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Two independent investigators screened studies, extracted relevant data, and assessed reporting and methodological quality using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 and A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2), then all results were cross-checked. Spearman correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation between reporting and methodological quality scores.@*RESULTS@#A total of 20 MAs were included in this study. The included MAs indicated that acupuncture was efficacious and safe in preventing and treating migraine when compared with control intervention. There was a high correlation between reporting and methodological quality scores (rs = 0.87, P < 0.001). The quality of the included SRs needs to be improved mainly with regard to protocol and prospective registration, using a comprehensive search strategy, summarizing the strength of evidence body for key outcomes, a full list of excluded studies with reasons for exclusion, reporting of RCTs' funding sources, and assessing the potential impact of risk of bias in RCTs on MA results.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture is an effective and safe intervention for preventing and treating migraine, and could be considered as a good option for patients with migraine. However, the reporting and methodological quality of MAs included in this overview is suboptimal. In the future, AMSTAR 2 and PRISMA tools should be followed when making and reporting an SR with MA.

Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , China , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Research Report
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 615-623, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352286


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rheumatic diseases (RDs) are a group of pathological conditions characterized by inflammation and functional disability. There is evidence suggesting that regular consumption of polyphenols has therapeutic effects capable of relieving RD symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize data from randomized controlled trials on administration of polyphenols and their effects on RD activity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review conducted at Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in the databases PubMed (Medline), LILACS (BVS), IBECS (BVS), CUMED (BVS), BINACIS (BVS), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library and in the grey literature. The present study followed a PRISMA-P checklist. RESULTS: In total, 646 articles were considered potentially eligible, of which 33 were then subjected to complete reading. Out of these, 17 randomized controlled trials articles were selected to form the final sample. Among these 17 articles, 64.71% assessed osteoarthritis (n = 11), 23.53% rheumatoid arthritis (n = 4), 5.88% rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia (n = 1) and 5.88% osteoarthritis and rheumatoid (n = 1). Intake of polyphenol showed positive effects in most of the studies assessed (94.12%): it improved pain (64.70%) and inflammation (58.82%). CONCLUSION: Polyphenols are potential allies for treating RD activity. However, the range of polyphenol sources administered was a limitation of this review, as also was the lack of information about the methodological characteristics of the studies evaluated. Thus, further primary studies are needed in order to evaluate the effects of polyphenol consumption for reducing RD activity. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTER: PROSPERO - CRD42020145349.

Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Inflammation
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(5): 514-524, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345472


Electrical and magnetic brain stimulation techniques present distinct mechanisms and efficacy in the acute treatment of depression. This was an umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of brain stimulation techniques for managing acute major depressive episodes. A systematic review was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE databases from inception until March 2020. We included the English language meta-analysis with the most randomized controlled trials on the effects of any brain stimulation technique vs. control in adults with an acute depressive episode. Continuous and dichotomous outcomes were assessed. A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews-2 was applied and the credibility of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Seven meta-analyses were included (5,615 patients), providing evidence for different modalities of brain stimulation techniques. Three meta-analyses were evaluated as having high methodological quality, three as moderate, and one as low. The highest quality of evidence was found for high frequency-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation, and bilateral rTMS. There is strong clinical research evidence to guide future clinical use of some techniques. Our results confirm the heterogeneity of the effects across these techniques, indicating that different mechanisms of action lead to different efficacy profiles.

Humans , Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Brain , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Depression , Magnetic Phenomena
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(10): 775-781, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357068


Abstract Objective To analyze the scientific production regarding maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation and its relationship with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Data Sources We performed unrestricted electronic searches in the BIREME virtual bank, Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed) databases. Selection of Studies For sample selection, articles that met the proposed objectives were included, published in English, Spanish and Portuguese, the use of Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS): autistic OR autism AND autism spectrum disorder AND folic acid, AND, with the use of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): autistic OR autism AND autistic spectrum disorder AND folic acid. Data Collection Data extraction was performed by the reviewers with a preestablished data collection formulary. Data Synthesis The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) was used based on a checklist with 27 items and a 4-step flowchart. Results A total of 384 articles was found by the search strategies, of which 17 were eligible following the pre-established criteria. The main findings of the present review point to maternal FA supplementation in the pre-conception period and beginning of pregnancy as a protective effect in relation to ASD, which should be indicated in this period as prevention to the problem. Conclusion According to the research analyzed, more studies are necessary to know its effects on pregnancy, since the consumption of excessive FA may not be innocuous.

Resumo Objetivo Analisar a produção científica a respeito da suplementação de ácido fólico (AF) materno e sua relação com o transtorno do espectro autista (TEA). Fontes de Dados Realizamos buscas eletrônicas irrestritas nas bases de dados do banco virtual BIREME, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (VHL) e Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE / PubMed). Seleção dos Estudos Incluímos os artigos publicados em inglês, espanhol e português, com o uso dos DeCS: autistic OR autism AND autism spectrum disorder AND folic acid, e com o uso dos Medical Subject Headings (MeSH, na sigla em inglês): autistic OR autism AND Autistic Spectrum Disorder AND folic acid ". Coleta de Dados A extração de dados foi realizada pelos revisores com um formulário de coleta de dados pré-estabelecido. Síntese dos Dados Foram usados os itens de relatório preferidos para protocolos de revisão sistemática e meta-análise (PRISMA-P) com base em uma lista de verificação com 27 itens e um fluxograma de 4 etapas. Resultados Foram encontrados 384 artigos pelas estratégias de busca, dos quais 17 eram elegíveis segundo os critérios pré-estabelecidos. Os principais achados da presente revisão apontam para a suplementação de AF materno no período de preconcepção e início da gravidez como efeito protetor em relação ao TEA, que deve ser indicada neste período como prevenção do problema. Conclusão De acordo com as pesquisas analisadas, mais estudos são necessários para conhecer seus efeitos sobre a gravidez, uma vez que o consumo excessivo de AF pode não ser inócuo.

Humans , Female , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Dietary Supplements , Folic Acid , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 31-44, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345514


Abstract Aim: To evaluate efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxinA for improving esthetics in the facial complex and correlating them to the dosage and side effects through a systematic review. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Web of Sciences, and Scopus databases. Quality of studies was appraised through the GRADE system. This review follows the 'Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols' (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Efficacy was analyzed through improvement rate and effect sizes. Graphical comparison of efficacy and ocular adverse effects (adverse effects around the eye) at various anatomical locations was made by calculating the average improvement rate and adverse events. Results: Twenty-five studies were included in this systematic review after application of the inclusion criteria. Moderate to severe cases in glabellar, lateral canthal, and forehead regions showed higher improvement rates between 20U to 50U, with an effect lasting up to 120 days. Gender and age seemed to have a direct effect on efficacy. Headaches were the most common adverse effect, followed by injection site bruising; all adverse effects resolved within 3-4 days. Conclusions: Treatment with Botulinum toxinA to enhance esthetics of facial complex is efficient and safe at all recommended dosages. Presence of complexing proteins influenced the efficacy of BoNT-A. undesirable muscular adverse effects around the eyes were more predominant when treating the glabellar region. There was no correlation found between the BoNT-A dosage and side effects, however, an increase in dosage did not always lead to an increase in efficacy.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança da toxina botulínica-A para melhorar a estética no complexo facial e correlacioná-la com a dosagem e os efeitos secundários através de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica utilizando bases de dados PubMed, Medline, Web of Sciences, e Scopus. A qualidade dos estudos foi avaliada através do sistema GRADE. Esta revisão segue a declaração "Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols" (PRISMA-P) 2015. A eficácia foi analisada através da taxa de melhoria e da dimensão dos efeitos.A comparação gráfica da eficácia e dos efeitos adversos oftalmológicos (efeitos adversos em torno do olho) em vários locais anatômicos foi feita através do cálculo da taxa média de melhoria e dos eventos adversos. Resultados: Vinte e cinco estudos foram incluídos nesta revisão sistemática após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão. Casos moderados a graves em regiões glabelares, canais laterais e testa mostraram taxas de melhoria mais elevadas entre 20U a 50U, com um efeito que durou até 120 dias. O sexo e a idade mostraram ter efeito direto na eficácia. As dores de cabeça foram o efeito adverso mais comum, seguido de hematomas no local da injecção; todos os efeitos adversos foram resolvidos em 3-4 dias. Conclusões: O tratamento com toxina botulínica-A para melhorar a estética do complexo facial é eficiente e seguro em todas as dosagens recomendadas. A presença de proteínas complexas influenciou a eficácia do BoNT-A. Os efeitos adversos musculares indesejáveis à volta dos olhos foram mais predominantes no tratamento da região glabelar. Não foi encontrada qualquer correlação entre a dosagem de BoNT-A e os efeitos secundários, contudo, um aumento da dosagem nem sempre levou a um aumento da eficácia.

Skin Aging , Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Esthetics, Dental , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Medwave ; 21(6): e8223, jul. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284251


Objective This living systematic review aims to provide a timely, rigorous and continuously updated summary of the evidence available on the role of pulmonary rehabilitation in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Design This is the protocol of a living systematic review. Data sources We will conduct searches in the L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) platform for COVID-19, a system that maps PICO questions to a repository maintained through regular searches in electronic databases, preprint servers, trial registries and other resources relevant to COVID-19. No date or language restrictions will be applied. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies and methods We adapted an already published common protocol for multiple parallel systematic reviews to the specificities of this question. We will include randomized trials evaluating the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation as monotherapy or in combination with other interventions-versus sham or no treatment in patients with COVID-19. Two reviewers will independently screen each study for eligibility, extract data, and assess the risk of bias. We will pool the results using meta-analysis and will apply the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. Ethics and dissemination No ethics approval is considered necessary. The results of this review will be widely disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, social networks and traditional media.

Humans , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Lung Diseases/rehabilitation , Research Design , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Databases, Factual , Recovery of Function , Systematic Reviews as Topic , COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/virology
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e501, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149799


Abstract Introduction Making decisions based on evidence has been a challenge for health professionals, given the need to have the tools and skills to carry out a critical appraisal of the evidence and assess the validity of the results. Systematic reviews of the literature (SRL) have been used widely to answer questions in the clinical field. Tools have been developed that support the appraisal of the quality of the studies. AMSTAR is one of these, validated and supported by reproducible evidence, which guides the methodological quality of the SRL. Objectives To show a historical, theoretical and practical guide for critical assessment of systematic reviews using AMSTAR to guide the argumental bases for their use according to the components of this methodological structure in health research, and to provide practical examples of how to apply this checklist. Methods We conducted a non-exhaustive review of literature in Pubmed and Cochrane Library using "AMSTAR" and "Systematic Reviews" as free terms without language or publication date limit; we also collected information from experts in the evaluation of the quality of the evidence. Conclusions AMSTAR is an instrument used, validated and supported by reproducible evidence for the evaluation of the internal validity of systematic reviews of the literature. It consists of 16 items that assess the overall methodological quality of a SRL. It is currently used indiscriminately and favorably, but it is not exempt from limitations and future updates based on new reproducibility and validation studies.

Resumen Introducción Tomar decisiones basadas en la evidencia ha sido un reto para profesionales de la salud; se requiere tener herramientas y habilidades para apreciar la evidencia críticamente y evaluar la validez de los resultados. Las revisiones sistemáticas de la literatura (RSL) han sido muy usadas para dar respuesta a preguntas del ámbito clínico. Se han desarrollado herramientas que apoyan la apreciación de la calidad de los estudios. El AMSTAR es una de estas, validada y soportada por evidencia reproducible que orienta la calidad metodológica de las RSL. Objetivos Mostrar un abordaje histórico, teórico y de guía práctica para la apreciación crítica de las revisiones sistemáticas con el AMSTAR, orientar las bases argumentales para su uso, según los componentes de esta estructura metodológica en investigación en salud, y proporcionar ejemplos prácticos sobre cómo aplicar esta lista de chequeo. Métodos Realizamos una revisión no exhaustiva de literatura en PubMed y The Cochrane Library con los términos libres "AMSTAR" y "revisiones sistemáticas'', sin límite de idioma o año de publicación; también, recolectamos información de expertos en evaluación de la calidad de la evidencia. Conclusiones El AMSTAR es un instrumento validado y soportado por evidencia reproducible para la evaluación de la validez interna de las revisiones sistemáticas de la literatura. Consiste en 16 ítems que evalúan de manera global la calidad metodológica de una RSL. Actualmente, se usa de manera indiscriminada y predilecta, pero no está exenta de limitaciones y futuras actualizaciones basadas en nuevos estudios de reproducibilidad y validación.

Humans , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Epidemiologic Methods , Evidence-Based Practice , Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Instruments for Management of Scientific Activity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 191-198, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391965


A doença renal crônica é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela queda progressiva da função renal, interferindo na homeostase de todo o corpo, incluindo o sistema nervoso central. Nesses pacientes, o comprometimento cognitivo é um achado comum, em comparação com a população geral, e mais frequente nos pacientes em diálise. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão integrativa, se há diferença entre a modalida- de dialítica (hemodiálise e diálise peritoneal) e a presença de comprometimento cognitivo nesses pacientes. Foi feito levan- tamento bibliográfico nas plataformas PubMed® e Bireme, com buscas padronizadas de 2014 até abril de 2019, utilizando-se pa- lavras-chave. Para a seleção e a avaliação dos estudos científicos levantados, foram estabelecidos critérios, contemplando os seguintes aspectos: autor, ano/local, grau de recomendação/ nível de evidência científica, amostra, faixa etária, média de idade em anos, métodos de avaliação, resultados e conclusão. Dos 561 artigos encontrados, 365 foram excluídos pela data de publicação, 87 foram excluídos pelo título, 17 pelo resumo, 49 pela leitura do artigo, 36 eram repetidos e oito foram selecio- nados para o estudo. Os pacientes em diálise peritoneal apre- sentaram menor comprometimento cognitivo e menor risco para demência que os pacientes em hemodiálise.

Chronic kidney disease is a clinical condition characterized by progressive decline in renal function, interfering with whole-bo- dy homeostasis, including the central nervous system. Cognitive impairment is a common finding in these patients, compared to the general population, besides being more frequent in dialysis patients. The objective of this study was to identify, through an integrative review, if there is difference between the dialysis mo- dality (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) and the presence of cognitive impairment in these patients. A bibliographic search on the PubMed® and Bireme platforms, with standard searches from 2014 to April 2019, using keywords, was conducted. For the selection and evaluation of scientific studies found in the sear- ch, criteria have been established, considering the following as- pects: author, year/location, grade of recommendation/level of evidence, sample, age, mean age in years, evaluation methods, results, and conclusion. Among 561 articles found, 365 were ex- cluded based on the date of publication, 87 based on the title, 17 on the abstract, 48 on the article reading, 36 were repeated, and eight were selected for the study. Patients on peritoneal dialysis have less cognitive impairment and lower risk for dementia than patients on hemodialysis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Dialysis/methods , Dementia/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e10200227, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180849


Abstract Aim: This article aimed to provide to the authors a summary of the methodological approach to prepare a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: The instructions were established to support authors in preparing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, according to the required recommendations. Conclusion: The researchers should keep in mind that conduct a systematic review involves rigorous methodological criteria to identify and synthesize all relevant studies on a given topic defined a priori.

Meta-Analysis as Topic , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2021.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1254554


DEFINIÇÃO DE REVISÃO SISTEMÁTICA: A RS sintetiza os resultados de estudos primários que se enquadram nos critérios de elegibilidade para responder uma pergunta de pesquisa3. A busca por estudos é realizada de forma sistemática, por meio de várias fontes de dados, com o uso de uma estratégia de busca ampla e sensível7 . A pergunta da pesquisa nas RS de ECR é estruturada no formato PICO (População, Intervenção, Comparador e Desfecho ­ em inglês, outcome). Esse tipo de revisão se baseia em métodos rigorosos, explícitos e reprodutíveis, para minimizar o risco de viés, entender as inconsistências dos resultados e então fornecer resultados confiáveis para a tomada de decisão. DEFINIÇÃO DE META-ANÁLISE META-ANÁLISE: é um método estatístico que pode ser realizado em RS para combinar os resultados de dois ou mais estudos independentes, que podem testar ou não a mesma pergunta/hipótese, gerando uma única estimativa de efeito8. A meta-análise pode ser em pares/ direta ou as meta-análises em rede, ou meta-análises de comparações múltiplas. Na presente diretriz, serão apresentados apenas os conceitos de meta-análise em pares. A vantagem da meta-análise é que esta pode apresentar uma estimativa mais precisa do tamanho do efeito, com considerável aumento do poder estatístico, o que é importante quando o poder do estudo primário é limitado devido ao pequeno tamanho da amostra9. Uma meta-análise pode, em alguns casos, produzir resultados conclusivos quando estudos individuais primários são inconclusivos. Uma RS não necessariamente precisa apresentar uma meta-análise para sintetizar seus resultados. Ao contrário, em alguns casos não é apropriado que elas sejam realizadas, podendo até mesmo gerar conclusões errôneas. Nesse caso, sínteses qualitativas devem ser utilizadas. IMPORTÂNCIA DAS REVISÕES SISTEMÁTICAS: A RS sintetiza os estudos primários da literatura sobre uma questão específica de pesquisa, auxiliando a tomada de decisão na saúde em torno da melhor conduta terapêutica ou profilática. Além disso, esse tipo de estudo ajuda a evitar desperdícios de pesquisa, garantindo que novas pesquisas primárias sejam realizadas com pleno conhecimento da evidência existente11. Um único estudo primário frequentemente não consegue detectar diferenças clinicamente relevantes de efeitos entre dois tratamentos, pois elaborar um ECR, com estimativas corretas para o cálculo do tamanho de amostra e poder estatístico adequados, exige, na maioria das vezes, um tamanho de amostra bastante significativo. Finalizar um ECR com um tamanho de amostra grande necessita de infraestrutura, recursos humanos especializados e recursos financeiros importantes, não disponíveis na maioria das vezes. De qualquer forma, RS com ou sem meta-análise são complementares aos estudos randomizados, por fornecerem ao profissional de saúde uma síntese do conhecimento atual disponível11. As RS também podem contribuir para aumentar a validade externa dos estudos, ou seja, contribuir para a generalização dos resultados. Em algumas situações, os achados de um estudo particular podem ser válidos apenas para uma população com as mesmas características das investigadas no estudo 10. LIMITAÇÕES E DESAFIOS DA ELABORAÇÃO DE REVISÕES SISTEMÁTICAS: As RS possuem alguns desafios, como a gestão de grande volume de informações e extração de dados, o tempo para a realização do estudo e as possíveis limitações de recursos humanos e materiais disponíveis12. As principais limitações que podem afetar a confiabilidade dos resultados de uma RS são o viés de publicação, além de dificuldades em combinar estudos que possam ter diferenças nas populações, nas intervenções, nos comparadores e na definição dos desfechos (diversidade clínica). Assim, é necessário explorar criticamente a evidência apresentada pela RS. Interpretações enganosas podem ser evitadas se princípios básicos forem observados. Nessa diretriz, serão discutidas as etapas para realização de RS de ECR, com ênfase em princípios básicos para garantir a validade dos resultados. RECURSOS NECESSÁRIOS: O conjunto de recursos, conhecimentos e habilidades da equipe envolvida é decisivo para a realização de uma RS de forma otimizada. O tempo é fator predominante e vai depender do tema e do escopo da revisão, assim como das habilidades e dos conhecimentos técnicos dos revisores. É preciso estimar o tempo que será necessário para a condução da RS e a disponibilidade que cada membro da equipe terá para trabalhar na revisão. A elaboração de um cronograma é importante, e este deve incluir todas as etapas, como treinamentos, reuniões, desenvolvimento do protocolo, busca e seleção dos estudos, extração e análise de dados etc. É importante prever gastos, como a necessidade de contratar um tradutor, para tradução de estudos em idioma não dominado pela equipe, ou comprar estudos em texto completo, não disponíveis para os revisores. Assim, sugere-se a elaboração de um orçamento, contemplando todos os itens com seus respectivos valores. Os recursos financeiros podem ser próprios ou podem ser financiados por entidades de agências de fomento à pesquisa (ex.: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq], Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo [Fapesp] etc.), instituições responsáveis pela avaliação tecnológica (Ministério da Saúde) ou envolvidas na elaboração de diretrizes para prática clínica (sociedades brasileiras de especialidades clínicas). Recursos humanos: é importante estimar o número de pessoas que irão compor a equipe da revisão, em quais etapas, quem será o coordenador principal da revisão, a necessidade de consultoria de especialistas no assunto, além de apoio estatístico e bibliotecário (se necessário). É importante ter pelo menos três pesquisadores envolvidos para que seja possível minimizar os vieses e os erros em todos os estágios da RS7 . A equipe de pesquisa pode conter outros membros da sociedade envolvidos com o tema, os quais podem ser consultados em vários estágios da RS, como profissionais de saúde especialistas no tema pesquisado, representantes de pacientes, usuários de serviços e especialistas em métodos estatísticos7 . As habilidades e os conhecimentos são fundamentais para a garantia da qualidade metodológica da RS. Assim, conhecimentos aprofundados sobre métodos de pesquisa, epidemiologia, conhecimento clínico da questão de pesquisa, informática e domínio de língua inglesa são necessários. Além disso, a equipe deve saber utilizar as ferramentas necessárias à condução da revisão, como os gerenciadores de referência, bases de dados bibliográficas, softwares que auxiliem na condução ou no relato da revisão sistemática, programas estatísticos para meta-análise. Recursos materiais: é importante estimar todos os recursos necessários para elaboração da RS, como computadores, acesso à internet, softwares de gerenciamento de referências (por exemplo, Mendeley, Endnote, Zotero), e softwares estatísticos (RevMan, R, Stata, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, por exemplo), além de eventual aquisição de textos completos de publicações com acesso restrito.

Meta-Analysis as Topic , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Government Agencies/standards , Brazil
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6002, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154091


ABSTRACT Objective: To carry out a scoping review of the meta-analyses published regarding about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), evaluating their main characteristics, publication trends and methodological quality. Methods: A bibliometric search was performed in PubMed®, Scopus and Web of Science, focusing on meta-analyses about COVID-2019 disease. Bibliometric and descriptive data for the included articles were extracted and the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses was evaluated using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Results: A total of 348 meta-analyses were considered eligible. The first meta-analysis about COVID-19 disease was published on February 26, 2020, and the number of meta-analyses has grown rapidly since then. Most of them were published in infectious disease and virology journals. The greatest number come from China, followed by the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. On average, these meta-analyses included 23 studies and 15,200 participants. Overall quality was remarkably low, and only 8.9% of them could be considered as of high confidence level. Conclusion: Although well-designed meta-analyses about COVID-19 disease have already been published, the majority are of low quality. Thus, all stakeholders playing a role in COVID-19 deseases, including policy makers, researchers, publishers and journals, should prioritize well-designed meta-analyses, performed only when the background information seem suitable, and discouraging those of low quality or that use suboptimal methods.

RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de escopo das metanálises publicadas sobre a doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), avaliando suas principais características, tendências de publicação e qualidade metodológica. Métodos: Uma busca bibliométrica foi realizada em PubMed®, Scopus e Web of Science, com foco em metanálises sobre a doença pelo COVID-19. Foram extraídos dados bibliométricos e descritivos dos artigos incluídos, e a qualidade metodológica foi avaliada usando a ferramenta A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Resultados: Um total de 348 metanálises foram consideradas elegíveis. A primeira delas foi publicada em 26 de fevereiro de 2020, e, desde então, o número dessas publicações cresceu rapidamente. A maioria foi publicada em periódicos de infectologia e virologia. Grande parte é proveniente da China, seguida dos Estados Unidos, da Itália e do Reino Unido. Em média, as metanálises incluíram 23 estudos e 15.200 participantes. Em geral, a qualidade metodológica foi baixa, e apenas 8,9% delas podem ser consideradas de algum grau de confiabilidade Conclusão: Embora algumas metanálises bem conduzidas sobre a doença pelo COVID-19 tenham sido publicadas, a maioria apresenta baixa qualidade. Todos os envolvidos na abordagem da doença pelo COVID-19, incluindo formuladores de políticas, pesquisadores, editoras e periódicos, devem dar prioridade a metanálises de alta qualidade, realizadas apenas quando os dados são viáveis, e desencorajar as de baixa qualidade ou conduzidas com métodos subótimos.

Humans , Bibliometrics , COVID-19 , United States , China , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United Kingdom , Italy
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002102, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222362


El cáncer colorrectal presenta un problema para la salud pública a nivel mundial. En Argentina, se diagnostican aproximadamente 13.500 casos cada año. El tamizaje como medida de prevención secundaria es una medida beneficiosa para lograr un abordaje temprano con mejores resultados. Los dos métodos más utilizados para el tamizaje son la videocolonoscopía y la prueba de sangre oculta en materia fecal, sobre todo la de tipo inmunoquímico que con el paso de los años fue reemplazando a la prueba de guayaco por su mayor practicidad. El primero es un método invasivo y que requiere anestesia, mientras que el segundo no tiene un efecto adverso directo pero debe realizarse con una cadencia mayor. El objetivo de los autores de este artículo fue evaluar la evidencia sobre la sensibilidad y especificidad de ambos métodos, como también sus beneficios y daños a partir de la consulta de un paciente a su médico de familia. Ninguna prueba parecería ser inferior para el tamizaje de cáncer colorrectal en una población de riesgo promedio, y ambas pueden usarse en programas de rastreo. Sin embargo, no existen estudios que comparen ambos métodos de manera directa, y toda prueba inmunoquímica fecal positiva debe ser seguida de una colonoscopía. La elección de la prueba puede depender de los valores y preferencias de los pacientes. (AU)

Colorectal cancer presents a public health problem worldwide. In Argentina, approximately 13,500 cases appear each year. Screening as a secondary prevention measure is a beneficial measure to achieve an early approach with better results. The two most used methods for screening are video colonoscopy and faecal immunochemical test, the former being invasiveand requiring anaesthesia, while the latter does not have a direct adverse effect but must be performed at a higher rate. The objective of this article was to evaluate the evidence for the sensitivity and specificity of both methods, as well as their benefits and harms. No test would appear to be inferior for colorectal cancer screening in an average-risk population, and both can be used in screening programs. However, there are no studies comparing both methods directly, and any positive faecal immunochemical test should be evaluated with a colonoscopy. The choice of the test may depend on the values and preferences of the patients. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colonic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Patient Participation , Mass Screening/methods , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colonoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/adverse effects , Secondary Prevention/methods , Patient Preference , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Occult Blood