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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21109, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429952

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism are rare disorders with few therapeutic options for their treatments, which can make patients suffer with complications. Therefore, compounded drugs might be a promising option given that they have the ability of meeting the patient's specific needs, (i) identification of the main drugs described in the literature; (ii) proposal of compounding systems and (iii) calculation of the budgetary addition for the inclusion of these drugs into the Brazilian Unified Health System. The research conducted a literature review and used management data as well as data obtained from official Federal District government websites. The study identified 31 drugs for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism. Fifty eight percent (58%) (18) of the medicines had their current demand identified, which are currently unmet by the local Health System. The estimated budget for the production of compounded drugs was of R$363,16.98 per year for approximately 300 patients. This estimated cost represents a budgetary addition of only 0.17% from the total of expenditures planned for drug acquirement. There is a therapeutic gap for inborn errors of metabolism and compounding pharmacies show potential in ensuring access to medicine therapy with a low-cost investment.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Metabolism , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Patients/classification , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/classification
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e261792, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529200

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender como mulheres adultas (acima de 30 anos) diagnosticadas com transtornos alimentares (TAs) vivenciam o adoecer. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório, desenvolvido com base no referencial teórico-metodológico da Análise Fenomenológica Interpretativa (AFI). Participaram seis mulheres, com idades entre 34 e 65 anos, atendidas em um serviço especializado. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista aberta, de inspiração fenomenológica, na modalidade remota. As entrevistas foram audiogravadas, transcritas e analisadas seguindo os passos da AFI. Duas categorias temáticas foram identificadas: "Vivendo antes do adoecer" e "Encontrando-se doente." Constatou-se que os sintomas tiveram início anteriormente à vida adulta e que houve dificuldade na confirmação do diagnóstico. Na perspectiva das participantes, conviver com a sintomatologia ficou mais complicado em função de particularidades de manejo dos sintomas na vida adulta, e a idade é percebida como um fator que impacta e dificulta ainda mais a recuperação. As participantes relataram desesperança em relação ao futuro, apesar de a maioria reconhecer melhoras no quadro clínico ao longo do tempo e de valorizar a relação de confiança estabelecida com a equipe multiprofissional.(AU)


This study aimed to understand the experience of illness of adult women (over 30 years) diagnosed with eating disorders (ED). This is a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study, using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as theoretical and methodological framework. A sample of six women aged 34-64 years, assisted in a specialized service, were recruited to complete a phenomenological in-depth open interview. The data were remotely collected. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed following the IPA. Two thematic categories were identified: "Living before the illness" and "Finding about the illness." It was found that the symptoms started before adulthood and that there was difficulty establishing the diagnosis. Living with the symptoms became more complicated due to particularities of symptom management in adulthood and age is perceived as a factor that impacts recovery and makes it even more difficult. The participants reported hopelessness about the future, although most recognized improvements in the clinical condition over time and valued the trusting relationship they established with the multiprofessional team.(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender las experiencias de las mujeres adultas (mayores de 30 años) diagnosticadas con trastornos alimentarios (TA) respecto a la enfermedad. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, desarrollado a partir del marco teórico y metodológico del Análisis Fenomenológico Interpretativo (AFI). Participaron seis mujeres, con edades de entre 34 y 65 años, atendidas en un servicio especializado. Los datos se recogieron mediante entrevistas abiertas, de inspiración fenomenológica, en la modalidad a distancia. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas en audio, transcritas y analizadas siguiendo los pasos del AFI. Se identificaron dos categorías temáticas: "Vivir antes de enfermar" y "Encontrarse enfermo." Se constató que los síntomas comenzaron antes de la edad adulta y que hubo dificultades de establecer el diagnóstico. La convivencia con síntomas se complicó debido a las particularidades del manejo de los síntomas en la vida adulta y la edad se percibe como un factor que influye y dificulta aún más la recuperación. Los participantes manifestaron desesperanza sobre el futuro, aunque reconocieron mejoras en el cuadro clínico con el paso del tiempo y valoraron la relación de confianza establecida con el equipo multiprofesional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anorexia Nervosa , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Bulimia Nervosa , Pandemics , Anxiety , Perceptual Distortion , Appetite , Personal Satisfaction , Psychiatry , Psychology , Psychopathology , Quality of Life , Self-Assessment , Shame , Stomach Diseases , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Thinness , Beauty Culture , Vomiting , Nutrition Rehabilitation , Body Weight , Aging , Menopause , Weight Loss , Family , Comorbidity , Mental Health , Mortality , Interview , Cultural Factors , Dehydration , Transcription Factors, General , Malnutrition , Depressive Disorder , Diagnosis , Diet , Diet Therapy , Emotions , Nutritional Sciences , Laxatives , Feeding Behavior , Binge-Eating Disorder , Bullying , Social Stigma , Physical Appearance, Body , Self-Control , Applied Behavior Analysis , Food Addiction , Rumination, Digestive , Mental Health Recovery , Body-Weight Trajectory , Embarrassment , Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder , Social Representation , Orthorexia Nervosa , Social Status , Guilt , Health Promotion , Mass Media , Mental Disorders , Metabolism , Obesity
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246584, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422412

ABSTRACT

Este relato de experiência, situado no campo do cuidado a pessoas usuárias de álcool e outras drogas em contextos marcados por violência, tem como objetivo explorar os limites, desafios e caminhos possíveis, em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas (Caps AD III), para a sustentação de um cuidado orientado pela compreensão das pessoas usuárias do Caps a partir da sua existência, sofrimento e relação com o corpo social, mesmo diante de comportamentos tidos como violentos. De caráter qualitativo, o percurso de pesquisa foi conduzido por meio de dois recursos metodológicos: o relato de experiência, referente à trajetória de uma das autoras no Programa de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde Mental do Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), e a metodologia caso traçador ou usuário-guia. O trabalho de cuidar de pessoas expostas à necropolítica exige um posicionamento ético dos trabalhadores de saúde mental de engendrar processos de resistências e produção de vida. Pela radicalidade que é vivenciá-la, a violência comparece como um elemento dificultador desse trabalho para os profissionais, fazendo com que, diante do desamparo, por vezes utilizem lógicas disciplinares para conseguir lidar com esse fenômeno. Propõe-se abordar as cenas nomeadas como violentas nos Caps com base na noção de situação-limite, retirando a situação da malha de sentidos que acompanha a palavra e remete a práticas disciplinares e ao contexto da violência urbana. Essa mudança de paradigma abre a possibilidade de que os trabalhadores se incluam nas situações, as entendam como relacionadas à complexidade e à singularidade da existência das pessoas envolvidas e, assim, proponham soluções produtoras de vida.(AU)


This experience report, situated in the field of care for people who use alcohol and other drugs in contexts marked by violence, aims to explore the limits, challenges, and possible paths, at a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS AD III), to support care guided by the knowledge of CAPS users based on their existence, suffering, and relationship with the social body, even in the face of behaviors considered to be violent. The path of this qualitative research was conducted with two methodological resources: the experience report, referring to the trajectory of one of the authors at the Multiprofessional Residency Program in Mental Health at the Institute of Psychiatry at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), and the methodology of case tracer or user-guide. The work of caring for people exposed to necropolitics requires an ethical positioning of mental health workers to build resistance processes and life production. Due to it is radical to experience, violence appears as a complicating element of this work for the professionals, forcing them to, due to the lack of support, occasionally use disciplinary reasoning to deal with this phenomenon. This study proposes to approach violent scenarios in the CAPS under the guise of limit-situation, withdrawing the situation from the web of meanings that accompany the word and refer to disciplinary actions and the context of urban violence. This paradigmatic change opens the path for workers to include themselves in these situations, to understand their relationship with the complexity and singularity of the existence of the implicated people, and thus offer solutions that produce life.(AU)


Este reporte de experiencia se sitúa en el área de la atención a las personas que consumen alcohol y otras drogas en contexto de violencia y tiene por objetivo explorar los límites, desafíos y caminos posibles en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Alcohol y Drogas (Caps AD III), para ofrecer un cuidado a los usuarios basado en la comprensión de las personas usuarias del Caps considerando su existencia, sufrimiento y relación con el cuerpo social, incluso ante situaciones violentas. Esta es una investigación cualitativa que se basó en dos recursos metodológicos: el reporte de experiencia sobre la trayectoria de una de las autoras en el Programa de Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud Mental de la Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ) y de la metodología del caso trazador o usuario guía. La labor de asistir a las personas expuestas a la necropolítica requiere un posicionamiento ético de los profesionales de la salud mental de producir vida y procesos de resistencia. Por la radicalidad de la experiencia, la violencia es un obstáculo para el trabajo de los profesionales, lo que los llevan a actuar de forma disciplinaria para hacer frente a este fenómeno. Se propone aquí abordar las escenas violentas bajo la noción de situación límite en el Caps, sacando del contexto la red semántica que acompaña la palabra y alude a las prácticas disciplinarias y la violencia urbana. Este cambio de paradigma permite que los trabajadores se incluyan en las situaciones, las comprendan en relación con la complejidad y la singularidad de la existencia de las personas y propongan soluciones que produzcan vida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Violence , Mental Health , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Occupied Territories , Poverty , Psychology , Public Policy , Social Change , Social Work , Tobacco , Tranquilizing Agents , Unconsciousness , World Health Organization , Emergency Feeding , Shyness , Neurosciences , Brazil , Ill-Housed Persons , Bereavement , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Central Nervous System , Crack Cocaine , Crime , Death , Harm Reduction , Vulnerable Populations , Depression , Dissociative Disorders , Disease Prevention , User Embracement , Euphoria , Exploratory Behavior , Family Relations , Pleasure , Racism , Social Discrimination , Alcohol Abstinence , Psychological Distress , Workhouses , Social Representation , Metabolism , Antidepressive Agents
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387713

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los protistas del género Labyrinthula causan la denominada "Enfermedad del desgaste" en el pasto marino, Thalassia testudinum. Desde el 2008 los monitoreos en el Caribe colombiano han mostrado variación espacial y temporal en la incidencia de la enfermedad, pero sin la alta mortalidad observada en otras regiones del mundo. Objetivo: Analizar algunos parámetros epidemiológicos en T. testudinum y comparar metabolitos entre plantas sanas e infectadas. Métodos: Registramos la severidad, incidencia y prevalencia de esta enfermedad en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona e Isla de Providencia, y analizamos muestras de agua y sedimentos. Además, aplicamos cromatografía líquida y de gases, junto con espectrometría de masas, a extractos metanólicos de muestras de hojas y rizomas de brotes sanos e infectados. Resultados: Las praderas se encontraban en buen estado, a pesar de la escasez de brotes de fanerógamas marinas en Tayrona y una alta incidencia (15 %) y severidad (355 %) de la enfermedad en Providencia. Las plantas infectadas tenían niveles más bajos de fenoles, flavonoides y azúcares. Las flavonas sulfatadas con aglicona luteolina y diosmetina, los esteroles (sitosterol y estigmasterol) y las oxilipinas volátiles se acumularon en las hojas (3-hidroxi-2-isopentanona) y los ácidos isopentanoico y octadecatrienoico en los rizomas. Conclusiones: Estos pastos marinos colombianos tienen producción diferencial de metabolitos. Probablemente como una defensa exitosa, aún a niveles bajos de severidad (0.1 %) e incidencia (1 %) de la enfermedad.


Abstract Introduction: Protists of the genus Labyrinthula cause the so-called "Wasting Disease" in seagrass, Thalassia testudinum. Monitoring in the Colombian Caribbean since 2008 has shown spatial and temporal variation in the disease's incidence, but without the high mortality observed in other regions of the world. Objective: To analyze some epidemiological parameters in T. testudinum and to compare metabolites between healthy and infected plants. Methods: We recorded severity, incidence and prevalence of this disease in Tayrona National Natural Park and Providencia Island, and we analyze water and sediment samples. Additionally, we applied gas and liquid chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to methanolic extracts from leaf and rhizome samples of healthy and infected shoots. Results: The meadows were in good condition, despite the scarce seagrass shoots in Tayrona and a high incidence (15 %) and severity (35.5 %) of the disease in Providencia. Infected plants had lower levels of phenols, flavonoids and sugars. Sulphated flavones with aglycone luteolin and diosmetin, sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol) and volatile oxylipins are accumulated in leaves (3-hydroxy-2-isopentanone) and isopentaenoic and octadecatrienoic acids in rhizomes. Conclusions: These Colombian seagrasses have differential production of metabolites. Probably as a successful defense, even at low levels of severity (0.1 %) and incidence (1 %) of the disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases , Hydrocharitaceae , Metabolism , Musa
5.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 20(3): 1-16, sep.-dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427610

ABSTRACT

Living at high altitude increases oxidative stress. Likewise, growth and maturation during adolescence can increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ros). Changes in redox profiles have been evaluated in adults living at high altitudes; however, there are no studies on these changes in peripubertal populations living at moderate altitudes, we determine how living at moderate altitude affects the oxidative and inflammatory status of healthy preadolescents and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy male Colombian preadolescents and adoles-cents (9­18 years old, Tanner scale classification) who lived at low altitude (n = 26) or moderate altitude (n = 26). Plasma oxidative and inflammatory status was assessed via spectrophotometry. Oxidative markers included malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, and carbonyl groups. Antioxidant markers included total antioxidant status, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid, and thiols. Inflammatory markers included interleukins-1, -6, and -10 and tumor necrosis factor. Results:Only uric acid levels were higher in adolescents (5.34 and 5.66 mg/dl) compared to preadolescents (3.85 and 4.07 mg/dl) in both moderate and low altitude groups, respectively. Participants who lived at mod-erate altitude presented significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde (4.82 and 3.73 nM/mg protein) and lower level of glutathione and thiols (1.21 and 1.26 µmol/mg protein) than in those at low altitude. Their inflammatory profiles did not differ. Conclusion: Oxidant profiles increased in peripubertal popu-lations residing at moderate altitude; this could be owing to antioxidant consumption by ros and active metabolism during puberty.


vivir en altura es un factor que se asocia con el estrés oxidativo. El crecimiento y la maduración pueden ser un estresor adicional. Es insuficiente la evidencia sobre alteraciones del perfil redox en peripúberes residentes a altitudes moderadas. El propósito fue establecer el efecto de vivir en una altitud moderada sobre el perfil redox e inflamatorio en preadolescentes y adolescentes sanos. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal en varones preadolescentes y adolescentes sanos (9-18 años) que viven en altitud baja (n = 26) o altitud moderada (n = 26). El estado oxidativo plasmático se evaluó mediante espectrofotometría a través de marcadores de oxidación (malondialdehído e hidroxinonenal y grupos carbonilo) y antioxidantes (estado antioxidante total, glutatión, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa, ácido úrico y tioles). El perfil inflamatorio se midió con interleucinas 1, 6, 10 y factor de necrosis tumoral α. Resultados: solo el ácido úrico fue diferente entre adolescentes (5.34 y 5.66 mg/dl para moderada y baja altitud, respectivamente) y preadolescentes (3.85 y 4.07 mg/dl para moderada y baja altitud, res-pectivamente). El grupo de preadolescentes y adolescentes de moderada altitud presentó niveles más altos de malondialdehído (4.82 y 3.73 nM/mg de proteína, respectivamente) y menor glutatión y tioles (1.21 y 1.26 µmol/mg de proteína), en comparación con sus contrapartes de baja altitud. Conclusión: las poblaciones peripúberes que residen en una altitud moderada presentan un perfil oxidante más alto, lo que puede estar relacionado con la depleción de antioxidantes, por una mayor producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno relacionada con la hipoxia y el metabolismo activo de la pubertad.


viver em grandes altitudes é um fator de estresse associado ao estresse oxidativo. Durante a adolescência, os processos de crescimento e maturação podem aumentar as espécies reativas de oxi-gênio. Alterações no perfil redox foram estudadas em adultos expostos a grandes altitudes, mas não em populações peripubertais vivendo em altitudes moderadas. Nosso objetivo é estabelecer o efeito de viver em uma altitude moderada sobre o estado oxidativo e inflamatório em pré-adolescentes e adolescentes saudáveis. Materiais and métodos: foi realizado um estudo transversal em pré-adolescentes e adolescen-tes colombianos saudáveis (9-18 anos, na escala de classificação de Tanner) que viviam em baixa altitude (n = 26) ou altitude moderada (n = 26). O estado oxidativo e inflamatório do plasma foi avaliado por espectrofotometria: 1) Marcadores de oxidação: grupos Malondialdeído + 4-hidroxi-trans-2-nonenal e carbonila; 2) antioxidantes: estado antioxidante total, glutationa, catalase, superóxido dismutase, ácido úrico e tióis; 3) Marcadores de inflamação: interleucinas 1, 6, 10 e fator de necrose tumoral α. Resultados:apenas o ácido úrico foi maior em adolescentes (5,34 e 5,66 mg/dl) em comparação com pré-adolescentes (3,85 e 4,07 mg/dl) dos grupos de altitude moderada e baixa, respectivamente. A altitude moderada apre-sentou níveis significativamente maiores de Malondialdeído (4,82 e 3,73 nM/mg de proteína), e menores níveis de Glutationa e tióis (1,21 e 1,26 µmol/mg de proteína), em comparação com a baixa altitude. Nenhuma diferença foi detectada no perfil inflamatório. Conclusão: as populações peripubertais que residem em altitude moderada apresentam maior perfil oxidante, o que pode estar relacionado ao con-sumo de antioxidantes devido à maior produção de ros relacionada à hipóxia e ao metabolismo ativo por volta da puberdade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Puberty , Oxidative Stress , Minors , Altitude , Growth , Metabolism
6.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 25(1): 42-48, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399908

ABSTRACT

Mucopolisacaridosis de tipo III es una enfermedad rara, con una incidencia de 1 en 70 000 nacidos vivos, es la más frecuente dentro del grupo de Mucopolisacaridosis y se produce por un defecto en la vía del metabolismo del heparan sulfato. Se caracteriza por afectar a mayor profundidad el sistema nervioso central, el paciente tiene un desarrollo normal hasta aproximadamente los 1 a 3 años de edad y posteriormente empieza con deterioro progresivo, cursa con retraso del desarrollo, alteración del comportamiento y trastorno del sueño agregándose déficit motor y cuadros infecciosos, culminando en un estado de postración. La esperanza de vida oscila entre los 20 a 30 años, aunque depende del fenotipo y la principal causa de muerte fue la neumonía. El diagnóstico definitivo se consigue mediante pruebas genómicas y ensayo enzimático. No cuenta con tratamiento curativo, únicamente con paliación y soporte ante las complicaciones que va desarrollando


Mucopolysaccharidosis III is a rare disease, with an incidence of 1 in 70 000 live births, it is the most frequent within the group of Mucopolysaccharidosis and is caused by a defect in the heparan sulfate metabolism pathway. It is characterized by affecting the central nervous system in greater depth, the patient has a normal development until approximately 1 to 3 years of age and later begins with progressive deterioration, courses with developmental delay, behavioral alteration and sleep disorder, adding motor deficits and infectious pictures, culminating in a state of prostration. Life expectancy ranges from 20 to 30 years, although it depends on the phenotype, and the main cause of death is pneumonia. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by genomic tests and enzymatic assay. It does not have curative treatment, only palliation and support in the face of the complications that it develops.


Subject(s)
Rare Diseases , Metabolism
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20849, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403763

ABSTRACT

Abstract Changes in metabolite levels of patients using the long-term drug can be comprehensively demonstrated by pharmacometabolomic studies. In this study, biological alterations induced by the administration of solifenacin succinate were investigated with a pharmacometabolomics approach on rat metabolism. Plasma samples obtained from rats were analyzed by LC-Q- TOF/MS/MS. METLIN and HMDB databases were used to identify metabolites. Data were processed and classified with MATLAB 2017b. 53 m/z values were found to be significantly different between the drug and control groups (p ≤ 0.01 and fold analysis > 1.5) and identified by comparing METLIN and HMDB databases. According to multivariate data analysis, changes in arachidonic acid, thromboxane A2, palmitic acid, choline, calcitriol, histamine phosphate, retinyl ester, l-cysteine, l-leucine, beta-alanine, l-histidine levels were found to be statistically significant compare to the control group. Differences in the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, aminoacyl-tRNA, tyrosine, tryptophan, metabolism of glycerophospholipid, cysteine, methionine, histidine, arachidonic metabolism have been successfully demonstrated by the metabolomics approach. Our study provides important information to explain the efficacy and toxicity of chronic administration of solifenacin succinate


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Metabolome/drug effects , Metabolomics/methods , Solifenacin Succinate/pharmacology , Metabolism/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
8.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 40(177)2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396664

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la fenilcetonuria (PKU) es el error congénito del metabolismo de las proteínas más frecuente. El tratamiento dietético consiste en un plan de alimentación con una ingesta de proteínas naturales restringida, un sustituto proteico libre o de bajo contenido en fenilalanina (Phe) y el aporte de alimentos muy bajos en proteínas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue investigar si es posible aumentar la ingesta de proteína natural (PN) que se indica a los pacientes con PKU manteniendo los dosajes de Phe en sangre en rangos de seguridad. Materiales y método: se buscaron en 6 bases de datos electrónicas artículos publicados. Se identificaron un total de 154 artículos de Pub Med por intervalo de años desde 1999 a 2020. Se eligieron 15 artículos que se adaptaron a los criterios de inclusión y exclusión y respondían al objeto de estudio de esta revisión bibliográfica. Resultados: hay varios factores que pueden influenciar la estimación de la tolerancia de Phe como la severidad del fenotipo del paciente, la edad, el rango de seguridad de Phe en sangre, la prescripción de Phe y la adherencia al sustituto proteico. Si los niveles de Phe en sangre se mantienen en forma constante dentro del rango adecuado y por un período determinado, se debería considerar un incremento de la ingesta de Phe. El aumento de la ingesta de PN deberá ser realizado de manera controlada, individual y evaluando en forma constante el impacto en los dosajes de Phe en sangre. Conclusión: optimizar la ingesta de PN ofrece una mejora en la calidad de vida de pacientes con PKU, facilita la capacidad del paciente para socializar y contribuye a una mejor adherencia a la dieta(AU).


Introduction: phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of protein metabolism. The dietary treatment consists of a diet with a restricted natural protein intake, a free or low phenylalanine (Phe) protein substitute, and the intake of low protein food. The main objective of this work is to analyze if it is possible to increase the natural protein (NP) intake prescribed to PKU patients while maintaining blood Phe dosages within safe range. Materials and method: studies published were searched in 6 electronic data- basis. A total of 154 Pub Med articles were identified by range of years from 1999 to 2020. Fifteen articles which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and responded to the objective of this bibliographic review were chosen. Results: several factors may influence Phe tolerance, such as severity of the patient´s phenotype, age, blood Phe safe range, Phe prescription and adherence to protein substitute. If Phe blood levels remain constantly within safe range and for a certain period, an increase of Phe intake should be considered. Increase of NP intake must be carried out in a controlled manner, individually and constantly evaluating blood Phe levels. Conclusion: optimizing NP intake offers the PKU patient an improvement in quality of life, facilitates the patient´s ability to socialize and contributes to a better adherence to the diet(AU).


Subject(s)
Phenylketonurias , Phenylketonurias/diet therapy , Proteins , Eating , Metabolism
9.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 33: e3351, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421868

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze potential influences of the R/X genetic polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene, as well as of anthropometric and metabolic characteristics on the functional performance of elderly women assisted in primary health care. Method: One hundred and forty-one elderly women were assessed in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and functional aspects, in addition to clinical, cognitive and demographic characteristics. Allele and genotype frequencies of ACTN3 gene polymorphism were determined. Results: 141 elderly women (68.30 ± 6.18 years) were evaluated. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the RR and RX/XX genotypes in the elderly women's functional performance, anthropometric or metabolic characteristics. The TUG test completion time showed positive correlations with age, body mass index, waist circumference, and fat percentage (s = 0.315; p < 0.001; s = 0.238; p = 0.005; s = 0.174; p = 0.039; s = 0.207; p = 0.014), respectively. Negative correlations were found between the TUG test with absolute handgrip strength (s = - 0.314; p < 0.001) and relative handgrip strength (s = - 0.380; p < 0.001). Conclusion: In our study, there were no influences from ACTN3 gene polymorphisms on the functional performance of the elderly women, which is influenced by other factors.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as potenciais influências do polimorfismo genético R/X do gene ACTN3 e das características antropométricas e metabólicas no desempenho funcional de mulheres idosas atendidas na atenção primária em saúde. Método: Cento e quarenta e uma idosas foram avaliadas em relação as características antropométricas, metabólicas, funcionais, aspectos clínicos, cognitivos e demográficos. Foram determinadas as frequências de alelos e genótipos do polimorfismo do gene ACTN3. Resultados: 141 idosas (68,30 ± 6,18 anos) foram avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (p > 0,05) entre os genótipos RR e RX/XX no desempenho funcional, características antropométricas ou metabólicas das idosas. O tempo de realização do TUG apresentou correlações positivas com idade, índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura e percentual de gordura (s = 0,315; p < 0,001; s = 0,238; p = 0,005; s = 0,174; p = 0,039; s = 0,207; p = 0,014) respectivamente. Correlações negativas foram observadas entre o TUG com força de preensão manual absoluta (s = - 0,314; p < 0,001) e relativa (s = - 0,380; p < 0,001). Conclusão: Em nosso estudo, não foram observadas influências dos polimorfismos do gene ACTN3 no desempenho funcional das idosas, sendo este, influenciado por outros fatores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Primary Health Care , Genetic Variation/genetics , Women , Aged/physiology , Aging/physiology , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Muscle Strength/physiology , Physical Functional Performance , Metabolism
10.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(4)dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408596

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La variación del magnesio y de indicadores bioquímicos del metabolismo óseo-mineral según la tasa de filtración glomerular en jóvenes sin enfermedad renal es poco conocida por lo que es necesario considerarla para delimitar lo no atribuible a enfermedad renal crónica. El papel que desempeña el magnesio está en estudio. En la enfermedad renal crónica hay una alteración progresiva del metabolismo óseo-mineral que comienza tempranamente. Objetivos: Evaluar valores séricos de magnesio, calcio, fósforo, fosfatasa alcalina y parathormona, excreciones urinarias de 24 h y excreción fraccional de estos electrolitos según categoría G de tasa de filtración glomerular estimada por clearance de creatinina: G1 (normal a alta) y G2 (levemente disminuida) en estudiantes sin enfermedad renal crónica. Material y métodos: Estudio analítico y corte transversal con una muestra de 55 estudiantes voluntarios sin enfermedad renal en el periodo 2018 a 2019. Los analitos se determinaron en suero y algunos en orina de 24 h. Resultados: Solamente magnesio sérico y excreción fraccional de magnesio excreción fraccional de magnesio mostraron diferencias significativas según la categoría G (p < 0,05). Los valores de magnesio sérico magnesio sérico estuvieron dentro de los valores de referencia para el método. En G2, magnesio sérico, descendido respecto a G1 y excreción fraccional de magnesio aumentada, inversamente relacionados. El magnesio sérico disminuyó en promedio 0,26 mg/dL por unidad de aumento de excreción fraccional de magnesio (p = 0,0502). Conclusiones: Se observaron diferencias en magnesio sérico y excreción fraccional de magnesio al comparar los resultados en G1 y G2. Los demás indicadores bioquímicos estudiados no mostraron diferencias por categoría G. Diseños de corte longitudinal en muestras mayores pueden confirmar o no estos hallazgos. Tales estudios pueden aportar a la comprensión de cambios bioquímicos del metabolismo óseo-mineral en etapas iniciales de disminución de la tasa de filtración glomerular(AU)


Introduction: Not much is known about the variation in magnesium and biochemical indicators of the osseous-mineral metabolism according to glomerular filtration rate testing in young people without kidney disease. This variation should therefore be considered to delimit whatever is not attributable to chronic kidney disease. The role played by magnesium is currently under study. In chronic kidney disease a progressive alteration of the osseous-mineral metabolism starts early. Objectives: Evaluate serum values of magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathormone, 24-hour urinary excretion and fractional excretion of these electrolytes according to category G of the glomerular filtration rate estimated by creatinine clearance: G1 (normal to high) and G2 (slightly reduced) in students without chronic kidney disease. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample of 55 student volunteers without kidney disease in the period 2018-2019. The analytes were determined in serum and some in 24-hour urine. Results: Only serum magnesium and magnesium fractional excretion displayed significant differences according to category G (p < 0.05). Serum magnesium values were within the reference values for the method. In G2, serum magnesium was lower than in G1, whereas magnesium fractional excretion was higher, i.e. an inverse relation is observed. Serum magnesium reduction averaged 0.26 mg/dl per unit of magnesium fractional excretion increase (p = 0.0502). Conclusions: Comparison of G1 and G2 results revealed differences in serum magnesium and magnesium fractional excretion. The remaining biochemical indicators studied did not show any differences in category G. Longitudinal studies with larger samples may or may not confirm these findings, thus contributing to a better understanding of the biochemical changes in osseous-mineral metabolism occurring in the initial stages of glomerular filtration rate reduction(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students , Calcium , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Diseases , Magnesium , Metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies
11.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 69(4): e208, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376282

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Dental caries is a disease caused by the interaction of several factors, including diet, since the development of the biological environment that promotes cariogenic bacterial metabolism often depends on it. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of caries in preschool children from Huaura, Peru, and to confirm if there is an association between their salivary pH and body mass index (BMI) and the level of knowledge about oral health of one of their parents. Materials and methods: A non-experimental, correlational, and cross-sectional study was conducted in 126 preschoolers equally distributed in 3 age groups (3, 4, and 5 years old). The association between the presence of caries and the variables considered was determined by means of the chi-square test of independence, with a confidence level of 95% and a type I error of 5%. In addition, a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the probability of caries development in relation to each risk factor. Results: The prevalence of caries was 80.2% (95%CI:73.2-87.2); furthermore, salivary pH (p=0.012) and the level of parental knowledge (p<0.001) were significantly associated with caries occurrence. Regarding the multiple regression analysis, an OR=0.12 (95%CI:0.02-0.63) was obtained for pH and an OR=0.50 (95%CI:0.35-0.74) for the level of parental knowledge in relation to the probability of caries development. Conclusion: The level of parental knowledge about oral health and high salivary pH levels of preschoolers were protective factors against caries development in the study population. On the other hand, no association was found between BMI and the presence of caries in 5-year-old preschoolers.


Resumen Introducción. La caries dental es una condición causada por la interacción de múltiples factores, entre ellos la dieta, ya que, con frecuencia, de ella depende el desarrollo del medio biológico propicio para el metabolismo bacteriano cariogénico. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de caries en preescolares de Huaura, Perú, y confirmar si hay una asociación con el pH salival y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) de los preescolares, y con el nivel de conocimiento en salud bucal de uno de sus padres. Materiales y métodos. Estudio no experimental, correlacional y transversal realizado en 126 preescolares distribuidos equitativamente en 3 grupos etarios (3, 4 y 5 años). La asociación entre presencia de caries y las variables consideradas se determinó mediante la prueba de independencia de chi cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y error tipo I del 5%; además, se realizó un análisis de regresión logística múltiple para calcular la probabilidad de ocurrencia de caries en relación con cada factor de riesgo. Resultados. La prevalencia de caries fue de 80.2% (IC95%:73.2-87.2); además, el pH salival (p=0.012) y el nivel de conocimiento de los padres (p<0.001) se asociaron significativamente con la ocurrencia de caries. En cuanto al análisis de regresión múltiple, se obtuvo un 0R=0.12 (IC95%:0.02-0.63) para el pH y un 0R=0.50 (IC95%:0.35-0.74) para el nivel de conocimiento de los padres en relación con la probabilidad de presentar caries. Conclusión. El nivel de conocimiento sobre salud bucal de los padres y los niveles altos de pH salival de los preescolares fueron factores protectores frente al desarrollo de caries en la población de estudio. Por otra parte, no se encontró asociación entre IMC y presencia de caries en los preescolares de 5 años.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries , Diet , Metabolism
12.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 763-770, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388899

ABSTRACT

Resumen La obesidad es reconocida como "la gran epidemia" del siglo XXI. Los primeros tratamientos fueron enfocados en el manejo médico, sin lograr los resultados esperados, por lo cual surge la cirugía bariátrica (CB) como la mejor alternativa. Inicialmente la obesidad se concibe como una figura de poder en el imperio egipcio, luego como enfermedad por Galeno e Hipócrates, reapareciendo más tarde como símbolo de fecundidad en Europa. Las primeras técnicas fueron el bypass yeyuno-colónico por Payne y De Wind modificado luego por Scopinaro, consolidándose más tarde como el bypass actual por Mason, Wittgrove e Higa. Por su parte, la gastrectomía en manga fue concebida por Gagner como puente de la derivación biliopancreática, pero dado sus excelentes resultados se consolida como técnica por sí sola. A su vez, la CB evidencia efectos metabólicos inesperados, posicionándose en la actualidad como el mejor tratamiento tanto para la obesidad como para el síndrome metabólico. En Chile la CB se inicia en 1986 con González del Hospital Van Buren con la experiencia en bypass yeyuno-ileal, continuando con Awad y Loehnert del Hospital San Juan de Dios. Luego se consolida con el desarrollo de la CB moderna tanto en la Universidad Católica como en la Universidad de Chile, llegando en la actualidad a ser un procedimiento ampliamente difundido en todo el país. El objetivo principal de la siguiente revisión es analizar el concepto de obesidad en la historia y la evolución de la CB en Chile y el mundo, rememorando sus inicios y destacando su constante desarrollo.


Obesity is recognized as "the great epidemic" of the 21st century. The first treatments were focused on medical management, failing to achieve the expected results, which is why bariatric surgery (BC) emerges as the best alternative. Obesity was initially conceived as a power figure in the Egyptian empire, later as a disease by Galen and Hippocrates, later reappearing as a symbol of fertility in Europe. The first techniques were the jejuno-colonic bypass by Payne and De Wind, later modified by Scopinaro, to finally consolidate as the current bypass by Mason, Wittgrove and Higa. For its part, sleeve gastrectomy was conceived by Gagner as a bridge for biliopancreatic diversion, but given its excellent results, it is consolidated as a technique by itself. In turn, BC shows unexpected metabolic effects, currently positioning itself as the best treatment for both obesity and metabolic syndrome. In Chile, BC started in 1986 with González at the Van Buren Hospital with his experience in jejuno-ileal bypass, continuing with Awad and Loehnert at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. Later, it was consolidated with the development of modern BC both at the Catholic University and at the University of Chile, currently becoming a widely disseminated procedure throughout the country. The main objective of the following review is to analyze the concept of obesity in history and the evolution of BC in Chile and the world, recalling its beginnings and highlighting its continuous development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Metabolism/physiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass/methods , Chile , Bariatric Surgery/history , Bariatric Medicine/history
13.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 677-683, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388902

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas y de laboratorio de los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (DM2) en tratamiento con fibrina rica en plaquetas (FRP) en el Hospital Clínico Herminda Martín entre los años 2014 y 2016. Materiales y Método: Se revisaron las fichas clínicas de todos los pacientes tratados con FRP en el policlínico de biomateriales en busca de los valores de HbA1c y glicemia, además de otras variables clínicas y de laboratorio que pudieren estar relacionadas con la evolución de las heridas de pie diabético. Se estableció tres grupos de comparación según el tiempo de cicatrización en cicatrización rápida (tiempo percentil 75). Resultados: De un universo de 147 pacientes con DM2 se reportan resultados de 85 (58%). El promedio de edad fue de 61 años, con una glicemia promedio de 243 g/dL y HbA1c de 9,4%. Presentaron un contaje plaquetario dentro de los parámetros normales (promedio 279 plaquetas/mm3). Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en la escala de valoración de heridas, específicamente en la valoración del puntaje total, así como los parámetros como extensión, profundidad, y dolor entre los grupos de cicatrización rápida y lenta. No se evidenciaron diferencias en el nivel de HbA1c o glicemia en los grupos de cicatrización rápida o lenta, como tampoco en otras variables como edad, creatinina, recuento de plaquetas. Conclusión: No se encontró una asociación entre la velocidad de cicatrización y el nivel de HbA1c en individuos tratados con FRP.


Aims: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients (DM2) treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (FRP) at Hospital Clínico Herminda Martín between 2014 and 2016. Materials and Method: Analytical study that includes information from a secondary database. The clinical records of all patients treated with FRP at the Biomaterials Polyclinic were reviewed to search the HbA1c and glycemia values, as well as other clinical and laboratory variables that could be related to the evolution of diabetic foot wounds. Three comparison groups were established according to the healing time in rapid (time 75th percentile). Results: From a universe of 147 patients with DM2, results of 85 (58%) are reported. The average age in the included patients was 61 years. They had an average glycaemia of 243 g/dL, and HbA1c of 9.4%. They presented a platelet count within normal range (average 279 platelets/mm3). Statistical differences between the fast and slow healing groups were found in the wound assessment scale, specifically in the assessment of the total score, extension, depth, and pain. There were no differences in the HbA1c or glycemia level in the fast or slow healing groups, nor in other variables such as age, creatinine, and platelet count. Conclusion: No association was found between healing speed and HbA1c level in individuals treated with FRP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Ulcer , Diabetic Foot , Platelet-Rich Fibrin , Wound Healing , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Metabolism/physiology
14.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 207-213, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353494

ABSTRACT

O pirarucu, Arapaima gigas é um peixe carnívoro nativo da bacia amazônica. Como peixes carnívoros possuem baixa atividade de amilase, enzimas exógenas melhoram a digestibilidade de carboidratos em rações para aquacultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a digestibilidade de níveis crescentes de complexo enzimático em dietas para juvenis de pirarucu (65,2 ± 0,4 g). O desenho experimental foi randomizado com quatro tratamentos [dietas contendo 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático adicionado (Allzyme® SSF®, EUA)] e um controle, com três réplicas com densidade de cinco peixes por unidade e 30 dias de duração. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta foi calculada por quantificação de nutrientes e óxido de cromo nas dietas e fezes. A atividade enzimática, o glicogênio hepático e a proteína total foram determinados a partir de amostras do fígado e intestino anterior. A dieta com 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático resultou em um aumento da digestibilidade aparente de proteina bruta, energia bruta, matéria seca, glicogênio hepático e proteínas totais no fígado e intestino, mostrando a eficácia do complexo enzimático na dieta dos pirarucus. A acumulação mais alta de matéria seca, energia bruta e extrato etéreo na carcaça indicou o aumento de peso dos peixes tratados com complexo enzimático. A redução da atividade enzimática endógena (protease, lipase e amilase) sugeriu um aumento da eficácia do processo digestivo. Nossos resultados indicam que a inclusão de 1 g kg-1 do complexo enzimático na dietas de juvenis de pirarucu pode ser recomendada para obter maior digestibilidade de nutientes e performance produtiva. (AU)


Subject(s)
Enzymes , Fishes/metabolism , Food Additives , Metabolism
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 114-126, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290833

ABSTRACT

La mayoría de los estudios apoyan la tesis de que el desayuno es la comida más importante del día. Un desayuno adecuado contribuye a lograr un patrón dietético global saludable y a mejorar la calidad de la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los principales patrones de desayuno en tres poblaciones universitarias de España, Túnez y Estados Unidos, analizar sus semejanzas y diferencias y estudiar la influencia de factores antropométricos, sociodemográficos y de estilo de vida en la adherencia a cada patrón. Se realizó un estudio transversal con datos de 730 estudiantes matriculados en las Universidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Cartago e Internacional de Florida en 2013. El consumo de alimentos se obtuvo mediante dos recordatorios de 24 horas, no consecutivos, uno de ellos en fin de semana. Los patrones se identificaron mediante análisis factorial exploratorio. La adherencia de los estudiantes a cada patrón se evaluó usando las puntuaciones factoriales. Se obtuvieron cuatro patrones para cada país. El principal patrón de los universitarios españoles incluyó pan, tomate, sal y aceite de oliva (varianza explicada: 20,85%); el principal de los tunecinos contenía pan, mermelada, nata y mantequilla (varianza explicada: 12,73%) y el principal de los americanos incluyó huevos, leche entera y azúcares (varianza explicada: 10,77%). Género, peso, IMC o comer fuera de casa fueron factores que influyeron en la adherencia a diferentes patrones. El estudio mostró la coexistencia de patrones tradicionales con otros occidentalizados y modelos transicionales intermedios. No se determinó un patrón generalizable asociado a mejores resultados del IMC(AU)


Most studies support the conclusion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. An adequate breakfast contributes to achieving a healthy global dietary pattern and improving quality of diet. The objective of this study was to determine the main breakfast patterns of three university populations from Spain, Tunisia, and The United States of America, analyze their similarities and differences, and study the impact of anthropometric, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the adherence to each pattern. A cross-sectional study was developed with data from 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, University of Carthage, and Florida International University, during 2013. Food consumption data were obtained by means of two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls including one weekend day. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify breakfast patterns. Factor scores were used to assess students' adherence to each pattern. Four breakfast patterns were obtained for each country. The main pattern of the Spanish students included bread, tomato, salt, and olive oil (explained variance: 20.85%); the main model of the Tunisians included bread, jam, cream and butter (explained variance: 12.73%); and the first pattern of the Americans was characterized by eggs, whole milk and sugars (explained variance: 10.77%). Gender, weight, BMI or eating out of home were factors that influenced the adherence to different patterns. Breakfast patterns obtained in this work showed the coexistence of traditional models with westernized and transitional ones. It was not determined a generalizable pattern associated with better BMI results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Breakfast , Life Style , Body Mass Index , Nutrients , Anthropometry , Metabolism
16.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 99-106, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292979

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad, la obesidad es conside-rada una pandemia, cuya incidencia se ha triplicado en los últimos 30 años, y ha ge-nerado problemas de salud pública cada vez mayores. Tomando como base las guías de la Asociación Americana de Endocrinólogos (AACE), la Sociedad para la Obesidad, la Sociedad Americana de Cirugía Bariátrica y Metabólica (ASMBS), la Asociación para Medicina de la Obe-sidad y la Asociación Americana de Anes-tesiólogos, se realiza el presente docu-mento, con el fin de que se constituya en la hoja de ruta que guíe el procedimiento a seguir en los pacientes que padecen de esta enfermedad crónica y que acuden al Hospital General San Francisco (HGSF)1. La obesidad se caracteriza por el uso de varios medicamentos debido a las co-morbilidades relacionadas: enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, enfermedad renal crónica, hígado graso no alcohólico, síndrome metabólico y varios tipos de cánceres2. Este protocolo contiene el más alto nivel de evidencia disponible hasta la fecha, en relación al manejo quirúrgico y no quirúrgico del paciente con diagnóstico de obesidad, incluyendo temas como la identificación de los pacientes candidatos para los pro-cedimientos bariátricos, tipo de proce-dimientos que deberían ser ofertados, el manejo preoperatorio, transoperatorio y el cuidado post operatorio de seguimiento2-4.Desde la publicación por parte de la Ame-rican Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) en el año 2013 de las guías de manejo del paciente con obe-sidad, se ha evidenciado un incremento significativo en las publicaciones que avalan excelentes resultados para el tra-tamiento de los pacientes con obesidad y con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 mediante la cirugía bariátrica y metabólica 2,5,6. En el año 2016 la publicación del Diabetes Sur-gery Summit (DSS2)7 marca diferencia en el manejo de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, es así que las mismas han crecido sustancialmente y la evidencia demuestra que el manejo metabólico ba-riátrico de estos pacientes es superior al manejo médico y cambios de estilo de vida cuando se evalúa el control glucémico y remisión de las comorbilidades. Con la evaluación previa del equipo mul-tidisciplinario, tendremos información científica del más alto nivel que nos per-mita tener un paciente con recuperación óptima aplicando los criterios de En-hanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery (ERASB)8. En el Ecuador, la obesidad se ha conver-tido en un problema de salud pública, es así que en la población pediátrica ha au-mentado desde el año 1986 pasando del 8,0% al 26,0% para el año 2012 en el grupo de 11 a 19 años. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en población adulta en el Ecuador es del 62,8%, según el sexo es 5,5% mayor en las mujeres (65,5%) que en los hombres (60,0%), y el mayor índice de obesidad y sobrepeso se pre-senta entre la cuarta y quinta décadas de vida, con prevalencias superiores a 73,0%9,10.


Currently, obesity is considered a pan-demic, the incidence of which has tripled in the last 30 years, and has generated in-creasing public health problems. Based on the guidelines of the American As-sociation of Endocrinologists (AACE), the Obesity Society, the American So-ciety for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the Association for Obesity Medicine and the American Association of Anesthesiologists, this document is intended to serve as a roadmap to guide the procedure to be followed in patients suffering from this chronic disease who come to San Francisco General Hospital (HGSF)1.Obesity is characterized by the use of se-veral medications due to related comor-bidities: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, meta-bolic syndrome and several types of can-cers2. This protocol contains the highest level of evidence available to date, in relation to the surgical and non-surgical management of the patient with a diag-nosis of obesity, including issues such as the identification of candidate patients for bariatric procedures, type of proce-dures that should be offered, preopera-tive, trans-operative management and fo-llow-up post-operative care2-4.Since the publication by the American So-ciety for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) in 2013 of the guidelines for the management of patients with obesity, there has been a significant increase in publications that support excellent results for the treatment of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus through bariatric and metabolic surgery2,5,6. In 2016 the pu-blication of the Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS2)7 makes a difference in the mana-gement of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is so that the same have grown substantially and the evidence shows that bariatric metabolic management of these patients is superior to medical manage-ment and lifestyle changes when glycemic control and remission of comor-bidities are evaluated. With the previous evaluation of the multidisciplinary team, we will have scientific information of the highest level that will allow us to have a patient with optimal recovery applying the criteria of Enhanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery (ERASB)8.In Ecuador, obesity has become a public health problem; thus, in the pediatric population it has increased since 1986 from 8,0% to 26,0% in 2012 in the 11 to 19 years age group. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult po-pulation in Ecuador is 62,8%, according to sex is 5,5% higher in women (65,5%) than in men (60,0%), and the highest rate of obesity and overweight occurs between the fourth and fifth decades of life, with prevalences higher than 73,0%9,10.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bariatric Surgery , Weight Reduction Programs , Obesity Management , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Body Weight , Weight Loss , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Body Mass Index , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Metabolism
17.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(36): 49-94, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356542

ABSTRACT

Resumen La nutrición es un conjunto procesos y reacciones mediante las cuales los seres vivos toman del medio, en el que habitan, las sustancias químicas que necesitan para crecer, multiplicarse y hacer uso de la energía. Las sustancias mencionadas anteriormente, se denominan nutrientes y son utilizadas con dos fines: energéticos cuando se requieren para el mantenimiento y biosintéticos cuando se demandan para la síntesis de componentes (anabolismo) En el primer caso (energéticos) las bacterias se dividen en litótrofas cuando hacen uso de sustancias inorgánicas simples como (SH2, S, NH3, NO2-, Fe, entre otras); y organótrofas cuando su requerimiento es de sustancias orgánicas (carbohidratos, hidrocarburos, lípidos, proteínas y alcoholes entre otras). En el segundo caso (biosintéticos), se pueden diferenciar en: autótrofas, cuando la síntesis la realizan a partir de sustancias inorgánicas simples (CO2) y heterótrofas cuando su fuente de carbono es orgánica, pero también pueden utilizar otros elementos distintos al C, que pueden ser captados en forma inorgánica. Sean autótrofas o heterótrofas, todas las bacterias requieren de una serie de sustancias químicas, que se pueden clasificar en macronutrientes o micronutrientes de acuerdo con la cantidad que de estas se requieran.


Abstract Nutrition is a set of processes and reactions by which living beings take from the environment, in which they inhabit, the chemical substances they need to grow, multiply and make use of energy. The aforementioned substances are called nutrients and are used for two purposes: energetic when required for maintenance and biosynthetics when required for the synthesis of components (anabolism). In the first case (energetic) the bacteria are divided into lithotrophs when they make use of simple inorganic substances such as (SH2, S, NH3, NO2-, Fe, among others); and organotrophs when their requirement is for organic substances (carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, lipids, proteins and alcohols, among others). In the second case (biosynthetics), they can be differentiated into: autotrophs, when the synthesis is carried out from simple inorganic substances (CO2) and heterotrophs when their carbon source is organic, but they can also use other elements than C, which they can be captured in inorganic form. Whether autotrophic or heterotrophic, all bacteria require a series of chemical substances, which can be classified into macronutrients or micronutrients according to the amount of these required of these substances that are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutritional Sciences , Nutrients , Growth , Metabolism
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-15], abr.-jun. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366584

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de hormônio do crescimento (Growth Hormone - GH) e treinamento de força (TF) na composição do tecido ósseo de ratos Wistar a partir da Espectroscopia Raman. 40 ratos machos foram distribuídos de forma aleatória em quatro grupos: controle (C [n=10]), controle a aplicação de GH (GHC [n=10]), treinamento de força (T [n=10]) e treinamento de força e aplicação de GH (GHT [n=10]). O treinamento foi composto por quatro séries de 10 saltos aquáticos, realizados três vezes por semana, com sobrecarga correspondente a 50% do peso corpóreo e duração de quatro semanas. O GH foi aplicado na dose de 0,2 UI/Kg em cada animal, três vezes por semana e em dias alternados. Ao final do experimento, os animais foram eutanasiados e coletados os fêmures direitos para realização da análise da composição óssea. A espectroscopia Raman (ER) foi utilizada para observar os seguintes compostos a partir de suas respectivas bandas: colágeno e fosfolipídio (1445 cm-1), colesterol (548 cm-1), glicerol (607 cm-1), glicose (913 cm-1), Pico de carboidrato (931 cm-1 ) e prolina (918 cm-1 ). Para a análise estatística, foram realizados os testes de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk e análise de variâncias ANOVA one-way, seguida pelo pós-teste de Tukey. Os resultados revelaram aumento nas concentrações de colágeno e fosfolipidio, colesterol, glicerol, glicose, pico de carboidrato e prolina em todos os grupos experimentais, associados ou não à realização do ST e/ou aplicação de GH. Porém, somente o grupo T diferiu significativamente do grupo C (p<0,05). Conclui-se que todas intervenções puderam promover ganho no tecido ósseo, porém, somente o grupo T demonstrou diferença significativa nos compostos minerais analisados. (AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of growth hormone (GH) and strength training (TF) on the bone tissue composition of Wistar rats using Raman Spectroscopy. 40 male rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C [n = 10]), control the application of GH (GHC [n = 10]), strength training (T [n = 10]) and training of strength and application of GH (GHT [n = 10]). The training consisted of four series of 10 water jumps, performed three times a week, with an overload corresponding to 50% of body weight and lasting four weeks. GH was applied at a dose of 0.2 IU / kg to each animal, three times a week and on alternate days. After four weeks, the animals were euthanized and the right femurs were collected to carry out the analysis of the bone composition. Raman spectroscopy (ER) was used to observe the following compounds from their respective bands: collagen and phospholipid (1445 cm-1), cholesterol (548 cm-1), glycerol (607 cm-1), glucose (913 cm-1), Peak carbohydrate (931 cm-1), proline (918 cm-1). For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk normality tests and ANOVA One-Way analysis of variances were performed, followed by the Tukey post-test. The results revealed an increase in the concentrations of collagen and phospholipid, cholesterol, glycerol, glucose, peak carbohydrate and proline in all experimental groups, associated or not with the performance of ST and / or application of GH. However, only group T differed significantly from group C (p <0.05). It was concluded that all intervention could promote gain in bone tissue, however, only the T group showed a significant difference in the analyzed mineral compounds. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spectrum Analysis , Bone and Bones , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Resistance Training , Femur , Metabolism , Phospholipids , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Body Weight , Proline , Growth Hormone , Carbohydrates , Cholesterol , Analysis of Variance , Collagen , Glycerol , Lipids
19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280432

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Varias enfermedades neurodegenerativas están asociadas a alteraciones en el metabolismo del folato, lo que tiene sustanciales implicaciones fisiopatológicas, clínicas y terapéuticas potenciales. Objetivo: Reflejar la relevancia del metabolismo del folato para enfermedades neurodegenerativas, destacando su significación fisiopatológica y clínica, y sus implicaciones terapéuticas. Material y métodos: Se consultaron las bases de datos especializadas en busca de artículos publicados hasta marzo de 2020. Se emplearon descriptores específicos y operadores booleanos. Se empleó la estrategia de búsqueda avanzada para la selección de los artículos, teniendo en cuenta la calidad metodológica o validez de los estudios. Desarrollo: Fueron identificadas evidencias de asociación entre alteraciones del metabolismo del folato y enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Se han identificado variantes en genes que codifican enzimas involucradas en el metabolismo del folato, y modificaciones en patrones de metilación de ADN, asociadas al riesgo o a la gravedad clínica de las enfermedades de Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, Temblor Esencial y Ataxia Espinocerebelosa tipo 2. Fueron encontradas asociaciones entre enfermedades neurodegenerativas y alteraciones en los niveles de metabolitos del folato, y la frecuencia de micronúcleos. Se han realizado varios estudios observacionales o experimentales que indican que la suplementación con ácido fólico y vitaminas B6 y B12, tiene utilidad terapéutica potencial en el contexto de enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Conclusiones: El metabolismo del folato es de relevancia fisiopatológica, clínica y terapéutica para enfermedades neurodegenerativas. El uso de estrategias dirigidas a restaurar los niveles normales de folatos o de co-factores enzimáticos involucrados en el metabolismo del folato, o a reducir la acumulación de homocisteína, tiene potenciales aplicaciones terapéuticas en el contexto de estas enfermedades(AU)


Introduction: Several neurodegenerative disorders are associated with alterations in folate metabolism, having essential physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic implications. Objective: To assess the relevance of folate metabolism in neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting its physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic significance. Material and Methods: Specialized biomedical databases were searched for studies published up to March 2020. Descriptors and Boolean operators were used. Advanced search strategy was used for the selection of articles, taking into account the methodological quality and validity of the studies. Results: Strong evidence of the association between folate metabolism and neurodegenerative disorders were identified. Enzyme-coding genes involved in folate metabolism and epigenetic DNA modifications associated with increased risk or disease severity in Alzheimer´s, Parkinson´s, and Huntington´s diseases, Essential Tremor, and Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 were also identified. Associations between neurodegenerative disorders and altered levels of folate metabolites and the frequency of micronuclei were found. A number of observational and experimental studies have demonstrated that the supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B6 and B12 has therapeutic potential in the context of neurodegenerative disorders. Conclusions: Folate metabolism is of physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic relevance for neurodegenerative disorders. The use of strategies to normalize folate levels or enzyme cofactors involved in folate metabolism or to reduce homocysteine levels has potential therapeutic applications for these disorders(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Severity of Illness Index , DNA , Neurodegenerative Diseases/prevention & control , Spinocerebellar Ataxias , Epigenomics , Clinical Coding , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Metabolism , Intervention Studies , Folic Acid/metabolism
20.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 115-136, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252504

ABSTRACT

Blastocystis es un stramenopile o cromista, pleomórfico no móvil. Se han identificado diecinue-ve subtipos de este organismo (ST1-ST19). Tiene una presencia a nivel mundial. Este microor-ganismo tiene un metabolismo intermediario anaeróbico. Un aspecto interesante de la bioquími-ca de este stramenopile está dado por la presencia de organelas similares a mitocondrias con un conjunto de rutas: cadena de fosforilación oxidativa incompleta, ciclo de Krebs parcial, metabo-lismo de ácidos grasos (anabolismo y catabolismo), metabolismo de aminoácidos y ensamblaje de proteínas con centros hierro/azufre. El tratamiento se ha basado tradicionalmente en metroni-dazol y otros imidazoles. Sin embargo, hay un número creciente de cepas resistentes a esos medicamentos. La reciente obtención del genoma nuclear y los estudios bioquímicos, proteómi-cos, metabolómicos, interactómicos permitirán el desarrollo racional de nuevos fármacos curati-vos. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el metabolismo de Blastocystis spp


Blastocystis is a stramenopile or chromist, nonmobile pleomorphic. Nineteen subtypes of this organism (ST1-ST19) have been identified worldwide. This microorganism has an intermediate anaerobic metabolism. An interesting aspect of the biochemistry of this stramenopile is given by the presence of mitochondrial-like organelles with a set of pathways: incomplete oxidative phos-phorylation chain, partial Krebs cycle, fatty acid metabolism (anabolism and catabolism), amino acid metabolism and protein assembly with iron / sulfur centers. Treatment has traditionally been based on metronidazole and other imidazoles. However, there are a growing number of strains resistant to these drugs. The recent obtaining of the nuclear genome and the biochemical, proteomic, metabolomic and interactomic studies will allow the rational development of new curative drugs. The objective of this review is to describe the metabolism of Blastocystis spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parasitic Diseases , Blastocystis , Metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Metronidazole , Antigens, Protozoan
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