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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 114-126, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290833

ABSTRACT

La mayoría de los estudios apoyan la tesis de que el desayuno es la comida más importante del día. Un desayuno adecuado contribuye a lograr un patrón dietético global saludable y a mejorar la calidad de la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los principales patrones de desayuno en tres poblaciones universitarias de España, Túnez y Estados Unidos, analizar sus semejanzas y diferencias y estudiar la influencia de factores antropométricos, sociodemográficos y de estilo de vida en la adherencia a cada patrón. Se realizó un estudio transversal con datos de 730 estudiantes matriculados en las Universidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Cartago e Internacional de Florida en 2013. El consumo de alimentos se obtuvo mediante dos recordatorios de 24 horas, no consecutivos, uno de ellos en fin de semana. Los patrones se identificaron mediante análisis factorial exploratorio. La adherencia de los estudiantes a cada patrón se evaluó usando las puntuaciones factoriales. Se obtuvieron cuatro patrones para cada país. El principal patrón de los universitarios españoles incluyó pan, tomate, sal y aceite de oliva (varianza explicada: 20,85%); el principal de los tunecinos contenía pan, mermelada, nata y mantequilla (varianza explicada: 12,73%) y el principal de los americanos incluyó huevos, leche entera y azúcares (varianza explicada: 10,77%). Género, peso, IMC o comer fuera de casa fueron factores que influyeron en la adherencia a diferentes patrones. El estudio mostró la coexistencia de patrones tradicionales con otros occidentalizados y modelos transicionales intermedios. No se determinó un patrón generalizable asociado a mejores resultados del IMC(AU)


Most studies support the conclusion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. An adequate breakfast contributes to achieving a healthy global dietary pattern and improving quality of diet. The objective of this study was to determine the main breakfast patterns of three university populations from Spain, Tunisia, and The United States of America, analyze their similarities and differences, and study the impact of anthropometric, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the adherence to each pattern. A cross-sectional study was developed with data from 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, University of Carthage, and Florida International University, during 2013. Food consumption data were obtained by means of two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls including one weekend day. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify breakfast patterns. Factor scores were used to assess students' adherence to each pattern. Four breakfast patterns were obtained for each country. The main pattern of the Spanish students included bread, tomato, salt, and olive oil (explained variance: 20.85%); the main model of the Tunisians included bread, jam, cream and butter (explained variance: 12.73%); and the first pattern of the Americans was characterized by eggs, whole milk and sugars (explained variance: 10.77%). Gender, weight, BMI or eating out of home were factors that influenced the adherence to different patterns. Breakfast patterns obtained in this work showed the coexistence of traditional models with westernized and transitional ones. It was not determined a generalizable pattern associated with better BMI results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Breakfast , Life Style , Body Mass Index , Nutrients , Anthropometry , Metabolism
2.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(2): 328-333, Maio 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253509

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do treinamento de escada e atividade física na histomorfometria do tecido adiposo marrom em camundongos C57BL/6. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Amostra composta por 16 camundongos, divididos aleatoriamente: controle (n=4), exercício de escada com estímulo elétrico (n=4), exercício de escada (n=4) e atividade física em ambiente enriquecido (n=4). Grupo de atividade física em ambiente enriquecido foi realizada em caixa com brinquedos. Grupo exercício de escada e escada com estímulo elétrico foram realizadas com escada vertical. Com a utilização da escada os animais realizaram 6 séries, 8 repetições com intervalos de 90 segundos entre séries, sendo 10 sessões. No exercício de escada com estimulo elétrico, o animal foi estimulado a subir usando uma placa de aço na base da escada, com uma corrente elétrica de 20V de intensidade e 45 hz de frequência. A coleta de tecido adiposo marrom foi feita na região escapular e manchado em Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE). O nível de significância das análises era 95% (p < 0.05). RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa no comparativo do tamanho da célula de TAM em comparação com o tecido recolhido dos camundongos dos quatro grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A atividade física e o exercício resistido não promoveram diferenças morfometricas no TAM dos camundongos C57BL/6.


OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of stair training and physical activity on brown adipose tissue histomorphometry in C57BL / 6 mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample composed of 16 mice, randomly divided: control (n = 4), stair exercise with electrical stimulus (n = 4), stair exercise (n = 4) and physical activity in an enriched environment (n = 4). A Group of physical activity in an enriched environment was performed in a box with toys. Ladder exercise group and ladder with electrical stimulus were performed with vertical ladder. With the ladder's use, the animals performed six sets, eight repetitions with 90-second intervals between sets, with ten sessions. In the stairway exercise with electrical stimulation, the animal was encouraged to climb using a steel plate at the base of the stairs, with an electric current of 20V intensity and 45Hz frequency. Brown adipose tissue collection was performed in the scapular region and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). The level of significance of the analyzes was 95% (p <0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant difference when comparing the TAM cell size compared to the tissue collected from the mice in the four groups. CONCLUSION: Physical activity and resistance exercise did not promote morphometric differences in the TAM of C57BL/6 mice.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Metabolism , Mice
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 61-77, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151421

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é caracterizada pelo aumento excessivo da gordura corporal e está ligada ao estilo de vida, ao meio ambiente e a genética do indivíduo. O equilíbrio entre ingestão e gasto energético é controlado por mecanismos neurais, hormonais, químicos e genéticos. Estudos sugerem que o gene FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated) atua como regulador primário do acúmulo de gordura corporal, quando associado a SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) específicos, predispõe à obesidade. O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar a produção científica, analisar e catalogar os estudos de polimorfismos no gene FTO associados à obesidade e suas comorbidades. A busca por publicações entre 2009 e 2018 foi realizada na base de dados SciELO com a palavra-chave "FTO". Foram encontrados 23 artigos originais dentro dos critérios da pesquisa que correlacionam o FTO à obesidade. O nome do autor principal, país, idioma, ano de publicação, título, objetivo, polimorfismo associado e os resultados dos estudos foram extraídos e organizados para facilitar a tabulação dos dados. Também foram pesquisados os números de citações de cada artigo, utilizando-se a plataforma Google Acadêmico. Embora o Brasil se encontre em primeiro lugar em produção científica para o gene FTO na base de dados prospectada, o número de artigos originais ainda é muito modesto. Assim, os resultados encontrados podem servir de subsídio no delineamento de novas pesquisas sobre os polimorfismos do gene FTO e as causas da obesidade.


Obesity is characterized by the excessive increase in body fat and is correlated to the lifestyle, environment, and also to the genetics of the individual. The balance between energy intake and expenditure is controlled by neural, hormonal, chemical, and genetic mechanisms. Studies suggest that the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated), a gene associated with fat mass, plays a role as a primary regulator of body fat buildup, when associated to specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), causing predisposition to obesity. This paper aimed at reviewing, analyzing, and cataloguing the studies on FTO gene polymorphisms associated with obesity and its comorbidities. The search was carried out in SciELO database, checking articles published between 2009 and 2018 using the keyword "FTO". Twenty-three original articles, matching the research criteria, correlating FTO either positively or negatively with obesity, were found. The main author's name, country, language, year of publication, title, objective, associated polymorphism, and the study results were extracted and organized to facilitate data tabulation. The citation numbers for each article were also searched by using the Google Scholar platform. Although Brazil ranks first in scientific production on the FTO gene in the surveyed database, the number of original articles is still very modest. Therefore, the results found in this paper may be used as a basis for the design of new research on the FTO gene polymorphisms and the causes of obesity.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Obesity/genetics , Satiety Response , Energy Intake/genetics , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Nutrigenomics , Fats , Genotype , Life Style , Metabolism/genetics
4.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 34(1): 1-12, 17/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292269

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre sentido de coherencia y control glucémico en adultos con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Estudio de tipo transversal desarrollado durante el año 2018 en el cual fueron encuestados 220 diabéticos de tres unidades de Salud de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Jalisco en Ciudad Guzmán, México. Se les aplicó el instrumento SOC-13 para sentido de coherencia y el control glucémico se evaluó por medio del nivel de hemoglobina glucosilada que se obtuvo del expediente médico. Los datos se analizaron por medio del análisis de regresión logística. Resultados: Se obtuvieron resultados con un total de 220 participantes en un rango de edad entre 23 y 69 años de los que el 67% presentó control glucémico inadecuado y el 33% control glucémico adecuado; de los encuestados con control glucémico inadecuado el 24% refirió puntuaciones bajas de sentido de coherencia, mientras que el 96% de quienes tienen control glucémico adecuado obtuvo puntuaciones medio/alta de sentido de coherencia. Los análisis de regresión logística arrojan que el sentido de coherencia se asocia significativamente con el control glucémico (OR = 7.2; 95% C.I: 2.0-24.7; p = 0.002) después de ajustar los análisis por diversas variables confusoras como sexo, apego al plan alimenticio, actividad física, ausencia de complicaciones y ausencia de tabaquismo. Conclusión: Los diabéticos con puntuaciones medio/altas de sentido de coherencia tienen hasta 7 veces más probabilidad de tener control glucémico adecuado que diabéticos con puntuaciones bajas de sentido de coherencia independientemente de variables intervinientes.


Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre senso de coerência e controle glicêmico em adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Estudo transversal desenvolvido durante 2018, com 220 diabéticos de três unidades de saúde da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de Jalisco na cidade de Guzmán, México. Aplicou-se o instrumento SOC-13 para senso de coerência, e avaliou-se o controle glicêmico por meio do nível de hemoglobina glicosada obtido nos prontuários. Assim, obtiveram-se os dados por análise de regressão logística. Resultados: Os 220 participantes tinham faixa etária de 23 a 69 anos, dos quais 148 (67%) apresentavam controle glicêmico inadequado e 72 (33%) controle glicêmico adequado; 24% dos pesquisados com controle glicêmico inadequado relataram escores baixos para senso de coerência, enquanto 96% daqueles com controle glicêmico adequado obtiveram escores médios/ altos para senso de coerência. As análises de regressão logística mostram que o senso de coerência está significativamente associado ao controle glicêmico (OR=7,2; IC 95%: 2,0-24,7; p=0,002) após ajustar as análises para variáveis de confusão, como sexo, adesão ao plano alimentar, atividade física, ausência de complicações e ausência de tabagismo. Conclusão: Diabéticos, com escores médios/altos de senso de coerência, têm até 7 vezes mais chances de apresentar controle glicêmico adequado do que diabéticos com baixos escores de senso de coerência, independentemente das variáveis intervenientes.


Objective: To evaluate the association between a sense of coherence and glycemic control in adults with type 2 Mellitus Diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study, developed during 2018, 220 diabetics from three health units of the Secretaria de Salud del Estado de Jalisco in Ciudad Guzmán, Mexico, the SOC-13 instrument was applied for a sense of coherence, glycemic control was evaluated through the level of glycosylated hemoglobin obtained from the medical record, the data was analyzed through logistic regression analysis. Results: Results were obtained with a total of 220 participants in an age range of 23 to 69 years of which 67% presented inadequate glycemic control and 33% adequate glycemic control; 24% of those surveyed with inadequate glycemic control reported low scores for a sense of coherence, while 96% of those with adequate glycemic control obtained medium/high scores for a sense of coherence. The logistic regression analyzes show that the sense of coherence is significantly associated with glycemic control (OR=7.2; 95% CI: 2.0-24.7; p=0.002) after adjusting the analyzes for various confounding variables such as sex, adherence to eating plan, physical activity, absence of complications and absence of smoking. Conclusion: Diabetics with medium/high scores of coherence sense are up to 7 times more likely to have adequate glycemic control than diabetics with low scores of coherence sense regardless of intervening variables.


Subject(s)
Glycated Hemoglobin A , Sense of Coherence , Health Promotion , Metabolism
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 195-202, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1146040

ABSTRACT

Los derivados de juglona, como 2-(4-hidroxifenil) amino-1,4-naftoquinona (Q7), son conocidos agentes antitumorales. Ellos generan especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS), que podrían producir un desbalance de ROS y un metabolismo anormal de lípidos. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto del ascorbato sobre el metabolismo de lípidos y carbohidratos en condición de estrés oxidativo inducido por Q7. A ratas Wistar macho, se les administró oralmente Q7 (10 mg/Kg) y/o ascorbato (500 mg/Kg) durante 20 días. Las ratas tratadas con Q7 mostraron un aumento de los triglicéridos en suero, del colesterol VLDL y de los niveles de peróxidación lipídica. Cuando el tratamiento con Q7 fue seguido de la administración de ascorbato (500 mg/Kg), observamos una disminución de los triglicéridos en suero, del colesterol VLDL y de la peroxidación lipídica. La administración oral de ascorbato redujo el aumento de lípidos inducido por Q7 y la glicemia postprandial. Esto podría estar asociado con la actividad redox del ascorbato, que reduce el estrés oxidativo inducido por Q7. Concluimos que el ascorbato modula el aumento del metabolismo de lípidos y carbohidratos inducido por Q7.


Juglone derivatives like 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) amino-1,4-naphthoquinone (Q7) are used as antitumor agents, and act through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Such may lead to abnormal lipid metabolism and ROS dysregulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ascorbate on the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates following Q7-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were administered Q7 (10 mg/Kg) and/or ascorbate (500 mg/Kg) orally for 20 days. Rats treated with Q7 showed an increase in serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation levels. When Q7 treatment was followed up by ascorbate (500 mg/Kg) administration, we observed a reduction in serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation. The oral administration of ascorbate reduced the Q7-induced increases in lipids, and postprandial glycemia. This could be associated with the redox activity of ascorbate that reduced the oxidative stress induced by Q7. We thus conclude that ascorbate modulates the Q7-induced increase of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid , Lipids , Metabolism , Carbohydrates , Oxidative Stress
6.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e183731, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1344763

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify if the process of artificial insemination (AI) characterized here as animal immobilization, the passage of the semen applicator through the cervix, and deposition of the semen in the uterus, affected cows' welfare. For this, 18 beef calved cows were selected and divided into two groups: inseminated cows (AIG, n = 9), and not inseminated cows, the control group (CG, n = 9). Body condition score, uterus, and ovary evaluation were performed. Later, both groups were submitted into an estrus synchronization protocol and only the AIG group was inseminated. Blood components of urea, creatinine, AST, GGT, CK, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, NEFA, BHB, cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, albumin, and total protein were measured 30 h before AI, and 4, 24, 48 and 168 h after AI. Statistical differences were considered when P <0.05. No differences between AIG and CG were observed. On the other hand, when the moment of insemination was evaluated, differences were observed for urea, creatinine, AST, GGT, CK, glucose, triglycerides, NEFA, BHB, albumin, and total protein. There was an oscillation of metabolic profiles depending on the time and procedures to which animals were exposed, even though it could be inferred that the AI process was incapable of altering those metabolic components on animals that were inseminated. Still, we can affirm that artificial insemination cannot be categorized as a negative reproduction tool on animal welfare. However, the containment and management procedures for AI may alter the metabolic profile of cows, especially the increase of CK.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o processo de inseminação artificial (IA) caracterizado como imobilização do animal, passagem do aplicador de sêmen pelo colo do útero e deposição do sêmen no útero, afetou o bem-estar de bovinos. Para tanto, foram selecionadas 18 vacas de corte paridas, divididas em dois grupos: grupo de animais inseminados (AIG, n = 9) e grupo de animais não inseminados, grupo controle (GC, n = 9). Foram avaliados o escore de condição corporal, útero e ovário. Posteriormente, ambos os grupos foram submetidos a um protocolo de sincronização de cio e apenas o grupo AIG foi inseminado. Componentes metabólicos como ureia, creatinina, AST, GGT, CK, glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, NEFA, BHB, cortisol, estradiol, progesterona, albumina e proteína total foram mensurados 30 horas antes da IA e 4, 24, 48 e 168 horas após a IA. Diferenças estatísticas foram consideradas quando P <0,05. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os dois grupos, por outro lado, quando o momento da inseminação foi avaliado, diferenças foram observadas para ureia, creatinina, AST, GGT, CK, glicose, triglicerídeos, NEFA, BHB, albumina e proteína total. Houve uma variação dos perfis metabólicos em função do tempo e dos procedimentos que os animais foram submetidos, embora pode-se inferir que o processo de IA não foi capaz de alterar esses componentes metabólicos os animais inseminados. Ainda assim, observou-se que o processo de IA não foi categorizado como uma ferramenta negativa de reprodução com relação ao bem-estar animal. Porém, ainda assim, os procedimentos de contenção e manejo da IA podem alterar o perfil metabólico das vacas, principalmente o aumento da CK.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Animal Welfare , Cattle/embryology , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Human-Animal Interaction , Metabolism
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190480, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278442

ABSTRACT

Abstract The evolution of species is inevitably accompanied by the evolution of metabolic networks to adapt to different environments. The metabolic networks of different species were collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) website, and some enzyme reactions with the highest occurrence frequency in all species were found and are reported in this paper. The correlation coefficients of whether the enzyme reactions appear in all species were calculated, and the corresponding evolutionary correlation connection networks were calculated according to different correlation coefficient thresholds. These studies show that, as the evolutionary correlation of enzyme reactions increases, the weighted average of the mean functional concentration ratios of the enzyme reactions also increases, indicating that the functional concentration ratio of enzyme reactions has a certain correlation with the evolutionary correlation. The work presented in this paper enhances our understanding of the characteristics and general rules of metabolic network evolution.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Activation , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Adaptation, Biological , Metabolism
8.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(4): 278-285, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289331

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se han propuesto varios estudios que sugieren que el grupo de vitaminas B posee un rol en la fisiología ósea. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la interacción de este con la homocisteína y la relación de ambos con el metabolismo óseo y la osteoporosis. Algunos estudios han sugerido que los niveles de vitamina B, sobre todo las vitaminas B12 y B9, se han asociado a una baja densitometría ósea y a un aumentado riesgo a fractura, y que estos, a su vez, intervienen en el metabolismo de la homocisteína, por lo que su déficit puede ocasionar un estado de hiperhomocisteinemia. Publicaciones recientes proponen que la hiperhomocisteinemia se encuentra asociada a desmineralización ósea, baja calidad de masa ósea y aumento de biomarcadores de recambio óseo, dado que influye en la actividad osteoclástica y en los enlaces cruzados de colágeno. Por lo tanto, la hiperhomocisteinemia puede ser un factor que reduce la densidad y la calidad ósea. Se necesita más información para determinar el papel que tiene cada vitamina directamente en la salud ósea, o si estas solo influyen a través de las concentraciones séricas de homocisteína.


ABSTRACT Several studies have suggested a role for B-vitamins in bone physiology. A systematic review is presented on the interaction of B-vitamins with homocysteine and the relationship of both in bone metabolism and osteoporosis. The levels of vitamin-B, particularly B12 and B9, have been associated with a low bone mineral density and an increased risk of fracture. At the same time, its deficit affects the metabolism of homocysteine, which can then result in a high serum homocysteine. Recent findings have proposed that high serum homocysteine is linked to bone demineralisation, low quality of bone mass, and an increase in bone turnover biomarkers, given the influence over the osteoclastic activity and the cross-linking of collagen molecules. Therefore, high serum homocysteine could be a factor that reduces bone density and quality. More information is needed to determine whether there is a direct role of each vitamin in bone health, or if they are just influenced by homocysteine serum concentrations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin B Complex , Homocysteine , Bone and Bones , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Biomarkers , Fractures, Bone , Metabolism
9.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 25: 1-7, set. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128285

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a associação entre o tempo sentado e fatores de risco cardiometabólicos em adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por 454 adolescentes (50,6% masculino) com idades entre 12 a 18 anos. O tempo diário despendido sentado e a prática de atividade física moderada-vigorosa foram avaliados por meio do recordatório de três dias de Bouchard. Os fatores de risco cardiometabólicos analisados foram: circunferência de cintura; glicose; HDL-C; triglicerídeos; e pressão arterial. Foi utilizada a análise de variância com dois fatores (sexo e quartis) para comparar os fatores de risco cardiometabólicos entre os quartis de tempo sentado. Para verificar a associação entre o tempo sentado e os fatores de risco cardiometabólicos foi empregado a regressão linear múltipla. Foi observado que os meninos pertencentes ao 4º quartil (maior tempo sentado) apresentaram valores mais elevados de glicose e triglicerídeos em comparação com seus pares com menos tempo. No sexo feminino, verificou-se que as pertencentes ao 3º e 4º quartil apresentaram maiores valores de triglicerídeos e glicose em comparação ao 1º quartil. Associações positivas e significativas foram observadas entre o tempo sentado e os valores de circunferência da cintura (ß = 0,093; p < 0,05), glicose (ß = 0,111; p < 0,05) e pressão arterial diastólica (ß = -0,115; p < 0,05) mesmo após o ajuste para a prática de atividade física moderada-vigorosa. De acordo com os achados do presente estudo, conclui-se que os adolescentes que permaneceram maior tempo sentado apresentaram maiores valores de glicose, triglicerídeos e escore de risco cardiometabólico em comparação aos que despenderam menos tempo


This study aimed to verify if there is an association between sitting time and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. The sample was composed of 454 adolescents (50.6% male) aged between 12 and 18 years. The time spent in sitting and physical activity were assessed through a record of three days by Bouchard. The following cardiometabolic risk factors were analyzed: waist circumference, glucose, HDL ­ cholesterol, tri-glycerides, and blood pressure. It was used the Two-way Analysis of Variance (sex and quartiles) to compare the cardiometabolic risk factors between the quartiles of sitting time. To verify the association between sitting time and cardiometabolic risk factors it was used the multivariate linear regression. Boys of the 4th quartile (higher sitting time) presented higher values of glucose and triglycerides compared to their peers with less time. Girls of the 3rd and 4th quartile presented higher triglycerides and glucose values, compared to the 1st quartile. Significant associations (p < 0.05) were observed between sitting time with waist circumference (ß = 0.093; p < 0.05), glucose (ß = 0.111; p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.115; p < 0.05) even after the adjustment for the moderate to vigorous physical activity. According to the findings of this study, we concluded that adolescents who spent more sitting time had higher values of glucose, triglycerides and cardiometabolic risk score compared with who has less sitting time


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Sedentary Behavior , Life Style , Metabolism
10.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 830-835, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138620

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo de esta revisión fue actualizar la evidencia sobre los requerimientos séricos de vitamina D para la prevención del riesgo de caídas en adultos mayores que presentan sarcopenia. La sarcopenia aún no está claramente definida, pero se puede comprender como una disminución de masa, fuerza y función muscular. En adultos mayores, los niveles séricos deficientes de 25-hitroxivitamina D <20 ng/ml o <50 nmol/l se han vinculado a la pérdida de masa muscular, mientras que un nivel óptimo entre 30 a 150 ng/ml o 75 a 375 nmol/l se ha asociado a mejoras de la función muscular en la extremidades inferiores. Por otro lado, el estado de toxicidad aguda (>150 ng/ml o 375 nmol/l) es producido por la suplementación de mega dosis de 10.000 UI/día o 300.000 UI/ mensual, mientras que la toxicidad crónica se presenta en niveles séricos entre 50-150 ng/ml o 125-375 nmol/l producto de una dosis >4.000 UI/día. Esta revisión concluye que la vitamina D probablemente no disminuye el riesgo de caídas en adultos mayores. Sin embargo, en aquellos grupos que padecen sarcopenia o hipovitaminosis podrían existir asociaciones no confirmadas y controvertidas.


ABSTRACT The objective of this review was to update the evidence on serum vitamin D requirements for risk prevention of falls in older adults with sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is not yet clearly defined but can be understood as a decrease in muscle mass, strength, and function. In older adults, serum deficiency levels of 25-hitroxyvitamin D <20 ng/ml or <50 nmol/l have been associated with loss of muscle mass, while an optimal level of between 30 to 150 ng / ml or 75 to 375 nmol/l has been associated with improvements in muscle function in the lower extremities. On the other hand, the state of acute toxicity (>150 ng /ml or 375 nmol/l) is produced by the supplementation of mega-doses of 10,000 IU/day or 300,000 IU/monthly, while chronic toxicity occurs at serum levels between 50-150 ng/ml or 125-375 nmol/l product of a dose >4,000 IU/day. This review concludes that vitamin D probably does not affect the risk of falls in older adults. However, in those groups suffering from sarcopenia or hypovitaminosis, there may be unconfirmed and controversial associations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vitamin D , Aged , Sarcopenia , Accidental Falls , Metabolism , Muscles
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(3): 191-204, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1223591

ABSTRACT

Los déficits nutricionales en la mujer deportista causan numerosos problemas de salud, así como un empeoramiento en el rendimiento deportivo, como consecuencia de estas deficiencias nutricionales. El conocimiento de estos déficits y su prevención deben ser un aspecto principal para cualquier responsable deportivo. Establecer la importancia del estudio de los déficits de energía, proteínas, minerales (Fe, Ca y Mg) y vitaminas (Vitamina D, ácido fólico y vitamina B12) que pueden desarrollar las mujeres deportistas y su relación con la prevalencia de la tríada femenina y constatar la importancia del conocimiento por parte de los responsables deportivos de los problemas derivados de los déficits nutricionales. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica de artículos, entre 2013-2020, relevantes para el objetivo de estudio. Se usaron bases de datos científicas como PubMed y Pennutrition, siguiendo los criterios de exclusión e inclusión elegidos para este estudio. 51 artículos fueron encontrados. Los resultados mostraron la prevalencia de energía, Fe, vitamina D y Ca, así como un suficiente aporte proteico, faltan estudios para determinar los niveles de vitamina B12 y ácido fólico. Se observó, además la prevalencia de mujeres que cumplen con uno o varios factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de la tríada de la deportistas femenina. Es imprescindible la prevención o, el tratamiento, de los déficits nutricionales en las mujeres deportistas para asegurar un correcto estado de salud y un rendimiento deportivo óptimo(AU)


Nutritional deficiencies in women athletes cause numerous health problems, as well as a worsening of sports performance, as a result of these nutritional deficiencies. Awareness of these deficiencies and their prevention should be a major aspect for any sports manager. The aim of the study was to establish the importance of studying the deficits of energy, protein, minerals (Fe, Ca and Mg) and vitamins (Vitamin D, folic acid and vitamin B12) that can be developed by female athletes and their relationship with the prevalence of the female triad and to establish the importance of knowledge by sports managers of the problems arising from nutritional deficiencies. 51 papers were found. A bibliographic search of relevant articles for the study objective was carried out (2013-2020). Scientific databases such as PubMed and Pennutrition were used, following the exclusion and inclusion criteria chosen for this study. The results showed the prevalence of energy, Fe, vitamin D and Ca, as well as sufficient protein intake and a lack of studies to determine the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. In addition, the prevalence of women meeting one or more risk factors for the development of the female sports triad was observed. It is essential the prevention or, treatment, of nutritional deficits in female athletes to ensure proper health status and optimal sports performance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sports , Avitaminosis , Women , Deficiency Diseases , Mineral Deficiency , Osteoporosis , Carbohydrates , Amenorrhea , Metabolism
12.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 39-51, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119324

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dados los efectos pleiotrópicos de los glucocorticoides (GCs) sobre el metabolismo, los niveles excesivos y sostenidos de GCs circulantes tienen efectos deletéreos e incrementan la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular. Objetivos: estudiar el efecto de la terapia antioxidante (con ácido lipoico o melatonina) sobre la hiperactivación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (HHA) en animales alimentados con dieta rica en sacarosa (DRS). Materiales y métodos: se evaluó la actividad del eje HHA y se determinaron parámetros hormonales, de estrés oxidativo y de inflamación en la adenohipófisis de animales tratados con DRS durante tres semanas. Resultados: los animales del grupo DRS mostraron mayores niveles circulantes de hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH, por sus siglas en inglés) y corticosterona. En paralelo se detectó un aumento en la expresión del polipéptido precursor (proopiomelanocortina, POMC) y de ACTH en la adenohipófisis, donde también se observó un aumento de lipoperóxidos y proteínas nitradas en tirosina (daño oxidativo), un mayor número de macrófagos tisulares y un incremento en la producción de IL-1beta. El tratamiento antioxidante previno los cambios en estos parámetros. En particular la melatonina también normalizó la actividad del eje HHA y la expresión hipofisaria de POMC. Conclusiones: la sobrecarga metabólica inducida por la administración de DRS genera daño oxidativo e inflamación en la adenohipófisis. La activación de los macrófagos tisulares producida en consecuencia podría impactar sobre los corticotropos hipofisarios e inducir su hiperfunción. La melatonina podría utilizarse como herramienta terapéutica para normalizar la actividad del eje HHA en modelos de obesidad por dieta.


Introduction: given the pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on metabolism, excessive and sustained levels of circulating GCs, have deleterious effects and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to study the effect of antioxidant therapy on hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in animals fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Materials and methods: the activity of the HPA axis was evaluated and hormonal, oxidative stress and inflammation parameters were determined in the adenohypophysis of animals treated with SRD for trhee weeks. Results: animals from the SRD group showed higher circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. In parallel, an increase in the expression of the polypeptide precursors, POMC and ACTH were detected in the adenohypophysis. We also observed an increase in lipoperoxides and proteins nitrated in tyrosine (oxidative damage), a greater number of tissue macrophages and an increase in the production of IL-1beta. Antioxidant treatment prevented all these changes. In particular, melatonin also normalized the activity of the HPA axis and pituitary expression of POMC. Conclusions: the metabolic overload induced by the administration of SRD generates oxidative damage and inflammation in the adenohypophysis. Activation of tissue macrophages could affect, in turn, pituitary corticotrophs inducing their activation. Melatonin could be used as a therapeutic tool to normalize the activity of the HPA axis in diet obesity models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Melatonin , Metabolism
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(4): 658-668, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138601

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Regular lentil consumption may improve health and prevent certain chronic diseases. Lentils have high antioxidant activity and contain proteins, essential amino acids, fiber, minerals, and bioactive compounds. However, few studies have investigated the physicochemical characteristics of lentils when subjected to various soaking and cooking methods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of different hydration and cooking practices on the hydration coefficient, cooking time, primary metabolism compounds (lipids, proteins, fibers, carbohydrates), energy value, soluble protein, color and texture characteristics, amino acid and mineral profiles, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and antinutritional factors (phytates and tannins) in lentils. Hydration water was preheated to initial temperatures of 25°C or 90°C. Lentils pre-hydrated with water at 90°C needed less cooking time, obtained greater softness, and had less decreases in amino acids, minerals, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity.


RESUMEN El consumo regular de lentejas puede mejorar la salud y prevenir ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Las lentejas tienen una alta actividad antioxidante y contienen proteínas, aminoácidos esenciales, fibra, minerales y compuestos bioactivos. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han investigado las características fisicoquímicas de las lentejas sometidas a varios métodos de remojo y cocción. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de diferentes procesos de cocción e hidratación sobre el coeficiente de hidratación, el tiempo de cocción, los metabolitos primarios (lípidos, proteínas, fibras, carbohidratos), el valor energético, la proteína soluble, color y textura, los perfiles de aminoácidos y minerales, los compuestos bioactivos, la actividad antioxidante y los factores antinutricionales (fitatos y taninos) en la lenteja. El agua de hidratación se precalentó a temperaturas iniciales de 25°C o 90°C. Las lentejas prehidratadas con agua a 90°C necesitaban menos tiempo de cocción y obtuvieron una mayor suavidad, disminuyendo también la pérdida de aminoácidos, minerales, compuestos bioactivos y actividad antioxidante.


Subject(s)
Health , Chronic Disease , Lens Plant , Amino Acids, Essential , Proteins , Metabolism , Minerals , Antioxidants
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(2): 144-151, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1140347

ABSTRACT

El consumo de stevia ha sido promovido por su bajo aporte calórico, su efecto antidiabético y antihipercolesterolémico. Sin embargo, los efectos de la ingesta de stevia parecen no ser los mismos para las ratas hembras respecto de los machos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la ingesta de stevia sobre el consumo de alimento, peso corporal y niveles de glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en ratas hembras Wistar durante 13 semanas y realizar un análisis predictivo del peso corporal y la ingesta de alimento a 20 semanas. Se utilizaron 20 ratas hembras adultas, que se dividieron en 2 grupos: control (CG) y stevia (SG), ambos grupos recibieron agua y comida a libre acceso, así como una solución de stevia al 0,2 % para el grupo SG. Se registró diariamente el consumo de alimento, agua y solución de stevia; la medición del peso corporal se realizó semanalmente. Al final de las 13 semanas de experimentación, los animales se sacrificaron para evaluar los parámetros metabolicos. El grupo SG mostró un mayor consumo de alimento, mayor proporción de ganancia de peso corporal, niveles de glucosa y colesterol que el grupo CG. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los niveles de triglicéridos e insulina. Respecto al análisis predictivo (semanas 14-20), se mantiene un incremento significativo en el consumo de alimento y se observa una tendencia de aumento en la proporción de ganancia de peso corporal. Esto indica que el consumo de stevia en ratas hembras parece no tener los mismos efectos benéficos reportados en machos(AU)


Consumption of stevia has been promoted due to its low caloric intake, it's effects as anti-diabetic and anti-hypercholesterolemic. However, the effects of stevia consumption is apparently not the same in females than males. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of stevia intake on meal consumption, body weight and levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides in female Wistar rats during 13 weeks and develop a predictive analysis of the body weight and meal intake over 20 weeks. 20 adult female rats were utilized, these were divided into two groups: control (CG) and stevia (SG), both groups received free access to water and food, the SG also received a stevia solution at 0.2%. Consumption of food, water and stevia solution was recorded daily, while weight was recorded weekly. At the end of the 13 weeks of experiment, the subjects were sacrificed to evaluate the metabolic parameters. The SG group showed a higher consumption of food, higher proportion of body weight gain, glucose levels and cholesterol than the CG. No significant differences were found in levels of triglyceride or insulin. Respect to the predictive analysis (weeks 14-20), a significant increase in food consumption is maintained and an increasing trend is observed in the proportion of body weight gain. This indicates that stevia consumption appears not to have the same benefit effects in female rats than male rats(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Body Weight , Eating , Stevia , Metabolism , Cholesterol , Glucose
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 553-559, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1128404

ABSTRACT

Durante o periparto, as vacas leiteiras são submetidas a uma grande demanda de energia, ao mesmo tempo em que reduzem sua ingestão de matéria seca. O balanço energético negativo, resultante dessa equação, acarreta severos transtornos metabólicos, à produção e, principalmente, à reprodução. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da colina protegida sobre os parâmetros metabólicos, o intervalo entre parto e concepção e a produção de leite em vacas no período de transição. Cinquenta e quatro vacas leiteiras foram divididas em três grupos: controle, suplementação com colina por 10 dias pré-parto (T10) e suplementação com colina por 20 dias pré-parto (T20). Após o parto, foram mensurados os teores de frutosamina, colesterol, ácidos graxos não esterificados (AGNE), beta-hidroxibutirato (BHB), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT) e total de oxidantes (TOS), nos dias 10, 20 e 30. Ainda foram avaliadas produção de leite e intervalo entre parto e concepção. Não houve efeito da suplementação com colina sobre os parâmetros sanguíneos e a produção. O intervalo entre parto e concepção foi menor no grupo T20. A colina suplementada por 20 dias durante o pré-parto melhorou a performance reprodutiva de vacas leiteiras(AU)


During the periparturient dairy cows undergo a large energy demand, at the same time reducing their intake of dry matter. The negative energy balance resulting from this equation leads to severe metabolic disorders in production, and mainly in reproduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected choline on metabolic parameters, reproductive performance, and milk production in cows during the transition period. Fifty-four dairy cows were divided into three groups: control, supplementation with choline for 10 days prepartum (T10) and supplementation with choline for 20 days prepartum (T20). After delivery we measured fructosamine levels, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total oxidant (TOS) on days 10, 20 and 30. We also evaluated milk production and interval between calving and conception. There was no effect of supplementation with choline on blood and production parameters. The interval between calving and conception was lower in the T20 group. Choline supplemented by 20 during the antepartum improved reproductive performance of dairy cows, although it did not change the metabolic profile.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Choline/administration & dosage , Peripartum Period/physiology , Metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Cholesterol , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
17.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(1): 24-33, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279651

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Comparar las concentraciones plasmáticas y tisulares de florfenicol (FFC) y su metabolito florfenicol amina (FFC-a) entre ovinos y conejos, posterior a la administración intramuscular de 20 mg/kg de FFC. Materiales y métodos. Cinco ovinos Suffolk Down y seis conejos Neozelandés fueron utilizados en el estudio. Se colectaron muestras de sangre, previo a la administración de FFC, y a las 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 y 4 horas posteriores al tratamiento. A las 4 horas posteriores al tratamiento, a los animales se les aplicó la eutanasia. Las concentraciones plasmáticas y tisulares de FFC y FFC-a fueron determinadas mediante HPLC. Resultados. Las concentraciones plasmáticas máximas, tasa de absorción, vida media de absorción, tasa de distribución y área bajo la curva de FFC, fueron significativamente mayores en conejos respecto a los ovinos. Asimismo, para FFC-a, las concentraciones plasmáticas máximas y área bajo la curva de concentraciones plasmáticas en el tiempo fueron significativamente mayores en conejos respecto a los ovinos. La proporción de metabolito fue mayor en conejos (12.7±3.07%) en comparación con ovinos (3.99±0.87%) (p<0.05), al igual que las concentraciones tisulares de FFC y FFC-a. Conclusiones. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la farmacocinética y concentraciones tisulares de FFC y FFC-a entre estas dos especies. La mayor concentración de FFC-a en conejos indica un mayor nivel de metabolismo de FFC, respecto a los ovinos. Esto es importante de considerar al momento de establecer dosificaciones y frecuencia de administración de FFC en conejos.


ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this study was to compare tissue and plasma concentrations of florfenicol (FFC) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFC-a) between sheep and rabbits, after intramuscular administration of 20 mg FFC/kg. Materials and methods. Five Suffolk Down sheep and six New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Blood samples were collected before FFC administration and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 hours after treatment. At 4 hours after treatment, euthanasia was applied to animals. Plasma and tissue concentrations of FFC and FFC-a were determined by HPLC. Results. For FFC, maximum plasma concentrations, absorption rate, absorption half-life, distribution rate, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve were all found to be significantly higher in rabbits than in sheep. Similarly, for FFC-a, significantly higher maximum plasma concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve were observed in rabbits as compared to sheep. The metabolite ratio was higher in rabbits (12.7±3.07%) compared to sheep (3.99±0.87%) (p<0.05), as were the tissue concentrations of FFC and FFC-a. Conclusions. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of FFC, and its metabolite FFC-a, were observed between these two animal species. The higher concentrations of FFC-a in rabbits indicate a greater level of FFC metabolism as compared to sheep. This should be considered when establishing dosage and frequency of FFC administration for rabbits.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rabbits , Sheep , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacokinetics , Chromatography , Metabolism
18.
Actual. nutr ; 21(1): 25-32, Enero-Marzo de 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282196

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el ayuno intermitente es un modelo nutricional en el cual se establecen ciclos regulares de ayuno y alimentación. Objetivos: explicar en qué consiste el ayuno intermitente e identificar la evidencia científica actual sobre su beneficio en la diabetes, obesidad y cáncer. Materiales y métodos: revisión bibliográfica sistemática de los artículos recuperados de la literatura científica sobre el ayuno intermitente. Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en las siguien- tes bases de datos: Scielo, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud en España (BSV), Dialnet, National Center for Biotechnology In- formation (NCBI) y Science Direct. Los criterios de inclusión em- pleados fueron aquellos artículos a texto completo disponibles gratuitamente que se publicaron en los últimos 10 años, aplican- do restricciones de lenguaje al español e inglés. Los criterios de exclusión se aplicaron a artículos de páginas web o revistas de divulgación, no académicas. La búsqueda y selección de artículos se realizó durante el mes de octubre de 2019. Resultados: luego de la búsqueda se seleccionaron 24 artículos. Conclusiones: el ayuno intermitente muestra un efecto bene - ficioso en relación con la diabetes y la obesidad, aunque se ne- cesitan más estudios científicos que lo avalen. En la actualidad, no existe consenso en la comunidad científica en relación con el cáncer.


Subject(s)
Fasting , Diabetes Mellitus , Metabolism , Neoplasms , Obesity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786083

ABSTRACT

Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. While the causes of cardiomyopathy continue to be elucidated, current evidence suggests that aberrant bioactive lipid signaling plays a crucial role as a component of cardiac pathophysiology. Sphingolipids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, as they regulate numerous cellular processes that occur in primary and secondary cardiomyopathies. Experimental evidence gathered over the last few decades from both in vitro and in vivo model systems indicates that inhibitors of sphingolipid synthesis attenuate a variety of cardiomyopathic symptoms. In this review, we focus on various cardiomyopathies in which sphingolipids have been implicated and the potential therapeutic benefits that could be gained by targeting sphingolipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Cardiovascular Diseases , Ceramides , In Vitro Techniques , Metabolism , Mortality , Myocytes, Cardiac , Pathology , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Sphingolipids
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786082

ABSTRACT

Ceramides are minor components of the hepatic lipidome that have major effects on liver function. These products of lipid and protein metabolism accumulate when the energy needs of the hepatocyte have been met and its storage capacity is full, such that free fatty acids start to couple to the sphingoid backbone rather than the glycerol moiety that is the scaffold for glycerolipids (e.g., triglycerides) or the carnitine moiety that shunts them into mitochondria. As ceramides accrue, they initiate actions that protect cells from acute increases in detergent-like fatty acids; for example, they alter cellular substrate preference from glucose to lipids and they enhance triglyceride storage. When prolonged, these ceramide actions cause insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, 2 of the underlying drivers of cardiometabolic diseases. Herein the author discusses the mechanisms linking ceramides to the development of insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis and resultant cardiometabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Carnitine , Ceramides , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Fatty Liver , Glucose , Glycerol , Hepatocytes , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Triglycerides
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