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Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 253-258, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448342


Introduction Immunoglobulin represents the main therapy for patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and it is a safe procedure, but adverse events (AEs) can occur with variable frequencies. Objective To evaluate the frequency of immediate AEs to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) regular therapy in a pediatric cohort with IEI after a pre-IVIG infusion protocol. Methods This was a longitudinal study from 2011 to 2019 at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Brazil. Results A total of 1736 infusions were studied in 70 patients with IEI, 46 (65.7%) of whom were males and whose median age was 5.8 years old (range: 6 mo - 18 yo). Seven different brands of IVIG were used with the median loading dose of 0.57g/kg (range: 0.23 - 0.88g/Kg). According to the protocol, pre-medication and step-up infusion rate, were performed in 1305 (75.2%) infusions. Immediate AEs were noted in 10 children (14.3%) and in 22 (1.2%) infusions. Skin reactions (rash or urticaria) were the most common AE with 14 episodes (0.8% of all infusions). Almost all AEs were mild (19/86.4%), with no severe ones being observed. The majority of the AEs (81.8%) was identified at a 0.04ml/kg/min infusion rate. Gender, age at first infusion, presence of infection on the infusion day and change of the IVIG brand were evaluated and none of them were associated with AEs. Conclusion The low frequency of immediate AEs in children with IEI highlights the safety and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement with the procedures established at our center.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Immunoglobulins , Clinical Protocols , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21109, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429952


Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism are rare disorders with few therapeutic options for their treatments, which can make patients suffer with complications. Therefore, compounded drugs might be a promising option given that they have the ability of meeting the patient's specific needs, (i) identification of the main drugs described in the literature; (ii) proposal of compounding systems and (iii) calculation of the budgetary addition for the inclusion of these drugs into the Brazilian Unified Health System. The research conducted a literature review and used management data as well as data obtained from official Federal District government websites. The study identified 31 drugs for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism. Fifty eight percent (58%) (18) of the medicines had their current demand identified, which are currently unmet by the local Health System. The estimated budget for the production of compounded drugs was of R$363,16.98 per year for approximately 300 patients. This estimated cost represents a budgetary addition of only 0.17% from the total of expenditures planned for drug acquirement. There is a therapeutic gap for inborn errors of metabolism and compounding pharmacies show potential in ensuring access to medicine therapy with a low-cost investment.

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Metabolism , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Patients/classification , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/classification
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 169-177, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982032


Renal calculus is a common disease with complex etiology and high recurrence rate. Recent studies have revealed that gene mutations may lead to metabolic defects which are associated with the formation of renal calculus, and single gene mutation is involved in relative high proportion of renal calculus. Gene mutations cause changes in enzyme function, metabolic pathway, ion transport, and receptor sensitivity, causing defects in oxalic acid metabolism, cystine metabolism, calcium ion metabolism, or purine metabolism, which may lead to the formation of renal calculus. The hereditary conditions associated with renal calculus include primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, Bartter syndrome, primary distal renal tubular acidosis, infant hypercalcemia, hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, and hereditary xanthinuria. This article reviews the research progress on renal calculus associated with inborn error of metabolism, to provide reference for early screening, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and recurrence of renal calculus.

Infant , Humans , Hypercalciuria/genetics , Kidney Calculi/genetics , Urolithiasis/genetics , Nephrocalcinosis/genetics , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 794-800, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939813


Aromatase deficiency (AD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in aromatase gene (CYP19A1), leading to congenital estrogen deficiency syndrome. Both mothers of AD patients during pregnancy and female AD fetus show virilization, while male patients are usually diagnosed in adulthood due to continued height increase and metabolic abnormalities. In 2019, a patient with AD was admitted in the Second Xiangya Hospital. The patient was a 37-year-old adult male who continued to grow linearly after adulthood. His estradiol was below the measurable line, the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) increased, bone age delayed, epiphysis unfused, and the bone mass reduced. CYP19A1 gene detection showed that c.1093C>T, p.R365W was homozygous mutation. This disease is rare in clinic. Clinicians need to raise awareness of the disease for early diagnosis and treatment to improve the long-term prognosis of patients.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , 46, XX Disorders of Sex Development/genetics , Aromatase/metabolism , Gynecomastia/genetics , Infertility, Male , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Mutation
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(1): 36-50, jan.mar.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398409


Introdução: De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, a prevalência de doenças raras (abaixo de 65 casos/100.000 habitantes) é de 6%, e variável na dependência da população em estudo. Há 6.172 doenças raras (DR) catalogadas. Esquemas vacinais específicos para DR não estão disponíveis no Brasil, e esta orientação é limitada na maioria dos países. Objetivos: Identificar e propor esquemas específicos de imunização para pacientes com DR, tendo-se em conta segurança e eficácia. Fonte de dados: Revisão não sistemática da literatura, com busca de artigos de 2000 a 2020 no PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO e Orphanet usando os termos "rare diseases" ou "inborn errors of metabolism" ou "cystic fibrosis" ou "inborn errors of immunity" e "vaccines" ou "immunization" ou "vaccination", nos idiomas inglês, francês, espanhol e português. Conclusões: A imunização de pessoas com DR é tema complexo, com poucas recomendações publicadas a este respeito, e na maioria das vezes realizada de modo empírico. É importante que a equipe médica que acompanha esses pacientes tenha um olhar abrangente e proporcione a prevenção mais completa possível.

Background: According to the World Health Organization, the prevalence of rare diseases (below 65 cases/100 000 population) is 6% and may vary depending on the study population. There are 6172 rare diseases (RD) listed. RD-specific vaccine schemes are not available in Brazil, and guidance is limited in most countries. Objectives: To identify and propose specific immunization schemes for RD patients, valuing safety and efficacy. Data source: A nonsystematic literature review was conducted, with search for articles from 2000 to 2020 on PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, and Orphanet with the terms "rare diseases" or "inborn errors of metabolism" or "cystic fibrosis" or "inborn errors of immunity" and "vaccines" or "immunization" or "vaccination," in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese languages. Conclusions: Immunization of RD patients is a complex topic with few published recommendations, most often produced empirically. The medical teams following up these patients should have a more comprehensive insight and provide the most complete prevention possible.

Humans , Societies, Medical , Immunization , Vaccination , Rare Diseases , Patients , World Health Organization , Vaccines , Efficacy , Cystic Fibrosis , PubMed , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 93-97, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152885


ABSTRACT Objective: We assessed plasma adiponectin and its correlation with carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT), as a marker of atherosclerosis, and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects and methods: The study included 100 Egyptian subjects (50 patients with NAFLD with no history of diabetes or hypertension and 50 age and sex-matched normal healthy control subjects). Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was assessed in all participants and fasting plasma adiponectin was measured using ELISA technique. Ultrasonography was used to diagnose NAFLD. CIMT was assessed using high-resolution Doppler ultrasonography. Results: Mild albuminuria was detected in patients with NAFLD (mean urine ACR = 42 ± 30 mg/g). Plasma adiponectin was significantly lower and urine ACR and CIMT significantly higher in patients with NAFLD as compared with the control group (P < 0.001 for all). A significant negative correlation was found between plasma adiponectin and both urine ACR and CIMT in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.001 and < 0.05 respectively). A significant positive correlation was also found between CIMT and urine ACR in those patients (P < 0.05). Plasma adiponectin and urine ACR were independent determinants of CIMT in patients with NAFLD (P < 0.01 and < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Patients with NAFLD, without diabetes, have an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Hypoadiponectinemia and low-grade albuminuria are important markers of that risk.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Adiponectin , Adiponectin/deficiency , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Creatinine , Albumins , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e41-e44, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1147256


La terapia de reemplazo enzimático disminuye la morbilidad y mejora la calidad de vida de los pacientes con mucopolisacaridosisii. Se han descrito reacciones de hipersensibilidad inmediata a este fármaco. La desensibilización es un tratamiento que induce la tolerancia temporaria a una droga y permite al paciente alérgico recibir la medicación.Se presenta el caso de un niño de 7 años con diagnóstico de síndrome de Hunter que, luego de 4 años de tratamiento con idursulfase, tuvo dos episodios de anafilaxia durante la infusión del fármaco. Se detectó inmunoglubulina E específica mediante pruebas cutáneas, y fue positiva la intradermorreacción con dilución 1/10 (0,2 mg/ml). Se realizó un protocolo de desensibilización de 12 pasos, sin presentar eventos adversos. La evaluación alergológica y la posibilidad de desensibilización constituyeron herramientas útiles en el manejo de nuestro paciente

Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase decreases morbidity and improves quality of life of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis ii. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to this drug have been described. Desensitization is a treatment that induces temporary tolerance to a culprit drug, allowing the allergic patient to receive the medication.We present the case of a 7-year-old patient diagnosed with Hunter syndrome who presented, after 4 years of treatment, two episodes of anaphylaxis during the infusion of idursulfase. Detection of specific immunoglobulin E was carried out using skin tests, with intradermal reaction at a 1/10 dilution (0.2 mg/ml) being positive. A 12-step desensitization protocol was performed without presenting adverse events.The allergological evaluation and the possibility of desensitization were useful tools in the management of our patient.

Humans , Male , Child , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Enzyme Replacement Therapy , Mucopolysaccharidosis II/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2020095, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155476


ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize metabolic control and verify whether it has any relation with socioeconomic, demographic, and body composition variables in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU) diagnosed in the neonatal period. Methods: This cohort study collected retrospective data of 53 phenylketonuric children and adolescents. Data on family income, housing, and mother's age and schooling level were collected, and anthropometric measures of body composition and distribution were taken. All dosages of phenylalanine (Phe) from the last five years (2015-2019) were evaluated and classified regarding their adequacy (cutoffs: 0-12 years: 2-6 mg/dL; 12-19 years: 2-10 mg/dL). Adequate metabolic control was considered if ≥7%) of the dosages were within desired ranges. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age in the last year was 10.1±4.6 years. Most of them were under 12 years old (33/53; 62.3%) and had the classic form of the disease (39/53; 73.6%). Better metabolic control was observed among adolescents (68.4 versus 51.4%; p=0.019). Overweight was found in 9/53 (17%) and higher serum Phe levels (p<0.001) were found in this group of patients. Metabolic control with 70% or more Phe level adequacy decreased along with the arm muscle area (AMA) (ptendency=0.042), being 70.0% among those with low reserve (low AMA), and 18.5% among those with excessive reserve (high AMA). Conclusions: Adequate metabolic control was observed in most patients. The findings suggest that, in this sample, the levels of phenylalanine may be related to changes in body composition.

RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar o controle metabólico e verificar se existe relação entre ele, variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas e composição corporal de crianças e adolescentes com fenilcetonúria (FNC) diagnosticada no período neonatal. Métodos: Coorte com coleta retrospectiva de dados de 53 crianças e adolescentes fenilcetonúricos. Foram coletados dados de renda familiar, moradia, idade e escolaridade materna e realizaram-se medidas antropométricas de composição e distribuição corporal. Todas as dosagens de fenilalanina (Fal) dos últimos cinco anos (2015-2019) foram avaliadas e classificadas quanto à adequação (cortes: 0-12 anos: 2-6 mg/dL; 12-19 anos: 2-10 mg/dL). A proporção de dosagens adequadas ≥70% foi considerada como controle metabólico adequado. Resultados: A média (±desvio padrão) de idade, no último ano, foi de 10,1±4,6 anos. A maioria tinha menos de 12 anos (33/53; 62,3%) e apresentava a forma clássica da doença (39/53; 73,6%). Observou-se melhor controle metabólico entre os adolescentes (68,4 vs. 51,4%; p=0,019). Excesso de peso foi encontrado em 9/53 (17%) e maiores níveis séricos de Fal foram descritos nesse grupo (p<0,001). O percentual de controle metabólico com 70% ou mais de adequação dos níveis de Fal foi decrescente de acordo com a área muscular do braço (AMB; ptendência=0,042), sendo de 70% entre os de baixa reserva (AMB reduzida) e de 18,5% entre os com excesso (AMB elevada). Conclusões: Observou-se controle metabólico adequado na maioria dos avaliados e os achados sugerem que, nesta amostra, os níveis de fenilalanina podem estar relacionados com alterações da composição corporal.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Phenylketonurias/metabolism , Body Composition/physiology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Phenylketonurias/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry/methods , Demography , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/blood , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 271-274, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879569


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of a child with MEGDEL syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child was reviewed. Peripheral blood samples of the child and his parents were collected. Mitochondrial genome and the whole exome of the child were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Candidate variants and its origin were verified by Sanger sequencing and fluorescence quantitative PCR.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 2-year-and-6-month-old male, has featured hypoglycemia, mental and motor retardation with regression. Cranial MRI showed bilateral putamen damage suggestive of Leigh syndrome. Testing of urine organic acid indicated that the level of 3-methylpentenoic acid was slightly increased. Whole exome sequencing revealed that the child has harbored heterozygous deletion of exons 6 to 17 and c.307A>T nonsense variant of the SERAC1 gene, which were respectively inherited from his parents who were asymptomatic. Treatment with Levocarnitine, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, coenzyme Q10, baclofen and glucuronolactone resulted in improvement of sleep and mental state.@*CONCLUSION@#A case of MEGDEL syndrome without deafness was diagnosed. Discovery of the nonsense mutation and large fragment deletion have enriched the spectrum of SERAC1 gene variants.

Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Leigh Disease , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Molecular Biology , Mutation
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 179-191, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878277


Pediatric liver transplantation (PLT) is an effective strategy of treating various acute or chronic end-stage liver diseases and inherited metabolic diseases in children.PLT has been applied in many transplant centers nationwide and has achieved satisfactory results.However,the development of transplant centers is uneven,and there is a lack of consensus and standards within the industry.In order to reduce post-operative complications,accelerate post-operative recovery,and improve the short-and long-term quality of life of children,the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association organized multidisciplinary experts to summarize the progress of domestic and international research,and formulated a perioperative consensus on PLT based on the principles of evidence-based medicine.The consensus provides recommendations for perioperative PLT from three aspects:preoperative assessment and preparation,intraoperative management and postoperative management,in order to provide reference guidelines for centers that are conducting or preparing to conduct PLT.

Child , Humans , Consensus , End Stage Liver Disease/therapy , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery/standards , Liver Transplantation/standards , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/therapy , Perioperative Care/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 801-807, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138617


ABSTRACT As palatability of medical formulas has been documented as unpleasant, new options are required to improve acceptance and adherence in people with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) has a glycoprotein named miraculin that transforms a sour, bitter taste such as the one found in metabolic formula, into a sweet perception. The objective of this work is to analyze the response in the taste perception of metabolic formula with the use of the miraculin tablets in patients with IEM and healthy adults. To test this hypothesis a prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, analytical study was performed. Patients with IEM and healthy adults were recruited. All participants assessed 3 different liquids (lemon, apple cider vinegar and metabolic formula) before and after the administration of miraculin tablets and completed a questionnaire. The sensory responses were evaluated using hedonic scales, analyzed with nonparametric tests for paired data. Seven patients with IEM and 14 healthy subjects were included. After miraculin intake 57% of patients (Z ≤ -1.89 p= 0.059) and healthy adults (Z≤ -2.31 p= 0.021) had a positive change in their taste perception. The absolute frequency of patients who did not like the metabolic formula decreased from 4 to 1, and in patients who liked it or loved, it increased from 0 to 2 and from 0 to 1 respectively; the frequency of patients who perceived the metabolic formula as indifferent or hated it, did not change. Response in taste perception had a positive change of 57% in both groups. The use of miraculin tablets may improve palatability of metabolic formula.

RESUMEN La palatabilidad de las fórmulas médicas se ha reportado como desagradable, se requieren nuevas opciones para mejorar la aceptación en personas con errores innatos del metabolismo (EIM). La fruta milagrosa (Synsepalum dulcificum) contiene una glucoproteína llamada miraculina que transforma el sabor agrio y amargo en dulce. El objetivo fue analizar la respuesta en la percepción del sabor de la fórmula metabólica con el uso de las tabletas de miraculina en pacientes con EIM y adultos sanos. Se realizó un estudio analítico prospectivo, longitudinal, cuasi-experimental. Los participantes evaluaron la percepción de 3 líquidos (limón, vinagre de manzana y fórmula metabólica) antes y después de la administración de tabletas de miraculina y completaron un cuestionario. Las respuestas sensoriales se evaluaron mediante escalas hedónicas, analizadas con pruebas no paramétricas para datos pareados. Se incluyeron 7 pacientes con EIM y 14 adultos sanos. Después de la miraculina el 57% de los pacientes (Z ≤ -1,89 p= 0,059) y adultos sanos (Z≤ -2,31 p= 0,021) tuvieron un cambio positivo en su percepción del sabor. La frecuencia absoluta de pacientes a los que no les gustó la fórmula disminuyó de 4 a 1, y en quienes les gustó o les encantó, aumentó de 0 a 2 y de 0 a 1 respectivamente; la frecuencia de los pacientes que percibieron la fórmula como indiferente u odiada, no cambió. La respuesta en la percepción del sabor cambió positivamente en el 57% en ambos grupos. El uso de miraculina puede mejorar la palatabilidad de la fórmula metabólica.

Adolescent , Adult , Biotransformation , Synsepalum , Taste Perception , Fruit , Amino Acids , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 205, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102879


La Parálisis Cerebral (PC) es un conjunto de alteraciones motrices no progresivas en la población infantojuvenil, ocasionadas por lesión ­a nivel cerebral- de neuronas o fibras de esa vía, de sus aferencias o de las que la modulan; para su diagnóstico deben conocerse otras patologías también frecuentes y que pueden incidir simultánea o causalmente en la motricidad del paciente; la resultante sería disfunción motora tanto voluntaria como involuntaria, refleja o con propósito, de la postura y/o del tono muscular. Objetivo: detectar errores innatos metabólicos (EIM) que causan o se asocian con PC en una serie significativa. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo-interpretativo, se revisaron los expedientes clínicos del Centro de Parálisis Cerebral de Caracas, en cuyos diagnósticos se presentaron ambas alteraciones, entre los años 1988 y 2018. Resultados: De las 2.000 historias clínicas revisadas, el exámen clínico y las pruebas de laboratorio permitieron seleccionar 174 casos de EIM. Conclusiones: Se tipificaron los errores innatos metabólicos en diez formas clínicas distintas, se evidenciaron en pacientes con PC atendidos en un centro público de Caracas, es posible que la casuística sea varias veces mayor en Venezuela dado que ya no se aplica la pesquisa en los centros de atención pública(AU)

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a set of non-progressive motor alterations in the child and youth population, caused by injury - at the brain level - of neurons or fibers of that pathway, their afferences or those that modulate it; for its diagnosis, other pathologies that are also frequent and that can simultaneously or causally affect the motor skills of the same patient must be known; The result would be both voluntary and involuntary motor dysfunction, reflected or with purpose, of posture and / or muscle tone. Objective: to detect inborn metabolic errors (EIM) that cause or are associated with CP in a significant series. Methods: Descriptive-interpretive study, we reviewed the clinical records of the Cerebral Palsy Center of Caracas, in whose diagnoses both alterations were presented, between the years 1988 and 2018. Results: Of the 2,000 clinical histories reviewed, the clinical examination and tests Laboratory tests allowed the selection of 174 cases of IMD. Conclusions: Inborn metabolic errors were typified in ten different clinical forms, they were evidenced in patients with CP treated in a public center in Caracas, it is possible that the casuistry is several times greater in Venezuela since the investigation is no longer applied in the centers of public attention(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cerebral Palsy/pathology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Neurons/metabolism , Pediatrics , Nervous System Diseases
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 214, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103446


El término Origen Temprano de las Enfermedades del Adulto explica la aparición temprana de las condiciones anormales cardiovasculares y metabólicas en la vida adulta, mayor riesgo de morbilidad y muerte asociados a factores ambientales, especialmente nutricionales, que actúan en las primeras etapas de la vida. Estas respuestas programadas dependen de la naturaleza del estímulo o noxa, del tiempo de exposición y del momento de ocurrencia de la noxa, pudiendo un solo genotipo original varios fenotipos y estarían condicionadas por criterios críticos en los cuales se desarrollarían cambios a largo plazo pudiendo ser reversibles o no. La Programación Fetal explica que respuestas adaptativas embrionarias y fetales en un ambiente subóptimo genera consecuencias adversas permanentes. La desnutrición, así como la sobrenutrición fetal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones en el peso y composición corporal fetal, y posteriormente obesidad, síndrome metabólico, incremento en la adiposidad, alteración en el metabolismo de la glucosa y / o insulina, alteración del metabolismo lipídico, alteraciones hepáticas y de las cifras tensionales. La impronta genómica es esencial para el desarrollo y defectos en la misma puede originar alteraciones de la identidad parental transmisibles a las siguientes generaciones. Esta programación fetal puede ser explicada por la epigenética, definida como la serie de alteraciones hereditarias de la expresión genética a través de modificaciones del ADN y las histonas centrales sin cambios en la secuencia de ADN. Estas modificaciones epigenéticas alteran la estructura y condensación de la cromatina, afectando la expresión del genotipo y fenotipo. Este artículo desarrolla los aspectos involucrados en la Programación Fetal y los posibles mecanismos sobre la misma(AU)

The term Early Origin of Adult Diseases explains the early onset of abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in adult life, increased risk of morbidity and death associated with environmental factors, especially nutritional factors, that act in the early stages of life. These programmed responses depend on the nature of the stimulus or noxa, the time of exposure and the moment of occurrence of the noxa, with a single original genotype being able to have several phenotypes and would be conditioned by critical criteria in which long-term changes could develop, reversibles or not. Fetal Programming explains that embryonic and fetal adaptive responses in a suboptimal environment generate permanent adverse consequences. Fetal malnutrition as overnutrition increases the risk of developing alterations in fetal body weight and composition, and subsequently obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased adiposity, impaired glucose and / or insulin metabolism, impaired lipid metabolism, liver disorders and altered blood pressure. The genomic imprint is essential for development and defects in it can cause alterations of the parental identity and are transmitted to the following generations. This fetal programming can be explained by epigenetics, defined as the series of inherited alterations of genetic expression through modifications of DNA and central histones without changes in the DNA sequence. These epigenetic modifications alter the structure and condensation of chromatin, affecting the expression of the genotype and phenotype. This article develops the aspects involved in Fetal Programming and the possible mechanisms on it(AU)

Humans , Fetal Nutrition Disorders , Fetal Development , Noxae , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Body Composition , Hypothalamus/anatomy & histology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 423-426, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828310


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of an infant girl featuring comprehensive developmental backwardness.@*METHODS@#The patient was subjected to clinical examination, gas chromatography mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS).@*RESULTS@#The child was insensitive to sound, could not turn over, raise head, laugh or recognize his mother. Laboratory tests were all normal, but metabolic analysis suggested 3-methylglutaconic aciduria due to elevated 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. NGS has detected two compound heterozygous CLPB variants in the child, namely c.1085G>A and c.1700A>C, which were respectively inherited from her father and mother. Bioinformatic analysis predicted both variants to be pathogenic. The patient was diagnosed with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type VII (MGCA7).@*CONCLUSION@#The MGCA7 in the child was probably caused by CLPB gene variants. NGS has provided a powerful diagnostic tool for this rare disorder.

Female , Humans , Infant , Endopeptidase Clp , Genetics , Genetic Testing , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Genetics
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1241-1243, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879475


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the molecular etiology of a Chinese child affected with dihydropyrimidinase deficiency.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the family members. Pathogenic variant was determined by whole exome sequencing and verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor homozygous c.905G>A (p.Arg302Gln) variants in exon 5 of the DPYS gene, for which her parents were both heterozygous carriers.@*CONCLUSION@#The homozygous c.905G>A (p.Arg302Gln) variants of the DPYS gene probably underlies the dihydropyrimidinase deficiency in the child. Above result has enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this family.

Child , Female , Humans , Amidohydrolases/genetics , Asian People/genetics , Exons , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Mutation , Pedigree
Rev. MED ; 27(2): 21-33, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115226


Resumen: El tamizaje neonatal expandido permite la detección temprana de diversos errores innatos del metabolismo. En Colombia, las condiciones para llevar adelante un programa nacional de alto impacto en salud pública están dadas. A través de una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre el tema en diferentes países, se realizó una disertación sobre la implementación de un programa nacional de tamizaje neonatal. Esto con el fin de plantear una propuesta de tamizaje neonatal expandido por espectrometría de masas en tándem en Colombia, completo, conciso, detallado y acorde con la legislación colombiana, las necesidades y las características de la población. Implementar un programa nacional de este tipo supone un gran impacto en la salud pública y debe ser liderado por el Estado, con la participación y apoyo de profesionales de salud, academia, asociaciones de pacientes e industria farmacéutica.

Abstract: Expanded neonatal screening allows early detection of various inborn errors of metabolism. In Colombia, the conditions to carry out a national program with a high impact on public health are in place. Through a review of the international literature on the subject, this reflection on the implementation of a national neonatal screening program brings forward a complete, concise, detailed proposal for tandem mass spectrometry-expanded neonatal screening in Colombia that conforms to the legislation and the needs and characteristics of the population. Implementing such a national program has a great impact on public health and must be led by the State, with the participation and support of health professionals, academia, patient associations, and the pharmaceutical industry.

Resumo: A triagem neonatal ampliada permite que vários erros inatos do metabolismo sejam identificados precocemente. Na Colômbia, as condições para a realização de um programa nacional com alto impacto na saúde pública estão disponíveis. Por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o assunto em diferentes países, foi realizada uma dissertação sobre a implementação de um programa nacional de triagem neonatal. A fim de apresentar uma proposta de triagem neonatal ampliada por espectrometria de massas em tandem na Colômbia, completa, concisa, detalhada e de acordo com a legislação colombiana, as necessidades e as características da população. A implementação de um programa nacional desse tipo tem um grande impacto na saúde pública e deve ser liderada pelo Estado, com a participação e o apoio de profissionais da saúde, da academia, das associações de pacientes e da indústria farmacêutica.

Humans , Neonatal Screening , Public Health , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Metabolism, Inborn Errors