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2.
Actual. osteol ; 19(1): 18-29, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1511400

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play critical roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They function by binding to target messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or inhibiting their translation into proteins. In the context of skeletal diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone metastasis, there is growing evidence osteoblastic miRNAs, are involved in the regulation of bone formation and maintenance.Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells responsible for synthesizing and depositing the extracellular matrix, which ultimately mineralizes to form bone tissue. Osteoblastic miRNAs modulate various aspects of osteoblast function, including proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these miRNAs can disrupt the balance between bone formation and resorption, leading to skeletal diseases.The therapeutic implications of targeting osteoblastic miRNAs in skeletal diseases are significant. Modulating the expression levels of specific miRNAs holds promise for developing novel therapeutic strategies to enhance bone formation, prevent bone loss, and promote bone regeneration. Potential therapeutic approaches include the use of synthetic miRNA mimics to restore miRNA expression in diseases associated with miRNA downregulation or the use of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides to inhibit miRNA function in diseases associated with miRNA upregulation.miRNA-based therapies are still in the early stages of development, and further research is needed to fully understand the complexity of miRNA networks. Additionally, the delivery of miRNAs to specific target tissues and cells remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for effective clinical translation. Nonetheless, targeting osteoblastic miRNAs represents a promising avenue for future therapeutic interventions in skeletal diseases. (AU)


Los micro-ARNs (miARNss) son pequeños ARN no codificantes que desempeñan un papel fundamental en la regulación génica postranscripcional. Ejercen su función al unir-se a moléculas de ARN mensajero (ARNm), promoviendo su degradación e inhibiendo su traducción en proteínas. En el contexto de las enfermedades esqueléticas, como la osteoporosis, la osteoartritis y la metástasis ósea existe evidencia de que los miARNs osteoblásticos están involucrados en la regulación de la formación y del mantenimiento óseo. Los osteoblastos son células formadoras de hueso responsables de sintetizar y depositar la matriz extracelular, que finalmente se mineraliza para formar el hueso. Los miARNs derivados de osteoblastos modulan varios aspectos de la función de estas células, incluida la proliferación, diferenciación, mineralización y la apoptosis. La desregulación de estos miARNs puede alterar el equilibrio entre la formación y la resorción ósea, lo que lleva a enfermedades óseas. Las implicaciones terapéuticas de los miARNs osteoblásticos en enfermedades esqueléticas son significativas. La modulación de los niveles de expresión de miARNs específicos es prometedora para desarrollar nuevas estrate-gias terapéuticas a fin de mejorar la formación, prevenir la pérdida y promover la regeneración ósea. Los enfoques terapéuticos potenciales incluyen el uso de miméticos de miARNs para restaurar la expresión de miARNs o el uso de oligonucleótidos anti-miARNs para inhibir su función. Las terapias basadas en miARNs aún se encuentran en las primeras etapas de desarrollo. La administración de miARNs a las células y los tejidos específicos sigue siendo un desafío para lograr una aplicación clínica eficaz. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteogenesis/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteoclasts/cytology , Bone Diseases/prevention & control , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression Regulation , MicroRNAs/biosynthesis , MicroRNAs/physiology , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 499-507, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984749

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the mechanisms involvement in Alisertib-resistant colorectal cells and explore a potential target to overcome Alisertib-resistance. Methods: Drug-resistant colon cancer cell line (named as HCT-8-7T cells) was established and transplanted into immunodeficient mice. The metastasis in vivo were observed. Proliferation and migration of HCT-8-7T cells and their parental cells were assessed by colony formation and Transwell assay, respectively. Glycolytic capacity and glutamine metabolism of cells were analyzed by metabolism assays. The protein and mRNA levels of critical factors which are involved in mediating glycolysis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined by western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR), respectively. Results: In comparison with the mice transplanted with HCT-8 cells, which were survival with limited metastatic tumor cells in organs, aggressive metastases were observed in liver, lung, kidney and ovary of HCT-8-7T transplanted mice (P<0.05). The levels of ATP [(0.10±0.01) mmol/L], glycolysis [(81.77±8.21) mpH/min] and the capacity of glycolysis [(55.50±3.48) mpH/min] in HCT-8-7T cells were higher than those of HCT-8 cells [(0.04±0.01) mmol/L, (27.77±2.55) mpH/min and(14.00±1.19) mpH/min, respectively, P<0.05]. Meanwhile, the levels of p53 protein and mRNA in HCT-8-7T cells were potently decreased as compared to that in HCT-8 cells (P<0.05). However, the level of miRNA-125b (2.21±0.12) in HCT-8-7T cells was significantly elevated as compared to that in HCT-8 cells (1.00±0.00, P<0.001). In HCT-8-7T cells, forced-expression of p53 reduced the colon number (162.00±24.00) and the migration [(18.53±5.67)%] as compared with those in cells transfected with control vector [274.70±40.50 and (100.00±29.06)%, P<0.05, respectively]. Similarly, miR-125b mimic decreased the glycolysis [(25.28±9.51) mpH/min] in HCT-8-7T cells as compared with that [(54.38±12.70)mpH/min, P=0.003] in HCT-8-7T cells transfected with control. Meanwhile, in comparison with control transfected HCT-8-7T cells, miR-125b mimic also significantly led to an increase in the levels of p53 and β-catenin, in parallel with a decrease in the levels of PFK1 and HK1 in HCT-8-7T cells (P<0.05). Conclusions: Silencing of p53 by miR-125b could be one of the mechanisms that contributes to Alisertib resistance. Targeting miR-125b could be a strategy to overcome Alisertib resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Humans , Azepines , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
4.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 196-200, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971170

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic scar (HS) affects the function and beauty of patients, and brings a heavy psychological burden to patients. However, the specific pathogenesis mechanism of HS in molecular biology level is not yet clear, and this disease is still one of the clinical diseases difficult to prevent and cure. MicroRNA (miR) is a family of single-stranded endogenous noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression. The abnormal transcription of miR in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts can affect the transduction and expression of downstream signal pathway or protein, and the exploration of miR and its downstream signal pathway and protein helps deeply understand the occurrence and development mechanism of scar hyperplasia. This article summarized and analyzed how miR and multiple signal pathways involve in the formation and development of HS in recent years, and further outlined the interaction between miR and target genes in HS.


Subject(s)
Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/genetics , Fibroblasts , Hyperplasia
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 120-124, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the expression and correlation of microRNA-195 (miR-195), miR-125 and calreticulin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).@*METHODS@#From April 2020 to April 2021, 80 DLBCL patients with complete data archived by the Pathology Department of Handan First Hospital and The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University were selected as the study group, and 70 patients with reactive lymph node hyperplasia were selected as the control group. The expressions of miR-195 and miR-125 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the expression of calreticulin was detected by Western blot. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the correlation between miR-195, miR-125, calreticulin and DLBCL, and ROC curve was used to analyze the predictive value of miR-195, miR-125 and calreticulin for DLBCL.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the expression of miR-195 decreased but miR-125 and calreticulin increased in the study group (P<0.001). The expression levels of miR-195, miR-125 and calreticulin were not related to sex, age, primary site and B symptoms of patients with DLBCL, but related to immunophenotype, Ann Arbor stage, lactate dehydrogenase, IPI score, nodule involvement and Ki-67 index. The expression of miR-195 decreased and the expression of miR-125 and calreticulin increased in DLBCL paitents with non-germinal center source, Ann Arbor stage III-IV, lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, IPI score 3-5, nodule involvement≥2 and Ki-67 index≥75% (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that miR-195 and miR-125 were negatively correlated (r=-0.536, P=0.001), miR-195 and calreticulin were negatively correlated (r=-0.545, P=0.001), while miR-125 and calreticulin were positively correlated (r=0.523, P=0.001). ROC curve showed that compared with the single diagnosis of miR-195, miR-125 and calreticulin, the combination of the three items had higher predictive value for DLBCL (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of miR-195 decreases and the expression of miR-125 and calreticulin increase in patients with DLBCL. Along with the increase of disease stage and IPI score, the decrease of miR-195 and the increase of miR-125 and calreticulin aggravate gradually. The three items may participate in the occurrence and progress of DLBCL.


Subject(s)
Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Calreticulin/metabolism , Prognosis , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/genetics , Lactate Dehydrogenases/metabolism
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 115-119, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the relationship between microRNA (miR)-21, miR-191 and clinical stage of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).@*METHODS@#100 patients with DLBCL treated in Shanxi Fenyang Hospital from January 2019 to January 2021 were selected as the research subjects. All patients was divided into stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV according to Ann-Arbor (Cotswolds) staging system at admission. The baseline data of patients at different clinical stages were counted and compared in detail. The relationship between the levels of miR-21 and miR-191 and the clinical stage of DLBCL patients was mainly analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 100 patients with DLBCL, there were 15 patients at stage I, 25 patients at stage II, 37 patients at stage III and 23 patients at stage IV. The levels of miR-21 and miR-191 in patients at stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were increased gradually, which showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05). According to Kendall's tau-b correlation analysis, it was found that the levels of miR-21 and miR-191 were positively correlated with the clinical stage of DLBCL patients (r=0.566, 0.636). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the overexpression of serum miR-21 and miR-191 was a risk factor for high clinical stage in patients with DLBCL (OR>1, P<0.05). Bivariate Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between miR-21 and miR-191 levels in patients with DLBCL (r=0.339).@*CONCLUSION@#The overexpression of miR-21 and miR-191 in patients with DLBCL is related to high clinical stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 89-95, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of lncRNA HOTAIR on the proliferation, invasion and migration of lymphoma cells through target gene miR-20a-5p and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#After synthesizing HOTAIR siRNA and siRNA NC plasmids, they were transfected into lymphoma Raji cells, respectively. The expression of HOTAIR mRNA was detected by RT-qPCR. The proliferation, invasion and migration of lymphoma Raji cells were detected by CCK-8 assay, Transwell assay and cell scratch healing assay, respectively. The target gene of lncRNA HOTAIR was predicted by miRcode software, and the relationship between HOTAIR and target gene was analyzed by dual luciferase assay. After synthesis of miR-20a-5p inhibitor and inhibitor NC, Raji cells were transiently transfected. The expression of miR-20a-5p was detected by RT-qPCR, and the effects of down-regulation of miR-20a-5p on the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells were analyzed. The overexpression plasmid of lncRNA HOTAIR and miR-20a-5p mimics were transfected into Raji cells simultaneously to analyze the proliferation, invasion and migration ability of Raji cells. After overexpression or down-regulation of miR-20a-5p, the expression of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway related proteins was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#HOTAIR expression in Raji cells was decreased after transfection of HOTAIR siRNA (P<0.01), and miR-20a-5p expression was also decreased after transfection of miR-20a-5p inhibitor (P<0.01). HOTAIR had a targeting and negative regulation relationship with miR-20a-5p (r=-0.826). Silencing HOTAIR promoted the expression of miR-20a-5p and inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells. Down-regulation of miR-20a-5p expression promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells. Effect of HOTAIR overexpression on the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells could be reversed by up-regulation of miR-20a-5p. Down-regulation of miR-20a-5p expression activated the intracellular JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#HOTAIR affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of lymphoma cells by targeting miR-20a-5p, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lymphoma , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1719-1731, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Angiogenesis is described as a complex process in which new microvessels sprout from endothelial cells of existing vasculature. This study aimed to determine whether long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 induced the angiogenesis of gastric cancer (GC) and its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Gene expression level was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell counting kit-8, transwell, 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), colony formation assay, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis assay as well as Matrigel plug assay were conducted to study the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of GC in vitro and in vivo . The binding protein of H19 was found by RNA pull-down and RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP). High-throughput sequencing was performed and next Gene Ontology (GO) as well as Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was conducted to analyze the genes that are under H19 regulation. Methylated RIP (me-RIP) assay was used to investigate the sites and abundance among target mRNA. The transcription factor acted as upstream of H19 was determined through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase assay.@*RESULTS@#In this study, we found that hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1α could bind to the promoter region of H19, leading to H19 overexpression. High expression of H19 was correlated with angiogenesis in GC, and H19 knocking down could inhibit cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Mechanistically, the oncogenic role of H19 was achieved by binding with the N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) reader YTH domain-containing family protein 1 (YTHDF1), which could recognize the m 6 A site on the 3'-untransated regions (3'-UTR) of scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) mRNA, resulting in over-translation of SCARB1 and thus promoting the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of GC cells.@*CONCLUSION@#HIF-1α induced overexpression of H19 via binding with the promoter of H19, and H19 promoted GC cells proliferation, migration and angiogenesis through YTHDF1/SCARB1, which might be a beneficial target for antiangiogenic therapy for GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Hypoxia , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 757-766, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980874

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) reportedly function as important modulators of gene regulation and malignant processes in the development of human cancers. The lncRNA JPX is a novel molecular switch for X chromosome inactivation and differentially expressed JPX has exhibited certain clinical correlations in several cancers. Notably, JPX participates in cancer growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance, by acting as a competing endogenous RNA for microRNA, interacting with proteins, and regulating some specific signaling pathways. Moreover, JPX may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancer. The present article summarizes our current understanding of the structure, expression, and function of JPX in malignant cancer processes and discusses its molecular mechanisms and potential applications in cancer biology and medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , X Chromosome Inactivation
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1300-1310, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980832

ABSTRACT

Accumulating studies have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), functioning as important regulators of transcription and translation, are involved in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, especially the maternal immune adaptation process. The endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), trophoblast cells, and decidua immune cells that reside at the maternal-fetal interface are thought to play significant roles in normal pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases. Here, we reviewed the up-to-date evidence on how microRNA, long non-coding RNA, and circular RNA regulate ESCs, trophoblast cells, and immune cells and discussed the potential applications of these ncRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic markers in pregnancy complications.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Circular/genetics , Trophoblasts , Pregnancy Complications/genetics
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 447-453, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of needle-knife on the chondrocyte apoptosis of knee joint in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) based on the CircSERPINE2-miR-1271-5P-E26 specific transformation-related gene (ERG) axis, and to explore the mechanism of needle-knife for KOA.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a needle-knife group and a sham needle-knife group, 9 rabbits in each group. The rabbits in the model group, the needle-knife group and the sham needle-knife group were treated with modified Videman method to prepare KOA model. After successful modeling, the rabbits in the needle-knife group were treated with needle-knife at cord adhesion and nodules near quadriceps femoris tendon and internal and external collateral ligament on the affected knee joint; the rabbits in the sham needle-knife group were treated with sham needle-knife baside the needle insertion point of the needle-knife group (needle-knife was only inserted, without any operation). The treatment was given once a week, 3 times in total. The Lequesne MG behavioral score was used to evaluate the knee joint damage in each group before and after intervention. After intervention, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the cartilage tissue morphology and ultrastructure of chondrocytes in the knee joint in each group; TUNEL method was used to detect the level of chondrocyte apoptosis in the knee joint; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of CircSERPINE2, miR-1271-5P and ERG mRNA in knee cartilage tissue in each group.@*RESULTS@#After intervention, compared with the normal group, the Lequesne MG behavioral score in the model group was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group and the sham needle-knife group, the Lequesne MG behavioral score in the needle-knife group was decreased (P<0.01). In the model group and the sham needle-knife group, the number of chondrocytes and organelles was decreased, the cell nucleus was shrunk, mitochondria was swelling or disappeared; in the needle-knife group, the number of chondrocytes and organelles was increased, the cell nucleus was not obviously shrunk and the mitochondria was not obviously swelling. Compared with the normal group, the level of chondrocyte apoptosis in the model group was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group and the sham needle-knife group, the level of chondrocyte apoptosis in the needle-knife group was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the expression of CircSERPINE2 and ERG mRNA in the model group was decreased (P<0.01), and the expression of miR-1271-5P mRNA was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group and the sham needle-knife group, the expression of CircSERPINE2 and ERG mRNA in the needle-knife group was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of miR-1271-5P mRNA was decreased (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Needle-knife could reduce the knee joint damage and chondrocyte apoptosis in KOA rabbits, which may be related to up-regulating the expression of CircSERPINE2 and ERG mRNA, and inhibiting the expression of miR-1271-5P mRNA.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Animals , Osteoarthritis, Knee/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Knee Joint/surgery , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/genetics
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468902

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) são genes essenciais não codificadores de proteínas. Em uma variedade de organismos, foi relatado que miRNAs desempenham papel essencial na regulação da expressão gênica em nível pós-transcricional. Eles participam da maioria dos processos responsivos ao estresse nas plantas. A seca é um estresse abiótico final que afeta a produção agrícola. Portanto, compreender as respostas ao estresse da seca é essencial para melhorar a produção de safras agrícolas. Ao longo da evolução, as plantas desenvolveram seus próprios sistemas de defesa para lidar com as adversidades do estresse ambiental. Entre os mecanismos de defesa está a regulação da expressão gênica por miRNAs. O estresse hídrico regula a expressão de alguns dos miRNAs funcionalmente conservados em diferentes plantas. As propriedades dadas dos miRNAs fornecem uma visão das alterações genéticas e aumentam a resistência à seca nas safras de cereais. A revisão atual apresenta um resumo dos mecanismos regulatórios nas plantas, bem como a resposta dos miRNAs ao estresse hídrico nas plantações de cereais. Algumas abordagens e diretrizes possíveis para a exploração das respostas do miRNA ao estresse da seca para melhorar as safras de cereais também são descritas.


Subject(s)
Edible Grain , MicroRNAs/analysis , MicroRNAs/genetics , Droughts
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242708, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339382

ABSTRACT

Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


Resumo MicroRNAs (miRNAs) são genes essenciais não codificadores de proteínas. Em uma variedade de organismos, foi relatado que miRNAs desempenham papel essencial na regulação da expressão gênica em nível pós-transcricional. Eles participam da maioria dos processos responsivos ao estresse nas plantas. A seca é um estresse abiótico final que afeta a produção agrícola. Portanto, compreender as respostas ao estresse da seca é essencial para melhorar a produção de safras agrícolas. Ao longo da evolução, as plantas desenvolveram seus próprios sistemas de defesa para lidar com as adversidades do estresse ambiental. Entre os mecanismos de defesa está a regulação da expressão gênica por miRNAs. O estresse hídrico regula a expressão de alguns dos miRNAs funcionalmente conservados em diferentes plantas. As propriedades dadas dos miRNAs fornecem uma visão das alterações genéticas e aumentam a resistência à seca nas safras de cereais. A revisão atual apresenta um resumo dos mecanismos regulatórios nas plantas, bem como a resposta dos miRNAs ao estresse hídrico nas plantações de cereais. Algumas abordagens e diretrizes possíveis para a exploração das respostas do miRNA ao estresse da seca para melhorar as safras de cereais também são descritas.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs/genetics , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Crop Production
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 47-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Huangqi Decoction (HQD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used as a valid treatment for alleviating liver fibrosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Although our previous studies showed that microRNA-663a (miR-663a) suppresses the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the transforming growth factor-β/small mothers against decapentaplegic (TGF-β/Smad) pathway, whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in HSC activation via the miR-663a/TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway has not yet reported. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of lncRNA lnc-C18orf26-1 in the activation of HSCs and the mechanism by which HQD inhibits hepatic fibrosis.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of lnc-C18orf26-1, miR-663a and related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HSCs were transfected with the miR-663a mimic or inhibitor and lnc-C18orf26-1 small interfering RNAs. The water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay was used to assess the proliferation rate of HSCs. Changes in lncRNA expression were evaluated in miR-663a-overexpressing HSCs by using microarray to identify miR-663a-regulated lncRNAs. RNA hybrid was used to predict the potential miR-663a binding sites on lncRNAs. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-663a and the lncRNA. The expression levels of collagen α-2(I) chain (COL1A2), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway-related proteins were determined using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Lnc-C18orf26-1 was upregulated in TGF-β1-activated HSCs and competitively bound to miR-663a. Knockdown of lnc-C18orf26-1 inhibited HSC proliferation and activation, downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated α-SMA and COL1A2 expression, and inhibited the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. HQD suppressed the proliferation and activation of HSCs. HQD increased miR-663a expression and decreased lnc-C18orf26-1 expression in HSCs. Further studies showed that HQD inhibited the expression of COL1A2, α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β type I receptor (TGF-βRI) and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in HSCs, and these effects were reversed by miR-663a inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study identified lnc-C18orf26-1 and miR-663a as promising therapeutic targets for hepatic fibrosis. HQD inhibits HSC proliferation and activation at least partially by regulating the lnc-C18orf26-1/miR-663a/TGF-β1/TGF-βRI/p-Smad2 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factors/pharmacology
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 440-452, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971564

ABSTRACT

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of functional RNAs that play critical roles in different diseases. NcRNAs include microRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs. They are highly expressed in the brain and are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Mounting evidence indicates that ncRNAs play key roles in CNS diseases. Further elucidating the mechanisms of ncRNA underlying the process of regulating glial function that may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for CNS diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Circular , Central Nervous System Diseases/genetics
16.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 242-250, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen the differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with acquired resistance to osimertinib and explore their roles in drug resistance of the cells.@*METHODS@#The cell lines H1975_OR and HCC827_OR with acquired osimertinib resistance were derived from their osimertinib-sensitive parental NSCLC cell lines H1975 and HCC827, respectively, and their sensitivity to osimertinib was assessed with CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay and flow cytometry. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to screen the differentially expressed lncRNAs in osimertinib-resistant cells. The role of the identified lncRNA in osimertinib resistance was explored using CCK-8, clone formation and Transwell assays, and its subcellular localization and downstream targets were analyzed by nucleoplasmic separation, bioinformatics analysis and qPCR.@*RESULTS@#The resistance index of H1975_OR and HCC827_OR cells to osimertinib was 598.70 and 428.82, respectively (P < 0.001), and the two cell lines showed significantly increased proliferation and colony-forming abilities with decreased apoptosis (P < 0.01). RNA-seq identified 34 differentially expressed lncRNAs in osimertinib-resistant cells, and among them lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 showed the highest increase of expression after acquired osimertinib resistance (P < 0.01). Analysis of the TCGA database suggested that the level of lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 was significantly higher in NSCLC than in adjacent tissues (P < 0.001), and its high expression was associated with a poor prognosis of the patients. In osimertinib-sensitive cells, overexpression of Lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 obviously promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and migration (P < 0.05), while Lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 knockdown partially restored osimertinib sensitivity of the resistant cells (P < 0.01). Lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, and bioinformatics analysis suggested that hsa-miR-766-5p was its candidate target, and their expression levels were inversely correlated. The target mRNAs of hsa-miR-766-5p were mainly enriched in the Ras signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of lnc-TMEM132D-AS1 is significantly upregulated in NSCLC cells with acquired osimertinib resistance, and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for osimertinibresistant NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Sincalide/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Movement , MicroRNAs/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
17.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 68-75, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971496

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of miR-125b-5p on proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma and the role of RAB3D in mediating this effect.@*METHODS@#The expression level of miR-125b-5p was detected by qRT-PCR in a normal bone cell line (hFOB1.19) and in two osteosarcoma OS cell lines (MG63 and HOS). A miR-125b-5p mimic or inhibitor was transfected in the osteosarcoma cell lines via liposome and the changes in cell proliferation and migration were detected with EDU and Transwell experiments. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted for predicting the target gene of miR-125b-5p, and the expression level of RAB3D in hFOB1.19, MG63, and HOS cells was detected by Western blotting. In the two osteosarcoma cell lines transfected with miR-125b-5p mimic or inhibitor, the expression levels of RAB3D mRNA and protein in osteosarcoma cells were examined with qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of RAB3D overexpression, RAB3D knockdown, or overexpression of both miR-125b-5p and RAB3D on the proliferation and migration of cells were assessed using EDU and Transwell experiments.@*RESULTS@#The two osteosarcoma cell lines had significantly lower expression levels of miR-125b-5p (P < 0.05). Bioinformatic analysis predicted that RAB3D was a possible target gene regulated by miR-125b-5p. In osteosarcoma cells, overexpression of miR-125b-5p significantly lowered the expression of RAB3D protein (P < 0.05); inhibiting miR-125b-5p expression significantly decreased RAB3D expression only at the protein level (P < 0.05) without obviously affecting its mRNA level. Modulation of miR-125b-5p and RAB3D levels produced opposite effects on proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells, and in cells with overexpression of both miR-125b-5p and RAB3D, the effect of RAB3D on cell proliferation and migration was blocked by miR-125b-5p overexpression (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Overexpression of miR-125b-5p inhibits the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells by regulating the expression of RAB3D at the post-transcriptional level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Proliferation , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteosarcoma/genetics , rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA, Messenger
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 8-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the correlation of the potential functional microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA regulatory network with recurrence of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) and its biological significance.@*METHODS@#This study was performed based on the data of 354 patients with HGSOC from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. In these patients, HGSOC was divided into different subtypes based on the pathways identified by GO analysis, and the correlations of the subtypes with HGSOC recurrence and differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs were assessed. Two relapse-related datasets were identified using the Gene Set Enrichment (GSE) database, from which the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by intersection with the TCGA data. The target genes of these miRNAs were predicted using miRWalk 2.0 database, and these common differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs were used to construct the key miRNA-mRNA network associated with HGSOC recurrence. The expression of miR-506-3p and SNAI2 in two ovarian cancer cell lines was detected using RT-qPCR and Western blotting, and their targeted binding was verified using a double luciferase assay. The effect of miR-506-3p expression modulation on ovarian cancer cell migration was detected using scratch assay and Transwell assay.@*RESULTS@#We screened 303 GO terms of HGSOC-related pathways and identified two HGSOC subtypes (C1 and C2). The subtype C1 was associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate than C2. The differentially expressed genes between C1 and C2 subtypes were mainly enriched in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Five miRNAs were identified as potential regulators of EMT, and a total of 41 target genes were found to be involved in the differential expressions of EMT pathway between C1 and C2 subtypes. The key miRNA-mRNA network associated with HGSOC recurrence was constructed based on these 5 miRNAs and 41 mRNAs. MiR-506-3p was confirmed to bind to SNAI2, and up-regulation of miR-506-3p significantly inhibited SNAI2 expression and reduced migration and invasion of SKOV3 and CAOV3 cells (P < 0.05), while miR-506-3p knockdown produced the opposite effects (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#MiR-506-3p and SNAI2 are the key molecules associated with HGSOC recurrence. MiR-506-3p may affect EMT of ovarian cancer cells by regulating cell migration and invasion via SNAI2, and its expression level has predictive value for HGSOC recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Computational Biology
19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 568-576, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Akt2 inhibitor on macrophage polarization in the periapical tissue in a rat model of periapical inflammation.@*METHODS@#Rat models of periapical inflammation were established in 28 normal SD rats by opening the pulp cavity of the mandibular first molars, followed by injection of normal saline and Akt2 inhibitor into the left and right medullary cavities, respectively. Four rats without any treatment served as the healthy control group. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after modeling, 7 rat models and 1 control rat were randomly selected for observation of inflammatory infiltration in the periapical tissues by X-ray and HE staining. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression and localization of Akt2, macrophages and the inflammatory mediators. RT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expressions of Akt2, CD86, CD163, inflammatory mediators, miR-155-5p and C/EBPβ to analyze the changes in macrophage polarization.@*RESULTS@#X-ray and HE staining showed that periapical inflammation was the most obvious at 21 days after modeling in the rats. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed that compared with those in the control rats, the expressions of Akt2, CD86, CD163, miR-155-5p, C/EBPβ, and IL-10 increased significantly in the rat models at 21 days (P < 0.05). Compared with saline treatment, treatment with the Akt2 inhibitor significantly decreased the expression levels of Akt2, CD86, miR-155-5p and IL-6 and the ratio of CD86+M1/CD163+M2 macrophages (P < 0.05) and increased the expression levels of CD163, C/EBPβ and IL-10 in the rat models (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inhibition of Akt2 can delay the progression of periapical inflammation in rats and promote M2 macrophage polarization in the periapical inflammatory microenvironment possibly by reducing miR-155-5p expression and activating the expression of C/EBPβ in the Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Macrophages/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
20.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 217-227, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify and characterize read-through RNAs and read-through circular RNAs (rt-circ-HS) derived from transcriptional read-through hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and small nuclear RNA activating complex polypeptide 1 (SNAPC1) the two adjacent genes located on chromosome 14q23, in renal carcinoma cells and renal carcinoma tissues, and to study the effects of rt-circ-HS on biological behavior of renal carcinoma cells and on regulation of HIF1α.@*METHODS@#Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Sanger sequencing were used to examine expression of read-through RNAs HIF1α-SNAPC1 and rt-circ-HS in different tumor cells. Tissue microarrays of 437 different types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were constructed, and chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to investigate expression of rt-circ-HS in different RCC types. Small interference RNA (siRNA) and artificial overexpression plasmids were designed to examine the effects of rt-circ-HS on 786-O and A498 renal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8), EdU incorporation and Transwell cell migration and invasion assays. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to exa-mine expression of HIF1α and SNAPC1 RNA and proteins after interference of rt-circ-HS with siRNA, respectively. The binding of rt-circ-HS with microRNA 539 (miR-539), and miR-539 with HIF1α 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), and the effects of these interactions were investigated by dual luciferase reporter gene assays.@*RESULTS@#We discovered a novel 1 144 nt rt-circ-HS, which was derived from read-through RNA HIF1α-SNAPC1 and consisted of HIF1α exon 2-6 and SNAPC1 exon 2-4. Expression of rt-circ-HS was significantly upregulated in 786-O renal carcinoma cells. ISH showed that the overall positive expression rate of rt-circ-HS in RCC tissue samples was 67.5% (295/437), and the expression was different in different types of RCCs. Mechanistically, rt-circ-HS promoted renal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness by functioning as a competitive endogenous inhibitor of miR-539, which we found to be a potent post-transcriptional suppressor of HIF1α, thus promoting expression of HIF1α.@*CONCLUSION@#The novel rt-circ-HS is highly expressed in different types of RCCs and acts as a competitive endogenous inhibitor of miR-539 to promote expression of its parental gene HIF1α and thus the proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Hypoxia , Kidney Neoplasms , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics , RNA, Circular/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics
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