Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 547
Filter
1.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-8, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352731

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the impact of three different scan strategies and implant angulation on impression accuracy of an intraoral scanner for full-arch multiple implant scan. Material and Method: A maxillary edentulous model with six implant analogs served as a reference model. The four anterior analogs were positioned parallel to each other, the distal right and the distal left was placed with an angulation of 15o and 20o, respectively. Thirty impression were performed using an intraoral scanner (CEREC Primescan). The master cast was digitalized with an industrial reference scanner (ATOS Core 80). All scans were converted to standard tessellation language (STL), superimposed on the reference scan with a 3d inspection software (GOM Inspect Professional 2019) and then analyzed. Results: All linear distances presented equivalence [p<0.01] to those found on the reference scan for all scan strategies. All scan strategies presented a tendency of negative means for linear distances except for d4 in strategy C. All angular distances did not present equivalence [p=0.05] to those found on the reference scan. Significant 3D deviations [p<0.05] were found between strategy B (0.02 ± 0.01) and C (0.05 ± 0.04) for d1. In all others linear and angular distances no statistically significant difference was found between strategies A, B and C. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference between strategies A, B and C except for d1 in strategy B and C; Implant angulation did not affect the accuracy of the CEREC Primescan IOS (AU)


Objetivo: avaliar o impacto de três diferentes estratégias de escaneamento e angulação do implante na acurácia da moldagem de um scanner intraoral na moldagem de múltiplos implantes em arco completo. Material e Métodos: Um modelo edêntulo de maxila contendo seis análogos de implante serviu como modelo de referência. Os quatro análogos anteriores foram posicionados paralelos entre si, o distal direito e o distal esquerdo foram posicionados com angulação de 15o e 20o, respectivamente. Trinta moldagens foram realizadas usando um scanner intraoral (CEREC Primescan). O modelo mestre foi digitalizado com um scanner de referência industrial (ATOS Core 80). Todas as escaneamentos foram convertidas para a linguagem de mosaico padrão (STL), sobrepostas ao escaneamento de referência com um software de inspeção 3D (GOM Inspect Professional 2019) e, em seguida, analisadas. Resultados: Todas as distâncias lineares apresentaram equivalência [p <0,01] àquelas encontradas na escaneamento de referência para todas as estratégias. Todas as estratégias de escaneamento apresentaram tendência de médias negativas para distâncias lineares, exceto para d4 na estratégia C. Todas as distâncias angulares não apresentaram equivalência [p = 0,05] às encontradas no escaneamento de referência. Desvios 3D significativos [p <0,05] foram encontrados entre a estratégia B (0,02 ± 0,01) e C (0,05 ± 0,04) para d1. Em todas as outras distâncias lineares e angulares, nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi encontrada entre as estratégias A, B e C. Conclusões: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as estratégias A, B e C, exceto para d1 na estratégia B e C; A angulação do implante não afetou a precisão do CEREC Primescan. (AU)


Subject(s)
Dental Implantation , Precision Medicine , Models, Anatomic
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 101 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371370

ABSTRACT

A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma zoonose transmitida por vetores que tem como agente patogênico, bactérias da espécie Rickettsia rickettsii. Na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP), o vetor incriminado na transmissão é o carrapato Amblyomma aureolatum, que depende de características ambientais típicas do bioma Mata Atlântica para sobreviver. Cães domésticos são os principais hospedeiros do estágio adulto do carrapato em áreas de matriz urbana próxima a áreas de mata fragmentada, e participam do ciclo da doença ao carrear carrapatos infectados da mata para o ambiente antrópico. Além disso, são hospedeiros amplificadores do agente e contribuem para o aumento do número de carrapatos infectados na natureza. Com o objetivo de elucidar as lacunas em relação a FMB na RMSP, o presente estudo testou a hipótese de que cães domésticos atuariam como hospedeiros amplificadores da bactéria R.rickettsii para carrapatos da espécie A. aureolatum após um segundo contato com o agente. Os resultados mostraram que apesar de apresentarem uma resposta imunológica, com aumento no título de anticorpos, os cães não foram capazes de gerar novas linhagens de carrapatos infectados. Esse estudo determinou, por meio de modelagem espacial, quais as áreas mais ou menos propensas a apresentarem casos de FMB levando em consideração as condições necessárias para ocorrência do vetor A. aureolatum e os aspectos ecológicos que facilitam a interação do vetor com seus hospedeiros no ambiente. As variáveis ambientais de altitude e temperatura mostraram-se de maior influência para a distribuição do vetor enquanto o aumento do perímetro de borda e redução de áreas de mata favorecem a ocorrência de casos de FMB. Este estudo traz novos dados sobre a ecoepidemiologia da Febre Maculosa Brasileira no Estado de São Paulo e chama atenção para a importância dos cães domésticos no ciclo da doença que ocorre na Região Metropolitana do estado. Ações de prevenção com foco na população de cães se mostram de extrema importância para a redução da incidência da doença e melhoria das condições de saúde da população.


Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a vector-borne zoonosis whose agent is the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii. In the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR), the vector responsible for the disease transmission is the tick Amblyomma aureolatum, which depends on environmental characteristics of the Atlantic Forest biome to survive. Domestic dogs are the main hosts of the adult stage of the tick in areas of urban matrix close to fragmented forest, and participate in the disease cycle by carrying infected ticks from the forest to the anthropic environment. Furthermore, they can amplify the bacteria and contribute to increase the number of infected ticks in nature. In order to elucidate the gaps in relation to BSF in the SPMR, this study tested the hypothesis that dogs could act as amplifying hosts of R. rickettsii for A. aureolatum ticks after a second contact with the agent. The results showed that the dogs could not generate new infected tick strains despite an immune response with increased antibody titers. This study also determined, through spatial modeling, which areas are more likely to present cases of BSF, taking into account the necessary conditions for A. aureolatum occurrence and the ecological aspects that facilitate the interaction of the vector with its hosts in the environment. The environmental variables of altitude and temperature showed to have the greatest influence on vector distribution, while the increase in edge perimeter and decrease in forest cover favored the occurrence of BSF. This study brings new data on the ecoepidemiology of Brazilian Spotted Fever in the State of São Paulo and draws attention to the importance of domestic dogs in the disease cycle in the Metropolitan Region of the state. Prevention actions focused on dog population are extremely important to reduce disease incidence and improve the human population's health conditions.


Subject(s)
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , Amblyomma , Host-Parasite Interactions , Models, Anatomic , Ticks
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0040, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376790

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe a new accessible model of ophthalmological training using chicken eggs. Methods: With the aid of a spherical drill, the external calcified layer and the cuticle of the chicken eggshell were removed in a 2cm diameter circle. Using a video-magnification system, the film was dissected and cut to approximately 1.5 cm diameters. The film was removed and repositioned to make interrupted 12-0 nylon microsutures. The parameters analyzed were: cost, facility of acquisition and handling, time for making the model and the microsutures and number of possible uses. Results: In all simulators, it was possible to carry out separated and equidistant micro-sutures in the egg membrane, without the need for reintervention. Conclusion: The new chicken-egg model for ophthalmic surgery training is low-cost, easy to acquire and handle, and viable for the development of basic microsurgery skills.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever um novo modelo acessível de treinamento oftalmológico com ovo de galinha. Métodos: Com o auxílio de uma broca esférica, a camada calcificada externa e a cutícula da casca do ovo de galinha foram retiradas em um círculo 2 cm de diâmetro. Mediante um sistema de videomagnificação, a película foi dissecada e cortada em formato aproximado de 1,5 cm de diâmetro. A película foi removida e reposicionada para a confecção de microssuturas interrompidas com nylon 12-0. Os parâmetros analisados foram: custo, facilidade de aquisição e manuseio, tempo para confecção do modelo e para a confecção das microssuturas e número de utilizações possíveis. Resultados: Em todos os simuladores foi possível realizar microssuturas separadas e equidistantes na membrana do ovo, sem necessidade de reintervenção. Conclusão: O novo modelo com ovo de galinha para o treinamento de cirurgia oftalmológica é de baixo custo, fácil aquisição e manuseio, além de ser viável no desenvolvimento de habilidades básicas em microcirurgia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/education , Egg Shell , Simulation Training/methods , Microsurgery/education , Models, Anatomic , Ophthalmology/education , Chickens , Suture Techniques/education , Eggs
4.
Estima (Online) ; 19(1): e2921, jan.-dez. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1369187

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:identificar como e porque utilizar a moulage dentro das práticas de simulação clínica. Método: trata-se de estudo de casos múltiplos, inclusivo, de caráter descritivo e exploratório com abordagem qualitativa. Os casos foram selecionados por meio de uma amostra intencional. Após aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade, foram incluídos e analisados quatro casos de cenários simulados que utilizaram moulage. Resultados: todos os casos analisados foram desenvolvidos em atividades clínicas simuladas extracurriculares por facilitadores com experiência em práticas clínicas, na docência e na área de simulação. As moulages utilizaram técnicas diferentes, promovendo maior interação com o aprendiz pelo uso de estimulantes de diferentes órgãos do sentido, aguçando o raciocínio clínico, o desenvolvimento de habilidades, competências, entre outros. Nos quatro casos, a moulage foi realizada em paciente simulado, em cenários simulados e vídeo simulado. Os motivos descritos para moulage foram: prover realismo, fidelidade, fácil aplicação e baixo custo. Conclusão: foi possível identificar que a moulage é um recurso adequando em simulação clínica e que quando construída com rigor e método, influencia na fidelidade e no realismo do cenário simulado.


Objective:identify how and why to use moulage within clinical simulation practices. Method: it is a multiple, inclusive, descriptive and exploratory case study with a qualitative approach. The cases were selected through an intentional sample. After applying the eligibility criteria, four cases of simulated scenarios that used moulage were included and analyzed. Results: all the cases analyzed were developed in extracurricular simulated clinical activities by facilitators with experience in clinical practices, teaching and simulation. The moulages used different techniques, promoting greater interaction with the learner through the use of stimulants of different sense organs, sharpening clinical reasoning, the development of skills, competences, among others. In the four cases, the moulage was performed on a simulated patient, in simulated scenarios and simulated video. The reasons described for moulage were: to provide realism, fidelity, easy application and low cost. Conclusion: it was possible to identify that the moulage is an adequate resource in clinical simulation and that when built with rigor and method, it influences the fidelity and realism of the simulated scenario.


Objetivo:identificar cómo y por qué utilizar el moulage dentro de las prácticas de simulación clínica. Método: se trata de estudio de casos múltiples, inclusivo, de carácter descriptivo y exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo. Los casos fueron seleccionados por medio de una muestra intencional. Luego de aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad, se incluyeron y analizaron cuatro casos de escenarios simulados que utilizaron moulage. Resultados: todos los casos analizados fueron desarrollados en actividades clínicas simuladas extracurriculares por facilitadores con experiencia en prácticas clínicas, en la docencia y en el área de simulación. Los moulages utilizaron técnicas diferentes, favoreciendo una mayor interacción con el aprendiz por el uso de estimulantes de diferentes órganos del sentido, aguzando el raciocinio clínico, el desarrollo de habilidades, capacidades, entre otros. En los cuatro casos, el moulage se realizó en paciente simulado, en escenarios simulados y video simulado. Los motivos descritos para el moulage fueron: proveer realismo, fidelidad, fácil aplicación y bajo costo. Conclusión: fue posible identificar que el moulage es un recurso adecuado en simulación clínica y que cuando se construye con rigurosidad y método, influye en la fidelidad y en el realismo del escenario simulado.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Simulation Exercise , Universities , Enterostomal Therapy , Models, Anatomic
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 809-812, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357138

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aims to demonstrate how biomodels can be used as teaching tools for surgical techniques and training in a medical residency service. A case series was carried out in our orthopedics and traumatology outpatient facility using three-dimensional (3D) printing for surgical planning to contribute to the surgical teaching and training of resident physicians. Two cases were selected as examples in the present article. Biomodels enable a better understanding of the surgery by the surgical team and residents, reducing the surgical time and the risks for the patients. These models can be a good teaching method to plan reconstructions of total hip arthroplasties, evaluate and predict surgical difficulties, and optimize procedures.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar como os biomodelos podem servir como ferramenta de ensino para o esclarecimento de técnicas cirúrgicas e o treinamento em um serviço de residência médica. Foram realizadas séries de casos em nosso ambulatório de ortopedia e traumatologia, nos quais o uso da prototipagem para o planejamento cirúrgico contribuiu para o ensino cirúrgico e treinamento de médicos residentes. Dois casos foram selecionados como exemplo neste artigo. O uso de biomodelos permite um melhor entendimento da cirurgia pela equipe cirúrgica e pelos residentes, e diminui o tempo e os riscos cirúrgicos aos pacientes. O uso de biomodelos no planejamento de reconstruções da artroplastia total do quadril pode servir como um bom método de ensino, para a avaliação e previsão das dificuldades no momento da cirurgia, e para otimizar os procedimentos.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Internship and Residency , Medical Staff, Hospital , Models, Anatomic
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 707-716, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351644

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Rapid prototyping is a process by which three-dimensional (3D) computerized surface models are converted into physical models. In this study, a 3D heart bio model was created using the rapid prototyping method and the accuracy of this heart model was assessed by clinicians. Methods: The two-dimensional images of normal heart from gated computed tomography scan datasets were used to create a 3D model of the heart. The slices were then processed using the software BioModroid and printed with the 3D printer. The evaluation of the model was performed by a questionnaire answered by four cardiothoracic surgeons, 12 cardiologists, five radiologists, and nine surgical registrars. Results: Eighty-six percent of the anatomy structures showed in this model scored 100% accuracy. Structures such as circumflex branch of left coronary artery, great cardiac vein, papillary muscle, and coronary sinus were each rated 77%, 70%, 70%, and 57% accurate. Among 30 clinicians, a total of 93% rated the model accuracy as good and above; 64% of the clinicians evaluated this model as an excellent teaching tool for anatomy class. As a visual aid for surgery or interventional procedures, the model was rated excellent (40%), good (50%), average (23%), and poor (3%); 70% of the clinicians scored the model as above average for training purpose. Overall, this 3D rapid prototyping cardiac model was rated as excellent (33%), good (50%), and average (17%). Conclusion: This 3D rapid prototyping heart model will be a valuable source of anatomical education and cardiac interventional management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Pilot Projects , Heart , Models, Anatomic
7.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(2): 287-298, maio 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1284583

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Devido à crescente demanda estética, a odontologia restauradora se renova na intenção de alcançar melhores resultados na harmonia do sorriso. Entretanto, a atenção deve voltar-se também aos tecidos periodontais, visto que há uma integração entre material restaurador e os tecidos. Objetivo:Descrever e discutir as etapas clínicas para a confecção de laminados cerâmicos, atentando-se a preparos minimamente invasivos, contorno cervical e fatores que podem intervir na longevidade do procedimento.Relato de caso:Paciente do sexo masculino, 28 anos de idade, compareceu a Associação Brasileira de Odontologia, seção de Alagoas, relatando insatisfação em relação ao tamanho dos seus dentes. Os arcos superior e inferior foram moldados para a obtenção dos modelos de estudo e enceramento diagnóstico. Ao início do tratamento foi orientado ao paciente clareamento dental pela técnica combinada. O preparo dos dentes foi guiado por uma matriz de silicone, sendo estes uniformes e conservadores, seguido de moldagem, fase laboratorial e cimentação final. Finalizado o caso foi realizado o ajuste oclusal solicitando ao paciente que realizasse movimentos de lateralidade e protrusão. Conclusões:A técnica do preparo influência na longevidade dos laminados cerâmicos, por relacioanar-se à adesão e a saúde periodontal. O preparo deve ser mínino e limitado ao esmalte dental sempre que possível, determinando assim um maior e melhor prognóstico (AU).


Introduction:Due to the growing aesthetic demand, restorative dentistry is renewed to achieve better results in smile harmony. However, attention should also be turned to periodontal tissues since there is an integration between restorative material and tissues. Objective:To describe and discuss the clinical steps for the manufacture of laminate veneers, paying attention to minimally invasive preparations, cervical contour, and factors that can intervene in the procedure's longevity. Case report:A 28-year-old male patient attended the Brazilian Dental Association, the Alagoas section, reporting dissatisfaction with his teeth' size. The upper and lower arches were molded to obtain the study and diagnostic waxing models. At the beginning of treatment, the patient was instructed by the combined technique. After the case, the occlusal adjustment was performed, asking the patient to perform laterality and protrusion movements. Conclusions:The preparation technique influences the longevity of laminate veneers due to adherence and periodontal health. The preparation should be minimal and limited to dental enamel whenever possible, thus determining a higher and better prognosis (AU).


Introducción: Debido a la creciente demanda estética, la odontología restauradora se renueva para lograr mejores resultados en la armonía de la sonrisa. Sin embargo, también se debe prestar atención a los tejidos periodontales ya que existe una integraciónentre el material restaurador y los tejidos.Objetivo: Describir y discutir los pasos clínicos para la confección de carillas laminares, prestando atención a las preparaciones mínimamente invasivas, al contorno cervical y a los factores que pueden intervenir en la longevidad del procedimiento.Reporte del caso: Un paciente masculino de 28 años asistió a la Asociación Dental Brasileña, sección de Alagoas, reportando insatisfacción con el tamaño de sus dientes. Los arcos superior e inferior fueron moldeados para obtener los modelos de depilación de estudio y diagnóstico. Al comienzo del tratamiento, el paciente fue instruido por la técnica combinada. La preparación de los dientes fue guiada por una matriz de silicona, siendo estas uniformes y conservadoras, seguidas de moldeo, fase de laboratorio y cementación final. Después del caso, se realizó el ajuste oclusal, pidiendo al paciente que realizara movimientos de lateralidad y protuberancia. Conclusiones: La técnica de preparación influye en la longevidad de los laminados cerámicos, debido a la adherencia y la salud periodontal. La preparación debe ser mínima y limitada al esmalte dental siempre que sea posible, determinando así un pronóstico más alto y mejor (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tooth Bleaching , Periodontium , Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic/instrumentation , Dental Veneers , Brazil/epidemiology , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Ceramics , Occlusal Adjustment , Dental Enamel , Research Report , Longevity , Models, Anatomic
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 384-389, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288683

ABSTRACT

Abstract Distal radial fractures are very common. Vicious consolidation can occur in up to one third of these fractures, resulting in wrist pain, restricted movement, and, eventually, physical limitation or disability. The treatment of this condition consists in corrective osteotomy, which requires careful preoperative planning due to its three-dimensional complexity, especially in injuries with joint involvement. Recently, prototyping based on three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) scans has been used for osteotomy planning in a 3D anatomical model. It allows a better understanding of the deformity in a realistic surgical approach, leading to safer, faster, and more predictable procedures. The aim of the present study is to present this technique and show its use in two clinical cases.


Resumo As fraturas da porção distal do rádio estão entre as mais comuns do esqueleto. A consolidação viciosa pode ocorrer em até um terço dessas fraturas e acarretar restrição de movimento e dor no punho, com consequente limitação ou incapacidade laboral. O tratamento desta condição implica em osteotomia corretiva das deformidades, o que necessita de um planejamento pré-operatório criterioso em virtude de sua complexidade tridimensional, notadamente naquelas em que há acometimento articular. Assim, recentemente, tem sido utilizada a prototipagem a partir da reconstrução 3D da tomografia computadorizada (TC), o que permite o planejamento com realização da osteotomia em modelo anatômico tridimensional, com o melhor entendimento da deformidade, aproximando-se da situação realística da cirurgia, o que torna o procedimento mais seguro, ágil e previsível. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar esta técnica e seu emprego em dois casos clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Osteotomy , Radio , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fractures, Bone , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Models, Anatomic
9.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 1-6, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152854

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los defectos cardíacos congénitos constituyen el 30% de todas las anomalías congénitas. La prevalencia es de 8/1,000 recién nacidos vivos, sin predominio de género. Para una planificación quirúrgica óptima es esencial una evaluación precisa de la anatomía en los defectos cardíacos congénitos. Las modalidades de imagen como el ecocardiograma, la angiografía por cateterismo cardíaco, la tomografía computarizada (TC) o la resonancia magnética (RM) se utilizan de forma regular para el diagnóstico de las cardiopatías congénitas. Estos métodos pueden proporcionar reconstrucciones virtuales en reconstrucción volumétrica o 3D, pero no réplicas táctiles reales de la anatomía cardíaca. Objetivo: Realizar modelos de corazón impresos en 3D con la finalidad de proporcionar réplicas táctiles 3D reales de la anatomía cardíaca para visualizar de forma detallada todas las perspectivas posibles de las estructuras extracardíacas o intracardíacas. Métodos: Los datos de la imagen se obtuvieron en formato DICOM, se editaron en el paquete de software "3D slicer 4.3" y se exportaron para la impresión en formato de archivo (.stl). Resultados y conclusiones: Con la impresión 3D se puede evaluar de forma detallada la anatomía intracardíaca y extracardíaca con modelos cardíacos en tiempo real. Esta técnica es de gran utilidad, sobre todo en los defectos cardíacos congénitos complejos, ya que permite hacer una planificación precisa del procedimiento quirúrgico.


Abstract Introduction: Congenital heart disease makes up for 30% of all congenital anomalies. The prevalence is 8/1,000 live newborns, without predominance of gender. Imaging methods such as echocardiography, angiography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging must be routinely used in congenital heart disease. The mentioned methods can provide virtual reconstructions in volumetric reconstruction or in three dimensional (3D), but only 3D-printed heart models can provide real 3D tactile replicas of cardiac anatomy. Objective: To make 3D printed heart models in order to provide real 3D tactile replicas of the cardiac anatomy that allow a detailed visualization from all possible perspectives, either of extracardiac or intracardiac structures. Methods: This information is useful for surgical decision making, especially in patients with complex cardiac defects. DICOM, edited in a software package "3D slicer 4.3" and exported for printing in file format (.stl). Results and conclusions: With 3D printing, the intracardiac and extracardiac anatomy can be evaluated in detail with real-scale cardiac models of the patient, avoiding unexpected findings. This technique is very useful especially in complex congenital heart defects, since it allows precise planning of the surgical procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Adolescent , Patient Care Planning , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Models, Anatomic
10.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e935, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289445

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los docentes de clínica fomentan un ambiente de aprendizaje que integra los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos aprendidos en las aulas, laboratorios y simuladores con las habilidades técnicas operativas. Objetivo: Valorar la percepción que tienen los estudiantes de Odontología sobre el desempeño de los docentes clínicos. Métodos: Estudio analítico, en el que participaron 179 estudiantes que respondieron una encuesta en la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Se utilizó una escala para evaluar las respuestas del instrumento, el cual preguntaba sobre la enseñanza clínica odontológica impartida por docentes clínicos y que valoró seis dimensiones: modelado, coaching, andamiaje, articulación, reflexión y aprendizaje general del entorno. Resultados: La percepción general fue de 3,5 ± 0,78, mayor en los estudiantes de quinto año (3,6 ± 0,61). Un 19,7 por ciento estuvo totalmente de acuerdo en que los docentes "proporcionaron comentarios constructivos y concretos durante la observación directa", mientras que un 20 por ciento indicó estar totalmente de acuerdo que sus docentes clínicos "fueron de apoyo cuando se experimentó dificultades con un procedimiento". Conclusiones: La percepción del docente clínico fue positiva y el aspecto "reflexivo" fue el menos favorable. Resaltaron las dimensiones de coaching (se observa al estudiante que realiza una tarea y se retroalimenta durante el proceso) y articulación (preguntar al estudiante para estimular su conocimiento y razonamiento) entre el docente y el estudiante de Odontología(AU)


Introduction: Clinical teachers foster a learning climate that combines the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired in the classrooms, laboratories and simulators with technical operational skills. Objective: Evaluate the perception of dental students about the performance of clinical teachers. Methods: An analytical study was conducted based on a survey applied to 179 students from the Dental School of the National University of San Marcos in Lima, Peru. A scale was used to evaluate the answers to the questions in the tool, which dealt with dental clinical teaching as performed by clinical teachers. Six dimensions were addressed: modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection and general learning about the environment. Results: Overall perception was 3.5 ± 0.78, higher among fifth-year students (3.6 ± 0.61). 19.7 percent of the respondents totally agreed that teachers "made constructive, concrete comments during direct observation sessions", while 20 percent reported total agreement that their clinical teachers "were supportive when they had difficulties with a procedure." Conclusions: Perception about clinical teachers was positive and the "reflective" aspect was the least favorable. Outstanding dimensions were coaching (students are observed while performing their tasks and receive feedback during the process) and articulation (students are asked questions to foster their knowledge and reasoning)(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Schools, Dental , Students, Dental , Universities , Knowledge , Learning , Models, Anatomic , Teaching/education
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210130, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278436

ABSTRACT

Abstract This research aims to compare the classical thin-layer models, stepwise fit regression method (SRG) and artificial neural networks (ANN) in the modelling of drying kinetics of shrimp shell and crab exoskeleton. Thus, drying curves were obtained using a convective dryer (3.0 m/s) at temperatures of 30.45 and 60oC. The results showed a decreasing tendency for the drying time as the temperature increased for both materials. Drying curves modelling of both materials showed fitted results with R 2 adj >0.998 and MRE<13.128% for some thin-layer models. On the other hand, by SRG a simple model could be obtained as a function of time and temperature, with the greatest accuracy being found in the modelling of experimental data of crab exoskeleton, with MRE<10.149%. Finally, the ANNs were employed successfully in the modelling of drying kinetics, showing high prediction quality with the trained recurrent ANN models.


Subject(s)
Crustacea , Animal Shells , Kinetics , Neural Networks, Computer , Models, Anatomic
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200045, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278460

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural gas steam reforming is commonly used for hydrogen production. However, research has shown that ethanol autothermal reforming can produce cleaner hydrogen gas efficiently. Despite this, there is a lack of studies on the energy self-sufficiency conditions of the ethanol autothermal reform. In this paper, we use simulations and the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the multivariate analysis of the energy self-sufficiency conditions in this process. First, we constructed and validated an industrial flowchart. After that, RSM allowed us to assess the process variables effects. The process variables studied were temperature (0 to 1000 ºC), pressure (20 to 30 bar), steam/ethanol ratio (2 to 5 mol/mol) and O2/ethanol ratio (0 to 1.5 mol/mol). We observe that the temperature and steam/ethanol ratio increase have a positive effect on hydrogen production. On the contrary, the O2/ethanol ratio increase has a negative effect, and the pressure increase is not statistically significant on hydrogen production. Therefore, the pressure was used at its minimum level (20 bar) while the temperature and the steam/ethanol ratio at its maximum levels (1000 ºC and 5 mol/mol). We also evaluated the energy consumption for the Autothermal Reactor (ATR). The reactor consumed 477.92 kJ/mol ethanol to produce 5.12 mol H2/mol ethanol when we use 1000 ºC, 20 bar, steam/ethanol 5 mol/mol, and O2/ethanol 0 mol/mol. ATR's energy self-sufficiency is achieved by using 1000 ºC, 20 bar, steam/ethanol 5 mol/mol, and O2/ethanol 0.86 mol/mol. In these conditions, 3.95 mol H2/mol ethanol is produced with 0 kJ/mol ethanol.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Natural Gas , Renewable Energy , Hydrogen , Simulation Exercise , Models, Anatomic
13.
Rev. venez. cir ; 74(2): 32-38, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1369680

ABSTRACT

La sutura y el anudado laparoscópico intracorpóreo son las habilidades más difíciles de aprender, las mismas son esenciales para realizar procedimientos laparoscópicos avanzados. Los modelos de entrenamiento laparoscópico permiten facilitar la curva de aprendizaje en un ambiente seguro y sin riesgo para el paciente. La impresión 3D ha revolucionado muchos campos industriales, el presente estudio buscar enlazar la tecnología de impresión 3D con la creación de un modelo anatómico de un estómago inorgánico, para simular una gastrostomía laparoscópica con fines didácticos para los residentes de cirugía general y los cirujanos en formación. Objetivo: Desarrollar un modelo inorgánico de simulación de gastrostomía laparoscópica mediante impresión 3D, como herramienta para la adquisición de habilidades y destrezas en sutura y anudado intracorpóreo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo prospectivo, experimental y longitudinal. El autor del presente trabajo, realizó 16 prácticas en caja negra con el modelo de entrenamiento laparoscópico creado y fueron evaluadas mediante la escala GOALS y medición del tiempo de ejecución. Resultados: La puntuación obtenida en la escala GOALS fue de 19 puntos en la primera práctica e incrementó hasta 23 puntos en las últimas prácticas (Tau-C de Kendall=0,89) siendo estadísticamente significativo (p<0,00001). El tiempo disminuyó de la primera practica de 18:30 hasta 6:56 minutos en la última (Tau-C de Kendall=-0,49) siendo estadísticamente significativo (p=0,01). Conclusión: El modelo de entrenamiento creado con impresión 3D permite recrear los pasos para realizar una gastrostomía laparoscópica, y demostró ser una herramienta eficaz en la adquisición de habilidades en sutura y anudado intracorpóreo(AU)


Intracorporeal laparoscopic suturing and knotting are the most difficult skills to learn, and they are essential for performing advanced laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopic training models facilitate the learning curve in a safe environment without risk for the patient. 3D printing has revolutionized many industrial fields, the present study seeks to link 3D printing technology with the creation of an anatomical model of an inorganic stomach, to simulate a laparoscopic gastrostomy for educational purposes for general surgery residents and surgeons in training. Objetive: develop an inorganic simulation model of laparoscopic gastrostomy using 3D printing, as a tool for the acquisition of skills and abilities in suturing and intracorporeal knotting. Methods: A prospective, experimental and longitudinal study was carried out. The author of this work performed 16 black box practices with the laparoscopic training model created and they were evaluated using the GOALS scale and measurement of execution time. Results: The score obtained on the GOALS scale was 19 points in the first practice and increased to 23 points in the last practices (Kendall's Tau-C = 0.89), being statistically significant (p <0.00001). The time decreased from the first practice from 18:30 to 6:56 minutes in the last one (Kendall's Tau-C = -0.49) being statistically significant (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The training model created with 3D printing allows to recreate the steps to perform a laparoscopic gastrostomy, and proved to be an effective tool in the acquisition of skills in suturing and intracorporeal knotting(AU)


Subject(s)
Longitudinal Studies , Laparoscopy , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Models, Anatomic , Patients , General Surgery , Gastrostomy , Simulation Training
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e53033, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146255

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: desenvolver e validar um protótipo de baixo custo para reanimação cardiopulmonar em adultos, com ênfase nos fluxos arteriais e venosos para fins educacionais. Método: trata-se de estudo oriundo de trabalho de conclusão de curso, utilizando abordagem do design thinking para elaboração do protótipo, realizado em uma universidade pública federal no sul do Brasil, entre setembro e novembro de 2019. Na validação, participaram 13 indivíduos com expertise em Urgência e Emergência, sendo utilizado um instrumento com escala Likert, composto por sete itens sobre aparência e usabilidade. Resultados: o protótipo foi idealizado usando um manequim de exposição de roupas como estrutura principal. Além do tórax permitir compressões, uma rede de ductos que simulam os fluxos sanguíneos demonstrou visualmente a circulação sanguínea e a injeção de medicações intravenosas. Conclusão: o protótipo possui capacidade de potencializar o processo de ensinoaprendizagem em suporte básico e avançado de vida, especialmente quando sustentado por metodologias ativas.


Objective: to develop and validate a low-cost prototype for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults, with an emphasis on arterial and venous flows, for educational purposes. Method: this study, which originated from a course conclusion project to develop a prototype using the design-thinking approach, was conducted at a federal public university in southern Brazil between September and November 2019. Thirteen individuals with expertise in emergency care took part in validation, using a Likert scale instrument consisting of seven items on appearance and usability. Results: the prototype was designed using a clothing display mannequin as the main structure. Compressions could be performed on the chest, and a network of ducts simulated blood flows visually, demonstrating blood circulation and intravenous medication injections. Conclusion: the prototype was able to enhance teaching and learning on basic and advanced life support, especially when supported by active methodologies.


Objetivo: desarrollar y validar un prototipo de bajo costo para reanimación cardiopulmonar en adultos, con énfasis en los flujos arteriales y venosos, con fines educativos. Método: este estudio, que se originó a partir de un proyecto de conclusión de curso para desarrollar un prototipo utilizando el enfoque de pensamiento de diseño, se realizó en una universidad pública federal en el sur de Brasil entre septiembre y noviembre de 2019. En la validación participaron trece personas con experiencia en atención de emergencias , utilizando un instrumento de escala Likert que consta de siete ítems sobre apariencia y usabilidad. Resultados: el prototipo se diseñó utilizando un maniquí de exhibición de ropa como estructura principal. Se podían realizar compresiones en el pecho y una red de conductos simulaba visualmente los flujos sanguíneos, lo que demostraba la circulación sanguínea y las inyecciones de medicación intravenosa. Conclusión: el prototipo fue capaz de mejorar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje sobre soporte vital básico y avanzado, especialmente cuando fue apoyado por metodologías activas.


Subject(s)
Universities , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Simulation Training , Proof of Concept Study , Blood Circulation , Brazil , Simulation Exercise , Low Cost Technology , Applied Research , Learning , Manikins , Models, Anatomic
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1686-1692, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134499

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The emergence of the digital society in the 21st century due to great advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) has allowed the development of research, communication, and collaboration activities related to knowledge and information. ICTs have influenced many aspects of society, especially educational work, and many educational establishments have adopted these technologies in a bid to enhance their teaching methods. One of the most representative cases is the global expansion of e-learning platforms. Until now, the traditional method of study of human anatomy, a key component of any study plan in the health education area, has been mainly based on classic texts. However, different types of software made an appearance in this century such as the three-dimensional (3D) atlases consisting of digital illustrations of the human body. However, there might be a high cost of investment involved when purchasing these kind of software. This research aimed to study the perception of human anatomy students regarding the use of models of 3D-scanned real cadaveric samples available at http://anatomiahumana3d.com, as a complementary educational resource to conventional study. A satisfaction survey was designed which consisted of four items. The survey was answered by 134 students. The format of the models, functionality of the resource, content and teaching of the resource, and finally the general evaluation, reached 96.8%, 84.05%, 81.14%, and 89.4% of perception of satisfaction, respectively. The results show that the new generations of students are immersed in a technological environment, therefore, both general and anatomy teaching could benefit from the use of new technologies.


RESUMEN: El comienzo de la sociedad digital en el siglo XXI debido a los grandes avances en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) ha permitido el desarrollo de actividades de investigación, comunicación y colaboración relacionadas con el conocimiento y la información. Las TIC han influido en muchos aspectos de la sociedad, especialmente en el trabajo educativo, y muchos establecimientos educativos han adoptado estas tecnologías en un intento por mejorar sus métodos de enseñanza. Uno de los casos más representativos es la expansión global de las plataformas de e-learning. Hasta ahora, el método tradicional de estudio de la anatomía humana, componente clave de cualquier plan de estudios en el área de educación para la salud, se ha basado principalmente en textos clásicos. Sin embargo, en este siglo aparecieron diferentes tipos de software, como los atlas tridimensionales (3D) que consisten en ilustraciones digitales del cuerpo humano. Sin embargo, puede haber un alto costo de inversión involucrado al adquirir este tipo de software. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar la percepción de los estudiantes de anatomía humana sobre el uso de modelos de muestras de cadáveres reales escaneados en 3D disponibles en http://anatomiahumana3d.com, como recurso educativo complementario al estudio convencional. Se diseñó una encuesta de satisfacción que constaba de cuatro ítems. La encuesta fue respondida por 134 estudiantes. El formato de los modelos, funcionalidad del recurso, contenido y didáctica del recurso, y finalmente la evaluación general, alcanzaron el 96,8%, 84,05%, 81,14% y 89,4% de percepción de satisfacción, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes se encuentran inmersas en un entorno tecnológico, por lo que tanto la enseñanza general como la de anatomía podrían beneficiarse del uso de las nuevas tecnologías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomy/education , Models, Anatomic , Personal Satisfaction , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Human Body , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement , Information Technology
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1653-1658, Sept.-Oct. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131551

ABSTRACT

A impressão tridimensional (3D) vem contribuindo para o aprendizado da anatomia e para áreas aplicadas da medicina veterinária utilizando uma interface que pode valorizar o conhecimento da anatomia das espécies domésticas de maneira dinâmica. O presente trabalho objetivou utilizar imagens tridimensionais geradas por tomografias computadorizada (TC) para a obtenção de imagens digitalizadas e de modelos de ossos do crânio de cão por meio de uma impressora tridimensional. Foram gerados arquivos 3D de TC a partir de imagens que foram editadas pelo software Osirix Lite. Partes dos ossos e particularidades anatômicas do crânio foram impressas em escalas de 60% e 100%. Os resultados permitiram gerar imagens digitalizadas e impressões tridimensionais advindas das tomografias, e, assim, foi criado um acervo de imagens e modelos impressos para os estudos da anatomia do crânio da espécie canina. Além disso, a metodologia demonstrou claramente a importância para uso de planejamentos cirúrgicos nos casos de procedimentos que envolvam comprometimento de estruturas ósseas. Produziu-se um material interativo e impresso em 3D com maior durabilidade, o qual poderá ser disponibilizado para fins educacionais.(AU)


The three-dimensional printer (3D) has been contributing to the learning of anatomy and applied areas of veterinary medicine using an interface that can enhance the knowledge of the anatomy of domestic species in a dynamic way. The present study aimed to use three-dimensional images generated by computed tomography (TC) to obtain digitized images and bone models of the dog skull using a three-dimensional printer. The 3D files were generated from images that were edited in Osirix Lite software. Parts of the bones and anatomical features of the skull were printed on 60% and 100% scales. The results allowed to generate digitalized images and three -dimensional impressions from the tomographies, and in this way a collection of images and printed models was created for studies of the anatomy of the canine species. In addition, the methodology clearly demonstrated the importance of using surgical planning in cases involving procedures involving bone structure impairment. Interactive material and 3D printing with high durability that could be made available for educational purposes has been produced.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Skull/anatomy & histology , Teaching Materials , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Models, Anatomic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Anatomy, Veterinary/methods
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 549-554, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137295

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The medical use of three-dimensional (3-D) images has been a topic in the literature since 1988, but 95% of papers on 3-D printing were published in the last six years. The increase in publications is the result of advances in 3-D printing methods, as well as of the increasing availability of these machines in different hospitals. This paper sought to review the literature on 3-D printing and to discuss thoughtful ideas regarding benefits and challenges to its incorporation into cardiothoracic surgeons' routines. Methods: A comprehensive and systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed and included material published as of March 2020. Results: Using this search strategy, 9,253 publications on 3-D printing and 497 on "heart" 3-D printing were retrieved. Conclusion: 3 -D printed models are already helping surgeons to plan their surgeries, helping patients and their families to understand complex anatomy, helping fellows and residents to practice surgery, even for rare cases, and helping nurses and other health care staff to better understand some conditions, such as heart diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Diseases/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Heart , Models, Anatomic
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 997-1002, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124888

ABSTRACT

La comprensión de la anatomía humana y especialmente de algunos órganos muy pequeños como es el oído medio e interno, resulta desafiante debido a su compleja estructura tridimensional. Construir conocimiento en la comprensión de la Anatomía del oído medio e interno humano, a partir del experimento de disección y modelación 3D. Con imágenes DICOM de una tomografía axial computarizada del oído humano convertidas a un modelo 3D (Mimics) y disecciones cadavéricas del hueso temporal, se diseñaron las estructuras óseas y blandas del oído externo, medio e interno mediante la implementación de software de modelado orgánico. Creación de un protocolo operativo estándar, modelado 3D de oído medio e interno e impresión 3D de las estructuras, diferenciando por color cada una de ellas. La experimentación, en este caso, la disección y modelación de las piezas anatómicas fue fundamental en la enseñanza y aprendizaje de esta área de las ciencias, permitiendo que se construya conocimiento a partir de la búsqueda de información, observación, análisis y reflexión. Los estudiantes manifestaron fascinación y aprendizaje profundo en la práctica realizada. La construcción de modelos explicativos en torno a la experimentación cualitativa permite comprender a profundidad los diferentes fenómenos. La actividad experimental, supera la demostración y facilita la confrontación de pensamiento, los estudiantes a través de esta actividad comprendieron a profundidad la anatomía del oído medio e interno, han adquirido destrezas quirúrgicas, han propuesto y analizado proyectos que les ha permitido participar eventos académicos, adquiriendo competencias como el uso comprensivo del conocimiento científico.


Understanding human anatomy, and especially some very small organs such as the middle and inner ear, is challenging due to their complex three-dimensional structure. To build knowledge in understanding of anatomy, of the human inner and middle ear, from the 3D modeling and dissection experiment. Using DICOM images from a computerized axial tomography of the human ear converted to a 3D model (Mimics) and cadaveric dissections of the temporal bone, the bony and soft structures of the external, middle, and internal ear were designed, using organic modeling software. A standard operating protocol, 3D modeling of the middle and inner ear and 3D printing of the structures was created, differentiating each one by color. In this case, the dissection and modeling of the anatomical pieces was fundamental in the teaching and learning of this area of science, allowing expanded knowledge from the search for information, observation, analysis and reflection. The students showed fascination and deep learning in the practice carried out. The construction of explanatory models around qualitative experimentation allows an in-depth understanding of the different phenomena. The experimental activity overcomes the demonstration and facilitates thought process. The students achieve and in depth understanding of the middle and inner ear anatomy, acquired surgical skills, proposed and analyzed projects that allowed them to participate in academic event. They have also acquired additional skills, such as the comprehensive use of scientific knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dissection/education , Education, Medical/methods , Anatomy/education , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Printing, Three-Dimensional
20.
Univ. salud ; 22(2): 198-202, mayo-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115969

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El labio y paladar hendido son malformaciones craneofaciales que se presentan en 1:1000 nacidos vivos en Colombia. Realizar un moldeado nasoalveolar previo a la cirugía favorece el reposicionamiento de los cartílagos nasales deformados y de los procesos alveolares. Objetivo: Dar a conocer a los profesionales la importancia de realizar moldeado nasoalveolar en un paciente con labio y paladar hendido antes de la intervención quirúrgica. Materiales y métodos: En la clínica odontológica de la Universidad del Sinú de Montería (Córdoba, Colombia), se atendió una paciente de 17 días de nacida que presentaba labio y paladar hendido completo unilateral izquierdo severo. Luego de diligenciar la historia clínica odontológica, se realizó placa de órtesis, que se cambió cada 15 días y se hizo el retoque del "tutor" cada 8 días. Resultados: La placa de órtesis permitió un moldeado naso alveolar, con el progreso en la alimentación y mejoras en el contorneado de los tejidos nasales, que mejoró la preparación para la operación de la hendidura a los 8 meses de edad. Conclusiones: La importancia del moldeado nasoalveolar en casos como el presentado, es propiciar mejores condiciones físicas, favoreciendo la ingesta de alimentos y beneficiando la apariencia física.


Abstract Introduction: Cleft lip and palate is a craniofacial birth defect that accounts for 1:1000 live birhts in Colombia. Performing nasoalveolar molding before surgery facilitates the reshaping of deformed nasal cartilage and alveolar processes. Objective: To make professionals aware of the importance of performing nasoalveolar molding in a patient with cleft lip and palate before surgical intervention. Materials and methods: A 17-day-old infant with a full left unilateral cleft lip and palate was treated at the dental clinic of the University of Sinú, Montería (Córdoba, Colombia). Once the dental clinical history was recorded, an orthosis plate was made. The plate was changed every 15 days and the molding appliance was repositioned every 8 days. Results: The orthosis plate promoted nasoalveolar molding, which facilitated feeding and improved the shape of nasal tissues. Consequently, this early intervention improved the preparation for the surgery of the cleft when the child reached 8 months of age. Conclusions: Nasoalveolar molding in patients with full cleft lip and palate is important to promote better physical conditions, which favor food intake and benefit their physical appearance.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Cleft Lip , Models, Anatomic , Orthotic Devices , Splints , Cleft Palate
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL