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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 25-33, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether monotropein has an anticancer effect and explore its potential mechanisms against colorectal cancer (CRC) through network pharmacology and molecular docking combined with experimental verification.@*METHODS@#Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to predict potential targets of monotropein against CRC. Cell counting kit assay, plate monoclonal assay and microscopic observation were used to investigate the antiproliferative effects of monotropein on CRC cells HCT116, HT29 and LoVo. Flow cytometry and scratch assay were used to analyze apoptosis and cell cycle, as well as cell migration, respectively in HCT116, HT29, and LoVo cells. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of proteins related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell migration, and the expression of proteins key to the Akt pathway.@*RESULTS@#The Gene Ontology and Reactome enrichment analyses indicated that the anticancer potential of monotropein against CRC might be involved in multiple cancer-related signaling pathways. Among these pathways, RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt1, Akt2), cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) were shown as the potential anticancer targets of monotropein against CRC. Molecular docking suggested that monotropein may interact with the 6 targets (Akt1, Akt2, CDK6, MMP9, EGFR, CDC42). Subsequently, cell activity of HCT116, HT29 and LoVo cell lines were significantly suppressed by monotropein (P<0.05). Furthermore, our research revealed that monotropein induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 and increasing Bax, induced G1-S cycle arrest in colorectal cancer by decreasing the expressions of CyclinD1, CDK4 and CDK6, inhibited cell migration by suppressing the expressions of CDC42 and MMP9 (P<0.05), and might play an anticancer role through Akt signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Monotropein exerts its antitumor effects primarily by arresting the cell cycle, causing cell apoptosis, and inhibiting cell migration. This indicates a high potential for developing novel medication for treating CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Cell Cycle , ErbB Receptors , Apoptosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e245592, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355866

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent years, the development of high-throughput technologies for obtaining sequence data leveraged the possibility of analysis of protein data in silico. However, when it comes to viral polyprotein interaction studies, there is a gap in the representation of those proteins, given their size and length. The prepare for studies using state-of-the-art techniques such as Machine Learning, a good representation of such proteins is a must. We present an alternative to this problem, implementing a fragmentation and modeling protocol to prepare those polyproteins in the form of peptide fragments. Such procedure is made by several scripts, implemented together on the workflow we call PolyPRep, a tool written in Python script and available in GitHub. This software is freely available only for noncommercial users.


Resumo Nos últimos anos, o desenvolvimento de tecnologias de alto rendimento para obtenção de dados sequenciais potencializou a possibilidade de análise de dados proteicos in silico. No entanto, quando se trata de estudos de interação de poliproteínas virais, existe uma lacuna na representação dessas proteínas, devido ao seu tamanho e comprimento. Para estudos utilizando técnicas de ponta como o Aprendizado de Máquina, uma boa representação dessas proteínas é imprescindível. Apresentamos uma alternativa para este problema, implementando um protocolo de fragmentação e modelagem para preparar essas poliproteínas na forma de fragmentos de peptídeos. Tal procedimento é feito por diversos scripts, implementados em conjunto no workflow que chamamos de PolyPRep, uma ferramenta escrita em script Python e disponível no GitHub. Este software está disponível gratuitamente apenas para usuários não comerciais.


Subject(s)
HIV Protease , Polyproteins , Software , Molecular Docking Simulation
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 338-349, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer associated with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The androgen receptor (AR) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for luminal androgen receptor (LAR) TNBC. However, multiple studies have claimed that anti-androgen therapy for AR-positive TNBC only has limited clinical benefits. This study aimed to investigate the role of AR in TNBC and its detailed mechanism.@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry and TNBC tissue sections were applied to investigate AR and nectin cell adhesion molecule 4 (NECTIN4) expression in TNBC tissues. Then, in vitro and in vivo assays were used to explore the function of AR and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in TNBC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), molecular docking method, and luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify key molecules that affect the function of AR.@*RESULTS@#Based on the TNBC tissue array analysis, we revealed that ERβ and AR were positive in 21.92% (32/146) and 24.66% (36/146) of 146 TNBC samples, respectively, and about 13.70% (20/146) of TNBC patients were ERβ positive and AR positive. We further demonstrated the pro-tumoral effects of AR on TNBC cells, however, the oncogenic biology was significantly suppressed when ERβ transfection in LAR TNBC cell lines but not in AR-negative TNBC. Mechanistically, we identified that NECTIN4 promoter -42 bp to -28 bp was an AR response element, and that ERβ interacted with AR thus impeding the AR-mediated NECTIN4 transcription which promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor progression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggests that ERβ functions as a suppressor mediating the effect of AR in TNBC prognosis and cell proliferation. Therefore, our current research facilitates a better understanding of the role and mechanisms of AR in TNBC carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Androgens/therapeutic use , Estrogen Receptor beta/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/therapeutic use , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Cell Line, Tumor
4.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 62-74, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011012

ABSTRACT

Pathological vascular remodeling is a hallmark of various vascular diseases. Previous research has established the significance of andrographolide in maintaining gastric vascular homeostasis and its pivotal role in modulating endothelial barrier dysfunction, which leads to pathological vascular remodeling. Potassium dehydroandrographolide succinate (PDA), a derivative of andrographolide, has been clinically utilized in the treatment of inflammatory diseases precipitated by viral infections. This study investigates the potential of PDA in regulating pathological vascular remodeling. The effect of PDA on vascular remodeling was assessed through the complete ligation of the carotid artery in C57BL/6 mice. Experimental approaches, including rat aortic primary smooth muscle cell culture, flow cytometry, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, Boyden chamber cell migration assay, spheroid sprouting assay, and Matrigel-based tube formation assay, were employed to evaluate the influence of PDA on the proliferation and motility of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Molecular docking simulations and co-immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to examine protein interactions. The results revealed that PDA exacerbates vascular injury-induced pathological remodeling, as evidenced by enhanced neointima formation. PDA treatment significantly increased the proliferation and migration of SMCs. Further mechanistic studies disclosed that PDA upregulated myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) expression in SMCs and interacted with T-cadherin (CDH13). This interaction augmented proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix deposition, culminating in pathological vascular remodeling. Our findings underscore the critical role of PDA in the regulation of pathological vascular remodeling, mediated through the MyD88/CDH13 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Rats , Animals , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling , Cell Proliferation , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Carotid Artery Injuries/pathology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Movement , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction , Succinates/pharmacology , Potassium/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Diterpenes , Cadherins
5.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 47-61, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011011

ABSTRACT

Artemisia argyi (A. argyi), a plant with a longstanding history as a raw material for traditional medicine and functional diets in Asia, has been used traditionally to bathe and soak feet for its disinfectant and itch-relieving properties. Despite its widespread use, scientific evidence validating the antifungal efficacy of A. argyi water extract (AAWE) against dermatophytes, particularly Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Microsporum gypseum, remains limited. This study aimed to substantiate the scientific basis of the folkloric use of A. argyi by evaluating the antifungal effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its active subfraction against dermatophytes. The results indicated that AAWE exhibited excellent antifungal effects against the three aforementioned dermatophyte species. The subfraction AAWE6, isolated using D101 macroporous resin, emerged as the most potent subfraction. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AAWE6 against T. rubrum, M. gypseum, and T. mentagrophytes were 312.5, 312.5, and 625 μg·mL-1, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results and assays of enzymes linked to cell wall integrity and cell membrane function indicated that AAWE6 could penetrate the external protective barrier of T. rubrum, creating breaches ("small holes"), and disrupt the internal mitochondrial structure ("granary"). Furthermore, transcriptome data, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and biochemical assays corroborated the severe disruption of mitochondrial function, evidenced by inhibited tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and energy metabolism. Additionally, chemical characterization and molecular docking analyses identified flavonoids, primarily eupatilin (131.16 ± 4.52 mg·g-1) and jaceosidin (4.17 ± 0.18 mg·g-1), as the active components of AAWE6. In conclusion, the subfraction AAWE6 from A. argyi exerts antifungal effects against dermatophytes by disrupting mitochondrial morphology and function. This research validates the traditional use of A. argyi and provides scientific support for its anti-dermatophytic applications, as recognized in the Chinese patent (No. ZL202111161301.9).


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Arthrodermataceae , Artemisia/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mitochondria , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
6.
J. Health Sci. Inst ; 41(3): 147-152, jul-sep 2023. Figuras
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531513

ABSTRACT

Objetivos ­ Avaliar o potencial inibitório do ácido elágico sobre as interações do complexo Keap1-Nrf2, com o intuito de esclarecer um dos eventuais mecanismos associado à atividade antioxidante do ácido elágico. Métodos ­ Foram empregadas simulações de docagem molecular para prever o modo de ligação do ácido elágico no sítio ligante da proteína Keap1, o qual foi comparado com o modo de ligação obtido experimentalmente e descrito na literatura para o ligante natural, a proteína Nrf2, e um potente inibidor monoácido do complexo Keap1-Nrf2. Resultados ­ As simulações de docagem revelaram que o ácido elágico apresenta potencial para realizar uma rede de ligações de hidrogênio com resíduos de aminoácidos da proteína Keap1 considerados importantes para o reconhecimento do Nrf2, se assemelhando ao perfil observado para inibidores do complexo Keap1-Nrf2 descritos na literatura. Conclusão ­ O ácido elágico apresenta características químicas e espaciais favoráveis para a inibição do complexo Keap1-Nrf2 e a elucidação do seu modo de ligação pode auxiliar na identificação de novos produtos naturais com propriedades antioxidantes e potencializar o desenvolvimento de fármacos contra doenças crônico-degenerativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products , Drug Design , Oxidative Stress , Ellagic Acid , Molecular Docking Simulation , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , Antioxidants
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 153 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437804

ABSTRACT

Proteínas tirosina-fosfatase (PTPs) possuem papel fundamental na regulação da transdução de sinais e estão envolvidas em diversos processos fundamentais do ciclo celular. As Cdc25 (Cell Division Cycle 25) são fosfatases duais encontradas em todos os organismos eucarióticos e atuam em checkpoints do ciclo celular, permitindo ou inibindo o prosseguimento deste. Este grupo de proteínas pertence à classe de PTPs com atividade baseada em cisteína, apresenta domínio catalítico altamente conservado assim como o motivo catalítico, P-loop. Devido sua função, as Cdc25 são consideradas possíveis alvos terapêuticos para tratamento de câncer e sua interação com pequenas moléculas e inibidores tem sido investigada de forma que análises estruturais e de ligação das Cdc25 com inibidores podem elucidar aspectos importantes do mecanismo de ação destes além de direcionar para o desenho racional de fármacos. Interações cátion-π são interações intra ou intermoleculares não-covalentes que ocorrem entre uma espécie química catiônica, como o grupo guanidino de argininas, e uma das faces de um sistema π rico em elétrons, como dos anéis indólicos de triptofanos. Apesar de pouco discutidas na literatura, quando em comparação às interações não-covalentes mais convencionais, do ponto de vista energético as interações cátion-π são tão importantes na estruturação de proteínas quanto às ligações de hidrogênio ou pontes salinas. De fato estas interações são observadas com frequência em estruturas proteicas resolvidas. O domínio catalítico da Cdc25B possui diversas argininas expostas em sua superfície e um único resíduo de triptofano localizado na região C-terminal flexível, muito próximo do sítio catalítico da proteína. A flexibilidade de proteínas ou de regiões proteicas apresenta importante papel no reconhecimento entre biomoléculas participantes de vias de sinalização e tem sido muito estudada atualmente. Aqui, simulações de dinâmica molecular, experimentos de 1H-15N HSQC RMN, ensaios de cinética de inibição e de ancoragem molecular, evidenciam a existência de contatos cátion-π transientes na superfície de um importante membro da família das Cdc25, a Cdc25B, e de sítios de interação entre inibidores testados e a proteína com destaque a sítios na proximidades do P-loop, região próxima ao C-terminal desordenado, onde se demonstra estabilidade da interação com os pequenos ligantes


Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPs) play a fundamental role in the regulation of signal transduction and are involved in several fundamental processes of the cell cycle. Cdc25 (Cell Division Cycle 25) are dual phosphatases found in all eukaryotic organisms and act at checkpoints of the cell cycle, allowing or inhibiting its progression. This group of proteins belongs to the class of PTPs with cysteine-based activity, presenting a highly conserved catalytic domain as well as the catalytic motif, P-loop. Due to their function, Cdc25 are considered possible therapeutic targets for cancer treatment and their interaction with small molecules and inhibitors has been investigated so that structural and binding analyzes of Cdc25 with inhibitors can elucidate important aspects of their mechanism of action besides directing to rational drug design. Cation-π interactions are non-covalent intra- or intermolecular interactions that occur between a cationic chemical species, such as the guanidino group of arginines, and one of the faces of an electron-rich system, such as the indole rings of tryptophans. Although little discussed in the literature, when compared to more conventional non-covalent interactions, from the energetic point of view, cation-π interactions are as important in the structuring of proteins as hydrogen bonds or salt bridges. In fact, these interactions are frequently observed in solved protein structures. The catalytic domain of Cdc25B has several arginines exposed on its surface and a single tryptophan residue located in the flexible C-terminal region, very close to the catalytic site of the protein. The flexibility of proteins or protein regions plays an important role in the recognition between biomolecules participating in signaling pathways and has been extensively studied today. Here, molecular dynamics simulations, 1H-15N HSQC NMR experiments, inhibition kinetics and molecular anchoring assays, evidence the existence of transient cation-π contacts on the surface of an important member of the Cdc25 family, Cdc25B, and of sites of interaction between tested inhibitors and the protein, with emphasis on sites in the vicinity of the P-loop, a region close to the disordered C-terminus, where stability of the interaction with the small ligands is demonstrated


Subject(s)
cdc25 Phosphatases/analysis , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation/classification
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e19544, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429970

ABSTRACT

Abstract A new series of N-Mannich bases of 2-Phenyl-5-benzimidazole sulfonic acid have been synthesized through amino methylation reaction with secondary amines. The two moieties were held together through a methylene bridge, which comes from formaldehyde (Formalin Solution 37%) used in the reaction. Chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed using FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. Different in vitro assays including Anti-oxidant, Enzyme inhibition, Anti-microbial and Cytotoxicity assay were performed to evaluate the biological potential with reference to the standard drug. Among the synthesized library, compound 3a shows maximum alpha-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 66.66 µg/ml, compound 3d was found most toxic with LC50 value of 10.17 µg/ml. ADME evaluation studies were performed with the help of Molinspiration online software. Docking calculations were also performed. Given the importance of the nucleus involved, the synthesized compound might find extensive medicinal applications as reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Benzimidazoles/agonists , Mannich Bases/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Sulfonic Acids/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , alpha-Glucosidases/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Methylation
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 1066-1076, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the protective effect of Huoxin Pill (HXP) on acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIRI) injury in rats.@*METHODS@#Seventy-five adult SD rats were divided into the sham-operated group, model group, positive drug group (diltiazem hydrochloride, DH), high dose group (24 mg/kg, HXP-H) and low dose group (12 mg/kg, HXP-L) of Huoxin Pill (n=15 for every group) according to the complete randomization method. After 1 week of intragastric administration, the left anterior descending coronary artery of the rat's heart was ligated for 45 min and reperfused for 3 h. Serum was separated and the levels of creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured. Myocardial ischemia rate, myocardial infarction rate and myocardial no-reflow rate were determined by staining with Evans blue and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) and Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN) databases were used to screen for possible active compounds of HXP and their potential therapeutic targets; the results of anti-inflammatory genes associated with MIRI were obtained from GeneCards, Drugbank, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and Therapeutic Target Datebase (TTD) databases was performed; Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment were used to analyze the intersected targets; molecular docking was performed using AutoDock Tools. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB)/NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, all doses of HXP significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CK and CK-MB (P<0.05, P<0.01); HXP significantly increased serum activity of SOD (P<0.05, P<0.01); all doses of HXP significantly reduced the levels of hs-CRP and IL-1β (P<0.05, P<0.01) and the myocardial infarction rate and myocardial no-reflow rate (P<0.01). GO enrichment analysis mainly involved positive regulation of gene expression, extracellular space and identical protein binding, KEGG pathway enrichment mainly involved PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and lipid and atherosclerosis. Molecular docking results showed that kaempferol and luteolin had a better affinity with TLR4, NFκB and NLRP3 molecules. The protein expressions of TLR4, NFκB and NLRP3 were reduced in the HXP group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HXP has a significant protective effect on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and its effect may be related to the inhibition of redox response and reduction of the inflammatory response by inhibiting the TLR4NFκB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , C-Reactive Protein , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Signal Transduction , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Creatine Kinase , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
10.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 1087-1098, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the potential molecular mechanism of tetrahydropalmatine (THP) on acute myocardial ischemia (AMI).@*METHODS@#First, the target genes of THP and AMI were collected from SymMap Database, Traditional Chinese Medicine Database and Analysis Platform, and Swiss Target Prediction, respectively. Then, the overlapping target genes between THP and AMI were evaluated for Grene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network analysis. The binding affinity between the protein and THP was assessed by molecular docking. Finally, the protective effects of THP on AMI model and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model of H9C2 cardiomyocyte were explored and the expression levels of target genes were detected by RT-qPCR in vivo and in vitro.@*RESULTS@#MMP9, PPARG, PTGS2, SLC6A4, ESR1, JAK2, GSK3B, NOS2 and AR were recognized as hub genes. The KEGG enrichment analysis results revealed that the potential target genes of THP were involved in the regulation of PPAR and hormone pathways. THP improved the cardiac function, as well as alleviated myocardial cell damage. Furthermore, THP significantly decreased the RNA expression levels of MMP9, PTGS2, SLC6A4, GSK3B and ESR1 (P<0.05, P<0.01) after AMI. In vitro, THP significantly increased H9C2 cardiomyocyte viability (P<0.05, P<0.01) and inhibited the RNA expression levels of PPARG, ESR1 and AR (P<0.05, P<0.01) in OGD model.@*CONCLUSIONS@#THP could improve cardiac function and alleviate myocardial injury in AMI. The underlying mechanism may be inhibition of inflammation, the improvement of energy metabolism and the regulation of hormones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Network Pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Molecular Docking Simulation , PPAR gamma , Myocardial Ischemia/genetics , Glucose , RNA , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 1077-1086, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Guanxin V, which is prescribed for ventricular remodeling in clinical practice.@*METHODS@#Guanxin V-, ventricular remodeling-, and inflammation-related targets were obtained through an integrated strategy of virtual screening and systematic pharmacology, and then the shared targets were visualised with a Venn diagram. Guanxin V network and the protein-protein interaction network were drawn, and enrichment analysis was conducted. Finally, the main results obtained from the integrated strategy were validated by molecular docking and in vivo experiments.@*RESULTS@#A total of 251, 11,425, and 15,246 Guanxin V-, ventricular remodeling-, and inflammation-related targets were acquired, respectively. Then, 211 shared targets were considered to contribute to the mechanism of ventricular remodeling treated by Guanxin V. Guanxin network and the protein-protein interaction network were drawn, and enrichment analysis showed some cardiovascular-related biological processes and signaling pathways. Molecular docking revealed that the Guanxin V-derived compounds could align with key targets. Final in vivo experiments proved that Guanxin V reverses ventricular remodeling by inhibiting inflammation.@*CONCLUSION@#Guanxin V relieves ventricular remodeling by regulating inflammation, which provides new ideas for the anti-ventricular remodeling mechanism of Guanxin V.


Subject(s)
Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling , Inflammation/drug therapy
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 516-526, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982721

ABSTRACT

Lignans derived from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (Eucommia lignans) inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, while their effect on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remained unclear. This work was designed to assess the function of Eucommia lignans in DN. The major constituents of Eucommia lignans were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The binding between Eucommia lignans and aldose reductase (AR) was predicted by molecular docking. Eucommia lignans (200, 100, and 50 mg·kg-1) were used in model animals to evaluate their renal function changes. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) were transfected with sh-AR, sh-AMPK, and oe-AR in the presence of high glucose (HG) or HG combined with Eucommia lignans to evaluate whether Eucommia lignans affected HG-induced cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction through the AR/Nrf2/HO-1/AMPK axis. Eucommia lignans significantly attenuated the progression of DN in vivo. Eucommia lignans notably reversed HG-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial injury, while downregulating the levels of Cyto c, caspase 9, AR, and NOX4 in HBZY-1 cells. In contrast, HG-induced downregulation of Nrf2, HO-1 and p-AMPKα levels were abolished by Eucommia lignans. Meanwhile, knockdown of AR exerted similar therapeutic effect of Eucommia lignans on DN progression, and AR overexpression reversed the effect of Eucommia lignans. Eucommia lignans alleviated renal injury through the AR/Nrf2/HO-1/AMPK axis. Thus, these findings might provide evidence for the use of Eucommia lignans in treating DN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Eucommiaceae/metabolism , Lignans/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 459-480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982717

ABSTRACT

Chang-Kang-Fang (CKF) formula, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, its potential material basis and underlying mechanism remain elusive. Therefore, this study employed an integrated approach that combined ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) with network pharmacology to systematically characterize the phytochemical components and metabolites of CKF, as well as elucidating its underlying mechanism. Through this comprehensive analysis, a total of 150 components were identified or tentatively characterized within the CKF formula. Notably, six N-acetyldopamine oligomers from CicadaePeriostracum and eight resin glycosides from Cuscutae Semen were characterized in this formula for the first time. Meanwhile, 149 xenobiotics (58 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were detected in plasma, urine, feces, brain, and intestinal contents, and the in vivo metabolic pathways of resin glycosides were elaborated for the first time. Furthermore, network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses revealed that alkaloids, flavonoids, chromones, monoterpenes, N-acetyldopamine dimers, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, and Cus-3/isomer might be responsible for the beneficial effects of CKF in treating IBS, and CASP8, MARK14, PIK3C, PIK3R1, TLR4, and TNF may be its potential targets. These discoveries offer a comprehensive understanding of the potential material basis and clarify the underlying mechanism of the CKF formula in treating IBS, facilitating the broader application of CKF in the field of medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycosides , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 253-262, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982697

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Qianjin Wenwu decoction (QWD), a well-known traditional Korean medicine, has been used for the treatment of DKD, with satisfactory therapeutic effects. This study was designed to investigate the active components and mechanisms of action of QWD in the treatment of DKD. The results demonstrated that a total of 13 active components in five types were found in QWD, including flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, phenylpropionic acids, saponins, coumarins, and lignins. Two key proteins, TGF-β1 and TIMP-1, were identified as the target proteins through molecular docking. Furthermore, QWD significantly suppressed Scr and BUN levels which increased after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and Masson staining results demonstrated that QWD significantly alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis in UUO mice. We also found that QWD promoted ECM degradation by regulating MMP-9/TIMP-1 homeostasis to improve renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and interfere with the expression and activity of TGF- β1 in DKD treatment. These findings explain the underlying mechanism of QWD for the treatment of DKD, and also provide methodological reference for investigating the mechanism of traditional medicine in the treatment of DKD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Ureteral Obstruction/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Fibrosis
15.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 476-481, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of ursolic acid in treating sepsis using myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) as the research carrier.@*METHODS@#The affinity of ursolic acid and MD-2 was determined by biofilm interferometry technique, and the bonding mode between ursolic acid and MD-2 was tested with the aid of molecular docking technique. Raw 264.7 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium and subcultured was conducted when the cell density reached 80%-90%. The second-generation cells were used for in the experiment. The effects of 8, 40 and 100 mg/L ursolic acid on cell viability were assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. Cells were divided into blank group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (LPS 100 μg/L) and ursolic acid group (100 μg/L LPS treatment after addition of 8, 40 or 100 mg/L ursolic acid). The effect of ursolic acid on the release of cytokines nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The influence of ursolic acid on the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The implication of ursolic acid on the protein expressions of LPS-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MD-2-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway were tested by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Ursolic acid could bind to the hydrophobic cavity of MD-2 through hydrophobic bond with the amino acid residues of the protein. Therefore, ursolic acid showed high affinity with MD-2 [dissociation constant (KD) = 1.43×10-4]. The cell viability were decreased slightly, with the concentration of ursolic acid increasing, and the cell viability of 8, 40 and 100 mg/L ursolic acid were 96.01%, 94.32% and 92.12%, respectively, and there was no significant difference compared with the blank group (100%). Compared with the blank group, the cytokine level of the LPS group was significantly increased. The level of cytokines were significantly reduced by the treatment of 8, 40 and 100 mg/L ursolic acid, and the higher the concentration, the more obvious effect [compared between 100 mg/L ursolic acid group and LPS group: IL-1β (μmol/L): 38.018±0.675 vs. 111.324±1.262, IL-6 (μmol/L): 35.052±1.664 vs. 115.255±5.392, TNF-α (μmol/L): 39.078±2.741 vs. 119.035±4.269, NO (μmol/L): 40.885±2.372 vs. 123.405±1.291, all P < 0.01]. Compared with the blank group, the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS and COX-2 in the LPS group were significantly increased, and the protein expressions of MD-2, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation NF-κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) and iNOS in the LPS-TLR4/MD-2-NF-κB pathway were significantly up-regulated. Compared with the LPS group, the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS and COX-2 were significantly reduced by the treatment of 100 mg/L ursolic acid bound with MD-2 protein [TNF-α (2-ΔΔCt): 4.659±0.821 vs. 8.652±0.787, IL-6 (2-ΔΔCt): 4.296±0.802 vs. 11.132±1.615, IL-1β (2-ΔΔCt): 4.482±1.224 vs. 11.758±1.324, iNOS (2-ΔΔCt): 1.785±0.529 vs. 4.249±0.811, COX-2 (2-ΔΔCt): 5.591±1.586 vs. 16.953±1.651, all P < 0.01], and the proteins expressions of MD-2, MyD88, p-NF-κB p65 and iNOS in the LPS-TLR4/MD-2-NF-κB pathway were significantly down-regulated (MD-2/β-actin: 0.191±0.038 vs. 0.704±0.049, MyD88/β-actin: 0.470±0.042 vs. 0.875±0.058, p-NF-κB p65/β-actin: 0.178±0.012 vs. 0.571±0.012, iNOS/β-actin: 0.247±0.035 vs. 0.549±0.033, all P < 0.01). However, there was no difference in protein expression of NF-κB p65 among the three groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ursolic acid inhibits the release and expression of cytokines and mediators and regulates LPS-TLR4/MD-2-NF-κB signaling pathway by blocking MD-2 protein, and thus plays an anti-sepsis role.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Actins , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Lymphocyte Antigen 96 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , NF-kappa B , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Sepsis , Cytokines , Cell Differentiation , RNA, Messenger
16.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 290-303, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982563

ABSTRACT

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. It is urgent to develop new drugs to improve the prognosis of ESCC patients. Here, we found benzydamine, a locally acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, had potent cytotoxic effect on ESCC cells. Benzydamine could suppress ESCC proliferation in vivo and in vitro. In terms of mechanism, CDK2 was identified as a target of benzydamine by molecular docking, pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay. Specifically, benzydamine inhibited the growth of ESCC cells by inhibiting CDK2 activity and affecting downstream phosphorylation of MCM2, c-Myc and Rb, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Our study illustrates that benzydamine inhibits the growth of ESCC cells by downregulating the CDK2 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzydamine , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphorylation , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248024, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355855

ABSTRACT

Abstract By applying the in-silico method, resveratrol was docked on those proteins which are responsible for bone loss. The Molecular docking data between the resveratrol and Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand [RANKL] receptors proved that resveratrol binds tightly to the receptors, showed the highest binding affinities of −6.9, −7.6, −7.1, −6.9, −6.7, and −7.1 kcal/mol. According to in-vitro data, Resveratrol reduced the osteoclasts after treating Marrow-Derived Macrophages [BMM] with Macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF] 20ng / ml and RANKL 50ng / ml, with different concentrations of resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) For 7 days, the cells were treated with MCSF (20 ng / ml) and RANKL (40 ng / ml) together with concentrated trimethyl ether and resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) within 12 hours. Which, not affect cell survival. After fixing osteoclast cells with formaldehyde fixative on glass coverslip followed by incubation with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5 min and after that stain with rhodamine phalloidin staining for actin and Hoechst for nuclei. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to see the distribution of filaments actin [F.actin]. Finally, resveratrol reduced the actin ring formation. Resveratrol is the best bioactive compound for drug preparation against bone loss.


Resumo Com a aplicação do método in-silico, o resveratrol foi ancorado nas proteínas responsáveis ​​pela perda óssea. Os dados de docking molecular entre o resveratrol e o ligante do receptor ativador do fator nuclear kappa-Β [Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligant (RANKL)] provaram que o resveratrol se liga fortemente aos receptores, mostraram as afinidades de ligação mais altas de −6,9, −7,6, −7,1, −6,9, - 6,7 e -7,1 kcal / mol. De acordo com dados in-vitro, o resveratrol reduziu os osteoclastos após o tratamento de macrófagos derivados da medula óssea [Bone Marrow-derived Macrophage (BMM)] com fator estimulador de colônias de macrófagos [Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (MCSF)] 20ng / ml e RANKL 50ng / ml, com diferentes concentrações de resveratrol (2,5, 10 μg / ml). Durante sete dias, as células foram tratadas com MCSF (20 ng / ml) e RANKL (40 ng / ml) juntamente com éter trimetílico concentrado e resveratrol (2,5, 10 μg / ml) em 12 horas, processo que não afeta a sobrevivência celular. Após a fixação de células de osteoclastos com fixador de formaldeído em lamela de vidro seguido de incubação com 0,1% Triton X-100 em PBS por 5 min, foi realizado posteriormente o procedimento para corar com rodamina faloidina a actina e Hoechst os núcleos. A microscopia de fluorescência foi realizada para ver a distribuição dos filamentos de actina [F.actina]. Finalmente, o resveratrol reduziu a formação do anel de actina. O resveratrol é o melhor composto bioativo para o preparo de medicamentos contra a perda óssea.


Subject(s)
Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Cell Differentiation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Resveratrol/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247604, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339370

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.


Resumo No presente relatório, estudamos os possíveis inibidores de Covid-19 de constituintes bioativos de Centaurea jacea usando uma abordagem tripla que consiste em técnicas de química quântica, docking molecular e dinâmica molecular. Centaurea jacea é uma erva perene frequentemente usada em remédios populares de doenças dermatológicas e febre. Além disso, as propriedades anticâncer, antioxidante, antibacteriana e antiviral de seus compostos bioativos também são relatadas. A Mpro (proteases principais) foi acoplada a diferentes compostos de Centaurea jacea por meio de docking molecular. Todos os compostos estudados, incluindo apigenina, axilarina, Centaureidina, Cirsiliol, Eupatorina e Isokaempferide, mostram afinidades de ligação adequadas ao sítio de ligação da protease principal SARS-CoV-2 com suas energias de ligação -6,7 kcal / mol, -7,4 kcal / mol, - 7,0 kcal / mol, -5,8 kcal / mol, -6,2 kcal / mol e -6,8 kcal / mol, respectivamente. Dentre todos os compostos estudados, a axilarina apresentou eficiência máxima de inibidor, seguida pela Centaureidina, Isokaempferida, Apigenina, Eupatorina e Cirsiliol. Nossos resultados sugeriram que a axilarina se liga aos resíduos catalíticos mais cruciais CYS145 e HIS41 do Mpro, além disso a axilarina mostra 5 interações de ligações de hidrogênio e 5 interações hidrofóbicas com vários resíduos de Mpro. Além disso, os cálculos de dinâmica molecular em uma escala de tempo de 60 ns (6 × 106 femtossegundos) também mostraram percepções significativas sobre os efeitos de ligação da axilarina com Mpro de SARS-CoV-2 por imitação de proteínas como o ambiente aquoso. A partir de cálculos de dinâmica molecular, os cálculos RMSD e RMSF indicam a estabilidade e dinâmica do melhor complexo ancorado em ambiente aquoso. As propriedades ADME e a análise de previsão de toxicidade da axilarina também a recomendaram como um candidato a medicamento seguro. Além disso, as investigações in vivo e in vitro são essenciais para garantir a atividade anti-SARS-CoV-2 de todos os compostos bioativos, particularmente a axilarina, para encorajar o uso preventivo de Centaurea jacea contra infecções por Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Centaurea , COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 233-243, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the potential mechanism of Yishen Qutong Granules (YSQTG) for the treatment of esophageal cancer using network pharmacology and experimental research.@*METHODS@#The effective components and molecular mechanism of YSQTG in treating esophageal cancer were expounded based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. The key compound was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to verify the malignant phenotype of the key compounds in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Then, the interaction proteins of key compounds were screened by pull-down assay combined with mass spectrometry. RNA-seq was used to screen the differential genes in the treatment of esophageal cancer by key compounds, and the potential mechanism of key compounds on the main therapeutic targets was verified.@*RESULTS@#Totally 76 effective compounds of YSQTG were found, as well as 309 related targets, and 102 drug and disease interaction targets. The drug-compound-target network of YSQTG was constructed, suggesting that quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, kaempferol and baicalein may be the most important compounds, while quercetin had higher degree value and degree centrality, which might be the key compound in YSQTG. The HPLC-MS results also showed the stable presence of quercetin in YSQTG. By establishing a protein interaction network, the main therapeutic targets of YSQTG in treating esophageal cancer were Jun proto-oncogene, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and RELA proto-oncogene. The results of cell function experiments in vitro showed that quercetin could inhibit proliferation, invasion, and clonal formation of esophageal carcinoma cells. Quercetin mainly affected the biological processes of esophageal cancer cells, such as proliferation, cell cycle, and cell metastasis. A total of 357 quercetin interacting proteins were screened, and 531 genes were significantly changed. Further pathway enrichment analysis showed that quercetin mainly affects the metabolic pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B) signaling pathway, etc. Quercetin, the key compound of YSQTG, had stronger binding activity by molecular docking. Pull-down assay confirmed that NF- κ B was a quercetin-specific interaction protein, and quercetin could significantly reduce the protein level of NF- κ B, the main therapeutic target.@*CONCLUSION@#YSQTG can be multi-component, multi-target, multi-channel treatment of esophageal cancer, it is a potential drug for the treatment of esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Network Pharmacology , Quercetin , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Esophageal Neoplasms , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 244-252, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of the effect of Astragalus membranaceus (A. membranaceus) on lung adenocarcinoma at the molecular level to elucidate the specific targets according to the network pharmacology approach.@*METHODS@#The active components of A. membranaceus and their potential targets were collected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database. Lung adenocarcinoma-associated genes were acquired based on GeneCards, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), PharmGKB, and Therapeutic Targets databases. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related genes were obtained using Reactome portal. Networks of "ingredient-target" and "ingredient-target-pathway-disease" were constructed using the Cytoscape3.6.0 software. The relationships among targets were analyzed according protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Finally, molecular docking was applied to construct the binding conformation between active ingredients and core targets. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and Western blot assays were performed to determine the mechanism of the key ingredient of A. membranaceus.@*RESULTS@#A total of 20 active components and their 329 targets, and 7,501 lung adenocarcinoma-related genes and 130 PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related genes were obtained. According to Venn diagram and PPI network analysis, 2 mainly active ingredients, including kaempferol and quercetin, and 6 core targets, including TP53, MAPK1, EGF, AKT1, ERBB2, and EGFR, were identified. The two important active ingredients of A. membranaceus, kaempferol and quercetin, exert the therapeutic effect in lung adenocarcinoma partly by acting on the 6 core targets (TP53, MAPK1, EGF, AKT1, ERBB2, and EGFR) of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Expressions of potential targets in lung adenocarcinoma and normal samples were analyzed by using UALCAN portal and found that ERBB2 was overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and upregulation of it correlated with clinicopathological characteristics. Finally, quercetin repressed viabilities of lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting ERBB2 on PI3K/AKT signaling confirmed by CCK8 and Western blot.@*CONCLUSION@#Our finding unraveled that an active ingredient of A. membranaceus, quercetin, significantly inhibited the lung adenocarcinoma cells proliferation by repressing ERBB2 level and inactivating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astragalus propinquus , Kaempferols , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Epidermal Growth Factor , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quercetin , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Signal Transduction , ErbB Receptors , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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