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Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 33-40, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970968


Spondyloptosis in the clinic is rarely reported. We herein present a 47-year-old female, who suffered from a crush injury directly by a heavy cylindrical object from the lateral side. She was diagnosed to have traumatic L3 spondyloptosis with multiple traumas. Staged surgical procedures were conducted and a three-year follow-up was obtained. Eventually, normal spinal alignment was restored, and neurological deficits were gradually improved. At three years follow-up, the motor strength scores and function of the sphincters were incompletely improved. Previously published reports on traumatic lumbar spondyloptosis were reviewed and several critical points for management of this severe type of spinal injury were proposed. First, thoracolumbar and lumbosacral junction were mostly predilection sites. Second, numerous patients involving traumatic lumbar spondyloptosis were achieved to American Spinal Injury Association grade A. Third, lumbar spondyloptosis was commonly coupling with cauda equina injury. Finally, the outcomes were still with poorly prognosis and recovery of patients was correlation to spondyloptosis severity. Based on this case report and literatures review, we highlighted that the spinal alignment restoration relying on staged operations and following rehabilitation hereof are both important once facing with multiple traumas. Furthermore, we suggested to perform routine CT angiography during lumbar spondyloptosis to justify whether there are large vessel compression or injury.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Spondylolisthesis/surgery , Spinal Injuries , Multiple Trauma/complications
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 294-299, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362338


Introduction Spinal cord injury (SCI) is common in polytrauma patients. The standard exam for the initial evaluation is computed tomography (CT), due to its higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with plain radiographs. However, CT is insufficient for themanagement of some cases, especially to evaluate ligamentous and spinal cord injuries. The objective of the present study is to describe clinical scenarios in which the CT scan was insufficient to guide the treatment of SCIs. Methods We present the cases of four polytrauma patients with normal CT scans at admission and with unstable or surgically-treated lesions. Discussion The cases reported evidence the need for ongoing neurological surveillance with serial physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cases of neurological injury not explained by CT or occult instability. Conclusion Computed tomography is not always sufficient to determine the management of SCIs. A comprehensive evaluation of the clinical data, CT findings and, occasionally, MRI findings is crucial in order to choose the best conduct.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Multiple Trauma/complications , Neurologic Manifestations
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 17(3): 1-13, set.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991033


Introducción: El trauma es considerado un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. También es causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo y causas de mortalidad en pacientes politraumatizados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo en pacientes politraumatizados mayores de 18 años intervenidos quirúrgicamente en la unidad de urgencias del Hospital Universitario General Calixto García durante un año de observación. Se describieron variables sociodemográficas, se estimaron los tiempos de atención médica inicial y se describió la condición clínica del paciente al llegar al quirófano. Igualmente se relacionó la aparición de muerte con el trauma predominante y otros factores perioperatorios. Se utilizaron procederes estadísticos univariados para factores de riesgo y análisis multivariado para predecir factores pronósticos de mortalidad. Resultados: Hubo una asociación significativa entre mortalidad y presencia de diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial como enfermedades asociadas; entre el trauma múltiple con trauma craneoencefálico, la presencia de shock hipovolémico, uso de aminas y Glasgow por debajo de ocho al llegar al quirófano, así como la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, hipertensión endocraneal e insuficiencia respiratoria aguda como complicaciones perioperatorias. Como factores pronósticos de muerte se identificaron el shock hipovolémico, la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y el menor Glasgow. Conclusiones: Se identificaron nueve factores de riesgo con significación estadística y tres factores pronósticos de riesgo independiente para mortalidad en pacientes politraumatizados(AU)

Introduction: Trauma is considered a public health problem worldwide. It is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Objective: To identify risk factors and causes of death in polytraumatized patients. Methods: A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study was carried out in polytraumatized patients aged more than 18 years and surgically treated in the emergency unit of General Calixto García University Hospital during one year of observation. Sociodemographic variables were described, initial medical attention times were estimated, and the patient's clinical condition was described upon arrival at the operating room. The occurrence of death was considered based on its association with the predominant trauma and other perioperative factors. Univariate statistical procedures were used for risk factors. Multivariate analysis was used to predict prognostic factors for mortality. Results: There was a significant association between mortality and presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as associated diseases; as well as between multiple trauma with cranioencephalic trauma, the presence of hypovolemic shock, use of amines and Glasgow score below eight on arrival at the operating room, as well as the systemic inflammatory response, intracranial hypertension and acute respiratory failure as perioperative complications. Prognostic factors for death were hypovolemic shock, the systemic inflammatory response and lower Glasgow score. Conclusions: We identified nine risk factors with statistical significance and three prognostic factors of independent risk for mortality in polytraumatized patients(AU)

Humans , Multiple Trauma/complications , Multiple Trauma/mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies
Rev. méd. hondur ; 83(1/2): 33-37, ene.-jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-942


Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de los Trauma Vascular Periférico en pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Escuela Universitario. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo incluyendo a todos los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital desde 01 de febrero de 2014 hasta el 28 de febrero de 2015. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas. Resultados: Se encontraron 21 pacientes con trauma vascular periférico, de los cuales el 100% pertenecen al sexo masculino, la edad frecuentemente afectada es entre los 20 a 29 años 38.1 %. El tipo de trauma encontrado fue trauma abierto en un 100%. La causa de lesión vascular más frecuente fue la agresión 66.67%. Los mecanismos de lesión encontrados fueron: herida por arma de fuego 76.19%, herida por arma blanca 19.05% e iatrogénico en un paciente 4.76%. Los miembros inferiores fueron la parte más afectada con un 52.38%. No hubo mortalidad. Conclusión: Las heridas por traumas vasculares periféricos son cada vez más frecuentes en nuestro medio y el diagnóstico y tratamiento no es difícil en la mayoría de los casos...(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Cerebrovascular Trauma , Multiple Trauma/complications , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Wounds, Penetrating/classification
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 269-274, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128624


A 30-year-old male was involved in a car accident. Radiographs revealed a depressed marginal fracture of the medial tibial plateau and an avulsion fracture of the fibular head. Magnetic resonance imaging showed avulsion fracture of Gerdy's tubercle, injury to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), posterior horn of the medial meniscus, and the attachments of the lateral collateral ligament and the biceps femoris tendon. The depressed fracture of the medial tibial plateau was elevated and stabilized using a cannulated screw and washer. The injured lateral and posterolateral corner (PLC) structures were repaired and augmented by PLC reconstruction. However, the avulsion fracture of Gerdy's tubercle was not fixed because it was minimally displaced and the torn PCL was also not repaired or reconstructed. We present a unique case of pure varus injury to the knee joint. This case contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of knee injury and provides insight regarding appropriate treatment plans for this type of injury.

Adult , Humans , Male , Fibula/injuries , Knee Injuries/complications , Multiple Trauma/complications , Tibial Fractures/complications
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 68(1): 30-34, jan.-mar. 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-715017


Traumas dentários envolvem dentes anteriores, influenciando função e estética de crianças e adultos jovens de diversas idades em diferentes especialidades odontológicas. Os dentes mais frequentemente envolvidos são incisivos centrais superiores, incisivos laterais superiores e incisivos centrais inferiores. A proposta deste trabalho foi apresentar caso clínico de traumatismo envolvendo fratura óssea em bloco. Após acidente o paciente foi atendido e ao exame clínico constatou-se fratura em bloco dos elementos dentais 42,41,31,32 e avulsão do 33 com tecido gengival e mucoso dilacerados. Radiograficamente observou-se fratura horizontal do osso mandibular, avulsão dos dentes de seus alvéolos em bloco e diversos fragmentos ósseos. Seguiu-se cirurgia imediata, valendo-se de contenção emergencial com microparafuso e após 7 dias removeu-se a sutura. Realizou-se acompanhamento em 14,21 e 28 dias e após 3 meses foi realizado tratamento endodôntico dos dentes 31, 32, 41 e 42. Os procedimentos realizados alcançaram êxito após a realização dos atendimentos.

Dental traumas involve anterior teeth, affecting both function and aesthetics of children and young adults of different ages in different dental specialties The teeth most frequently involved are the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and mandibular central incisors. The airn of this work is to present a clinical case of injury involving bone block fracture. After the accident, the patient underwent clinical examination, which revealed block fracture of dental elements 42, 41, 31, 32 and avulsion of 33 with laceration of the gingival and mucosal tissue. Radiographic results revealed horizontal fracture of the jawbone, tooth avulsion of its wells in the block and several bone fragments. Patient underwent immediate surgery using emergency containment with micro-screws, and suture was removed seven days after. Monitoring was performed at 14,21 and 28 days and endodontic treatment of teeth 31,32,41 and 42 was performed 3 months after. Ali procedures were successful.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Tooth Fractures/rehabilitation , Mandibular Fractures , Tooth Injuries , Gingiva , Multiple Trauma/complications , Tooth Injuries/therapy
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(11): 1420-1426, nov. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-704569


Background: Patients who have suffered multiple traumatic injuries, have a serious risk for death. Hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy are three complications in these patients, whose presence is known as lethal triad and indicates bad prognosis.Aim: To determine if the lethal triad in multiple trauma patients is associated withhigher mortality and Injury Score Severity (ISS). Material and Methods: Onehundred multiple trauma patients aged 26 to 56 years (90 males), admitted toan emergency room, were studied. Body temperature, prothrombin time, partialthromboplastin time, platelet count and blood gases were determined on admission.Results: Twenty six patients had the lethal triad and 15% died in the emergencyroom within the first 6 hours. No death was recorded among the 74 patients withoutthe lethal triad. The mean ISS among patients with and without the lethal triad was31.7 and 25.6, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of the lethal triadamong patients with multiple trauma is associated with a higher mortality and ISS.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acidosis/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Hypothermia/etiology , Multiple Trauma/complications , Acidosis/mortality , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hypothermia/mortality , Injury Severity Score , Multiple Trauma/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
J. bras. nefrol ; 35(1): 48-56, jan.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670916


A Injúria Renal Aguda (IRA) no contexto do paciente politraumatizado ocorre, na maioria das vezes, por uma conjuntura de fatores que passam por eventos correlacionados à ressuscitação volêmica inicial, ao grau de resposta inflamatória sistêmica associada ao trauma, ao uso de contraste iodado para procedimentos diagnósticos, à rabdomiólise e à síndrome compartimental abdominal. Atualmente, passamos por uma fase de uniformização dos critérios diagnósticos da IRA com o Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN), sendo a referência mais aceita. Consequentemente, o estudo da IRA no politraumatismo também passa por uma fase de reformulação. Esta revisão da literatura médica visa trazer dados epidemiológicos, fisiológicos e de implicação clínica para o manuseio destes pacientes, bem como expor os riscos do uso indiscriminado de expansores volêmicos e particularidades sobre a instituição de terapia renal substitutiva em indivíduos sob risco de hipertensão intracraniana.

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in trauma is, in most cases, multifactorial. Factors related to the initial ressuscitation protocol, degree of the systemic inflamatory response to trauma, contrast nephropathy in diagnostic procedures, rhabdomyolysis and abdominal compartment syndrome are some of those factors. Nowadays a uniformization in diagnostic criteria for AKI has been proposed by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and as a result the incidence of AKI and its impact in outcomes in trauma patients also needs to be reconsider. In this review we aim to approach epidemiologic, physiologic and clinical relevant data in the critical care of patients victims of trauma and also to expose the risks of indiscriminate use of volume expanders and the interaction between renal replacement theraphy and intracranial hypertension.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Multiple Trauma/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Compartment Syndromes/etiology , Compartment Syndromes/therapy , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Hemofiltration/methods , Iodine Compounds/adverse effects , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Plasma Substitutes/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Rhabdomyolysis/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(1): 103-106, jan.-fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-666122


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso em que a estratégia damage control (RDC) com ressuscitação hemostática foi usada com sucesso em paciente politraumatizada com choque hemorrágico grave. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente de 32 anos com choque hemorrágico grave por politraumatismo com fratura de bacia, que evoluiu com acidose, coagulopatia e hipotermia. Durante a ressuscitação volêmica, a paciente recebeu transfusão de hemocomponentes - plasma fresco congelado/concentrado de plaquetas/concentrado de hemácias, na razão de 1:1:1. Evoluiu no período intraoperatório, com melhora dos parâmetros perfusionais, e prescindiu de drogas vasoativas. No fim da operação a paciente foi levada para unidade de terapia intensiva e teve alta no sétimo dia de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A terapêutica ideal do choque hemorrágico traumático ainda não está estabelecida, porém a rapidez no controle da hemorragia e do resgate perfusional e protocolos terapêuticos bem definidos são as bases para se evitar a progressão da coagulopatia e a refratariedade do choque.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to report a case in which the damage control resuscitation (DCR) approach was successfully used to promote hemostatic resuscitation in a polytraumatized patient with severe hemorrhagic shock. CASE REPORT: Female patient, 32 years of age, with severe hemorrhagic shock due to polytrauma with hip fracture, who developed acidosis, coagulopathy, and hypothermia. During fluid resuscitation, the patient received blood products transfusion of fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells/platelet concentrate at a ratio of 1:1:1 and evolved intraoperatively with improvement in perfusion parameters without requiring vasoactive drugs. At the end of the operation, the patient was taken to the intensive care unit and discharged on the seventh postoperative day. CONCLUSION: The ideal management of traumatic hemorrhagic shock is not yet established, but the rapid control of bleeding and perfusion recovery and well-defined therapeutic protocols are fundamental to prevent progression of coagulopathy and refractory shock.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este artículo es relatar un caso en que la estrategia damage control (control de daños [RDC]) con resucitación hemostática, fue usada con éxito en paciente politraumatizada con choque hemorrágico grave. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente de 32 años, con choque hemorrágico grave por politraumatismo con fractura de cadera, que evolucionó con acidosis, coagulopatía e hipotermia. Durante la resucitación volémica, la paciente recibió transfusión de hemocomponentes a una razón de PFC/CP/CH de 1:1:1. Evolucionó en el período intraoperatorio, con una mejoría de los parámetros perfusionales y no necesitó fármacos vasoactivos. Al término de la operación, la paciente fue derivada a la unidad de cuidados intensivos y tuvo su alta al séptimo día del postoperatorio. CONCLUSIONES: La terapéutica ideal del choque hemorrágico traumático todavía no ha quedado establecida, pero la rapidez en el control de la hemorragia y del rescate perfusional, junto con protocolos terapéuticos bien definidos, sientan las bases para evitar la progresión de la coagulopatía y la refractariedad del choque.

Adult , Female , Humans , Hemostatic Techniques , Multiple Trauma/complications , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy
Cuad. cir ; 26(1): 42-47, 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-721846


La coagulopatía inducida por el shock hemorrágico se encuentra presente en casi un 25 por ciento de los pacientes ingresados por esta causa. Una vez que la coagulopatía se ha instalado aumenta drásticamente la morbimortalidad. Los paradigmas en la reanimación en el paciente traumatizado han variado dramáticamente en los últimos años, cambiando el uso de grandes volúmenes de cristaloides con el uso precoz de los hemoderivados y otros productos para tratar de revertir la coagulopatía y la "triada de la muerte". El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la fisiopatologia de la coagulopatía en el trauma y las tendencias terapéuticas para revertiría.

Coagulopathy induced by hemorrhagic shock is present in almost 25 percent of patients admitted for this reason. Once the coagulopathy develops patients morbidity and mortality dramatically increases. The paradigms in trauma patients resuscitation have changed considerably in the last years by changing the use of large volumes of crystalloid with the early use of blood products and other products to try to reverse the coagulopathy and the "triad of death." The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiology of coagulopathy in trauma and therapy trends to reverse it.

Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Hemostatic Techniques , Resuscitation/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Multiple Trauma/complications
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 145-152, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100684


BACKGROUND: Recent studies and case reports have shown that recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) treatment is effective for reversing coagulopathy and reducing blood transfusion requirements in trauma patients with life-threatening hemorrhage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of rFVIIa treatment on clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness in trauma patients. METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2010, we reviewed the medical records of patients who were treated with rFVIIa (N=18) or without rFVIIa (N=36) for life-threatening hemorrhage due to multiple traumas at the Emergency Department of Pusan National University Hospital in Busan, Korea. We reviewed patient demographics, baseline characteristics, initial vital signs, laboratory test results, and number of units transfused, and then analyzed clinical outcomes and 24-hr and 30-day mortality rates. Thromboembolic events were monitored in all patients. Transfusion costs and hospital stay costs were also calculated. RESULTS: In the rFVIIa-treated group, laboratory test results and clinical outcomes improved, and the 24-hr mortality rate decreased compared to that in the untreated group; however, 30-day mortality rate did not differ between the groups. Thromboembolic events did not occur in both groups. Transfusion and hospital stay costs in the rFVIIa-treated group were cost effective; however, total treatment costs, including the cost of rFVIIa, were not cost effective. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, rFVIIa treatment was shown to be helpful as a supplementary drug to improve clinical outcomes and reduce the 24-hr mortality rate, transfusion and hospital stay costs, and transfusion requirements in trauma patients with life-threatening hemorrhage.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Factor VIIa/therapeutic use , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hemorrhage/complications , Multiple Trauma/complications , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. venez. cir. ortop. traumatol ; 43(2): 52-58, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-654070


El Síndrome de Compresión Longitudinal del Miembro Inferior (SCLMI) es la asociación de una fractura diafisiaria de fémur con una fractura de cadera ipsilateral. Es una condición clínica muy rara con una incidencia de 2,5 % al 5 %. La fractura de cadera es considerada de baja energía, ocasionada por la energía residual no disipada de del accidente a alta velocidad, que principalmente originó la fractura diafisiaria, y son fracturas de con mínimo o sin desplazamiento, lo cual dificulta su diagnóstico. Se ha reportado que cerca de un 30 % de las fracturas de cadera en un SCLMI pasa desapercibida. Las lesiones de rodilla ipsilateral se encuentran presentes en 34 % y las de pierna, tobillo y pié en 19 %. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 24 años, quien ingresa posterior a hecho vial por colisión en moto, presentando fractura diafisiaria del fémur y posterior a la realización de estudios protocolares de pelvis, se diagnóstica la fractura de cadera. Se presenta su tratamiento y evolución

Lower limb’s Longitudinal Compression Syndrome (LLLCS) is the association of a femoral shaft fractures with ipsilateral hip fracture. It’s a very rare clinical condition with an incidence of 2.5% to 5%. Hip fracture is considered low-energy, caused by residual energy dissipated at high speed crash, which originated mainly diaphyseal fracture, and are fractures with minimal or no displacement, which makes hard their diagnosis. It is reported that about 30% of hip fractures in a LLLCS unnoticed. Ipsilateral knee injuries are present in 34% and leg, ankle and foot in 19%. We report of a 24 years male, who is admitted after motorcycle collision presenting femoral diaphyseal fracture. After post-protocol studies of pelvis, hip fracture is diagnosis. We present his treatment and evolution

Humans , Male , Adult , Lower Extremity/injuries , Hip Fractures/pathology , Femoral Fractures/pathology , Multiple Trauma/complications , Accidents, Traffic
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 38(5): 310-316, set.-out. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-606817


OBJETIVO: avaliar se a presença de fratura de pelve é associada à maior gravidade e pior prognóstico em vítimas de trauma fechado. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva dos protocolos e prontuários das vítimas de trauma fechado admitidas de 10/06/2008 a 10/03/2009, separadas em dois grupos: com fratura de pelve (Grupo I) e os demais (Grupo II). Foram avaliados dados do pré-hospitalar e admissão, índices de trauma, exames complementares, lesões diagnosticadas, tratamento e evolução. Utilizamos os testes t de Student, Fisher e qui-quadrado na análise estatística, considerando p<0,05 como significativo. RESULTADOS: No período de estudo, 2019 politraumatizados tiveram protocolos preenchidos, sendo que 43 (2,1 por cento) apresentaram fratura de pelve. Os doentes do grupo I apresentaram, significativamente, menor média de pressão arterial sistêmica à admissão, maior média de frequência cardíaca à admissão, menor média da escala de coma de Glasgow, maior média nos AIS em segmentos cefálico, torácico, abdominal e extremidades, bem como, maior média do ISS e menor média de RTS e TRISS. O grupo I apresentou, com maior frequência, hemorragia subaracnoidea traumática (7 por cento vs. 1,6 por cento), trauma raquimedular (9 por cento vs. 1 por cento), lesões torácicas e abdominais, bem como necessidade de laparotomias (21 por cento vs. 1 por cento), drenagem de tórax (32 por cento vs. 2 por cento) e controle de danos (9 por cento vs. 0 por cento). As complicações foram mais frequentes no grupo I: SARA (9 por cento vs. 0 por cento), choque persistente (30 por cento vs. 1 por cento), coagulopatia (23 por cento vs. 1 por cento), insuficiência renal aguda (21 por cento vs. 0 por cento) e óbito (28 por cento vs. 2 por cento). CONCLUSÃO: a presença de fratura de pelve é um marcador de maior gravidade e pior prognóstico em vítimas de trauma fechado.

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the presence of a pelvic fracture is associated with greater severity and worse prognosis in victims of blunt trauma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of protocols and records of victims of blunt trauma admitted from June 2008 to March 2009 was separated into two groups: those with pelvic fracture (Group I) and those without it (Group II). Data were collected from pre-hospital admission rates of trauma, laboratory tests, diagnosed lesions, treatment and outcome. We used the Student t test, Fisher's exact test and chi-square test for statistical analysis, considering p <0.05 as significant. RESULTS: During the study period, 2019 individuals had multiple trauma protocols completed, of which 43 (2.1 percent) had pelvic fractures. Patients in Group I had significantly lower average blood pressure, higher mean heart rate, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale, the highest average AIS in the segments head, chest, abdomen and extremities, as well as higher mean ISS and lower mean TRISS and RTS on admission. Group I more frequently presented with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (7 percent vs. 1.6 percent), spinal cord injury (9 percent vs. 1 percent), thoracic and abdominal injuries, as well as need for laparotomy (21 percent vs. 1 percent), chest drainage (32 percent vs. 2 percent) and damage control (9 percent vs. 0 percent). Complications were more frequent in group I: ARDS (9 percent vs. 0 percent), persistent shock (30 percent vs. 1 percent), coagulopathy (23 percent vs. 1 percent), acute renal failure (21 percent vs. 0 percent) and death (28 percent vs. 2 percent). CONCLUSION: The presence of a pelvic fracture is a marker of greater severity and worse prognosis in victims of blunt trauma.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Multiple Trauma/complications , Pelvic Bones/injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Injury Severity Score , Retrospective Studies , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 22(5): 599-606, sept. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677264


El manejo actual de los pacientes traumatizados, que constituyen un desafío, se realiza en varias fases, en función de las características de las lesiones y la capacidad de los equipos de rescate y reanimación. La hemorragia masiva constituye la principal causa de muerte en estos pacientes y la reposición de volumen debe enfocarse con una variedad de productos, comenzando con los cristaloides y en función de la evolución y respuesta a estos, la utilización de coloides y finalmente los Hemoderivados. Cada uno de estos productos presenta ventajas y problemas, y continúa siendo el juicio clínico el principal criterio en su utilización ya que, en el contexto de esta situación de emergencia, el laboratorio suele ir detrás de la realidad. El control de la hemorragia es uno de los principales objetivos a lograr, sin el cual ninguna otra medida médica evitará la muerte de estos pacientes.

Trauma patients represent a challenge for health providers. Clinical management has to be provided accordignly to their medical conditions, injuries and also to the level of experience of the emergency room team. Because massive bleeding is the main cause of death in this group of patients, volume reposition has to be one of the most important goals in order to improve their survival outcome. This is the reason why it is important in health providers a solid knowledge of volume replacement algorithms in trauma cases. Volume reposition algorithms usually recommend starting with cristaloid solutions, following with coloids and finally hemoderivatives. All these products have their own advantages but also disadvantages, being the clinical judgement the most important tool in order to know when and how to use them. In the trauma field, the laboratory tests are often not available or their results are too slow to wait for. We still need to set in the future the advantages of oxygen carrying substances (or substitutes) to improve survival rates in the field of trauma.

Humans , Colloids , Hemorrhage , Hypovolemia , Multiple Trauma/complications , Blood-Derivative Drugs
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 87(3): 184-194, jul.-set. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-517609


Os traumas geniturinários representam 10% de todos os traumas em nosso Serviço de Emergência (HC-FMUSP). O rim é, em geral, o órgão mais frequentemente envolvido, sendo os traumas de ureter e bexiga mais raros e associados a traumas de alta energia e a outras lesões severas concomitantes...

The genitourinary trauma represents 10% of all traumas in our Emergency Service (HC-FMUSP). The kidney is the organ most frequently affected. The ureteral and bladder traumas are rare and are associated wit traumas of high energy and with other severe injuries...

Humans , Male , Urinary Bladder/injuries , Wounds and Injuries , Urinary Tract/surgery , Urinary Tract/injuries , Urethra/injuries , Multiple Trauma/complications
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 194-199, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983381


Persistent vegetative state (PVS) is described as one of the complications of brain damage in the current forensic science literatures. PVS unrelated to brain damage, however, is not uncommon in daily forensic practice. Currently, only "Assessment for Body Impairment of the Injured in Road Traffic Accident" designates PVS as one of its items under the section of "Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves Injury." Therefore, it is difficult to assess the damage and disability in PVS, especially PVS due to non-brain damage. Based on a case of PVS caused by chest injury in combination with relevant literature review, this paper provides a summary on the general information, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PVS, as well as a guideline for its forensic assessment.

Adolescent , Humans , Male , Back Injuries/complications , Forensic Medicine , Multiple Trauma/complications , Persistent Vegetative State/etiology , Thoracic Injuries/complications
Rev. medica electron ; 29(1)ene.-feb. 2007. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-462220


Las consecuencias fisiopatológicas y terapéuticas de los pacientes con trauma y con shock hemorrágico grave son causas de la alta mortalidad que muchas veces se escapan de nuestro control. Son la acidosis, la hipotermia y la coagulopatía las complicaciones que irremediablemente llevan a la muerte a los pacientes cuando no son previstas o prevenidas adecuadamente, y nos obligan a postergar el tratamiento quirúrgico definitivo con el objetivo de lograr una mayor supervivencia, mediante pasos consecutivos y ordenados basados en la tolerancia fisiológica del paciente, elemento este que hasta hace alrededor de una década no se tenía en cuenta en la reanimación del paciente con trauma grave. Estas estrategias han sido denominadas "cirugía de control de daños". En este trabajo nos propusimos realizar una revisión de las causas, consecuencias y tratamiento de los componentes de la tríada mortal para un mejor manejo del paciente traumatizado grave...

Humans , Adult , Acidosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Hypothermia , Multiple Trauma/complications , Survival Rate , Resuscitation
Cir. & cir ; 74(6): 425-429, nov.-dic. 2006. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-571243


Introducción: la rotura traumática del diafragma es una lesión infrecuente que aparece en politraumatismos o agresiones. Predomina en los varones entre 20 y 50 años de edad, siendo los accidentes de tráfico la principal causa en Europa. El diagnóstico preoperatorio requiere alto nivel de sospecha junto con las adecuadas exploraciones radiológicas. El retraso diagnóstico se asocia con elevada morbilidad y mortalidad, constituyendo la intervención quirúrgica inmediata un factor determinante para el éxito en el tratamiento de estos pacientes. El objetivo de este informe fue analizar la incidencia y epidemiología de la rotura traumática del diafragma en nuestro medio, y exponer nuestros resultados en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta lesión. Material y métodos: presentamos siete casos correspondientes al periodo 1999-2005 y analizamos el motivo de ingreso, la clínica, las formas de diagnóstico, las lesiones asociadas, el tratamiento y la evolución. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de rotura diafragmática es difícil debido a su baja frecuencia y a su sintomatología variable, no obstante, debe ser considerado en todo paciente politraumatizado. La tomografía helicoidal es la exploración radiológica de elección y la vía de abordaje más adecuada es la laparotomía media.

BACKGROUND: Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture is an infrequent lesion usually found in polytrauma cases or after violent attacks. Patients are usually males between 20 and 50 years old, and car accidents are the main causes in Europe. Preoperative diagnosis must be based on a high level of suspicion and appropriate radiological explorations. Diagnostic delay is associated with high morbidity and mortality and early surgical treatment is required for successful management. We undertook this study to analyze the epidemiology of diaphragmatic rupture and to report our results in the diagnosis and treatment of this injury. METHODS: We present seven cases from 1999 through 2005. We analyzed the reasons for admission, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approach, associated lesions, treatment and course. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture is difficult due to changeable symptomatology; nevertheless, it must be considered in all polytraumatized patients. Computerized tomography is the radiological exploration of choice and the most suitable surgical approach is laparotomy.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Diaphragm/injuries , Accidents, Traffic , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Chest Pain/etiology , Wounds, Stab/diagnosis , Wounds, Stab/surgery , Liver/injuries , Fractures, Bone/complications , Hemothorax/etiology , Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic/etiology , Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic/surgery , Incidence , Laparotomy , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Splenic Rupture/complications , Splenic Rupture/surgery , Thoracotomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Multiple Trauma/complications
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 43(3)jul.-sept. 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-465231


Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y trasversal en 546 pacientes víctimas de politraumas severos que fueron atendidos en el Departamento de Emergencia del Hospital Provincial Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba durante el año 2002. De estos pacientes, 114 presentaron lesiones maxilofaciales, de los cuales 19 fallecieron, tanto en la escena del accidente, en tránsito hacia el hospital, como en la propia institución; 95 pacientes con lesiones maxilofaciales sobrevivieron. Se corroboró que la severidad de estas lesiones no guarda relación con la severidad integral de las lesiones sostenidas según los resultados del AIS e ISS, respectivamente. La causa de este tipo de lesiones es multifactorial, con predominio de los accidentes automovilísticos y de motores. Las fracturas de mandíbula, cigomáticas y nasoetmoidales resultaron los patrones de lesiones esqueléticas de mayor incidencia. Los procedimientos ortopédicos y quirúrgicos predominaron según ese orden. Se constataron 245 lesiones asociadas y 29 omitidas en estos pacientes durante el examen inicial. Nuestros hallazgos enfatizan la necesidad de la participación activa y precoz de los cirujanos maxilofaciales con experiencia en la atención de estos pacientes, en estrecha asociación de trabajo con cirujanos generales, neurocirujanos y ortopédicos, para la atención integral y óptima de estos lesionados(AU)

A prospective and cross-sectional study was conducted in 546 patients victims of severe polytraumas that were seen at the Emergency Department of “Saturnino Lora” Provincial Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba in 2002. Of these patients, 114 presented maxillofacial injuries, and 19 of them died in the accident scene, on the way to hospital and in the own insitution. 95 patients with maxillofacial injuries survived. It was confirmed that the severity of these injuries has nothing to do with the comprehensive severity of the sustained injuries, according to the results of the AIS and the ISS, respectively. The cause of this type of injuries is multifactorial, with a predominance of car and motorcycle accidents. The mandible, zygomatic and nasoethmoidal fractures were the skeletal injury patterns with the highest incidence. The orthopedic and surgical procedures prevailed in that order. 245 associated injuries and 29 omitted in these patients during the initial examination were confirmed. Our findings emphasized the need of the active and early participation of the maxillofacial surgeons with experience in the attention of these patients, and in a close working association with general surgeons, neurosurgeons and orthopedists to attain the comprehensive and optimal care of the injured(AU)

Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Multiple Trauma/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Maxillofacial Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies