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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 295-298, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288566

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Skeletal muscle injuries account for 10% to 50% of treadmill sports injuries. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is a family of polypeptides with both insulin-like anabolic and growth-promoting effects. Sports play a vital role in the recovery of skeletal muscle injuries. Objective The paper analyzes the ability of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) to repair skeletal muscle injury caused by treadmill exercise. Method We injected drugs under the wound after exercise-induced injury in rats. The control group was injected with saline, and the experimental group was injected with an insulin-like growth factor. We conduct histological and electron microscopic structural analysis of rats, Results: After an injury, the experimental group formed a basal lamina protective film earlier than the control group, activated myoblasts, formed myofilaments, formed myotubes, and fused into muscle fibers earlier than the control group. The healing quality was also better. The experimental group was endogenous. The mRNA content of sex IGF-1 and IGF-2 both increased earlier than the control group. Conclusion Local injection of exogenous insulin-like growth factor-1 can stimulate the proliferation of myoblasts and accelerate the post-traumatic repair process of skeletal muscle caused by treadmill sports. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução As lesões do músculo esquelético representam de 10% a 50% das lesões em esteira esportiva. O fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina (IGF) é uma família de polipeptídeos com efeitos anabólicos e de promoção do crescimento semelhantes à insulina. Os esportes desempenham um papel vital na recuperação de lesões musculares esqueléticas. Objetivo o artigo analisa a capacidade do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina 1 (IGF-1) em reparar lesões musculares esqueléticas causadas por exercícios em esteira. Método Injetamos drogas sob a ferida após lesão induzida por exercício em ratos. O grupo controle foi injetado com solução salina e o grupo experimental foi injetado com um fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina. Realizamos análises histológicas e microscópicas eletrônicas estruturais de ratos. Resultados Após a lesão, o grupo experimental formou um filme protetor da lâmina basal mais cedo do que o grupo controle, mioblastos ativados, miofilamentos formados, miotubos formados e fundidos em fibras musculares mais cedo do que o grupo controle. A qualidade da cura também foi melhor. O grupo experimental era endógeno. O conteúdo do sexo IGF-1 e IGF-2 mRNA aumentou mais cedo do que no grupo de controle. Conclusão A injeção local de fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina 1 exógeno pode estimular a proliferação de mioblastos e acelerar o processo de reparo muscular esquelético pós-traumático causado por esportes em esteira. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Las lesiones del músculo esquelético representan del 10% al 50% de las lesiones deportivas en cinta. El factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina (IGF) es una familia de polipéptidos con efectos anabólicos y estimulantes del crecimiento semejantes a la insulina. Los deportes juegan un papel vital en la recuperación de las lesiones del músculo esquelético. Objetivo El artículo analiza la capacidad del factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina 1 (IGF-1) para reparar la lesión del músculo esquelético causada por el ejercicio en cinta. Método inyectamos drogas debajo de la herida después de una lesión inducida por el ejercicio en ratas. Al grupo de control se le inyectó solución salina y al grupo experimental se le inyectó un factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina. Realizamos análisis estructurales histológicos y microscópicos electrónicos de ratas, Resultados: Después de una lesión, el grupo experimental formó una película protectora de la lámina basal antes que el grupo de control, activó mioblastos, formó miofilamentos, formó miotubos y se fusionó en fibras musculares antes que el grupo de control. La calidad de curación también fue mejor. El grupo experimental fue endógeno. El contenido de ARNm de IGF-1 e IGF-2 de sexo aumentaron antes que en el grupo de control. Conclusión La inyección local de factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina 1 exógeno puede estimular la proliferación de mioblastos y acelerar el proceso de reparación postraumático del músculo esquelético causado por los deportes en cinta. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/administration & dosage , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Acute Disease , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/ultrastructure , Disease Models, Animal
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 285-292, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252243

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is an effective strategy for managing sarcopenia in the elderly, but few studies have addressed PA levels regarding age-related changes. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the effects of elderly women's PA levels on sarcopenia, physical performance, handgrip strength and perception of the risk of falling, and their relationship with energy expenditure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in the southern region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-seven elderly women were evaluated and divided into three groups: low PA (n = 13); moderate PA (n = 16); and high PA (n = 18). Their PA levels were investigated through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); sarcopenia index, through dual-energy radiological absorptiometry; physical performance through the Timed Up & Go test; handgrip strength, using a digital dynamometer; and perception of the risk of falling, through the Fall Risk Awareness Questionnaire. RESULTS: High PA level indicated higher skeletal muscle mass index, physical performance and IPAQ score, compared with low and moderate PA levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher IPAQ energy expenditure at high and moderate PA levels was a good predictor of higher physical performance and increased perception of the risk of falling. CONCLUSION: Elderly women classified as having high PA level showed improvements in sarcopenia, handgrip strength, physical performance and perception of the risk of falling. The IPAQ energy expenditure of the elderly women with high and moderate PA levels was a good predictor of physical performance and improved perception of the risk of falling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Sarcopenia , Perception , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Muscle, Skeletal , Hand Strength , Energy Metabolism , Muscle Strength
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 54-57, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280093

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Soft tissue injury is the most common disease in orthopedics, and it is also the most easily neglected disease in sports. Without timely and effective treatment, it is easy to develop into malignant strain and seriously affect life and sports. In view of this, the aim of this study is to analyze the effect and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine gel in treating such injuries in the light of the characteristics of sports-related soft tissue injury. The right gastrocnemius muscle injury was simulated in 36 adult male rats. Chinese medicine gel and tincture were used to treat it. The contents of interleukin, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen and prostaglandin E2 in the blood of rats under different courses of treatment were analyzed to explore recovery in four rats. The results showed that the levels of interleukin and prostaglandin E2 in the blood of rats treated with drugs were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05), indicating that both drugs have obvious therapeutic effects on soft tissue injury. The content of interleukin in the blood of the Chinese medicine gel group was slightly lower than that of the tincture group, indicating that the Chinese medicine gel could affect the recovery of soft tissue injury by affecting leukocyte interleukin. This result is helpful in the treatment of soft tissue injury in sports and to further improve the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine gel.


RESUMO A lesão dos tecidos moles é a doença mais comum na ortopedia, e é também a doença mais facilmente negligenciada nos esportes. Sem tratamento ágil e eficaz, facilmente evolui para luxações malignas, afetando seriamente a vida e a prática de esportes. Em vista disso, o objetivo deste estudo é analisar o efeito e o mecanismo do gel da medicina tradicional chinesa no tratamento de tais lesões, com base nas características da lesão dos tecidos moles relacionada à prática esportiva. Estimulou-se lesão do músculo gastrocnêmio direito em 36 ratos adultos. O gel e a tintura chinesa foram usados para o tratamento. Foram analisados os conteúdos de interleucina, alanina aminotransferase, ureia sanguínea azoto e prostaglandina E2 no sangue dos ratos sob diferentes tratamentos, de modo a explorar a recuperação de quatro ratos. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de interleucina e prostaglandina E2 no sangue dos ratos tratados com medicamentos eram significativamente inferiores aos do grupo controle (p<0.05), indicando que ambos os fármacos têm efeitos terapêuticos óbvios sobre lesões dos tecidos moles. O teor de interleucina no sangue do grupo gel chinês medicinal mostrou-se ligeiramente inferior ao do grupo tintura, indicando que o gel medicinal chinês pode afetar a recuperação da lesão nos tecidos moles, afetando o leucócito interleucina. Este resultado é útil para o tratamento de lesões dos tecidos moles relacionadas à prática esportiva e para melhorar ainda mais o efeito terapêutico do gel da medicina chinesa tradicional.


RESUMEN La lesión de los tejidos blandos es la enfermedad más común en la ortopedia, y es también la enfermedad más fácilmente descuidada en los deportes. Sin tratamiento ágil y eficaz, fácilmente evolucionan a luxaciones malignas, afectando seriamente la vida y la práctica de deportes. En vista de eso, el objetivo de este estudio es analizar el efecto y el mecanismo del gel de la medicina tradicional china en el tratamiento de tales lesiones, con base en las características de la lesión de los tejidos blandos relacionada a la práctica deportiva. Se estimuló lesión del músculo gastrocnemio derecho en 36 ratones adultos. El gel y la tintura china fueron usados para el tratamiento. Fueron analizados los contenidos de interleucina, alanina aminotransferasa, urea sanguínea, nitrógeno y prostaglandina E2 en la sangre de los ratones bajo diferentes tratamientos, de modo de explorar la recuperación de cuatro ratones. Los resultados mostraron que los niveles de interleucina y prostaglandina E2 en la sangre de los ratones tratados con medicamentos eran significativamente inferiores a los del grupo control (p<0.05), indicando que ambos fármacos tienen efectos terapéuticos obvios sobre lesiones de los tejidos blandos. El tenor de interleucina en la sangre del grupo gel chino medicinal se mostró ligeramente inferior al del grupo tintura, indicando que el gel medicinal chino puede afectar la recuperación de la lesión en los tejidos blandos, afectando el leucocito interleucina. Este resultado es útil para el tratamiento de lesiones de los tejidos blandos relacionadas a la práctica deportiva y para mejorar aún más el efecto terapéutico del gel de la medicina china tradicional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ointments/therapeutic use , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Athletic Injuries/drug therapy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Dinoprostone/blood , Interleukins/blood , Treatment Outcome , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal
4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 50-53, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280084

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Extraction of effective components from Pueraria lobata has important value for skeletal muscle quality and gene expression. The improvement effect of traditional high-intensity intermittent training on skeletal muscle has not been obvious, and it is difficult to guarantee the properties of some volatiles. Based on this, this paper analyzes the effect of high-intensity intermittent training on skeletal muscle quality and gene expression in Pueraria lobata. Based on a brief summary of extraction of Pueraria lobata, status of research on the pharmaceutical components of Pueraria lobata was summarized. Different specimens of Pueraria lobata were selected as research objects, and the process of high-intensity intermittent training was designed. High-intensity intermittent training, solvent extraction and water solvent extraction were combined together to design the fixed-bed continuous extraction scheme. According to the influence of Pueraria lobata on skeletal muscle quality, the influence of intermittent training on skeletal muscle quality was analyzed. The extraction results showed that Pueraria lobata combined with high-intensity intermittent training can effectively improve the content of skeletal muscle and ensure the effective expression of skeletal muscle gene.


RESUMO A extração de componentes eficazes da Pueraria lobata tem importante valor para a qualidade músculoesquelética e para a expressão genética. O efeito da melhoria do tradicional treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade na estrutura músculoesquelética não tem sido óbvio, e é difícil garantir as propriedades de alguns voláteis. Com base nisso, este estudo analisa o efeito do treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade na qualidade músculoesquelética e na expressão genética na Pueraria lobata. Com base num breve resumo da extração da Pueraria lobata, resumiu-se o andamento das pesquisas sobre os componentes farmacêuticos da Pueraria lobata. Diferentes amostras de Pueraria lobata foram selecionadas como objeto de pesquisa, e formulou-se o processo do treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade. O treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade, a extração de solventes e a extração de solventes à base de água foram combinadas para conceber o sistema de extração contínua de leito fixo. De acordo com a influência da Pueraria lobata na qualidade músculoesquelética, analisou-se a influência do treino intervalado na qualidade músculoesquelética. Os resultados da extração mostraram que a Pueraria lobata, combinada com treino intervalado de alta intensidade, pode melhorar, de maneira eficaz, o teor músculoesquelético e garantir a expressão eficaz da expressão genética do músculoesquelético.


RESUMEN La extracción de componentes eficaces de la Pueraria lobata tiene un importante valor para la calidad músculoesquelética y para la expresión genética. El efecto de la mejora del tradicional entrenamiento intercalado de alta intensidad en la estructura músculoesquelética no ha sido obvio, y es difícil garantizar las propriedades de algunos volátiles. Basándose en eso, este estudio analiza el efecto del entrenamiento intercalado de alta intensidad en la calidad músculoesquelética y en la expresión genética en la Pueraria lobata. Basándose en un breve resumen de la extracción de la Pueraria lobata, se resumió el andamiento de las investigaciones sobre los componentes farmacéuticos de la Pueraria lobata. Diferentes muestras de Pueraria lobata fueron seleccionadas como objeto de investigación, y se formuló el proceso del entrenamiento intercalado de alta intensidad. El entrenamiento intercalado de alta intensidad, la extracción de solventes y la extracción de solventes a base de agua fueron combinadas para concebir el sistema de extracción continua de lecho fijo. De acuerdo con la influencia de la Pueraria lobata en la calidad músculoesquelética, se analizó la influencia del entrenamiento intercalado en la calidad músculoesquelética. Los resultados de la extracción mostraron que la Pueraria lobata, combinada con entrenamiento intercalado de alta intensidad, puede mejorar, de manera eficaz, el tenor músculoesquelético y garantizar la expresión eficaz de la expresión genética del músculoesquelético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Gene Expression , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Pueraria/chemistry , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods
5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 60-64, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156109

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction The squat is an exercise that is widely used for the development of strength in sports. However, considering that not all sports gestures are vertical, it is important to investigate the effectiveness of propulsive force stimuli applied in different planes. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine the influence of maximum isometric force (MIF) exerted on starting blocks over performance in 5, 10 and 20-meter sprints. Methods Seven high-level male sprinters (mean age ± SD = 28 ± 5.77 years) participated in this study. The variables were: a) MIF in squats and on starting blocks (measured using a functional electromechanical dynamometer [FEMD]), b) time in 5, 10 and 20-m sprints and c) jump height (measured by the squat jump test). For data analysis, a Pearson correlation was performed between the different variables. The criteria for interpreting the strength of the r coefficients were as follows: trivial (<0.1), small (0.1−0.3), moderate (0.3−0.5), high (0.5−0.7), very high (0.7−0.9), or practically perfect (>0.9). The level of significance was p < 0.05. Results There was very high correlation between MIF exerted on starting blocks and performance in the first meters of the sprint (5-m: r = -0.84, p = 0.01). However, there was small correlation between MIF in squats and performance in the first meters of the sprint (5-m: r = -0.22, p < 0.62). Conclusion The MIF applied on starting blocks correlates very high with time in the first meters of the sprint in high-level athletes. In addition, the use of the FEMD provides a wide range of possibilities for evaluation and development of strength with a controlled natural movement. Level of evidence IV; Prognostic Studies - Case series.


RESUMO Introdução O agachamento é um exercício amplamente utilizado para o desenvolvimento de força nos esportes. No entanto, considerando que nem todos os gestos esportivos são verticais, é importante investigar a eficácia dos estímulos de força propulsiva em diferentes planos. Objetivo O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a influência da força isométrica máxima (FIM) exercida em os blocos de largada sobre o desempenho em sprints de 5, 10 e 20 metros. Métodos Sete velocistas de alto nível do sexo masculino (média ± DP = 28,0 ± 5,77 anos) fizeram parte deste estudo. As variáveis foram: a) FIM no agachamento e nos blocos de largada (avaliados com um dinamômetro eletromecânico funcional (DEF)), b) tempo de sprints de 5, 10 e 20 metros e c) altura do salto (medida pelo teste de squat jump). Para análise dos dados, foi usada a correlação de Pearson entre as diferentes variáveis. Os critérios para interpretar o coeficiente r foi: nulo (< 0,1), pequeno (0,1 a 0,3), moderado (0,3 a 0,5), alto (0,5 a 0,7), muito alto (0,7 a 0,9) ou praticamente perfeito (> 0,9). O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. Resultados Houve correlação muito alta entre a FIM exercida nos blocos de largada e o desempenho nos primeiros metros do sprint (5-m: r = -0,84, p = 0,01). No entanto, a correlação entre o agachamento da FIM e os primeiros metros de sprint foi pequena (5-m: r = -0,22, p < 0,62). Conclusão A FIM aplicada aos blocos de largada teve uma correlação muito alto com o tempo nos primeiros metros de sprint em atletas de alto nível. Além disso, o uso de um DEF oferece uma ampla gama de possibilidades para avaliar e desenvolver força com um movimento natural controlado. Nível de evidência IV; Estudos Prognósticos - Série de casos.


RESUMEN Introducción La sentadilla es un ejercicio ampliamente usado para el desarrollo de fuerza en los deportes. Sin embargo, considerando que no todos los gestos deportivos son verticales, es importante investigar la eficacia de los estímulos de fuerza propulsiva en diferentes planos. Objetivo El principal objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia de la fuerza isométrica máxima (FIM) ejercida en los bloques de salida sobre el rendimiento en sprints de 5, 10 y 20 metros. Métodos Siete velocistas de alto nivel del sexo masculino (promedio ± SD = 28,0 ± 5,7 años) formaron parte de este estudio. Las variables fueron: a) FIM en la sentadilla y en los bloques de salida (evaluados con un dinamómetro electromecánico funcional [DEF]) b) tiempo de sprints de 5, 10 y 20-metros y c) altura del salto (medida a través del test de squat jump). Para el análisis de los datos se usó la correlación de Pearson entre las diferentes variables. Los criterios para interpretar el coeficiente r fueron: nulo (<0,1), pequeño (0,1 a 0,3), moderado (0,3 a 0,5), alto (0,5 a 0,7), muy alto (0,7 a 0,9) o prácticamente perfecto (>0,9). El nivel de significancia fue p < 0,05. Resultados Hubo correlación muy alta entre la FIM ejercida en los bloques de salida y el rendimiento en los primeros metros del sprint (5-m: r = -0,84, p = 0,01). Sin embargo, la correlación entre la FIM en sentadilla y los primeros metros de sprint fue pequeña (5-m: r = -0,22, p < 0,62). Conclusión La FIM aplicada a los bloques de salida tuvo una correlación muy alta con el tiempo en los primeros metros de sprint en atletas de alto nivel. Además, el uso de un DEF ofrece una amplia gama de posibilidades para evaluar y desarrollar fuerza con un movimiento natural controlado. Nivel de evidencia IV; Estudios pronósticos: Serie de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Track and Field , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology
6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 98-102, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156116

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction When a person is in a standing position, the plantar flexor muscles are involved in most static and dynamic body movements. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the trial to trial and factorial reliability of measuring the contractile characteristics of PF muscles using a simple novel field test. Methods The sample consisted of 452 healthy subjects, 120 male and 332 female. The research was conducted by means of the trial to trial testing method, using isometric dynamometry performed in field conditions. ANOVA was used to estimate the differences among the trials, Cronbach's alpha and interclass correlation to estimate the correlations among the trials, and principal component analysis to evaluate the contribution of each trial to overall variability. Results The main findings of this study are that trials differed significantly (p<0.000) for maximal force (Fmax) and maximal rate of force development (RFDmax), indicating that the three procedural trials were necessary. The trials were highly correlated (Fmax, RFDmax, r>0.9), proving that measuring was reliable, and the factorial analysis separated the second and third trials, the second trial accounting for most of the total variability. Conclusions The simple novel field test for the measurement of plantar flexor contractile characteristics recommended by this study proved to be as highly reliable as laboratory testing, but was easy to perform in conditions outside of scientific or diagnostic institutions, which greatly facilitates the work of scientists, coaches and professionals. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a diagnostics test.


RESUMO Introdução Quando uma pessoa está em pé, os músculos flexores plantares são envolvidos na maioria dos movimentos corporais estáticos e dinâmicos. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a confiabilidade teste-reteste e fatorial da mensuração das características contráteis dos músculos plantares, usando um novo teste de campo simples. Métodos A amostra consistiu em 452 indivíduos saudáveis, 120 homens e 332 mulheres. O estudo foi realizado pelo método de teste-reteste, com dinamometria isométrica conduzida em condições de campo. Empregou-se a ANOVA para estimar a diferença entre os testes o alfa de Cronbach e a correlação interclasse para estimar a correlação entre os testes e análise de componentes principais , para avaliar a contribuição de cada teste para a variabilidade global. Resultados Os principais achados deste estudo são que os testes diferiram significativamente (p < 0,000) para a força máxima (Fmáx) e a taxa máxima de desenvolvimento de força (TDFmáx), indicando que os três testes de procedimento foram necessários. Os testes foram altamente correlacionados (Fmáx, TDFmáx, r > 0,9), provando que a medição era confiável, e a análise fatorial separou o segundo e o terceiro testes, sendo que o segundo teste apresentou a maior parte da variabilidade total. Conclusões O novo teste de campo simples para medição das características contráteis dos flexores plantares recomendado por este estudo provou ser tão confiável quanto os testes de laboratório e, ao mesmo tempo, mais fácil de realizar fora das instituições científicas ou de diagnóstico, o que facilita muito o trabalho de cientistas, treinadores e profissionais. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos Diagnósticos - Investigação de um exame para diagnóstico.


RESUMEN Introducción Cuando una persona está de pie, los músculos flexores plantares son involucrados en la mayoría de los movimientos corporales estáticos y dinámicos. Objetivos El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la confiabilidad test-retest y factorial de la medición de las características contráctiles de los músculos plantares, usando un nuevo test de campo simple. Métodos La muestra consistió en 452 individuos saludables, 120 hombres y 332 mujeres. El estudio fue realizado a través del método de test-retest, con dinamometría isométrica conducida en condiciones de campo. Se empleó ANOVA para estimar la diferencia entre los tests, alpha de Crombach y la correlación interclase para estimar la correlación entre los tests y el análisis de componentes principales, para evaluar la contribución de cada test para la variabilidad global. Resultados Los principales hallazgos de este estudio son que los tests difirieron significativamente (p<0,000) para la fuerza máxima (Fmáx) y la tasa máxima de desarrollo de fuerza (TDFmáx) indicando que los tres tests de procedimiento fueron necesarios. Los tests fueron altamente correlacionados (Fmáx, TDFmáx, r>0,9) probando que la medición era confiable, y el análisis factorial separó el segundo y tercer test, siendo que el segundo test presentó la mayor parte de variabilidad total. Conclusiones El nuevo test de campo simple para medición de las características contráctiles de los flexores plantares recomendado por este estudio probó ser tan confiable como los tests de laboratorio y, al mismo tiempo, más fácil de realizar fuera de las instituciones científicas o de diagnóstico, lo que facilita mucho el trabajo de científicos, entrenadores y profesionales. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios diagnósticos - Investigación de un examen para diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5657, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the morphology and morphometry of the muscles extensor digitorium longus and soleus of C57BL/6 females, who were exposed to glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation. Methods Twelve female mice from the C57BL/6 lineage were used. After detection of pregnancy, they were divided into a Control Group, which received only water, and a Glyphosate Group, which received water with 0.5% glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation. Both groups received ad libitum standard diet. After weaning, the females were euthanized and weighed; naso-anal length was measured, and fats were collected and weighed. The muscles extensor digitorium longus and soleus were collected, and their length and weight were measured. Then, the muscles were fixed in Methacarn to perform the histological study of muscle fibers. Results Glyphosate Group presented lower weight gain during pregnancy and also lower final body weight and naso-anal length; however, the other body parameters evaluated did not present a significant difference in relation to the Control Group. Significant differences were also not observed in the analysis of muscle fibers and connective tissue. Conclusion Exposure to 0.5% glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation resulted in lower weight gain during pregnancy, final weight, and naso-anal length. Despite not directly altering the morphology of muscle tissue, these results may indicate enough exposure to interfere with animal metabolism.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a morfologia e a morfometria dos músculos extensor longo dos dedos e sóleo de fêmeas C57BL/6 expostas ao glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação. Métodos Foram utilizados 12 camundongos fêmeas da linhagem C57BL/6. Após detecção da prenhez, foram separadas em Grupo Controle, que recebeu somente água, e Grupo Glifosato, que recebeu água com 0,5% de glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação. Ambos os grupos receberam dieta padrão ad libitum. Após o desmame, as fêmeas foram eutanasiadas e pesadas; o comprimento nasoanal foi mensurado, e as gorduras foram coletadas e pesadas. Os músculos extensor longo dos dedos e sóleo foram coletados, e seu comprimento e peso foram mensurados. Em seguida, os músculos foram fixados em Methacarn para a realização do estudo histológico das fibras musculares. Resultados O Grupo Glifosato apresentou menor ganho de peso durante a prenhez e também menor peso corporal final e comprimento nasoanal, entretanto os demais parâmetros corporais avaliados não apresentaram diferença significativa em relação ao Grupo Controle. Na análise das fibras musculares e do tecido conjuntivo, também não foram observadas diferenças significativas. Conclusão A exposição a 0,5% de glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação resultou em menor ganho de peso na gestação, peso final e comprimento nasoanal, o que pode indicar que, apesar de não alterar a morfologia do tecido muscular diretamente, a exposição foi suficiente para interferir no metabolismo dos animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Lactation , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Clinics ; 76: e2803, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, ground reaction force (GRF), and function of the plantar muscles and dorsiflexors of the ankle in runners with and without Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and in non-runners. METHODS: Seventy-two participants (42 men, 30 women; mean age: 37.3±9.9 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and divided into three groups: AT group (ATG, n=24), healthy runners' group (HRG, n=24), and non-runners' group (NRG, n=24). Both ankles were evaluated in each group. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale was used for clinical and functional evaluation. GRF was evaluated using force plates and muscle strength was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The AOFAS scores were lower in the ATG. The strike impulse was higher in the ATG than in the HRG and NRG. However, GRF was similar among the groups. The ATG exhibited lower total work at 120°/s speed than the HRG. The peak torque in concentric dorsiflexion was lower in the NRG than in the ATG and HRG. The peak torque and total work in concentric plantar flexion were lower in the NRG than in the ATG. The peak torque and total work in eccentric plantar flexion were lower in the NRG than in the ATG and HRG. CONCLUSION: Runners with AT showed higher strike impulse, lower muscle strength of the plantar flexors, and higher clinical and functional damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Achilles Tendon , Tendinopathy , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cross-Sectional Studies , Muscle, Skeletal , Torque , Muscle Strength , Ankle , Ankle Joint
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1249-1259, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878628

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of growth hormone (GH) gene on skeletal muscle cell proliferation of Guizhou cattle. The coding sequence of cattle GH gene was amplified by reverse transcription PCR, cloned into the pUCM-T vector and then used to construct the GH gene overexpression vector pEGFP-N3-GH. The expression of the GH gene in skeletal muscle-related tissues (psoas major and longissimus dorsi) of Guizhou cattle was determined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). This was followed by culturing and identification of the bovine primary skeletal muscle cells. Subsequently, we introduced the GH gene overexpression vector into the cells to investigate its effect on the proliferation of bovine skeletal muscle cells and the expression of insulin like growth factor 1 and 2 genes related to skeletal muscle growth and development. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of GH gene was higher in the psoas major than in the longissimus dorsi of Guizhou cattle, and the expression level in the psoas major of Guanling cattle and Weining cattle was significantly higher than in the longissimus dorsi (P<0.05). The transfection and proliferation results showed that pEGFP-N3-GH significantly increased the expression of GH, IGF-1, and IGF-2 genes in skeletal muscle cells compared to pEGFP-N3 (PP<0.05), and that overexpression of the GH gene also significantly increased the proliferation rate of skeletal muscle cells at the four periods examined (PP<0.01). Our results suggest that GH gene can promote the proliferation of skeletal muscle cells of Guizhou cattle and exerts a positive regulatory effect. This lays the foundation for further exploring the mechanism by which the GH gene affects the growth and development of Guizhou cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cell Proliferation , Cloning, Molecular , Growth Hormone/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Muscle, Skeletal
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 342-352, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878262

ABSTRACT

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide with a similar molecular structure to insulin. IGF-1 plays a key role in tissue growth and development, as well as cell metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Liver is the main source of IGF-1, with the production of IGF-1 up to 75% of the total in the whole body, while the remaining 25% are secreted by skeletal muscles, heart, kidney, spleen and other organs. Target organs of IGF-1 include heart, blood vessels, liver, bone and skeletal muscles. It has been well documented that IGF-1 plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. Different types of exercise have different effects on IGF-1 expression with organ differences. In this article, we reviewed the preventive and therapeutic effects of IGF-1 on metabolic diseases and IGF-1-mediated exercise-induced benefits.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Liver , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Muscle, Skeletal
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 263-274, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878255

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin-resistant (IR) rats and the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at age of 10 weeks were fed with HFD for 10 weeks to establish IR model. The IR rats were then randomly assigned into 3 groups, including IR control (IR) group, aerobic exercise (AE) group and resistance exercise (RE) group. An additional chow diet sedentary control (CON) group was used as well. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (FIN), glucagon and lipids, as well as triacylglycerol (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) in skeletal muscles were measured after 8-week exercise interventions. The results showed that the contents of FBG, FIN, and LDL-C were increased by IR compared with CON group, and significantly decreased by aerobic exercise and resistance exercise; while aerobic exercise induced an increase in HDL-C as well. Furthermore, IR exhibited no significant effects on TG content of skeletal muscles, but significantly increased FFA level. Both aerobic and resistance exercise led to a decrease in TG content, and FFA level was increased by aerobic exercise but deceased by resistance exercise. In addition, the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ was increased and that of CPT-1 was decreased by IR, while both types of exercise resulted in a decrease in the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ, and an increase in CPT-1. In conclusion, aerobic and resistance exercise may attenuate IR through decreasing HFD-induced ectopic fat deposition and increasing β-oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle cells, and resistance exercise shows a greater improvement in lipid metabolism of skeletal muscles than aerobic exercise.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877572

ABSTRACT

Given that the biomechanical theory cannot well explain the therapeutic effect of


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Musculoskeletal Pain
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879429

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of low-frequency electroacupuncture combined with aerobic exercise on sarocopenia, and the effects of IGF-I /Akt and its downstream signaling pathway-related protein.@*METHODS@#Naturally aging SD rats were used as research objects. Thirty-two 6-month-old male SD rats weighing 400 to 450 g were bred to 12-month-old and randomly divided into 4 groups according to body weight:Control group(YC, only grasp, fix, put back, without other intervention), electroacupuncture group (YA, electroacupuncture intervention), exercise group (YE, exercise intervention) and electroacupuncture+exercise group (YEA, electroacupuncture combined with exercise intervention). SD rats were continuously intervened from 12 months to 18 months of age. At the end of the experiment, the conditions of naturally aging rats in each group were observed:skeletal muscle wet weight / weight ratio;HE staining morphology of soleus muscle under light microscope; qPCR was used to detect the expression level of IGF-I mRNA in skeletal muscle;the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70S6K and p-p70S6K proteins in rat gastrocnemius was determined by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#In 18-month-old rats, the intervention period was 6 months. (1) Compared with YC group, YA group and YEA group significantly increased the wet weight / body weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle in 18 months old rats. YEA group could significantly increase the wet weight / body weight ratio of soleus muscle compared with YC group YC group and YA group (@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture combined with aerobic exercise can attenuate sarocopenia in 18-month-old naturally aging rats. The molecular mechanism may be related to the promotion of protein synthesis by activating the IGF-I / Akt pathway.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Exercise , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1549-1554, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134476

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hip joint chronic pain can severely compromise patients' life quality. Peripheral nerve blocks play an important role as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The aim of this work is to study the anatomy of the nerve to quadratus femoris (NQF) in view of the possibility of its percutaneous selective block. Forty-three gluteal cadaveric regions fixed in formaldehyde solution were dissected. The quadratus femoris, the obturator internus and superior and inferior gemellus were freed from their lateral insertion, exposing thus the posterior aspect of the hip joint. The NQF was identified, and the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter at its upper, middle and lower thirds was registered. The number of the articular branches of the NQF was identified. Likewise, the horizontal distance to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the longitudinal distance to the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were measured. The distance between the NQF and the greater trochanter posterior edge at upper, middle and lower thirds was 46 mm, 41 mm and 35 mm, respectively. In most cases (85 %) the NQF presented one or two articular branches. The longitudinal distances between the line through the distal end of the posterior edge of the greater trochanter and the origin of the first, second and third articular branches of the NQF were 14.7 mm (-19.4 - 40), 16.4 mm (-9.3-42) and 27 mm (0-46), respectively. The distances to the posterior edge of the greater trochanter were 43.1 mm (16.3-66), 37.7 mm (6.5-53) and 39.8 mm (26-52), for the first, second and third articular branches, respectively. In conclusion, the articular branches of the nerve to quadratus femoris have a constant and predictable distribution. Our findings allow for generating a coordinate system for the selective block of the NQF by way of percutaneous techniques.


RESUMEN: El dolor crónico de la articulación coxal puede comprometer severamente la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos juegan un papel importante como procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la anatomía del nervio del músculo cuadrado femoral (NCF) en vista de la posibilidad de su bloqueo selectivo percutáneo. Se utilizaron 22 cadáveres fijados en solución de formaldehído. Fueron disecadas en total 43 regiones glúteas. Los músculos cuadrado femoral, obturador interno y los gemelos superior e inferior fueron liberados de su inserción lateral, exponiendo así la cara posterior de la articulación coxal. Se identificó el NCF y se registró la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor en sus tercios superior, medio e inferior. Se identificó el número de ramas articulares del NQF. Asimismo, se midió la distancia horizontal al margen posterior del trocánter mayor y la distancia longitudinal a la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor. La distancia entre el NCF y el margen posterior del trocánter mayor en los tercios superior, medio e inferior fue de 46 mm, 41 mm y 35 mm, respectivamente. En la mayoría de los casos (85 %) el NCF presentó una o dos ramas articulares. Las distancias longitudinales entre la línea que pasa por el extremo distal del margen posterior del trocánter mayor y el origen de la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares del NQF fueron 14,7 mm (-19,4 - 40), 16,4 mm (-9,3-42) y 27 mm (0-46), respectivamente. Las distancias al margen posterior del trocánter mayor fueron 43,1 mm (16,3-66), 37,7 mm (6,5-53) y 39,8 mm (26-52), para la primera, segunda y tercera ramas articulares, respectivamente. En conclusión, las ramas articulares del nervio al cuadrado femoral tienen una distribución constante y predecible. Nuestros hallazgos permiten generar un sistema de coordenadas para el bloqueo selectivo del NCF por medio de técnicas percutáneas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Hip Joint/innervation , Nerve Block/methods , Cadaver
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1555-1559, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134477

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: During routine dissection of a left upper limb of a 68-year-old male human cadaver, an unusual muscle was observed originating from the radius and flexor retinaculum, and continued in the hypothenar region with the muscle belly of the abductor digiti minimi. We checked that it was an accessory abductor digiti minimi (ADM). Its muscular belly was in close relation to the median and ulnar nerves. We review the literature regarding such muscle variations and discuss the potential for compression of the median and ulnar nerves. Although the accessory ADM is usually asymptomatic and only rarely results in nerve compression, it should be taken into account by surgeons when establishing a differential diagnosis in the compression neuropathies of the median and ulnar nerves. An ultrasound scanning can help establish the differential diagnosis.


RESUMEN: Durante la disección de rutina de un miembro superior izquierdo de un cadáver humano masculino de 68 años, se observó un músculo inusual que se originaba en el radio y el retináculo flexor del carpo, y continuuaba en la región hipotenar con el vientre muscular del abductor digiti minimi manus. Verificamos que se trataba del músculo abductor digiti minimi accessorius (ADMA). Su vientre muscular se encontraba en estrecha relación con los nervios mediano y ulnar. Revisamos la literatura sobre variaciones musculares y discutimos la potencial compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Aunque el ADMA suele ser asintomático y rara vez produce compresión nerviosa, los cirujanos deben tenerlo en cuenta al establecer un diagnóstico diferencial en las neuropatías de compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Una ecografía puede ayudar a establecer el diagnóstico diferencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Ulnar Nerve , Cadaver , Risk Factors , Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Median Neuropathy/etiology , Median Nerve
16.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 18(3)dic. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337580

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue analizar si el profesional de enfermería aplicaba el autocuidado en el uso del calzado en horario laboral. Es un estudio observacional, analítico, de corte trasversal con enfoque cuantitativo. La población estuvo constituida por 1.037 profesionales de Enfermería del Hospital de Clínicas, institución de carácter público, situada en la ciudad de San Lorenzo, Paraguay. Se incluyeron 366 profesionales de Enfermería a través de un muestreo probabilístico, la selección de la muestra fue multietápica con muestreo aleatorio simple. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y chi2 para determinar asociaciones. Los hallazgos más relevantes fueron que mayoritariamente eran del grupo etario de 24 a 48 años con una media de 35 años; soltero, con una antigüedad de 10 años, con más de un empleo y del servicio de urgencias. Solo el 11,7% refirió conocer el calzado anatómico, sin embargo, 50,2% lo utilizaba. Más del 60% no tenía en cuenta las características del calzado anatómico al momento de adquirirlo, entre otros aspectos relacionados al utilizarlo en horario laboral. En el grupo etario de 31 a 35 años se concentró la mayor cantidad de trastornos músculo-esqueléticos (40%). En conclusión, el profesional de enfermería utilizaba de forma deficitaria el calzado adecuado; además, se ha encontrado evidencia de asociación (chi2 0,05) entre el tipo de calzado utilizado y la cantidad de trastornos músculo-esqueléticos que presentaba cada individuo


The objective was to analyze if the nursing professional applied self-care in the use of footwear during working hours. It was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The population was constituted by 1,037 nursing professionals from the Hospital de Clínicas, a public institution, located in the city of San Lorenzo, Paraguay. The sample included 366 nursing professionals and the sampling wasprobabilistic while the selection of the multistage sample with simple random sampling. Descriptive statistics and Chi2 were applied to determine associations. The most relevant findings were that they were mainly in the age group of 24 to 48 years with an average of 35 years, single, with a career of 10 years, more than one job and from the emergency service. Only 11.7% referred to know the anatomical footwear, however, 50.2% used it. More than 60% did not take into account characteristics of the anatomical footwear at the time of purchase, among other aspects related to using it during working hours. The greatest number (40%) of musculoskeletal disorders were concentrated in the age group from 31 to 35 years. In conclusion, the nursing professional uses the right footwear in a loss-making way. In addition, evidence was found of an association between the type of footwear used and the number of musculoskeletal disorders that each individual presents


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Self Care , Muscle, Skeletal , Nurses , Shoes
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1536-1541, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143625

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: A triathlon consists of 3 modalities: swimming, cycling and running. Its higher training frequency, the environmental factors and extrinsic factors (technique and equipment) may lead to injuries. This study aimed to determine injury epidemiology in triathletes, as well as their type, location, mechanism of injury, and risk factors. METHODS: The sample was constituted of 174 triathletes who participated in the Triathlon Club Portuguese Championship, being 131 (75.3%) male, aged 18 to 70 years old (36.09±11.03). The measurement instrument was a questionnaire concerning the characterization of the population and aspects related to the modality and injuries. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty (69%) athletes reported one injury since the beginning of their practice, and 95 (54.6%) had an injury in the previous year, with a total of 130 injuries. There were 2.39 injuries per 1,000 hours of triathlon training. The most common injuries were muscle contusion (31.5%) and inflammatory injuries (19.2%), located in the knee (22.3%) and the leg (18.5%). Overtraining (43.1%) was the mechanism that led to the highest occurrence of injuries. Fourteen (10.8%) injuries occurred during swimming, 23 (17.7%) during cycling, and 93 (71.5%) during running. No statistical significance was observed between the risk factors analyzed and the occurrence of injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Triathlon practice is associated with a high prevalence of injuries, being contusions, knee, and overtraining the most common type, location, and mechanism of injury respectively. It is necessary to create injury prevention strategies, including specific training and suitable materials for use by athletes.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O triatlo é constituído por três modalidades: natação, ciclismo e corrida. Uma maior frequência de treinamento, fatores ambientais e fatores extrínsecos (técnica e equipamento) podem levar a lesões. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a epidemiologia de lesões em triatletas, bem como seu tipo, localização, mecanismo de lesão e fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 174 triatletas que participaram do Campeonato Português de Clubes de Triatlo, sendo 131 (75,3%) do sexo masculino, com idades entre 18 e 70 anos (36,09 ± 11,03). O instrumento de medida foi um questionário referente à caracterização da população e aspectos relacionados à modalidade e lesões. RESULTADOS: Cento e vinte (69%) atletas referiram ter tido uma lesão desde que iniciaram a sua prática e 95 (54,6%) sofreram uma lesão no último ano, totalizando 130 lesões. Verificaram-se 2,39 lesões por 1.000 horas de treinamento em triatlo. As lesões mais comuns incluíram contusão muscular (31,5%) e lesões inflamatórias (19,2%), localizadas no joelho (22,3%) e na perna (18,5%). O excesso de treinamento (43,1%) foi o mecanismo que levou à maior ocorrência de lesões. Quatorze (10,8%) lesões ocorreram durante a prática de natação, 23 (17,7%) durante o ciclismo e 93 (71,5%) durante a corrida. Não foi observada significância estatística entre os fatores de risco analisados com a ocorrência de lesões. CONCLUSÕES: A prática de triatlo esteve associada a uma alta prevalência de lesões, sendo a contusão, o joelho e o excesso de treinamento, o tipo, a localização e o mecanismo mais comuns de lesão. É necessário criar estratégias de prevenção de lesões, incluindo treinamento específico e adequação do material utilizado pelo atleta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Athletic Injuries/etiology , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Running , Swimming , Bicycling , Muscle, Skeletal , Middle Aged
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1165-1172, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134419

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las conexiones intertendinosas (CIT) son bandas estrechas de tejido conectivo que unen tendones adyacentes del músculo extensor de los dedos. Dichas bandas se ubican de manera superficial en el dorso del segundo, tercer y cuarto espacios intermetacarpianos (EIMC) presentando funciones importantes como colaborar en la estabilización de la articulación metacarpofalángica y permitir la redistribución de fuerzas extensoras sobre esta articulación. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la biometría de las CIT. Para ello se utilizaron 24 miembros superiores formolizados, pertenecientes al laboratorio de Anatomía, de la Universidad Andrés Bello, sede Viña del Mar, Chile. Se registraron las longitudes de inserción lateral y medial, el ancho y la longitud total de cada CIT. Siguiendo dos criterios, las CIT se clasificaron según morfología y además se localizaron según tercios del dorso de la mano. De las 69 CIT encontradas, el 39 % presentó una disposición transversa y 61 % una oblicua. En relación a la clasificación morfológica de la CIT se identificó un 29 % del tipo 1; 39 % del tipo 2. Para el caso del tipo 3, un 20 % presentó la forma "r" y en un 12 % la forma "y". Respecto a su localización se estableció que en el segundo EIMC el 18 % de las CIT se ubicaron el tercio distal del dorso y el 82 % en el tercio medio. En el tercer EIMC el 96 % de las CIT se localizó en el tercio distal y 4 % en el tercio medio. En el cuarto EIMC el 96 % se ubicó en el tercio distal y el 4 % en el tercio medio. Considerando como referencia la línea biestiloidea, las CIT en el segundo EIMC presentaron un promedio de ancho de 8,16 ± 1,94 mm y una longitud total promedio de 13,71 ± 4,70 mm. En el tercer EIMC, un promedio de 10,94 ± 4,39 mm para el ancho y 6,29 ± 3,26 mm de longitud total promedio. En el cuarto EIMC el promedio de ancho fue de 7,00 ± 3,06 mm y la longitud total promedio 7,08 ± 4,42 mm. Estos hallazgos aportan datos respecto de la biometría y localización de las CIT, lo que resulta de utilidad en procedimientos de reparación quirúrgica del dorso de la mano humana.


SUMMARY: Intertendinous connections (IC) are narrow connective tissue bands extending between the extensor digitorum (ED) tendons. These bands are located superficially on the dorsum of the second, third and fourth intermetacarpal (IMC) space, presenting important functions such as collaborating in the stabilization of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) and allowing the redistribution of extensor forces on this joint. The objective of the present study was to establish the biometric characteristics of IC. To do this, 24 formalized upper limbs are used, belonging to the Anatomy laboratory of the Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile. Lateral and medial insertion lengths, width and total length of each IC were recorded. Following two criteria, IC were classified according to morphology and were also located according to thirds of the back of the hand. 69 IC were found, 39% presented a transverse arrangement and 61 % an oblique arrangement. In relation to the morphological classification of IC, 29 % of type 1 were identified, 39 % of type 2. In the case of type 3, 20 % presented the form "r" and 12 % the form "y". Regarding its location, it was established that in the second IMC space, 18 % of the IC were located in the distal third of the back and 82 % in the middle third. In the third IMC space, 96 % of the IC was located in the distal third and 4 % in the middle third. In the fourth IMC space, 96 % were located in the distal third and 4 % in the middle third. Considering the biestiloid line as a reference, the IC in the second IMC space considers an average width of 8.16 + 1.94 mm and an average total length of 13.71 + 4.70 mm. In the third IMC space, an average of 10.94 + 4.39 mm for the width and 6.29 + 3.26 mm of average total length. In the fourth IMC space the average total width of 7.00 + 3.06 mm and the average total length of 7.08 + 4.42 mm. These findings provide data regarding the biometrics and location of IC, which is useful in surgical repair procedures on the back of the human hand.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tendons/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Hand/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Connective Tissue
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1288-1295, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134438

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stretching and therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) on desmin and laminin contents of rat muscle after contusion. Male Wistar rats (n = 35, 8-9 weeks of age, 271 ± 14g body weight) were divided into five groups: Control group (CG) (n= 03); Injured group (IG) (n= 8); Injured + ultrasound group (IUSG) (n= 8); Injured+stretching group (ISG) (n= 8); Injured +ultrasound + stretching group (IUSSG) (n= 8). The application of ultrasound started 72 hours after the contusion, using the 50 % pulsed mode, 0.5 W/cm2, 5 min, once a day, for five consecutive days. Passive manual stretching was started on the tenth day after injury, with four repetitions of 30 s each and 30 s rest between repetitions, once a day, five times per week, for a total of ten applications. After 22 days, the rats were euthanazied and the gastrocnemius of both limbs removed for desmin and laminin immunohistochemistry morphometric measurement. Analysis was conducted using ANOVA one way post-hoc Tukey to parametric data and Kruskall-Wallis for non-parametric data. The IUSSG animals showed a larger area of desmin than ISG (p<0.05). It was found a decrease in laminin comparing IUSG to IG. However, laminin area was higher in ISG than all groups (p<0.05). UST isolated or in combination with stretching influenced gastrocnemius regeneration in different manners. While stretching applied isolated enhanced gastrocnemius regeneration noticed by the increase in laminin area, in combination with TUS strengthened the muscle healing rising desmin area.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos del estiramiento y la ecografía en los contenidos de desmina y laminina del músculo de rata después de la lesión. Ratas Wistar macho (n = 35, 8-9 semanas de edad, 271 ± 14 g de peso corporal) se dividieron en cinco grupos: grupo de control (CG) (n = 03); Grupo lesionado (GL) (n = 8); Lesionado + grupo de ultrasonido (LGU) (n= 8); Lesionado + grupo de estiramiento (LGE) (n = 8); Lesionado + ultrasonido + grupo de estiramiento (LUGE) (n = 8). La aplicación de ultrasonido comenzó 72 horas después de la lesión, usando el modo pulsado al 50 %, 0,5W / cm2, 5 min, una vez al día, durante cinco días consecutivos. El estiramiento manual pasivo se inició el décimo día después de la lesión, con cuatro repeticiones de 30 seg cada una y 30 seg de descanso entre repeticiones, una vez al día, cinco veces por semana, para un total de diez aplicaciones. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas después de 22 días, y se extrajo el músculo gastrocnemio de ambos miembros para la medición morfométrica de desmina y laminina a través de inmunohistoquímica. El análisis se realizó utilizando ANOVA unidireccional Tukey post-hoc para datos paramétricos y Kruskall-Wallis para datos no paramétricos. Los animales LUGE mostraron un área mayor de desmina que LGE (p <0,05). Se encontró una disminución en la laminina comparando LGU con GL. Sin embargo, el área de laminina fue mayor en LGE que en todos los grupos (p <0,05). El tratamiento con ultrasonido aislado o en combinación con estiramiento influyó en la regeneración del músculo gastrocnemio de diferentes maneras. Si bien el estiramiento aplicado, en combinación con tratamiento de ultrasonido, fortaleció el área de desmina, la regeneración del músculo gastrocnemio mejoró por el aumento en el área de laminina aumentando la curación muscular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Contusions/therapy , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Immunohistochemistry , Analysis of Variance , Laminin/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Desmin/analysis
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1392-1397, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134454

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Severe muscle injuries are common in accidents and have a delayed recovery of muscle integrity. In these cases, muscle suture surgery is the standard treatment. However, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), has been widely used in orthopedic injuries due to its growth factors. Thus, the objective of the study will be to analyze the association of suture and PRP techniques in the collagen and tenacity of the injured muscle. Were used seventy rats, divided into five groups: control (C), injury control (CI), injury and suture (IS), injury and PRP (IP), injury, suture, and PRP (ISP). Were sectioned approximately 50 % of the width and 100 % of the thickness of the gastrocnemius muscle. The homologous PRP was applied 24h after the injury. On the 7th day after the injury, the animals were euthanized and their muscles subjected to mechanical testing to measure tenacity or collagen analysis to calculate the ratio between type I and III collagen. The results show a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the values of the relationship between collagens in all injured groups (CI, IS, IP, ISP) compared to group C. In injured groups, the tenacity was significantly (p <0.05) reduced compared to the control group, with no observed difference between treatments and injured groups. The amount of collagen in the injured area has increased, but it did not affect the tenacity of the muscles, which was reduced.


RESUMEN: Las lesiones musculares graves son comunes durante los accidentes y la integridad del músculo está sujeta a una larga recuperación. En esos casos la cirugía, para la sutura del músculo, es el tratamiento común, no obstante el plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP) ha sido utilizado recientemente en lesiones ortopédicas, debido a sus factores del crecimiento. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la asociación de las técnicas de sutura y PRP en la histología y tenacidad de músculo lesionado. Fueron utilizadas 70 ratas distribuidas en cinco grupos: control (C), control lesión (CL), lesión y sutura (LS), lesión y PRP (LPRP), lesión, sutura y PRP (LSPRP). Aproximadamente en la lesión, el 50 % de la longitud y el 100 % del espesor del músculo gastrocnemio fueron seccionados. El PRP homólogo fue aplicado 24 horas después de la lesión. En el 7º día después de la lesión los animales fueron eutanasiados y las muestras fueran sometidas al ensayo mecánico para la medición de la tenacidad y análisis del colágeno, para realizar el cálculo de la relación entre los colágenos I y III. Los resultados demostraron una reducción significativa (p<0,05) en los valores de la relación entre los colágenos en todos los grupos lesionados en relación al grupo C. La tenacidad fue (p<0,05) reducida significativamente en los grupos lesionados en relación al grupo control, sin diferencia entre los tratados. En la lesión muscular hubo disminución de los valores de colágeno, aunque en los tratamientos se observó elevación de la cantidad de colágeno en la área lesionada, esta no tuvo efecto en la tenacidad de los músculos que fue disminuida en la lesión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Collagen/analysis , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Muscular Diseases/therapy , Sutures , Rats, Wistar , Soft Tissue Injuries/therapy , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type III/analysis
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