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Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 852-858, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986997


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular pathological mechanism of liver metabolic disorder in severe spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).@*METHODS@#The transgenic mice with type Ⅰ SMA (Smn-/- SMN20tg/2tg) and littermate control mice (Smn+/- SMN20tg/2tg) were observed for milk suckling behavior and body weight changes after birth. The mice with type Ⅰ SMA mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 20% glucose solution or saline (15 μL/12 h), and their survival time was recorded. GO enrichment analysis was performed using the RNA-Seq data of the liver of type Ⅰ SMA and littermate control mice, and the results were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Bisulfite sequencing was performed to examine CpG island methylation level in Fasn gene promoter region in the liver of the neonatal mice.@*RESULTS@#The neonatal mice with type Ⅰ SMA showed normal milk suckling behavior but had lower body weight than the littermate control mice on the second day after birth. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose solution every 12 h significantly improved the median survival time of type Ⅰ SMA mice from 9±1.3 to 11± 1.5 days (P < 0.05). Analysis of the RNA-Seq data of the liver showed that the expression of the target genes of PPARα related to lipid metabolism and mitochondrial β oxidation were down-regulated in the liver of type Ⅰ SMA mice. Type Ⅰ SMA mice had higher methylation level of the Fasn promoter region in the liver than the littermate control mice (76.44% vs 58.67%). In primary cultures of hepatocytes from type Ⅰ SMA mice, treatment with 5-AzaC significantly up-regulated the expressions of the genes related to lipid metabolism by over 1 fold (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Type Ⅰ SMA mice have liver metabolic disorder, and the down-regulation of the target genes of PPARα related to lipid and glucose metabolism due to persistent DNA methylation contributes to the progression of SMA.

Mice , Animals , PPAR alpha , Liver Diseases , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Body Weight , Glucose
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 148-154, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970895


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of single sperm sequencing in preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease (PGT-M).@*METHODS@#A Chinese couple with two children whom had died of Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and attended the Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in June 2020 was selected as the subject. Eleven single sperm samples were isolated by mechanical immobilization and subjected to whole genome amplification. Real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to detect the SMN1 variants in the single sperm samples. Genomic DNA of the wife, her parents and the husband, as well as one single sperm sample harboring the SMN1 variant and two single sperm samples without the variant were used for the linkage analysis. Targeted capture and high-throughput sequencing were carried out to test 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms distributed within 2 Mb up- and downstream the variant site. The haplotypes linked with the SMN1 variants were determined by linkage analysis. Blastocyst embryos were harvested after fertilizing by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Cells from the trophoblasts of each embryo were biopsied and subjected to whole genome amplification and targeted capture and high-throughput sequencing to determine their carrier status. Chromosomal aneuploidy of wild-type embryos was excluded. An euploid embryo of high quality was transferred. Amniotic fluid sample was taken at 18 weeks of gestation to confirm the status of the fetus.@*RESULTS@#Genetic testing showed that the couple both had deletion of exons 7 ~ 8 of the SMN1 gene. The wife has inherited the deletion from her father, while the husband was de novo. The haplotypes of the husband were successfully constructed by single sperm sequencing. Preimplantation genetic testing has indicated that 5 embryos had harbored the heterozygous variant, 4 embryos were of the wild type, among which 3 were euploid. Prenatal diagnosis during the second trimester of pregnancy has confirmed that the fetus did not carry the deletion.@*CONCLUSION@#By single sperm sequencing and PGT-M, the birth of further affected child has been successfully avoided.

Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Child , Male , Preimplantation Diagnosis , East Asian People , Semen , Genetic Testing , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Aneuploidy , Blastocyst/pathology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Spermatozoa
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 154-158, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970255


Objective: To investigate the clinical features and gene variation characteristics of children with dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (DYNC1H1) gene associated spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominant (SMALED) 1. Methods: The clinical data of 4 SMALED1 children admitted to Peking University First Hospital from December 2018 to May 2021, who were found to have pathogenic variation of DYNC1H1 gene through genetic testing, except for other genes known to be related to motor retardation, were retrospectively summarized to analyze the phenotype and genotype characteristics. Results: There were 3 males and 1 female. The age of onset was 1 year, 1 day, 1 day and 4 months, respectively. The age of diagnosis was 4 years and 10 months, 9 months, 5 years and 9 months, and 3 years and 1 month, respectively. The clinical manifestations were muscle weakness and muscular atrophy of lower limbs, 2 cases with foot deformity, 1 case with early non progressive joint contracture, 1 case with hip dislocation and 1 case with mental retardation. De novo heterozygous missense variations in DYNC1H1 gene were found in all 4 children. According to the rating of American College of medical genetics and genomics, they were all possible pathogenic and pathogenic variations, with p.R598C, p.P776L, p.Y1109D variations had been reported, and p.I1086R variation had not been reported. Conclusions: For those with unexplained lower limb muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, joint contracture and foot deformity, upper limb motor ability related retention, with or without mental retardation, as well as the motor ability progresses slowly, it is necessary to consider the possibility of SMALED1 and the detection of DYNC1H1 gene when necessary.

Female , Male , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Retrospective Studies , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Lower Extremity , Muscle Weakness , Muscular Atrophy , Contracture , Cytoplasmic Dyneins/genetics
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 655-660, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981803


OBJECTIVE@#To carry out carrier screening for Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in reproductive-aged individuals from Dongguan region and determine the carrier frequency of SMN1 gene mutations.@*METHODS@#Reproductive-aged individuals who underwent SMN1 genetic screening at the Dongguan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from March 2020 to August 2022 were selected as the study subjects. Deletions of exon 7 and 8 (E7/E8) of the SMN1 gene were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR), and prenatal diagnosis was provided for carrier couples by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA).@*RESULTS@#Among the 35 145 subjects, 635 were found to be carriers of SMN1 E7 deletion (586 with heterozygous E7/E8 deletion, 2 with heterozygous E7 deletion and homozygous E8 deletion, and 47 with sole heterozygous E7 deletion). The carrier frequency was 1.81% (635/35 145), with 1.59% (29/1 821) in males and 1.82% (606/33 324) in females. There was no significant difference between the two genders (χ² = 0.497, P = 0.481). A 29-year-old woman was found to harbor homozygous deletion of SMN1 E7/E8, and was verified to have a SMN1∶SMN2 ratio of [0∶4], none of her three family members with a [0∶4] genotype had clinical symptoms. Eleven carrier couples had accepted prenatal diagnosis, and one fetus was found to have a [0∶4] genotype, and the pregnancy was terminated.@*CONCLUSION@#This study has determined the SMA carrier frequency in Dongguan region for the first time and provided prenatal diagnosis for carrier couples. The data can provide a reference for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, which has important clinical implications for the prevention and control of birth defects associated with SMA.

Humans , Child , Pregnancy , Male , Female , Adult , Homozygote , Sequence Deletion , Prenatal Diagnosis , Genetic Testing , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics , Genetic Carrier Screening
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 204-209, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928588


Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy. SMA, as an inherited disease, is the leading cause of death in infants and young children. Rapid progress has been made in the research field of SMA in recent years, and some related treatment drugs have been successfully approved for marketing. This article reviews the recent research advances in the treatment of SMA.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 129-134, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928374


Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron degenerative disease, which is the most common fatal neuromuscular disease in pediatrics with a high carrier frequency and can lead to progressive symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy of the trunk and limbs. Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) can be used to prevent the birth of children with SMA effectively. To standardize PGT technologies for SMA, experts from the fields of neurology, pediatrics and reproductive genetics have discussed and drafted this consensus for guiding its clinical application.

Child , Humans , Consensus , Genetic Testing , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 912-923, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345319


Abstract Background: Adult-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) represents an expanding group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders in clinical practice. Objective: This review aims to synthesize the main clinical, genetic, radiological, biochemical, and neurophysiological aspects related to the classical and recently described forms of proximal SMA. Methods: The authors performed a non-systematic critical review summarizing adult-onset proximal SMA presentations. Results: Previously limited to cases of SMN1-related SMA type 4 (adult form), this group has now more than 15 different clinical conditions that have in common the symmetrical and progressive compromise of lower motor neurons starting in adulthood or elderly stage. New clinical and genetic subtypes of adult-onset proximal SMA have been recognized and are currently target of wide neuroradiological, pathological, and genetic studies. Conclusions: This new complex group of rare disorders typically present with lower motor neuron disease in association with other neurological or systemic signs of impairment, which are relatively specific and typical for each genetic subtype.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Atrofia muscular espinhal (AME) de início no adulto representa um grupo de doenças neurodegenerativas hereditárias em expansão na prática clínica. Objetivo: Este artigo de revisão sintetiza os principais aspectos clínicos, genéticos, radiológicos, bioquímicos e neurofisiológicos relacionados às formas clássicas e recentemente descritas de AME proximal do adulto. Métodos: Os autores realizaram uma revisão crítica não sistemática descrevendo as principais apresentações de AME proximal de início no adulto. Resultados: Previamente restrito às apresentações de AME tipo 4 associada ao gene SMN1, este grupo atualmente envolve mais de 15 diferentes condições clínicas que compartilham entre si a presença de comprometimento progressivo e simétrico do neurônio motor inferior se iniciando no adulto ou no idoso. Novos subtipos clínicos e genéticos de AME proximal de início no adulto foram reconhecidas e são alvos atuais de estudos direcionados a aspectos neurorradiológicos, patológicos e genéticos. Conclusões: Este novo grupo complexo de doenças raras tipicamente se apresenta com doença do neurônio motor inferior em associação com outros sinais de comprometimento neurológico ou sistêmico, os quais apresentam padrões relativamente específicos para cada subtipo genético.

Humans , Radiology , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Motor Neuron Disease , Rare Diseases , Neurophysiology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 743-747, Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339225


ABSTRACT Over the past 68 years, the Finkel type late-onset adult autosomal dominant spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) that is allelic with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-8 (ALS8) gained a genotype-phenotype correlation among the motor neuron diseases through the work of groups led by Zatz and Marques Jr.

RESUMO Nos últimos 68 anos, a atrofia muscular espinhal (AME), autossômica dominante, de início tardio, em adultos, conhecida como doença de Finkel, que é alélica com esclerose lateral amiotrófica tipo 8 (ELA8), ganhou uma correlação fenotípica e genotípica dentre as doenças do neurônio motor, a partir da colaboração dos grupos de Zatz e Marques Jr.

Humans , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Phenotype , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Mutation
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(2): 71-78, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254499


Introducción: la atrofia muscular espinal (AME) es la primera causa de origen genético de muerte en la infancia. En los últimos 20 años han sido excepcionales los avances en el conocimiento de su base genética, de su historia natural y se han desarrollado estándares de cuidado y nuevas terapias. Este veloz aumento del conocimiento ha llevado al desarrollo de terapias eficaces para esta devastadora enfermedad, pero el tiempo son neuronas, y esa frase nos lleva a pensar la importancia del diagnóstico precoz y, por qué no, del diagnóstico presintomático mediante pesquisa neonatal. Métodos: revisión de la bibliografía disponible, a través de búsqueda en PubMed y Google para trabajos no indexados o publicaciones de organismos de Salud. Resultados: varios estudios clínicos han mostrado la mayor eficacia del tratamiento en pacientes presintomáticos, por lo que lograrlo en estos pacientes llevaría a cambiar radicalmente la historia de esta enfermedad. Conclusión: es importante analizar y promover el desarrollo de pilotos para pesquisa neonatal en vistas a lograr experiencia para, a partir de ello, pensar en la posibilidad de incorporarlo a programas nacionales. (AU)

Introduction: spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the first cause of genetic origin of death in childhood. Throughout the last 20 years, we have witnessed exceptional advances in the knowledge of its genetic base, the history of its nature and several standards of care and new therapies have been developed. This rapid increase in knowledge has led to the development of effective therapies for this devastating disease. However, time is neurons, and that phrase reminds us of the importance of early diagnosis, and, why not, of pre-symptomatic diagnosis by means of neonatal screening. Methods: review of scientific papers searching in Pubmed or Google for non-indexed articles or publications of Health organisms. Results: several clinical studies have shown the greatest effectiveness of treatment in pre-symptomatic patients, so achieving the same in these patients would result in radically changing the history of this disease. Discussion: it is important to analyze and promote the development of pilots for neonatal screening in order to gain experience, so from there on to be able to think about the possibility of incorporating it into national programs. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/diagnosis , Neonatal Screening , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/therapy , Incidence , Natural History of Diseases , Early Diagnosis
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1038-1043, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922388


OBJECTIVES@#To study the natural history of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in Chongqing and surrounding areas, China, and to provide a clinical basis for comprehensive management and gene modification therapy for SMA.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data and survival status of 117 children with SMA.@*RESULTS@#Of the 117 children, 62 (53.0%) had type 1 SMA, 45 (38.5%) had type 2 SMA, and 10 (8.5%) had type 3 SMA, with a median age of onset of 2 months, 10 months, and 15 months, respectively. Compared with the children with type 2 SMA or type 3 SMA, the children with type 1 SMA had significantly shorter time to onset, consultation, and confirmed diagnosis (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in clinical manifestations and survival rates among children with different types of SMA. The children with type 1 SMA have a low survival rate, and those with type 2 SMA may have non-linear regression of motor ability. Early identification and management of SMA should be performed in clinical practice.

Child , Humans , Infant , Homozygote , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Deletion , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/genetics
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 214-218, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879556


OBJECTIVE@#To carry out prenatal diagnosis for families with high risk for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) by using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA).@*METHODS@#Twenty-one families were enrolled. MLPA was used to detect copy numbers of SMN1 and SMN2 genes. Maternal contamination was excluded by using a short tandem repeat method.@*RESULTS@#For 23 fetuses from the 21 families, 14 were identified as carriers, 1 as SMA patient, and 8 as normal. By linkage analysis of parental samples, three individuals were determined as silent (2+0) carriers.@*CONCLUSION@#MLPA can determine the carrier status of SMA. The identification of three silent (2+0) carriers among the 44 parental samples indicated a risk for such families, for which genetic counseling and reproduction guidance should be provided.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Genetic Counseling , Heterozygote , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis , Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(10): 788-790, out. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689786


Familial spinal muscular atrophy (FSMA) associated with the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) gene is a rare autosomal dominant disease with late onset and slow progression. We studied 10 of 42 patients from 5 families by taking clinical histories and performing physical exams, electrophysiological studies, and genetic tests. All patients presented late onset disease with slow progression characterized by fasciculations, proximal weakness, amyotrophy, and hypoactive deep tendon reflex, except two who exhibited brisk reflex. Two patients showed tongue fasciculations and respiratory insufficiency. Electrophysiological studies revealed patterns of lower motor neuron disease, and genetic testing identified a P56S mutation of the VAPB gene. Although it is a rare motor neuron disease, FSMA with this mutation might be much more prevalent in Brazil than expected, and many cases may be undiagnosed. Genetic exams should be performed whenever it is suspected in Brazil.

A atrofia espinhal progressiva familiar associada (AEPF) ao gene VAPB é uma doença autossômica dominante rara, de início tardio e lentamente progressiva. Estudamos 10 de 42 pacientes entre cinco famílias com AEPF, considerando a história clínica,o exame físico, a eletroneuromiografia e o teste genético. Todos os pacientes apresentaram inicio tardio, progressão lenta, fasciculações, fraqueza proximal, atrofia muscular e diminuição dos reflexos, exceto em um paciente em que os reflexos estavam vivos. Dois pacientes apresentavam fasciculações de língua e dois tinham fraqueza da musculatura respiratória. A eletroneuromiografia mostrou padrão de doença do segundo neurônio motor e o teste genético identificou a mutação P56S no gene VAPB. Embora seja uma doença rara, a AEPF associada a esta mutação pode ser mais prevalente no Brasil do que se acredita. Esta doença pode estar subdiagnosticada, devendo o teste genético ser realizado sempre que houver a suspeita diagnóstica.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Age of Onset , Brazil , Electromyography , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Mutation , Muscle Weakness/genetics , Pedigree
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 84(5): 499-504, oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698670


Introducción: La atrofia muscular espinal de la infancia (AMEi) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa, causada principalmente por deleciones del gen SMN 1 en su locus 5q11.1-13.3. La severidad va desde el tipo I, que compromete la vida en edades tempranas, hasta el tipo IV. Objetivos: Se describen hallazgos moleculares en pacientes con AME, nacionalmente remitidos al Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía así como se reporta la frecuencia por 100.000 habitantes en cada una de las provincias de la isla. Pacientes y Métodos: 105 pacientes fueron estudiados, remitidos entre 1997 y 2011. Para la detección de las deleciones se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con cebadores correspondientes a los exones 7 y 8 del gen SMN 1, y digestión con enzimas DraI y DdeI respectivamente y analizados en gel de agarosa al 2 por ciento. Resultados y Discusión: Se encontró un 59 por ciento diagnosticados como AME I, 28,6 por ciento AME II, 12,4 por ciento AME III. Del total de casos 36,2 por ciento resultaron tener deleción de los exones 7 y 8, 35,2 por ciento deleción del exón 7 solamente y 28,2 por ciento no presentaron deleción de los exones correspondientes. Se discuten dichos resultados de acuerdo a la literatura internacional. Se presentan los resultados de frecuencias por 100.000 habitantes en cada provincia del país y discuten dichas frecuencias de acuerdo a la diversidad ancestral de la población cubana. Se concluye lo novedoso del estudio que constituye el primer reporte en una población caribeña.

Introduction: Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy (infantile SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused primarily by the deletion of the SMN1 gene at 5q11.1 - 13.3. Its severity ranges from type I, in early childhood, to type IV. Objectives: To describe molecular findings in patients with SMA, who were nationally referred to the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery and to describe the frequency per 100,000 people in each province of the island. Patients and Methods: 105 patients, referred between 1997 and 2011, were studied. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect the deletions of exons 7 and 8 of the SMN1 gene, and DraI and DdeI enzymes, in 2 percent agarose gel, were used for digestion. Results: 59 percent of the patients were diagnosed with SMA I, 28.6 percent with SMA II and 12.4 percent with SMA III. 36.2 percent of total patients presented deletions of exons 7, 8, 35.2 percent only deletion of exon 7 and 28.2 percentdid not present deletion of exons. Conclusion: These results are discussed according to the international literature. The frequency per 100,000 inhabitants in each province is presented and discussed according to ancestral diversity of the Cuban population. Also, the originality of the study is mentioned as it is the first report of this type in a Caribbean population.

Humans , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Molecular Biology , SMN Complex Proteins/genetics , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/classification , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/epidemiology , Cuba/epidemiology , Gene Deletion , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. méd. Chile ; 139(2): 197-204, feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-595287


Background: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy, linked to the homozygous disruption of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. It is the leading genetic cause of infant death. It has been classified into three types based on the severity of symptoms. Type I SMA is the most severe form with death within the first 2 years of life. Type II and III SMA patients show intermediate and mild forms of the disorder. Aim: To describe the clinical and electrophysiological findings of 26 Chilean patients with SMA with molecular confirmation. Patients and Methods: Retrospective multicenter analysis of patients with SMA assessed between 2003 and 2010. The diagnosis was suspected on clinical and electrophysiological criteria. Since 2006 molecular genetics confirmation was implemented in one of our centers. Results: Twenty-six patients between 2 months and 18 years of age at presentation were analyzed; 15 (58 percent) were males. SMA I, II and III clinical criteria were observed in 4 (15.4 percent), 11 (42.3 percent) and 11 (42.3 percent)patients, respectively. All had proximal muscle weakness and atrophy. Electromyography showed features of acute denervation or re-innervation with normal motor and sensory nerve conduction. Nine patients required a muscle biopsy. The genetic confirmation of the disease by PCR technique followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism method disclosed the SMN1 gene deletion in all 26 cases. All patients died secondary to respiratory failure, between eight and 14 months of life. Conclusions: An adequate clinical and molecular diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy will help for a better management of these patients.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/diagnosis , Electrophysiology , Gene Deletion , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/physiopathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 86(4): 261-270, jul.-ago. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558815


OBJETIVO: Relatar as recentes descobertas genéticas e moleculares, juntamente com as perspectivas futuras, para o tratamento da atrofia muscular espinhal, auxiliando, dessa forma, os profissionais da área da saúde a fazerem um rápido diagnóstico e proporcionarem um suporte terapêutico correto e precoce. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos científicos publicados nas duas últimas décadas, pesquisados nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e MEDLINE. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A atrofia muscular espinhal é uma doença neurodegenerativa com herança genética autossômica recessiva. É causada por uma deleção homozigótica do gene de sobrevivência do motoneurônio. Essa alteração genética resulta na redução dos níveis da proteína de sobrevivência do motoneurônio, levando à degeneração de motoneurônios alfa da medula espinhal, o que resulta em fraqueza e paralisia muscular proximal progressiva simétrica. Sabe-se que alguns cuidados básicos referentes à nutrição, respiração e fisioterapia podem ser importantes para retardar o progresso da doença e prolongar a vida dos pacientes. Vários medicamentos estão sendo testados, alguns novos, outros já conhecidos, como o ácido valproico, sendo que a paralisia pode ser estacionada, mas não revertida. CONCLUSÕES: A atrofia muscular espinhal é uma desordem de difícil diagnóstico, por ser pouco conhecida, e de tratamento ainda incerto. Os tratamentos farmacológicos e as terapias de suporte existentes ainda não são capazes de recuperar os motoneurônios ou as células musculares que já foram perdidos, mas têm o objetivo de retardar o progresso da doença e melhorar a função muscular residual dos pacientes, bem como oferecer uma melhor qualidade e expectativa de vida.

OBJECTIVE: To report on recent genetic and molecular discoveries and on future prospects for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), thereby helping healthcare professionals to make a quick diagnosis and provide appropriate and timely therapeutic support. SOURCES: Information was collected from scientific articles published in the last 2 decades, retrieved from the databases SciELO, PubMed, and MEDLINE. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder with autosomal recessive genetic heredity. It is caused by a homozygous deletion of the survival motor neuron (SMN1) gene. This genetic alteration results in reduced levels of the SMN protein, leading to degeneration of alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord and resulting in muscle weakness and progressive symmetrical proximal paralysis. It is known that basic nutritional and respiratory care and physiotherapy can be important to delaying disease progression and prolonging patients' lives. Several drugs are being tested, some new, others, such as valproic acid, already known; paralysis can be halted, but not reversed. CONCLUSIONS: SMA is a difficult to diagnose disorder, because it is little known, and treatment is uncertain. Pharmacological treatments and supportive therapies are not yet able to recover motor neurons or muscle cells that have already been lost, but are aimed at delaying disease progression and improving patients' residual muscle function, as well as offering better quality of life and life expectancy.

Humans , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Forecasting , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/diagnosis , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/therapy
IJCN-Iranian Journal of Child Neurology. 2010; 4 (2): 51-53
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117733


We describe three patients with very severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy [SMA] presented with reduced fetal movement in utero, profound hypotonia, severe weakness and respiratory insufficiency at birth. In all infants, electrodiagnostic studies were compatible with a neurogenic pattern. In genetic studies, all cases had homozygous deletions of exons 7 and 8 of Survival Motor Neuron [SMN] and exon 5 of Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein [NAIP] gene. SMA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of reduced fetal movement and respiratory insufficiency at birth

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Fetal Movement
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 93-96, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82761


Determination of the copy number of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene is important for detecting spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) carriers and compound heterozygous patients. Multiplex ligationdependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a simple and efficient technique used for detecting variations in the copy numbers of different genes. Race- and ethnicity-based variation in the SMA carrier frequency and the '2+0' genotype of SMN1 are important factors that should be considered when estimating the risk of being an SMA carrier. Since SMN2 plays a disease-modifying role, accurate determination of SMN2 copy numbers in SMA patients can serve as a useful prognostic tool. Therefore, information on the SMN2 genotype distributions in normal populations will be helpful in selecting appropriate reference samples for MLPA analysis. To determine SMA carrier frequencies and SMN genotype distribution, we determined the copy numbers of SMN1 and SMN2 genes using the MLPA assay in 100 unrelated Korean individuals with no family history of SMA. The frequency of SMA carriers in the Korean population appears to be 1 in 50, which indicates that the prevalence of SMA among Koreans is the same as that among individuals in the Western countries. Two of the 100 normal individuals enrolled in this study showed 3 copies of the SMN1 gene. Therefore, 1.0% of the 198 normal alleles in this population was estimated to be 2-copy alleles ('2+0' genotype). SMN2 copy numbers showed a high degree of individual variation. Our results showed that 64% of the individuals had 2 copies of SMN2, but 36% individuals had between 0, 1, or 3 copies of the gene.

Humans , Asian People/genetics , Gene Dosage , Heterozygote , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Republic of Korea , Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics , Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein/genetics
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 63(1): 145-149, Mar. 2005. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-398806


OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil clínico e laboratorial de pacientes com atrofia muscular espinhal (AME) com deleção no gene da proteína sobrevivência do neurônio motor (SMN). MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo de uma série de casos confirmados pela presença da deleção no gene SMN. Determinação da freqüência da positividade dos critérios clínicos e laboratoriais revisados. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 22 casos. Em todos havia paresia simétrica, sendo a localização difusa predominante nos casos de início antes de 6 meses (75 por cento), enquanto nos demais havia predominância de localização proximal e/ou em membros inferiores (67 por cento). Fasciculações e atrofia foram freqüentes (82 por cento). Os exames complementares tiveram resultados variáveis, sendo a positividade da eletroneuromiografia (ENMG) de 57 por cento e da biopsia muscular de 58 por cento. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de deleção no gene SMN pode ajudar a confirmar o diagnóstico de casos indefinidos .

Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Gene Deletion , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/diagnosis , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Age of Onset , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electromyography , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/pathology