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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202302992, feb. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525290

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antirretrovirales (ARV) es un problema de salud pública. Con el uso de inhibidores de la integrasa (INSTI) en pediatría, también comienzan a aparecer resistencias. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir 3 casos con resistencia a los INSTI. Se describen 3 pacientes pediátricos con transmisión vertical del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Iniciaron ARV de lactantes y preescolares, con mala adherencia al tratamiento, cursaron con diferentes planes secundarios a comorbilidades asociadas y fallas virológicas por resistencia. Los 3 casos clínicos describen la rápida aparición de resistencia frente a la falla virológica y el compromiso de los INSTI. La adherencia debe ser supervisada para detectar precozmente el aumento de la viremia. La falla virológica en un paciente tratado con raltegravir obliga a un rápido cambio de esquema ARV, ya que continuar utilizándolo podría favorecer nuevas mutaciones y resistencia a los INSTI de segunda generación.


Antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance is a public health issue. Resistance has also been observed in the case of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) used in pediatrics. The objective of this article is to describe 3 cases of INSTI resistance. These are the cases of 3 children with vertically-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They were started on ARVs as infants and preschoolers, with poor treatment adherence, and had different management plans due to associated comorbidities and virological failure due to resistance. In the 3 cases, resistance developed rapidly as a result of virological failure and INSTI involvement. Treatment adherence should be monitored so that any increase in viremia can be detected early. Virological failure in a patient treated with raltegravir forces to a rapid change in ARV therapy because its continued use may favor new mutations and resistance to second-generation INSTIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Uruguay , Raltegravir Potassium/therapeutic use , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , Mutation
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 173-184, feb. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528836

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) is associated with cancer progression. The expression and immunologic function of CLCA1 in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) remain unclear. In this investigation, the expression of CLCA1 in STAD tissues and its involvement in the progression and immune response of STAD were examined using databases such as cBioPortal, TISIDB, and UALCAN. In order to validate the expression level of CLCA1 protein in gastric adenocarcinoma, thirty clinical tissue specimens were gathered for immunohistochemical staining. The findings indicated a downregulation of CLCA1 in STAD patients, which was correlated with race, age, cancer grade, Helicobacter pylori infection, and molecular subtype. Through the examination of survival analysis, it was identified that diminished levels of CLCA1 within gastric cancer cases were linked to decreased periods of post-progression survival (PPS), overall survival (OS), and first progression (FP) (P<0.05). The CLCA1 mutation rate was lower in STAD, but the survival rate was higher in the variant group. The correlation between the expression level of CLCA1 and the levels of immune infiltrating cells in STAD, as well as the immune activating molecules, immunosuppressive molecules, MHC molecules, chemokines, and their receptor molecules, was observed. Gene enrichment analysis revealed that CLCA1 may be involved in STAD progression through systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), proteasome, cell cycle, pancreatic secretion, and PPAR signaling pathways. In summary, CLCA1 is anticipated to function as a prognostic marker for patients with STAD and is linked to the immunization of STAD.


El regulador 1 del canal de cloruro activado por calcio (CLCA1) está asociado con la progresión del cáncer. La expresión y la función inmunológica de CLCA1 en el adenocarcinoma de estómago (STAD) aún no están claras. En esta investigación, se examinó la expresión de CLCA1 en tejidos STAD y su participación en la progresión y respuesta inmune de STAD utilizando bases de datos como cBioPortal, TISIDB y UALCAN. Para validar el nivel de expresión de la proteína CLCA1 en el adenocarcinoma gástrico, se recolectaron treinta muestras de tejido clínico para tinción inmunohistoquímica. Los hallazgos indicaron una regulación negativa de CLCA1 en pacientes con STAD, que se correlacionó con la raza, la edad, el grado del cáncer, la infección por Helicobacter pylori y el subtipo molecular. Mediante el examen del análisis de supervivencia, se identificó que los niveles reducidos de CLCA1 en los casos de cáncer gástrico estaban relacionados con períodos reducidos de supervivencia posterior a la progresión (PPS), supervivencia general (OS) y primera progresión (FP) (P <0,05). La tasa de mutación CLCA1 fue menor en STAD, pero la tasa de supervivencia fue mayor en el grupo variante. Se observó la correlación entre el nivel de expresión de CLCA1 y los niveles de células inmunes infiltrantes en STAD, así como las moléculas activadoras inmunes, moléculas inmunosupresoras, moléculas MHC, quimiocinas y sus moléculas receptoras. El análisis de enriquecimiento genético reveló que CLCA1 puede estar involucrado en la progresión de STAD a través del lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), el proteasoma, el ciclo celular, la secreción pancreática y las vías de señalización de PPAR. En resumen, se prevé que CLCA1 funcione como un marcador de pronóstico para pacientes con STAD y está vinculado a la inmunización de STAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/immunology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Survival Analysis , Chloride Channels/genetics , Chloride Channels/immunology , Computational Biology , Mutation
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

ABSTRACT

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/growth & development , Soybeans/genetics , Phenotype , Bangladesh , Plant Breeding , Genotype , Mutation
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

ABSTRACT

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep , Infertility , Mutation/genetics
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527678

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue describir los niveles de resistencia transmitida de VIH-1 en adultos atendidos en Unidades de Atención Integral de Guatemala. El estudio incluyó registros de 185 pacientes adultos VIH-1 positivo, de reciente diagnóstico sin antecedente de uso de TAR, de noviembre del 2019 a noviembre del 2020. El análisis se realizó en el software DeepChek® v2.0, para la clasificación de la resistencia se siguió el algoritmo de Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022). Se encontró 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistencia general a alguna familia de ARVs. Se evidenció 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistencia individual a la familia de INNTR afectando principalmente a NVP y EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) de resistencia a INTR, mayormente a FTC/3TC; y 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistencia intermedia y baja los IP NFV y LPV/r. Tres casos presentaron resistencia múltiple a los INTR + INNTR. Las mutaciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) y M46I (5.9%). La elevada resistencia transmitida del VIH-1 en pacientes atendidos en distintas Unidades de Atención Integral del VIH, demuestra la importancia de analizar periódicamente la tendencia de la resistencia en personas que no han estado expuestas a ARVs, lo cual a su vez es un marcador indirecto de presencia de resistencia adquirida en el país, datos que evidencian la necesidad de acciones e intervenciones prontas y efectivas dado su impacto en la salud pública.


The objective of this study was to describe the levels of transmitted HIV-1 resistance in patients with a recent HIV diagnosis before starting ART, treated in Comprehensive Care Units in Guatemala during the years 2019 and 2020. The study included records of 185 HIV-positive adult patients, recently diagnosed with HIV without a history of ART use. The analysis was carried out in the DeepChek® v2.0 software, the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) was followed to classify resistance. 18.4% (95% CI 13.1 - 24.7%) of general resistance to some family of ARVs was found. There was evidence of 15.1% (95% CI 10.3 - 21.1%) of individual resistance to the NNRTI family, mainly affecting NVP and EFV; 2.2% (95% CI 0.6 - 5.4%) resistance to INTR, mostly to FTC/3TC; and 2.7% (95% CI 0.9 - 6.2%) of intermediate and low resistance IP NFV and LPV/r. Three cases presented multiple resistance to NRTIs + NNRTIs. The most frequently found mutations were K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) and M46I (5.9%). The high transmitted resistance of HIV-1 in patients treated in different Comprehensive HIV Care Units demonstrates the importance of periodically analyzing the trend of resistance in people who have not been exposed to ARVs, which in turn is an indirect marker. of the presence of acquired resistance in the country, data that demonstrate the need for prompt and effective actions and interventions given its impact on public health.


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os níveis de resistência transmitida ao HIV-1 em adultos tratados em Unidades de Cuidados Integrais na Guatemala. O estudo incluiu prontuários de 185 pacientes adultos HIV-1 positivos, recentemente diagnosticados sem histórico de uso de TARV, no período de novembro de 2019 a novembro de 2020. A análise foi realizada no software DeepChek® v2.0, para classificação da resistência, O algoritmo Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) foi seguido. Foi encontrada 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistência geral a alguma família de ARVs. Houve evidência de 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistência individual à família de NNRTI, afetando principalmente NVP e EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) resistência ao INTR, principalmente ao FTC/3TC; e 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistência intermediária e baixa ao IP NFV e LPV/r. Três casos apresentaram resistência múltipla a NRTIs + NNRTIs. As mutações mais frequentemente encontradas foram K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) e M46I (5.9%). A elevada resistência transmitida do HIV-1 em pacientes atendidos em diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Integrados ao HIV demonstra a importância de analisar periodicamente a tendência de resistência em pessoas que não foram expostas aos ARVs, o que por sua vez é um marcador indireto da presença de ARVs adquiridos. resistência no país, dados que demonstram a necessidade de ações e intervenções rápidas e eficazes dado o seu impacto na saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , HIV Infections/genetics , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Guatemala/epidemiology , Mutation
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202303017, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1517881

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los síndromes de sobrecrecimiento corporal segmentario son un grupo de enfermedades poco frecuentes caracterizadas por exceso de crecimiento en una o más partes del cuerpo relacionadas, en su mayoría, con mutaciones en mosaico en la vía de señalización AKT/PI3K/mTOR y RAS-MAPK. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características clínicas y auxológicas, y la calidad de vida relacionada a salud (CVRS) en este grupo de pacientes en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal de una cohorte en seguimiento. Se analizaron edad, sexo, datos sociodemográficos, mediciones antropométricas del segmento afectado y del contralateral, complicaciones, tratamiento, calidad de vida (PedsQL4.0) y dolor. Se calcularon medidas centrales y de dispersión. Se realizó análisis univariado entre calidad de vida y variables incluidas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 50 pacientes, 29 varones. Mediana de edad 9,95 (r 1,44-17,81) años. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue síndrome de sobrecrecimiento relacionado a PIK3CA (PROS) (37/50). Mediana de número de segmentos afectados 2 (r: 1-7) por niño. Cuarenta casos presentaron malformación vascular; 20, capilar. El dolor (24/50) fue la complicación más frecuente. Treinta y un pacientes mostraron asimetría de longitud de miembros inferiores, < 5 cm. La estatura se ubicó entre los centilos 50 y 97 en la mayoría de los niños. Menor CVRS se observó en mujeres, en pacientes con malformación vascular compleja y necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI). Conclusiones. PROS fue el diagnóstico más frecuente. El dolor fue una complicación frecuente. La CVRS fue menor en mujeres, pacientes con malformación vascular combinada y NBI.


Introduction. Segmental overgrowth syndromes are a group of rare diseases characterized by overgrowth in one or more parts of the body, mostly related to mosaic mutations in the AKT/PI3K/mTOR and RASMAPK signaling pathway. Our objective was to analyze the clinical and auxological characteristics and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in this group of patients at a tertiary care hospital. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study of a follow-up cohort. Age, sex, sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements of the affected and contralateral segments, complications, treatment, quality of life (PedsQL 4.0), and pain were analyzed. Central and dispersion measures were estimated. A univariate analysis between the quality of life and study variables was done. Results. A total of 50 patients were included; 29 were males. Median age: 9.95 (r: 1.44­17.81) years. The most common diagnosis was PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) (37/50). The median number of affected segments was 2 (r: 1­7) per patient. Vascular malformations were observed in 40, and capillary malformations, in 20 patients. Pain was the most common complication (24/50). An asymmetry of the lower extremities of < 5 cm was observed in 31 patients. In most children, height was between the 50th and 97th percentiles. A lower HRQoL was observed among girls, patients with complex vascular malformations, and those with unmet basic needs (UBNs). Conclusions. PROS was the most common diagnosis. Pain was the most common complication. HRQoL was lower among girls, patients with combined vascular malformations, and those with UBNs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Vascular Malformations , Pain , Syndrome , Signal Transduction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mutation
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202825, oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510083

ABSTRACT

Los moduladores de la proteína reguladora transmembrana de fibrosis quística (CFTR) tratan el defecto de esta proteína. El objetivo es describir la evolución de niños con fibrosis quística tratados con lumacaftor/ivacaftor. Se trata de una serie de 13 pacientes de 6 a 18 años con ≥ 6 meses de tratamiento. Se analizaron el volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1), puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (IMC), antibioticoterapia/año, antes del tratamiento y durante 24 meses posteriores. A los 12 meses (9/13) y 24 meses (5/13), la mediana de cambio del porcentaje del predicho VEF1 (ppVEF1) fue de 0,5 pp [-2-12] y 15 pp [8,7-15,2], y del puntaje Z de IMC de 0,32 puntos [-0,2-0,5] y 1,23 puntos [0,3-1,6]. El primer año (11/13) la mediana de días de uso de antibiótico disminuyó de 57 a 28 (oral) y de 27 a 0 (intravenoso). Dos niños evidenciaron eventos adversos asociados.


Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) modulators treat defective CFTR protein. Our objective is to describe the course of children with cystic fibrosis treated with lumacaftor/ivacaftor. This is a case series of 13 patients aged 6 to 18 years with ≥ 6 months of treatment. Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), body mass index (BMI) Z-score, antibiotic therapy/year, before treatment and for 24 months after treatment were analyzed. At 12 months (9/13) and 24 months (5/13), the median change in the percent predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1) was 0.5 pp (-2­12) and 15 pp (8.7­15.2) and the BMI Z-score was 0.32 points (-0.2­0.5) and 1.23 points (0.3­1.6). In the first year, in 11/13 patients, the median number of days of antibiotic use decreased from 57 to 28 (oral) and from 27 to 0 (intravenous). Two children had associated adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Forced Expiratory Volume , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Aminophenols/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutation
8.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(5): 224-228, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530020

ABSTRACT

In skeletal dysplasias, there are short rib polydactyly syndromes, which traditionally differentiate into four lethal types. This report describes a case of Type III, which presented characteristics of Types I and II. A 38-year-old woman presented fetal growth restriction at 17 weeks and 6 days, decreased amniotic fluid, enlarged and hyperechogenic kidneys, and long bones below the 3rd percentile. Three weeks later, she developed anhydramnia. The couple did not consent to the performance of an invasive test for genetic diagnosis and chose to maintain the pregnancy. At 33 weeks, due to premature labor and interactivity, a cesarean section was performed, giving birth to a female baby, who died due to respiratory failure there were no vocal cords and no trachea visible at laryngoscopy. On physical examination, he had the phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome. An X-ray showed short ribs and severe pulmonary hypoplasia. After birth, the parents chose not to carry out a genetic study or an anatomical examination. Researchers have suggested that there is an intersection of the anatomical changes of the types. This case report supports this theory.


En las displasias esqueléticas, existen síndromes de polidactilia de costillas cortas, que tradicionalmente se diferencian en cuatro tipos letales. Este reporte describe un caso del tipo III, que presentó características de los tipos I y II. Mujer de 38 años con restricción del crecimiento fetal a las 17 semanas y 6 días, líquido amniótico disminuido, riñones agrandados e hiperecogénicos y huesos largos por debajo del percentil 3. Tres semanas después, desarrolló anhidramnia. La pareja no consintió en la realización de una prueba invasiva de diagnóstico genético y optó por mantener el embarazo. A las 33 semanas, debido al parto prematuro y la interactividad, se realizó una cesárea, dando a luz a un bebé, que murió debido a una insuficiencia respiratoria: no había cuerdas vocales ni tráquea visible en la laringoscopia. Al examen físico presentaba las características fenotípicas del síndrome. Una radiografía mostró costillas cortas e hipoplasia pulmonar severa. Después del nacimiento, los padres optaron por no realizar un estudio genético ni un examen anatómico. Los investigadores han sugerido que existe una intersección de los cambios anatómicos de los tipos. Este reporte de caso apoya esta teoría.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis , Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome/classification , Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Radiography/methods , Chromosome Mapping , Mutation
9.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 274-280, Septiembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515976

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia del HIV a los antirretrovirales (ARVs) es una de las principales causas de fallo terapéutico en niños, niñas y adolescentes que conviven con el virus. Desde el año 2006, el Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus del Hospital Garrahan realiza el estudio genotípico de resistencia (ER) del HIV-1 a los ARVs a fin de identificar mutaciones que disminuyen la susceptibilidad del virus a los fármacos que componen el tratamiento ARV. Objetivos: El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el tipo y frecuencia de resistencia del HIV a los ARVs, a través de un análisis de 371 ER realizados entre los años 2006 y 2021 en niños, niñas y adolescentes con HIV-1 adquirido por transmisión vertical y con solicitud médica de ER por presentar fallo terapéutico. Resultados: Entre los años 2006 y 2013 la proporción de casos con resistencia a al menos una clase de fármaco ARV fue mayor al 90%, sugiriendo una asociación directa entre el fallo virológico y la disminución en la susceptibilidad del HIV-1 a uno o más componentes del TARV. A partir del año 2012, se observa una disminución progresiva del nivel de resistencia de HIV-1, llegando al 50% en 2021 (p<0.0001). La frecuencia de mutaciones de resistencia fue diferente para cada una de las clases de ARVs. Mientras que la resistencia a INNTR no sufrió cambios significativos a lo largo del período de estudio, oscilando entre 27% y 75%. La proporción de mutaciones a IPs en pacientes con fallo virológico disminuyó de 87% en 2006 a 17% en 2021 y para los INTR, disminuyó de 79% en 2006 a 45% en 2021. Conclusión: El nivel de resistencia a los ARVs ha disminuido de manera sustancial a lo largo de los últimos 16 años, probablemente por el uso de nuevos fármacos ARV con alta potencia que posibilitaron la intensificación de los tratamientos ARV y la implementación de criterios de fallo terapéutico más estrictos tanto a nivel clínico como virológico (AU)


Introduction: HIV resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs is one of the main causes of therapeutic failure in children and adolescents living with the virus. Since 2006, the Cell Biology and Retrovirus Laboratory of the Garrahan Hospital has been performing the genotypic study of HIV-1 resistance to ARV drugs in order to identify mutations that reduce the susceptibility of the virus to the drugs that constitute ARV treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the type and frequency of HIV resistance to ARV drugs through an analysis of 371 genotype studies performed between 2006 and 2021 in children and adolescents with HIV-1 acquired through motherto-child transmission and with medical request for genotype study due to therapeutic failure. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, the proportion of cases with resistance to at least one ARV drug class was greater than 90%, suggesting a direct association between virologic failure and decreased susceptibility of HIV-1 to one or more components of ART. From 2012 onwards, a progressive decrease in the level of HIV-1 resistance was observed, reaching 50% in 2021 (p<0.0001). The frequency of resistant mutations was different for each of the ARV classes, while resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) did not change significantly over the study period, ranging from 27% to 75%. The proportion of drug-resistant mutations to protease inhibitors (PI) in patients with virologic failure decreased from 87% in 2006 to 17% in 2021 and for NNRTIs from 79% in 2006 to 45% in 2021. Conclusion: The level of resistance to ARV drugs has decreased substantially over the last 16 years, probably due to the use of new ARV drugs with high potency that allowed the intensification of ARV treatments and the implementation of stricter criteria for therapeutic failure both clinically and virologically (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Mutation , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202905, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442708

ABSTRACT

La fibrosis quística, la segunda enfermedad genética más frecuente, es el resultado de una proteína de canal mutada, la CFTR, que secreta iones de cloro que fluidifican las secreciones. La esperanza de vida en los pacientes ha aumentado en años recientes gracias a mejoras en el tratamiento. No obstante, las complicaciones hepáticas son la tercera causa de muerte y la comprensión de su fisiopatología es aún deficiente. Se considera que la obstrucción biliar secundaria a la presencia de secreciones espesas conduce a la cirrosis. Sin embargo, el ácido ursodesoxicólico no ha modificado la historia natural. Además, la presencia de hipertensión portal en ausencia de cirrosis no puede ser explicada. Se ha propuesto el rol de la CFTR como modulador de tolerancia inmune, que explica la presencia de una inflamación portal persistente que culmina en fibrosis. El eje intestino-hígado tendría un rol importante en la presentación y la progresión de esta enfermedad


Cystic fibrosis is the second most common genetic disease in infancy. It is the result of a mutated channel protein, the CFTR, which secretes chloride ions, fluidifying secretions. Recent improvements in the treatment have increased life expectancy in these patients. Nevertheless, liver involvement remains the third cause of death. Unfortunately, our understating of the physiopathology is still deficient. Biliary obstruction secondary to the presence of thick secretions is considered to lead to cirrhosis. However, treatment with ursodeoxycolic acid has not changed the natural history. Furthermore, the presence of portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis cannot be explained. Recently, the role of CFTR as modulator of immune tolerance has been proposed, which could explain the presence of a persistent portal inflammation leading to fibrosis, and the gut-liver axis would also have a role in disease presentation and progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cystic Fibrosis , Liver Diseases/etiology , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Mutation
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202804, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442954

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica es una inmunodeficiencia primaria poco frecuente, que secaracteriza por defectos en alguna de las subunidades del complejo enzimático nicotinamida adeninadinucleótido fosfato oxidasa, que ocasiona un déficit en la generación de anión superóxido por losfagocitos. Dentro de este grupo, la forma ligada al X es la más frecuente. Se reporta el caso de una paciente de sexo femenino de 2 años con enfermedad granulomatosa crónica autosómica recesiva, con mutación en gen CYBA, quien presentó manifestación inicial de la enfermedad con abscesos cerebrales ocasionados por un germen oportunista (Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis). Esta infección permitió la sospecha diagnóstica temprana, por lo que recibió el tratamiento y la profilaxis en forma oportuna. Actualmente, se encuentra libre de infecciones, a la espera del trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas.


Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by defects in one of the subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase enzyme complex, which causes a deficiency in the capacity of phagocytes to generate superoxide anion. Within this group, the X-linked form is the most frequent. Here we report the case of a 2-year-old female patient with autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease, with a mutation in the CYBA gene, whose initial manifestation was brain abscesses caused by an opportunistic microorganism (Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis). The infection led to an early diagnostic suspicion, so treatment and prophylaxis were administered in a timely manner. Currently, she is infectionfree, awaiting hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/complications , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/genetics , Actinobacteria , Mutation
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202682, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1424963

ABSTRACT

El raquitismo hipofosfatémico hereditario es una condición genética asociada con una mineralización ósea alterada causada por la deficiencia de fosfato. Produce deformidad esquelética y retraso del crecimiento en la infancia. Se describen diferentes patrones de herencia según el locus involucrado. Dado el solapamiento de los fenotipos y la dificultad en analizar genealogías reducidas, los estudios moleculares son importantes para establecer la causa genética y realizar el abordaje familiar. La forma recesiva del raquitismo hipofosfatémico (ARHR, OMIM #241520) es una condición extremadamente poco frecuente reportada en familias de origen europeo y de Oriente Medio. Las mutaciones con pérdida de función del gen DMP1 (dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1) se asocian al raquitismo hipofosfatémico hereditario tipo 1. En este artículo presentamos el primer reporte de una familia argentina con raquitismo hipofosfatémico hereditario por mutación en DMP1


Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets is a genetic condition associated with impaired bone mineralization caused by phosphate deficiency. It results in skeletal deformity and growth retardation in early childhood. Different inheritance patterns have been described according to the locus involved. Given the phenotypic overlapping and the difficulty in analyzing reduced genealogies, molecular studies are important to establish the genetic cause and implement a family-centered approach. The autosomal recessive form of hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR, OMIM 241520) is an extremely rare condition reported in families of European and Middle Eastern descent. Loss-of-function mutations in the DMP1 (dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1) gene are associated with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets type 1. In this article, we describe the first report of an Argentine family with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets due to a mutation in the DMP1 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/genetics , Argentina , Calcification, Physiologic , Mutation
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202677, feb. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1413008

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de deficiencia del transportador de glucosa tipo 1 es una enfermedad de causa genética, que involucra el gen SLC2A1. En general, se presenta durante los primeros años de vida con retraso en la adquisición de pautas madurativas, epilepsia farmacorresistente y desórdenes del movimiento. La clínica y la disminución de glucosa en líquido cefalorraquídeo permiten sospechar el diagnóstico, el cual debe ser confirmado mediante el estudio molecular del gen SLC2A1. Debido a que se trata de una enfermedad poco frecuente y de expresión clínica variable, el diagnóstico precoz suele representar un desafío para los equipos de salud. Este es importante, ya que la implementación de la terapia cetogénica logra controlar las manifestaciones clínicas y mejora el pronóstico a largo plazo. Presentamos una revisión sobre el déficit del transportador de glucosa tipo 1, que abarca sus características clínicas, bioquímicas, moleculares y terapéuticas.


Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency with a typical onset is a genetic disorder associated with the SLC2A1 gene. Usually appears during the first years of life with severe developmental delay, drugresistant epilepsy, and movement disorders. Diagnosis is suspected based on clinical manifestations and a low glucose level in cerebrospinal fluid, and should be confirmed by the molecular genetic study of the SLC2A1 gene. As it is a rare disease with variable clinical expression, early diagnosis is often challenging for the healthcare team. Nevertheless, this is important because early implementation of ketogenic therapy will lead to control of the clinical manifestations and a better long-term prognosis. Here we review the glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome focusing on its clinical, biochemical, molecular, and therapeutic characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/therapy , Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/genetics , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/genetics , Mutation
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202606, feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1413281

ABSTRACT

Las diarreas y enteropatías congénitas (CODE por su sigla en inglés) son un grupo de trastornos monogénicos que se han descrito en los últimos años. Dentro de las CODE, la mutación del gen de la diacilglicerol o-aciltransferasa 1 (DGAT1) es un trastorno enzimático poco común asociado con diarrea crónica grave de aparición temprana. El objetivo es presentar a dos hermanas que consultaron por diarrea crónica, retraso en el crecimiento, vómitos e hipoalbuminemia en la primera infancia. En ambas pacientes se encontró un compuesto heterocigota de la mutación del DGAT1. Esta mutación se describió previamente en la población asiática; sin embargo, estas son las dos primeras pacientes en tener esta mutación en la población latinoamericana. Estos dos casos pueden ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre las diarreas congénitas en general y las características clínicas de los pacientes con mutaciones en DGAT1 en particular.


Congenital diarrhea and enteropathies (CODEs) are a group of monogenic disorders that have been described in recent years. Within the CODEs, the mutation in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene is a rare enzyme disorder associated with severe, early-onset chronic diarrhea. Our objective is to describe the case of 2 sisters who consulted for chronic diarrhea, growth retardation, vomiting, and hypoalbuminemia in early childhood. A compound heterozygous DGAT1 mutation was found in both patients. This mutation was previously described in the Asian population; however, these are the first 2 patients to show this mutation in the Latin American population. These 2 cases may expand our knowledge about congenital diarrhea in general and the clinical characteristics of patients with DGAT1 mutations in particular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase/genetics , Failure to Thrive/genetics , Diarrhea , Mutation
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246040, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a congenitally reduced head circumference (-3 to -5 SD) and non-progressive intellectual disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate pathogenic mutations in the ASPM gene to understand etiology and molecular mechanism of primary microcephaly. Blood samples were collected from various families across different remote areas of Pakistan from February 2017 to May 2019 who were identified to be affected with primary microcephaly. DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method; the quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using spectrophotometry and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively in University of the Punjab. Mutation analysis was performed by whole exome sequencing from the Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. Sanger sequencing was done in University of the Punjab to confirm the pathogenic nature of mutation. A novel 4-bp deletion mutation c.3877_3880delGAGA was detected in exon 17 of the ASPM gene in two primary microcephaly affected families (A and B), which resulted in a frame shift mutation in the gene followed by truncated protein synthesis (p.Glu1293Lysfs*10), as well as the loss of the calmodulin-binding IQ domain and the Armadillo-like domain in the ASPM protein. Using the in-silico tools Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, and PolyPhen, the pathogenic effect of this novel mutation was tested; it was predicted to be "disease causing," with high pathogenicity scores. One previously reported mutation in exon 24 (c.9730C>T) of the ASPM gene resulting in protein truncation (p.Arg3244*) was also observed in family C. Mutations in the ASPM gene are the most common cause of MCPH in most cases. Therefore, enrolling additional affected families from remote areas of Pakistan would help in identifying or mapping novel mutations in the ASPM gene of primary microcephaly.


Resumo Microcefalia primária autossômica recessiva (MCPH) é um distúrbio do neurodesenvolvimento caracterizado por uma redução congênita do perímetro cefálico (-3 a -5 DP) e deficiência intelectual não progressiva. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar mutações patogênicas no gene ASPM a fim de compreender a etiologia e o mecanismo molecular da microcefalia primária. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de várias famílias em diferentes áreas remotas do Paquistão de fevereiro de 2017 a maio de 2019, que foram identificadas como afetadas com microcefalia primária. A extração do DNA foi realizada pelo método salting-out; a qualidade e a quantidade de DNA foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria e eletroforese em gel de agarose a 1%, respectivamente, na Universidade de Punjab. A análise de mutação foi realizada por sequenciamento completo do exoma do Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. O sequenciamento de Sanger foi feito na Universidade do Punjab para confirmar a natureza patogênica da mutação. Uma nova mutação de deleção de 4 bp c.3877_3880delGAGA foi detectada no exon 17 do gene ASPM em duas famílias afetadas por microcefalia primária (A e B), que resultou em uma mutação de frame shift no gene seguida por síntese de proteína truncada (pGlu1293Lysfs * 10), bem como a perda do domínio IQ de ligação à calmodulina e o domínio do tipo Armadillo na proteína ASPM. Usando as ferramentas in-silico Mutation Taster, PROVEAN e PolyPhen, o efeito patogênico dessa nova mutação foi testado; foi previsto ser "causador de doenças", com altos escores de patogenicidade. Uma mutação relatada anteriormente no exon 24 (c.9730C > T) do gene ASPM, resultando em truncamento de proteína (p.Arg3244 *) também foi observada na família C. Mutações no gene ASPM são a causa mais comum de MCPH na maioria dos casos . Portanto, a inscrição de famílias afetadas adicionais de áreas remotas do Paquistão ajudaria a identificar ou mapear novas mutações no gene ASPM da microcefalia primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Consanguinity , Mutation/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 912-917, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985495

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and genetic variations of two cases with developmental delay and lactic acidosis in a family, and to explore the relationship between genetic variations and clinical features. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical characteristics of two siblings with developmental delay and lactic acidosis who were treated at the Neonatal Department of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in May 2019 and December 2021, respectively. Whole-exome sequencing was used to detect genetic variations in the affected children. Homology modeling of the BCS1L protein was performed to analyze the structural and functional changes of the protein. The correlation between genetic variations and clinical phenotypes was analyzed. The results showed that the main clinical features of the two affected children in this family were manifestations of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex Ⅲ deficiency, including prematurity, developmental delay, respiratory failure, lactic acidosis, cholestasis, liver dysfunction, renal tubular lesions, coagulation dysfunction, anemia, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, and early death. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel deletion mutation c.486_488delGGA (p.E163del) and a novel missense mutation c.992C>T (p.T331I) in the BCS1L gene. Structural analysis of the homology modeling showed that the compound heterozygous mutation had a significant impact on protein function. In conclusion, the novel mutation site c.992C>T (p.T331I) in the BCS1L gene is a "likely pathogenic" mutation, and the compound heterozygous mutation is closely related to the phenotype of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex Ⅲ deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acidosis, Lactic/genetics , Electron Transport Complex III/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Mutation , Growth Disorders , ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 868-876, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985489

ABSTRACT

Objective: This article investigated the clinical characteristics and distribution of drug resistance mutation sites in HBV RT region of hepatitis B infected patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made on 1 948 patients with HBV infection, who had been tested for NAs resistance mutation and had a medical history of NAs in the Laboratory Department of the Fifth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021. Basic clinical information and drug resistance related mutation information were recorded. Meanwhile, the serological index data of hepatitis B were collected. Drug resistance gene mutant group and non-mutated group were grouped according to whether the drug resistance genes had a mutation in HBV RT region, and the clinical characteristics and genotype distribution of the two groups were statistically analyzed. The pattern of drug resistance gene mutation, number of mutation sites, drug resistance type and mutation of NAs resistance-related sites were analyzed in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region. χ2 Inspection was used for counting data. Meanwhile, two independent samples t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for measurement data. Results: Among the 1 948 patients with chronic HBV infection, 917 patients had drug resistance gene mutation in RT region (47.07%). The proportion of patients with acute hepatitis B and CHB in HBV RT resistance gene mutant group was lower than that in the non-mutated group, while the proportion of patients with HBV-related cirrhosis was higher than that in the non-mutated group, these differences were statistically significant. Compared with the non-mutated group in HBV RT region, the age, the positive rates of HBeAg and HBV DNA, and HBV DNA load of these patients were increased in drug resistance gene mutant group, these differences were statistically significant. Genotypes of patients in both groups were dominated by C, followed by B and D. The proportion of patients with genotype C in HBV RT drug resistance gene mutant group was higher than that of non-mutated group, the difference was statistically significant. There were 53 gene mutation patterns in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region, and the main pattern was rtL180M+rtM204V+rtS202G (9.70%). The mutation sites were dominated by 3 (20.74%). There were 5 types of drug resistance, LAM+Ldt (21.25%) was the most. Among the 18 sites that were clearly associated with LAM, ADV, ETV and Ldt resistance in the HBV RT region, 14 sites were mutated, and the most common mutation sites were rtL180M, rtM204V, rtM204 and rtS202G. what's more, the proportion of patients with NAs drug resistance was LAM>Ldt>ETV>ADV. Conclusion: In order to prevent adverse consequences of this study such as disease recurrence or disease progression caused by HBV drug resistance, HBV infected patients, who have long-term use of NAs antiviral therapy, should monitor the level of HBV DNA and drug resistance genes in HBV RT region in order to optimize the treatment plan in time or guide individualized treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Mutation , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Lamivudine/therapeutic use
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 382-388, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984733

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze poly-guanine (poly-G) genotypes and construct the phylogenetic tree of colorectal cancer (CRC) and provide an efficient and convenient method for the study of intra-tumor heterogeneity and tumor metastasis pathway. Methods: The clinicopathological information of patients with primary colorectal cancer resection with regional lymph node metastases were retrospectively collected in the Department of General Surgery, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from January 2017 to December 2017. The paraffin sections of the paired tumor samples were performed consecutively, and multi-region microdissection was performed after histogene staining. The phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation scheme was used to obtain DNA, and Poly-G multiplex PCR amplification and capillary electrophoresis detection were performed. The correlation between Poly-G mutation frequency and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Based on the difference of Poly-G genotypes between paired samples, the distance matrix was calculated, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed to clarify the tumor metastasis pathway. Results: A total of 237 paired samples were collected from 20 patients including 134 primary lesions, 66 lymph node metastases, 37 normal tissues, and Poly-G mutation was detected in 20 patients (100%). The mutation frequency of Poly-G in low and undifferentiated patients was (74.10±23.11)%, higher than that in high and medium differentiated patients [(31.36±12.04)%, P<0.001]. In microsatellite instability patients, the mutation frequency of Poly-G was (68.19±24.80)%, which was higher than that in microsatellite stable patients [(32.40±14.90)%, P=0.003]. The Poly-G mutation frequency was not correlated with age, gender, and pathological staging (all P>0.05). Based on Poly-G genotype difference of the paired samples, the phylogenetic trees of 20 patients were constructed, showing the evolution process of the tumor, especially the subclonal origins of lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Poly-G mutations accumulate in the occurrence and development of CRC, and can be used as genetic markers to generate reliable maps of intratumor heterogeneity in large numbers of patients with minimal time and cost expenditure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Poly G , Phylogeny , Mutation , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 298-312, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984723

ABSTRACT

MET gene is a proto-oncogene, which encodes MET protein with tyrosine kinase activity. After binding to its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, MET protein can induce MET dimerization and activate downstream signaling pathways, which plays a crucial role in tumor formation and metastasis. Savolitinib, as a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting MET, selectively inhibits the phosphorylation of MET kinase with a significant inhibitory effect on tumors with MET abnormalities. Based on its significant efficacy shown in the registration studies, savolitinib was approved for marketing in China on June 22, 2021 for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with MET 14 exon skipping mutations. In addition, many studies have shown that MET TKIs are equally effective in patients with advanced solid tumors with MET gene amplification or MET protein overexpression, and relevant registration clinical studies are ongoing. The most common adverse reactions during treatment with savolitinib include nausea, vomiting, peripheral edema, pyrexia, and hepatotoxicity. Based on two rounds of extensive nationwide investigations to guide clinicians, the consensus is compiled to use savolitinib rationally, prevent and treat various adverse reactions scientifically, and improve the clinical benefits and quality of life of patients. This consensus was prepared under the guidance of multidisciplinary experts, especially including the whole-process participation and valuable suggestions of experts in Traditional Chinese Medicine, thus reflecting the clinical treatment concept of integrated Chinese and western medicines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Consensus , Quality of Life , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Mutation
20.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 716-721, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984709

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify and analyze 3D architecture of the mutational sites of susceptible genes in a pedigree with familial hypercholesterolemia-like phenotype (FHLP). Methods: This is a case series study. A pedigree with suspected familial hypercholesterolemia was surveyed. The proband admitted in Beijing Anzhen Hospital in April 2019. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to determine the mutational sites of susceptible genes in the proband. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing was used to verify the pathogenic variant on proband's relatives. The structural and functional changes of the proteins were analyzed and predicted by Discovery Studio 4.0 and PyMol 2.0. Results: The patients in the pedigree showed abnormal lipid profiles, especially elevated levels of total cholesterol(TC). The genetic screening detected the c.1330C>T SNP in the exon 8 of lipase C (LIPC) gene, this mutation leads to an amino acid substitution from arginine to cysteine at position 444 (Arg444Cys), in the proband and proband's father and brother. In this family, members with this mutation exhibited elevated TC, whereas lipid profile was normal from the proband's mother without this mutation. This finding indicated that LIPC: c.1330C>T mutation might be the mutational sites of susceptible genes. The analysis showed that Arg444Cys predominantly affected the ligand-binding property of the protein, but had a limited impact on catalytic function. Conclusion: LIPC: c.1330C>T is a new mutational site of susceptible genes in this FHLP pedigree.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Lipase/genetics , Lipids , Mutation , Pedigree , Phenotype , Proteins
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