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1.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e202, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1390039

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ejercicio físico, integrando la rehabilitación cardíaca (RC), tiene un efecto positivo demostrado en el pronóstico de los pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular, optimizando el rendimiento cardíaco en términos de capacidad funcional. Mediante los programas de RC se pretende obtener los máximos beneficios clínicos del ejercicio físico con un mínimo riesgo para el paciente. Objetivos: Evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de un programa de RC extrahospitalario en pacientes de todos los niveles de riesgo, monitorizando con cardiotacómetros (instrumento de pulsera que detecta frecuencia cardíaca y permite programar alarmas) a pacientes de moderado y alto riesgo, con base en la ausencia de complicaciones cardíacas graves y la mejoría funcional de los participantes. Material y métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, sometida a un plan de RC durante 12 semanas en el período comprendido entre enero de 2014 y marzo de 2020. Se evaluaron parámetros clínicos y funcionales al inicio y al final del plan de rehabilitación, controlando la tolerancia al esfuerzo, la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardíaca mediante el uso de cardiotacómetros. Resultados: Se incluyeron 181 pacientes, con edad promedio de 58,7 ± 9,7 años, 87,8% del sexo masculino, mayoritariamente portadores de cardiopatía isquémica (90,1%). Según la clasificación de la Asociación Americana de Rehabilitación Cardiovascular y Pulmonar, 54 pacientes (29,8%) eran de alto riesgo, 29 (16,0%) de moderado riesgo y 98 (54,1%) de bajo riesgo. En más de 10.000 horas de actividad física realizadas, un paciente requirió el implante de un marcapaso definitivo por bloqueo auriculoventricular completo, sin observarse otras complicaciones graves. Se obtuvo una mejoría significativa (p = 0,001) de la capacidad funcional, que aumentó de 7,34 ± 2,68 a 10,20 ± 2,35 METs (incremento relativo individual promedio 28,1%). Conclusiones: La RC es un tratamiento seguro y efectivo en los pacientes cardiópatas, aún en aquellos de moderado y alto riesgo. El uso de cardiotacómetros permite una adecuada monitorización del ejercicio y una oportuna detección de complicaciones.


Introduction: physical exercise, integrating cardiac rehabilitation (CR), has a proven positive effect on the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease, optimizing cardiac performance in terms of functional capacity. CR programs aim to obtain maximum clinical benefits with minimal risks to the patient. Objectives: assess the safety and efficacy of a cardiotachometer-monitored out-of-hospital CR program in high- and moderate-risk patients, based on the absence of major cardiac complications and improvement in participant's functional capacity. Materials and methods: retrospective cohort study, submitted to a CR plan for 12 weeks in the period between January 2014 and March 2020. Clinical and functional parameters were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the rehabilitation plan, controlling effort tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate using cardiotachometers. Results: 181 patients were included, aged 58.7 ± 9.7 years and 87.8% female, of whom 90% were carriers of ischemic heart disease. According to the classification of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, the patients were distributed as follows: 54 (29.8%) at high risk, 29 (16.0%) at intermediate risk, and 98 (54.1%) low risk. In more than ten thousand hours of physical activity performed, one patient required implantation of a permanent pacemaker due to complete atrioventricular block. A significant improvement (p = 0.001) of the functional capacity, from 7.34 ± 2.68 to 10.2 ± 2.35 (mean relative improvement: 28.1%.) was obtained. Conclusions: the CR is a safe and effective procedure for cardiac patients, even in moderate or high-risk subjects. The use of cardiotachometers allows adequate exercise monitoring and timely detection of complications.


Introdução: o exercício físico, integrando a reabilitação cardíaca (RC), tem comprovado efeito positivo no prognóstico de pacientes com doença cardiovascular, otimizando o desempenho cardíaco em termos de capacidade funcional. Os programas de RC visam obter o máximo de benefícios clínicos com riscos mínimos para o paciente. Objetivos: avaliar a segurança e eficácia de um programa de RC fora do hospital monitorado por cardiotacômetro em pacientes de alto e moderado risco, com base na ausência de complicações cardíacas maiores e na melhora da capacidade funcional dos participantes. Materiais e métodos: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de um plano de RC de 12 semanas, em um período entre janeiro de 2014 a março de 2020. Os parâmetros clínicos e funcionais foram avaliados no início e no final do plano de reabilitação, a tolerância ao esforço, pressão arterial e frequência cardíaca utilizando cardiotacômetros. Resultados: foram incluídos 181 pacientes, com média de idade de 58,7 ± 9,7 anos e 87,8% do sexo masculino, dos quais 90% eram portadores de cardiopatia isquêmica. De acordo com a classificação da Associação Americana de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Pulmonar, os pacientes foram distribuídos da seguinte forma: 54 (29,8%) de alto risco, 29 (16,0%) de risco intermediário e 98 (54,1%) de baixo risco. Em mais de dez mil horas de atividade física realizada, um paciente necessitou de implante de marcapasso definitivo por bloqueio atrioventricular total. A avaliação final mostrou melhora significativa (p = 0,001) na capacidade funcional medida em METs; este passou de 7,34 ± 2,68 para 10,2 ± 2,35 (melhora relativa média: 28,1%). Conclusões: este trabalho demonstra que a RC é um tratamento seguro e eficaz para pacientes com doenças cardíacas, mesmo em indivíduos de risco moderado e alto. O uso de cardiotacômetros permite o monitoramento adequado do exercício e a detecção oportuna de complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Myocardial Ischemia/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Heart Failure/rehabilitation , Heart Valve Diseases/rehabilitation , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ergometry , Electrocardiography , Secondary Prevention , Heart Rate Determination
2.
Lima; Perú. ESSALUD. Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación; 1 ed; May. 2022. 125 p. ilus.(GPC, 51).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1373372

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación en versión extensa, describe las recomendaciones para el manejo infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntomas, con el fin de contribuir a reducir la mortalidad, mejorar la calidad de vida, y reducir las complicaciones de los pacientes con esta condición, la población a la cual se aplicará la GPC:, o sea los pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntoma. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) es una emergencia médica, producto de la oclusión de las arterias coronarias, que conllevan a la isquemia miocárdica transmural, y que de persistir lleva a una lesión miocárdica o necrosis. Se ha reportado una mortalidad de la enfermedad del 23 % antes de llegar al hospital, 13% durante el ingreso hospitalario, y de 10% posterior al alta. Lo cual, inclusive, puede aumentar en ausencia de tratamiento entre un 5 a 10% (2). En el caso de Perú, se ha reportado una por IMCEST de aproximadamente 9%, pero con una incidencia de insuficiencia cardíaca posinfarto fue de 28% y de choque cardiogénico de 12% (3). Esta alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad hace hincapié en la necesidad de garantizar una evaluación y manejo adecuado de la enfermedad. Por ello, el Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) priorizó la realización de la presente guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para establecer lineamientos basados en evidencia para gestionar de la mejor manera los procesos y procedimientos asistenciales de la presente condición


Subject(s)
Patients , Shock, Cardiogenic , Wounds and Injuries , Myocardial Ischemia , Coronary Vessels , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction
3.
Lima; Perú. ESSALUD. Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación; 1 ed; May. 2022. 24 p. ilus.(GPC, 51).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1373371

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación en versión corta, describe las recomendaciones para el manejo infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntomas, con el fin de contribuir a reducir la mortalidad, mejorar la calidad de vida, y reducir las complicaciones de los pacientes con esta condición. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) es una emergencia médica, producto de la oclusión de las arterias coronarias, que conllevan a la isquemia miocárdica transmural, y que de persistir lleva a una lesión miocárdica o necrosis (1). Se ha reportado una mortalidad de la enfermedad del 23 % antes de llegar al hospital, 13% durante el ingreso hospitalario, y de 10% posterior al alta. Lo cual, inclusive, puede aumentar en ausencia de tratamiento entre un 5 a 10% (2). En el caso de Perú, se ha reportado una por IMCEST de aproximadamente 9%, pero con una incidencia de insuficiencia cardíaca postinfarto fue de 28% y de choque cardiogénico de 12% (3). Esta alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad hace hincapié en la necesidad de garantizar una evaluación y manejo adecuado de la enfermedad. Por ello, el Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) priorizó la realización de la presente guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para establecer lineamientos basados en evidencia para gestionar de la mejor manera los procesos y procedimientos asistenciales de la presente condición


Subject(s)
Patients , Shock, Cardiogenic , Myocardial Ischemia , Coronary Vessels , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Absenteeism , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(1): 12-20, mar. 2022. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1368801

ABSTRACT

Introducción: determinar la causa de muerte de los pacientes internados con enfermedad cardiovascular es de suma importancia para poder tomar medidas y así mejorar la calidad su atención y prevenir muertes evitables. Objetivos: determinar las principales causas de muerte durante la internación por enfermedades cardiovasculares. Desarrollar y validar un algoritmo para clasificar automáticamente a los pacientes fallecidos durante la internación con enfermedades cardiovasculares Diseño del estudio: estudio exploratorio retrospectivo. Desarrollo de un algoritmo de clasificación. Resultados: del total de 6161 pacientes, el 21,3% (1316) se internaron por causas cardiovasculares; las enfermedades cerebrovasculares representan el 30,7%, la insuficiencia cardíaca el 24,9% y las enfermedades cardíacas isquémicas el 14%. El algoritmo de clasificación según motivo de internación cardiovascular vs. no cardiovascular alcanzó una precisión de 0,9546 (IC 95%: 0,9351-0,9696). El algoritmo de clasificación de causa específica de internación cardiovascular alcanzó una precisión global de 0,9407 (IC 95%: 0,8866-0,9741). Conclusiones: la enfermedad cardiovascular representa el 21,3% de los motivos de internación de pacientes que fallecen durante su desarrollo. Los algoritmos presentaron en general buena performance, particularmente el de clasificación del motivo de internación cardiovascular y no cardiovascular y el clasificador según causa específica de internación cardiovascular. (AU)


Introduction: determining the cause of death of hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease is of the utmost importance in order to take measures and thus improve the quality of care of these patients and prevent preventable deaths. Objectives: to determine the main causes of death during hospitalization due to cardiovascular diseases.To development and validate a natural language processing algorithm to automatically classify deceased patients according to their cause for hospitalization. Design: retrospective exploratory study. Development of a natural language processing classification algorithm. Results: of the total 6161 patients in our sample who died during hospitalization, 21.3% (1316) were hospitalized due to cardiovascular causes. The stroke represent 30.7%, heart failure 24.9%, and ischemic cardiac disease 14%. The classification algorithm for detecting cardiovascular vs. Non-cardiovascular admission diagnoses yielded an accuracy of 0.9546 (95% CI 0.9351, 0.9696), the algorithm for detecting specific cardiovascular cause of admission resulted in an overall accuracy of 0.9407 (95% CI 0.8866, 0.9741). Conclusions: cardiovascular disease represents 21.3% of the reasons for hospitalization of patients who die during hospital stays. The classification algorithms generally showed good performance, particularly the classification of cardiovascular vs non-cardiovascular cause for admission and the specific cardiovascular admission cause classifier. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence/statistics & numerical data , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospitalization , Quality of Health Care , Algorithms , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Mortality , Cause of Death , Electronic Health Records
5.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 75-79, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362712

ABSTRACT

Los aneurismas de las arterias coronarias (AAC) son poco comunes, con una incidencia de 0.3-5.3%. Se definen como una dilatación 1.5 veces mayor al diámetro interno de la arteria normal adyacente. La arteria coronaria derecha es la más comúnmente afectada. Su fisiopatología es poco clara, pero se cree que una de sus principales causas es la aterosclerosis. Los AAC son generalmente asintomáticos o pueden estar asociados a isquemia miocárdica. Su tratamiento aún no está bien establecido, debido al desconocimiento general sobre su historia natural, e incluye desde un manejo conservador hasta el tratamiento quirúrgico. A continuación, se reporta el caso de un paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio y elevación del segmento ST, llevado a coronariografía que evidenció aneurisma de la coronaria derecha, que requirió trombectomía, angioplastia y manejo médico vitalicio ambulatorio.


Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) are a rare entity with an incidence of 0.3-5.3%. They are dilations of 1.5 times larger than normal adjacent artery, with the right coronary artery as the most affected vessel. Its pathophysiology is unclear but atherosclerosis is believed to be the main cause. CAA are generally asymptomatic but can cause coronary ischemia. Its treatment is yet to be established due to general ignorance about its nature. It ranges from conservative management to surgery. In the following text, we report a case of a patient with acute myocardial infarction presenting ST-segment elevation, who showed a right coronary artery aneurysm in coronary angiography. The patient required thrombectomy, angioplasty and subsequent lifetime outpatient medical management.


Os aneurismas das artérias coronárias (AAC) são pouco comuns, com uma incidência de 0.3-5.3%. Se definem como uma dilatação 1.5 vezes maior ao diâmetro interno da artéria normal adjacente. A artéria coronária direita é a mais comumente afetada. Sua fisiopatologia é pouco clara, mas se crê que uma das suas principais causas é a aterosclerose. Os AAC são geralmente assintomáticos ou podem estar associados a isquemia miocárdica. Seu tratamento ainda não está bem estabelecido, devido ao desconhecimento geral sobre sua história natural, e inclui desde um manejo conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. A continuação, se reporta o caso de um paciente com infarto agudo de miocárdio e elevação do segmento ST, levado a coronariografia que evidenciou aneurisma da coronária direita, que requereu trombectomia, angioplastia e manejo médico vitalício ambulatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm , Coronary Angiography , Myocardial Ischemia , Angioplasty , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Infarction
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 28-36, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1356316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exercise tests are an important tool in the investigation of myocardial ischemia. The ramp protocol has gained increasing importance in clinical practice because of the possibility of individualizing its exercise intensity. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Bruce and ramp protocols for exercise testing in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia considering myocardial perfusion scintigraphy as the reference standard. Secondary objectives included the assessment of hemodynamic profiles, functional capacity, and the incidence of arrhythmias in each of the protocols. METHODS: Participants underwent exercise testing using the ramp and Bruce protocols, and the tests' diagnostic power was assessed. For testing the difference between data provided by both protocols, we used a paired Student's t-test or Wilcoxon test, depending on the assumption of data normality. The level of significance adopted for all tests was 5%. RESULTS: The ramp protocol showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 55.6%, 82.4%, and 76.7%, respectively, whereas the Bruce protocol had results of 77.8%, 64.7%, and 67.4%, respectively. The maximum heart rate and double product at peak exercise were significantly higher in the Bruce protocol (p = 0.043 and p = 0.040, respectively). No differences were observed between the incidence of arrhythmias in both protocols. CONCLUSION: The Bruce protocol presented higher sensitivity for detecting ischemia on the exercise test, while the ramp protocol presented higher specificity and accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Exercise Test , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Exercise , Predictive Value of Tests , Hemodynamics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the influence of acupuncture on microcirculation perfusion of the pericardium meridian and heart in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats and evaluate whether acupuncture can simultaneously affect the meridians and corresponding viscera. Additionally, acupoints at different meridians were compared and whether they exert the same effects was discussed.@*METHODS@#Totally 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) ligation to develop an AMI model. Rats were divided into 4 groups, including AMI, acupuncture Neiguan (PC 6), Lieque (LU 7) and Qiansanli (LI 10) groups (n=8). Eight rats received only thoracotomy (sham-operated group). The rats in the acupuncture groups received manual acupuncture at PC 6, LU 7 and LI 10 acupoints for 15 min, respectively. The microcirculation perfusion of pericardium meridian and heart was monitored by laser speckle perfusion imager (LSPI) before, during and after acupuncture manipulation for 15 min. Subsequently, the perfusion unit (PU) was calculated and analyzed by PSI System.@*RESULTS@#After LAD, compared to pre-acupuncture stage, the heart microcirculation perfusion (HMP) in the AMI group decreased continuously at during-acupuncture (P>0.05) and post-acupuncture stages (P0.05). Compared to pre-acupuncture stage, the PMP and HMP in PC 6 group significantly increased during acupuncture manipulation (both P0.05); however, they were significantly reduced after acupuncture manipulation (both P<0.05). Additionally, HMP of LI 10 group was decreased significantly during acupuncture, especially compared to pre-acupuncture stage (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Acupuncture at PC 6 obviously increased the PMP and HMP in AMI rats, and the effects were superior to at LU 7 and LI 10 acupoints. It was further confirmed that acupuncture promoted qi and blood circulation, indicating that acupoint specificity exists and features a meridian-propagated effect.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Meridians , Microcirculation , Myocardial Ischemia , Perfusion , Pericardium , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 386-402, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929127

ABSTRACT

Myocardial ischemia (MI) causes somatic referred pain and sympathetic hyperactivity, and the role of sensory inputs from referred areas in cardiac function and sympathetic hyperactivity remain unclear. Here, in a rat model, we showed that MI not only led to referred mechanical hypersensitivity on the forelimbs and upper back, but also elicited sympathetic sprouting in the skin of the referred area and C8-T6 dorsal root ganglia, and increased cardiac sympathetic tone, indicating sympathetic-sensory coupling. Moreover, intensifying referred hyperalgesic inputs with noxious mechanical, thermal, and electro-stimulation (ES) of the forearm augmented sympathetic hyperactivity and regulated cardiac function, whereas deafferentation of the left brachial plexus diminished sympathoexcitation. Intradermal injection of the α2 adrenoceptor (α2AR) antagonist yohimbine and agonist dexmedetomidine in the forearm attenuated the cardiac adjustment by ES. Overall, these findings suggest that sensory inputs from the referred pain area contribute to cardiac functional adjustment via peripheral α2AR-mediated sympathetic-sensory coupling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ganglia, Spinal , Hyperalgesia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Pain, Referred/complications , Rats , Sympathetic Nervous System
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of Kuanxiong Aerosol (KXA) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury in rat models.@*METHODS@#Totally 24 rats were radomly divided into control, ISO, KXA low-dose and high-dose groups according to the randomized block design method, and were administered by intragastric administration for 10 consecutive days, and on the 9th and 10th days, rats were injected with ISO for 2 consecutive days to construct an acute myocardial ischemia model to evaluate the improvement of myocardial ischemia by KXA. In addition, the diastolic effect of KXA on rat thoracic aorta and its regulation of ion channels were tested by in vitro vascular tension test. The influence of KXA on the expression of calcium-CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway has also been tested.@*RESULTS@#KXA significantly reduced the ISO-induced increase in ST-segment, interventricular septal thickness, cardiac mass index and cardiac tissue pathological changes in rats. Moreover, the relaxation of isolated thoracic arterial rings that had been precontracted using norepinephrine (NE) or potassium chloride (KCl) was increased after KXA treatment in an endothelium-independent manner, and was attenuated by preincubation with verapamil, but not with tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-aminopyridine, glibenclamide, or barium chloride. KXA pretreatment attenuated vasoconstriction induced by CaCl2 in Ca2+-free solutions containing K+ or NE. In addition, KXA pretreatment inhibited accumulation of Ca2+ in A7r5 cells mediated by KCl and NE and significantly decreased p-CaMK II and p-ERK levels.@*CONCLUSION@#KXA may inhibit influx and release of calcium and activate the CaMK II/ERK signaling pathway to produce vasodilatory effects, thereby improving myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Animals , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Rats , Vasodilation
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927865

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of air temperature on the hospitalization of rural residents with cardiovascular diseases and its lag effect in Dingxi city. Methods The meteorological data and air pollution data of Dingxi city from 2018 to 2019,as well as the daily hospitalization data of rural residents due to cardiovascular diseases,were collected.The distributed lag non-linear models were employed to analyze the relationship between daily mean air temperature and the number of inpatients with cardiovascular diseases.Meanwhile,stratified analysis was carried out according to gender,age,and disease. Results There was a non-linear relationship between air temperature and the number of hospitalized rural residents with cardiovascular diseases in Dingxi city.The exposure-response curve approximated a bell shape.The curves for different cardiovascular diseases appeared similar shapes,with different temperature thresholds.Low temperature(-7 ℃) and moderately low temperature(0 ℃) exhibited a cumulative lag effect on the number of patients hospitalized with cardiovascular diseases.With a cumulative lag of 7 days at -7 ℃ and 14 days at 0 ℃,the RR values peaked,which were 1.121(95% CI=1.002-1.255) and 1.198(95% CI=1.123-1.278),respectively.With a cumulative lag of 14 days at 0 ℃,the RR values were 1.034(95% CI=1.003-1.077) and 1.039(95% CI=1.004-1.066) for the number of hospitalized patients with ischemic heart disease and heart rhythm disorders,respectively.The cumulative lag effects of moderately high temperature(17 ℃) and high temperature(21 ℃) on ischemic heart disease,heart rhythm disorders,and cerebrovascular disease all peaked on that day.Specifically,the RR values at 17 ℃ and 21 ℃ were 1.148(95% CI=1.092-1.206) and 1.176(95% CI=1.096-1.261) for ischemic heart disease,1.071(95% CI=1.001-1.147) and 1.112(95% CI=1.011-1.223) for heart rhythm disorders,and 1.084(95% CI=1.025-1.145) and 1.094(95% CI=1.013-1.182) for cerebrovascular disease,respectively.There was no cumulative lag effect of air temperature on the number of hospitalized patients with heart failure.In addition,stratified analysis showed that low temperature(-7 ℃) and moderately low temperature(0 ℃) affected the number of hospitalized female patients with cardiovascular diseases,and only moderately low temperature(0 ℃) affected males.The cumulative lag effect of high temperature on females was higher than that on males.Air temperature exhibited a stronger impact on female patients than on male patients. Additionally,the population aged<65 years old was more sensitive to low temperature and high temperature than that aged ≥65 years old. Conclusions Air temperature changes increase the hospitalization risk of rural residents with cardiovascular diseases in Dingxi city,which presents a lag effect.The effects of air temperature on patients hospitalized due to cardiovascular diseases varied among different etiologies,genders,and ages.It is necessary to emphasize on the impact of temperature changes on health in residents,especially for key populations such as females,people aged<65 years old,and those with ischemic heart disease.


Subject(s)
Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Temperature
12.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc274, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369861

ABSTRACT

O diabetes melito é o maior fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana. Além da longa duração de diabetes, outros fatores, como presença de doença arterial periférica e tabagismo são fortes preditores para anormalidades na cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto dos fatores de risco de pacientes diabéticos nos resultados da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio e comparar com os resultados de pacientes não diabéticos em uma clínica de medicina nuclear. Foi realizado um estudo transversal retrospectivo por meio da análise de prontuários de pacientes que realizaram cintilografia miocárdica no período de 2010 a 2019. Foram avaliados 34.736 prontuários. Analisando a fase de estresse da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio, os portadores de diabetes melito precisaram receber estímulo farmacológico duas vezes mais que os não diabéticos para sua realização. Também foram avaliados fatores que tivessem impacto negativo no resultado da cintilografia de perfusão do miocárdio, e foi visto que o diabetes melito (33,6%), a insulinoterapia (18,1%), a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (69,9%), a dislipidemia (53%), o sedentarismo (83,1%), o uso de estresse farmacológico (50,6%), a dor torácica típica (8,5%) e a angina limitante durante o teste (1,7%) estiveram associados significativamente (p<0,001) a anormalidades neste exame. (AU)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the greatest risk factor for coronary artery disease. In addition to a long duration of diabetes, the presence of peripheral arterial disease and smoking are strong predictors of abnormalities on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of risk factors in diabetic patients on MPS results and compare them with those of non-diabetic patients in a nuclear medicine clinic. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through the analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent MPS in 2010­2019. A total of 34,736 medical records were evaluated. Analyzing the stress phase of MPS, DM patients required two-fold more pharmacological stimulation than non-diabetic patients for MPS. Factors that negatively impact the MPS results were also evaluated, and DM (33.6%), insulin therapy (18.1%), systemic arterial hypertension (69.9%), dyslipidemia (53%), sedentary lifestyle (83.1%), use of pharmacological stress (50.6%), typical chest pain (8.5%), and limiting angina during the test (1.7%) were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with test abnormalities. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Ventilation-Perfusion Scan/methods , Myocardium/pathology , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Convulsive Therapy/methods , Dyslipidemias/complications , Sedentary Behavior , Hypertension/complications , Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital
14.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.830-834, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353529
15.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.921-927, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353766
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 71 f p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392721

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) são a principal causa de morte no Brasil e no mundo. As doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) e doenças cerebrovasculares (DCBV) estão entre as dez principais causas de mortes no Brasil. A análise de tendência da mortalidade por DCV permite definir populações prioritárias para intervenções, elaborar e avaliar ações em saúde pública. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a tendência da mortalidade por DIC e DCBV nas 27 capitais brasileiras, no período de 1990 a 2018. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico de série temporal, os dados de óbitos foram obtidos através do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM). Buscando corrigir problemas na qualidade da informação dos registros de óbito do SIM, realizou-se a correção dos óbitos referentes aos dados com sexo e/ou faixa etária ignorada e aos óbitos registrados com causas "mal definidas". As taxas de mortalidade por DIC e DBCV foram padronizadas pelo método direto, tomando-se como população padrão a população do Brasil no ano de 2010. A análise de tendência da mortalidade por DIC e DCBV para a população total, homens e mulheres foi realizada utilizando o modelo de regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram tendência de redução da mortalidade por DCBV tanto para a população total como para homens e mulheres em todas as capitais brasileiras. Vitória, capital da região Sudeste, apresentou a maior redução da taxa de mortalidade total por DCBV dentre todas as capitais brasileiras, -5,6% ao ano (IC95%: -6,0; -5,1%). No entanto, Macapá, capital da região Norte, teve a menor dentre todas as capitais -1,7% ao ano (IC95%: -2,7; -0,7%). Paras as DIC foi observada tendência de redução da mortalidade tanto para a população total como para homens e mulheres nas capitais das regiões Sul, Sudeste e para a maioria das capitais da região Centro-Oeste. As capitais das regiões Norte e Nordeste apresentaram uma variabilidade na tendência da mortalidade por DIC. Conclui-se que as capitais das regiões Sul e Sudeste apresentaram as maiores reduções da tendência da mortalidade por DIC e DCBV. Os achados desse estudo são importantes para prover informações mais detalhadas buscando auxiliar a gestão local na promoção de políticas de saúde pública, planejamento de estratégias e elaboração de medidas e ações em saúde.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Ischemic heart diseases (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) are among Brazil's ten main causes of death. The trend analysis of mortality from CVD allows defining priority populations for interventions, designing and evaluating public health actions. In this sense, the study's objective was to analyze the mortality trend from IHD and CBVD in the 27 Brazilian capitals from 1990 to 2018. This is an ecological time-series study with the Mortality Information System (SIM) data. Seeking to correct the quality of the information in the SIM death records, the correction of deaths referring to data with anonymous sex and age group and deaths recorded with "ill-defined" causes was carried out. IHD and CBVD mortality rates were standardized by the direct method, using the population of Brazil in 2010 as the standard population. Trend analysis of IHD and CBVD mortality for the total population, men and women, was performed using the Poisson regression model. The results showed a reduction in the trend of mortality from CBVD for both the total population and for men and women in all Brazilian capitals. Vitória, the capital of the Southeast region, showed the greatest reduction in the total mortality rate from CVD among all Brazilian capitals, -5.6% per year (95%CI: -6.0; -5.1%). However, Macapá, the capital of the North region, had the lowest among all capitals -1.7% per year (95%CI: -2.7; -0.7%). For IHD, a decrease in the mortality trend was observed both for the total population and for men and women in the capitals of the South and Southeast regions and most capitals of the Center-West region. The capitals of the North and Northeast regions showed variability in the trend of IHD mortality. In conclusion, the capitals of the South and Southeast regions showed the greatest reductions in the mortality trend due to IHD and CBVD. The findings of this study are essential to provide more detailed information to assist local management in promoting public health policies, planning strategies, and designing health measures and actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Time Series Studies , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Brazil , Epidemiology
17.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 23(2)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1389041

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción y objetivos: Los programas de rehabilitación cardiaca (RHC) son considerados como los más eficaces entre las intervenciones de prevención secundaria. El cual su función es mejorar la sobrevida como así también, la calidad de vida de estos enfermos. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es analizar el impacto de un Programa de Rehabilitación Cardiaca en pacientes portadores de cardiopatía isquémica con respecto a parámetros bioquímicos, antropométricos y funcionales. Pacientes y métodos: Fue un estudio observacional retrospectivo, unicéntrico, con seguimiento de 3 años. Se incluyo un total de 228 pacientes. Con criterios de inclusión: >18 años, con EAC y al menos una comorbilidad de riesgo cardiovascular que completaran el PRC. Se excluyó enfermedad valvular sin cardiopatía isquémica preexistente, infarto agudo al miocardio reciente, ángor inestable, obstrucción del tracto de salida del ventrículo izquierdo, y los que no cumplieron el PRC. Resultados: De los 228 pacientes que se incluyeron el PRC del HSVP el 70,7% eran hombres y el 29,3% eran mujeres con diagnóstico de cardiopatía isquémica. El promedio de edad era de 60.2 +- 11.4 años en total entre hombres y mujeres. El peso de los pacientes masculinos previo al ingreso del PRC fue de 77,7 kg +-13,2 kg, y las mujeres 69,7 kg +- 13,1 kg. Al final del fue de 75,5 kg +-13,1 kg y el de las mujeres era de 68,3 +- 13,1 kg. En la caminata de 6 minutos el promedio de mujeres al inicio fue de 390,0 mts y el de los hombres de 386,6, y la segunda vez posterior a la rehabilitación en hombres fue de 595,8 +- 107,2 y el de las mujeres fue de 549+-102,4. Los niveles de PCR de los hombres al inicio del programa fue de 1,2 +-2,4 mg/dL y el de las mujeres fue de 1,5 +- 1,9 mg/dL al finalizar los hombres tuvieron un promedio de 1,8+-3,0 Conclusiones: Los PRC dependen de la participación de profesionales de la salud que trabajen en equipo para alcanzar resultados finales, los cuales están basados no solo en el ejercicio sino también en el cambio de estilo de vida del paciente, por lo tanto, necesita de servicios asociados como fisioterapia, nutrición, psicología.


Abstract Effect of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program of the Hospital San Vicente Paúl on biochemical, anthropometric and functional parameters in patients with ischemic heart disease from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 Introduction and objectives: Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs, are considered the most effective programs among secondary prevention interventions. The function is to improve survival as well as the quality of life of these patients. The main objective of this work is to analyze the impact of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in patients with ischemic heart disease with the respect biochemical, anthropometric and functional parameters. Patients and method: A observational, retrospective single-center, study with a 3-year-follow up. A total of 228 patients were included, witch 70.7% were men with an average of 60.2+-11.4 years. The inclusion criteria were: > 18 years with CAD and at least one cardiovascular risk comorbidity and completed the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program. Valvular disease without pre-existing ischemic heart disease, recent acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and those who did not went to the Program. Results: The 228 patients who were included in the HSVP CRP, 70.7% were men and 29.3% were women with a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The average age was 60.2 + - 11.4 years in total between men and women. The weight of male patients prior to admission to the CRP was 77.7 kg + -13.2 kg, and women 69.7 kg + -13.1 kg. At the end of the program, the weight of the men was 75.5 kg + -13.1 kg and that of the women was 68.3 + - 13.1 kg. The total waist circumference at the start of the program was 100.1 ± 11.4 cm. In women the average was 98.4 + - 12.7cm, that of men was 101.1 + - 10.8 cm. At the end of the program, the total average of men and women was 96.7 + - 11.0, the average of women at the end of the program was 96.2 + - 12.6 cm and of men was 96. 9 + - 10. In the 6-minute walk, the average of women at the beginning was 390.0 meters and that of men was 386.6, and the second time after rehabilitation in men was 595.8 + - 107.2 and the of women it was 549 + -102.4. In men, the previous total cholesterol was 154.8 + -39.7 mg / dL and that of women was 162.0 + -40.2 mg / dL and at the end of the program the value of men was 161 .6 + -46.0 mg / dL and 170.8 + -41.8 mg / dL for women. The CRP levels of the men at the beginning of the program was 1.2 + -2.4 mg / dL and that of the women was 1.5 + - 1.9 mg / dL at the end of the program, the men had an average of 1.8 + -3.0. Conclusion: The Cardiac Rehabilitation Program depends on the partipation of health professionals care who work as a team to achieve final results, witch are based not only on exercise but also on the change in the patient's lifestyle, therefore, they need associated services such as physiotherapy, nutrition, psychology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/rehabilitation , Cardiac Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Biomarkers , Anthropometry , Costa Rica , Life Style
18.
Medisan ; 25(6)2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356467

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En numerosos estudios realizados en las últimas 3 décadas, se ha tratado de atribuir una relación causal a la enfermedad periodontal en la fisiopatología de la cardiopatía isquémica. Objetivo: Caracterizar el estado periodontal de pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica y algunos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de 50 pacientes, atendidos en la sala de cuidados coronarios del Hospital Provincial Vladimir Ilich Lenin de Holguín, desde septiembre de 2019 hasta enero de 2020. Se evaluó el estado periodontal mediante el Índice Periodontal de Russell simplificado. Se exploraron algunos factores de riesgo de la cardiopatía isquémica y se emplearon métodos teóricos, empíricos, así como la estadística descriptiva. Resultados: En la serie predominó el grupo de 60-69 años de edad (23 para 46,0 %); 56,0 % de los pacientes presentó infarto agudo de miocardio y 62,0 % periodontitis avanzada. Entre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más frecuentes figuraron: hipertensión arterial (74,0 %) y tabaquismo (70,0 %). Conclusiones: En este estudio se halló, en gran medida, la periodontitis crónica en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica, lo cual sirve de pauta para la toma de decisiones de médicos y estomatólogos.


Introduction: In numerous studies carried out in the last 3 decades, it has been tried to attribute a causal relationship to the periodontal disease in the pathophysiology of the ischemic heart disease. Objective: To characterize the periodontal state of patients with ischemic heart disease and some cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 50 patients, assisted in the Coronary Cares Service of Vladimir Ilich Lenin Provincial Hospital in Holguín, was carried out from September, 2019 to January, 2020. The periodontal state was evaluated by means of the Russell Periodontal Index simplified. Some risk factors of the ischemic heart disease were explored and theoretical, empiric methods were used, as well as the descriptive statistic. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of the 60-69 age group (23 for 46 %); 56.0 % of the patients presented acute myocardial infarction and 62.0 % presented advanced periodontitis. Among the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors we can mention: hypertension (74.0 %) and nicotine addiction (70.0 %). Conclusions: In this study it was found, in great measure, the chronic periodontitis in patients with ischemic heart disease, which serves as rule for the decisions making of doctors and dentists.


Subject(s)
Periodontal Diseases , Myocardial Ischemia , Periodontitis , Risk Factors , Angina, Unstable , Myocardial Infarction
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1134-1144, dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350046

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A cardiopatia isquêmica atraiu muito atenção devido às altas taxas de mortalidade, custos do tratamento e a crescente morbidade na população jovem. Estratégias de reperfusão reduziram a mortalidade. Porém, a reperfusão pode levar à morte do cardiomiócito e subsequente dano irreversível ao miocárdio. No momento, não há um tratamento eficiente e direcionado para a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (I/R). Objetivos Avaliar se a dexmedetomidina (DEX) tem efeito protetivo na I/R do miocárdio e explorar os possíveis mecanismos por trás dela. Métodos Corações de ratos foram perfundidos com o sistema de perfusão de Langendorff e aleatoriamente distribuídos em cinco grupos: grupo controle, perfundido com solução de Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) por 205 minutos sem isquemia; e quatro grupos de teste que foram submetidos a 40 minutos de isquemia global e 120 minutos de reperfusão. O Grupo DEX, o grupo ioimbina (IO) e o grupo DEX + IO foram perfundidos com DEX (10 nM), IO (1 μM) ou a combinação de DEX e IO antes da reperfusão, respectivamente. A hemodinâmica cardíaca, o tamanho do infarto do miocárdio e a histologia do miocárdio foram avaliados. A expressão da proteína-78 regulada pela glicose (GRP78), a proteína quinase do retículo endoplasmático (PERK), a PERK fosforilada, o fator de iniciação eucariótico 2α (eIF2α), eIF2α fosforilado, o fator de transcrição 4 (TCF-4) e a proteína homóloga à proteína ligadora do acentuador CCAAT (CHOP) foram avaliados. P< 0,05 foi considerado para indicar a diferença estatisticamente significativa. Resultados O pré-condicionamento com DEX melhorou a função cardíaca nos corações com I/R, reduziu o infarto do miocárdio, a apoptose do miocárdio e a expressão de GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, TCF-4 e CHOP. Conclusões O pré-tratamento com DEX reduziu a lesão de I/R no miocárdio ao suprimir a apoptose, o que foi induzido pela via PERK.


Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease has attracted much attention due to its high mortality rates, treatment costs and the increasing morbidity in the young population. Strategies for reperfusion have reduced mortality. However, reperfusion can lead to cardiomyocyte death and subsequent irreversible myocardial damage. At present, the timely and targeted treatment of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is often lacking. Objectives To evaluate if dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a protective effect in myocardiual I/R and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Methods Rat hearts were perfused with a Langendorff perfusion system, and randomly assigned to five groups: control group, perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution for 205 minutes without ischemia; and four test groups that underwent 40 minutes of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The DEX group, the yohimbine (YOH) group and the DEX + YOH group were perfused with DEX (10 nM), YOH (1 μM) or the combination of DEX and YOH prior to reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac hemodynamics, myocardial infarct size, and myocardial histology were evaluated. The expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylated PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were assessed. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results DEX preconditioning improved the cardiac function of I/R hearts, reduced myocardial infarction, myocardial apoptosis, and the expression of GRP78, p-PERK, eIF2α, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. Conclusions DEX pretreatment reduced myocardial I/R injury by suppressing apoptosis, which was induced by the PERK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury , Myocardial Ischemia , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
20.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 21(38): 54-62, nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1348588

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) se define como la obstrucción brusca de una arteria que puede dar lugar a una isquemia miocárdica aguda que se acompaña de un síndrome clínico característico que puede ir desde una isquemia con elevación o sin elevación en el segmento ST, angina estable o inestable y muerte súbita. Dado que el SCA es considerado un problema mundial por su alta incidencia y una de las principales causas de muerte es que resulta indispensable la creación y aplicación de un protocolo de recepción del paciente con SCA donde el enfermero que recepciona al paciente con dolor torácico en un servicio de urgencia pueda realizar la valoración de forma oportuna y rápida teniendo en cuenta una secuencia de intervenciones y cuidados que se encuentren plasmados en una planilla el cual garantice la implementación de las medidas terapéuticas a tiempo, aumentando la eficacia de las mismas, reduciendo la morbimortalidad y disminuyendo los costos hospitalarios. El objetivo del protocolo es estandarizar las intervenciones y cuidados de enfermería en la atención inicial del paciente con SCA[AU]


Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is defined as a sudden obstruction of an artery that can lead to acute myocardial ischemia that is accompanied by a characteristic clinical syndrome that can range from elevation or without elevation ischemia in the ST segment, angina stable or unstable and sudden death. Ince ACS is considered a worldwide problem due to its high incidence and one of the main causes of death, it is essential to create and apply a protocol for receiving the patient with ACS, where the nurse who receives the patient with chest pain in a The emergency service can carry out the assessment in a timely and fast way, taking into account a sequence of interventions and care that are reflected in a schedule that guarantees the implementation of therapeutic measures in time, increasing their effectiveness, reducing morbidity and mortality. and lowering hospital costs. The objective of the protocol is to standardize nursing interventions and care in the initial care of the patient with ACS[AU]


A síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA) é definida como uma obstrução repentina de uma artéria que pode levar a isquemia miocárdica aguda, acompanhada por uma síndrome clínica característica que pode variar de elevação ou sem isquemia de elevação no segmento ST, angina morte estável ou instável e repentina.Como a SCA é considerada um problema mundial devido à sua alta incidência e uma das principais causas de morte, é essencial criar e aplicar um protocolo para receber o paciente com SCA, onde a enfermeira que recebe o paciente com dor no peito O serviço de emergência pode realizar a avaliação de maneira oportuna e rápida, levando em consideração uma sequência de intervenções e cuidados que se refletem em um cronograma que garante a implementação de medidas terapêuticas no tempo, aumentando sua efetividade, reduzindo a morbimortalidade. e redução de custos hospitalares. O objetivo do protocolo é padronizar intervenções e cuidados de enfermagem nos cuidados iniciais do paciente com SCA[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Chest Pain , Myocardial Ischemia , Guidelines as Topic , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Myocardial Infarction , Nursing Care , Emergencies
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