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3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically review the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of tobacco withdrawal syndrome.@*METHODS@#The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding acupuncture for treatment of tobacco withdrawal syndrome were searched in CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane, Medline and EMbase databases. The search period was from January 1st of 2011 to December 31st of 2021. After data extraction and bias risk assessment of the included literature, the Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.4.1 software.@*RESULTS@#Totally 23 RCTs were included, including 2 120 patients. The Meta-analysis results showed that compared with medication, acupuncture showed no significant difference at improving Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) score (MD=0.16, 95%CI: -0.08, 0.41), heaviness of smoking index (HSI) score (MD=0.11, 95%CI: -0.13, 0.36), Minnesota nicotine withdrawal scale (MNWS) score (MD=0.12, 95%CI: -0.11, 1.35), questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU) score (MD=-0.30, 95%CI: -2.78, 2.18), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score (MD=0.76, 95%CI: -1.54, 3.06), abstinence rate (RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.10) and effective rate (RR=1.01, 95%CI: 0.95, 1.07). Acupuncture was superior to sham acupuncture in reducing MNWS score (MD=-4.88, 95%CI: -5.21, -4.55, P<0.000 01). Acupuncture was superior to cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing FTND score (MD=-1.41, 95%CI: -1.74, -1.08), MNWS score (MD=-4.28, 95%CI: -5.31, -3.25) and increasing abstinence rate (RR=2.19, 95%CI: 1.39, 3.45, P<0.000 01, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could effectively improve tobacco withdrawal syndrome, increase abstinence rate and effective rate. Limited by the quantity and quality of the included studies, this conclusion needs to be verified by more studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco , Acupuncture Therapy , Syndrome , Nicotine , Smoking
4.
Araçatuba; s.n; 2023. 82 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1510540

ABSTRACT

A infecção endodôntica ocorre a após contaminação do tecido pulpar levando à uma colonização bacteriana dos canais radiculares resultando em uma resposta inflamatória dos tecidos periapicais e formação de uma lesão periapical, a periodontite apical (PA). O tabagismo, por sua vez, tem impactos prejudiciais à saúde oral e sistêmica sendo considerado um importante fator de risco para as doenças periodontais. Este trabalho tem por finalidade investigar a influência do tabagismo no desenvolvimento da periodontite apical em ratos. Trinta e dois ratos machos Wistar foram divididos em 4 grupos experimentais (n=8): Controle (sem periodontite apical induzida e sem inalação da fumaça do cigarro); FU (com inalação a fumaça do cigarro); PA (com periodontite apical induzida); FU+PA (com inalação a fumaça do cigarro e periodontite apical induzida). Para a inalar a fumaça do cigarro, grupo de cinco animais permaneceram em uma câmara de tabagismo inalando a fumaça de 10 cigarros por 8 minutos, três vezes ao dia, durante 50 dias. Decorridos 20 dias de inalação de fumaça do cigarro, foi realizada a cirurgia para indução da periodontite apical nos animais do grupo PA e FU+PA, no primeiro molar inferior direto, o qual permaneceu aberto na cavidade bucal por 30 dias. Nesses 30 dias subsequentes da indução da PA, os animais do grupo FU+PA e FU continuaram com a inalação a fumaça do cigarro. No 50º dia, os animais foram eutanasiados e coletados amostras de tecido hematológico para avalição dos níveis séricos de nicotina, cotinina, fosfatase alcalina, cálcio, fósforo, série vermelha e série branca. As hemimandibula removidas foram escaneadas em microtomógrafo para avaliar o volume da destruição óssea e processadas histologicamente para avaliação do perfil inflamatório e expressão das citocinas IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α e dos marcadores do metabolismo ósseo RANKL e OPG. Os dados foram tabulados e aplicados os testes estatísticos de Mann-Whitney para os dados não paramétricos e teste t para os dados paramétricos, a um nível de significância de P< 0.05. Com relação a análise histológica o grupo FU+PA apresentou infiltrado inflamatório mais intenso em relação aos demais grupos (P< 0,05). As citocinas pró-inflamatórias IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α apresentaram alto padrão de imunomarcação para o grupo FU+PA (P< 0,05). A análise histométrica mostrou maior área de reabsorção óssea no grupo FU+PA, assim como na análise microtomográfica (P< 0,05). As citocinas RANKL esteve mais expressa no grupo FU+PA (P< 0,05) e OPG teve maior expressão no grupo PA (P< 0,05). Na análise hematológica houve um aumento na concentração de hemácias, hemoglobina e leucócitos para o FU+PA (P< 0,05). Os níveis séricos de cálcio foram menores no FU+PA (P> 0,05), a fosfatase alcalina e o cálcio se manteve constante em todos os grupos experimentais (P> 0,05). A concentração sérica de nicotina e cotinina no grupo FU e FU+PA foram compatíveis com fumante humano(AU)


Endodontic infection occurs mainly after pulp tissue contamination by a carious process, leading to bacterial colonization of root canal system and inflammatory response of periapical tissues, followed by formation of apical periodontitis (AP). It is widely known that smoking has harmful impacts on oral and systemic health and is considered a risk factor for periodontal diseases. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of smoking on the development of AP in rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 8): C - Control (no induced AP and no cigarette smoke inhalation); CSI (cigarette smoke inhalation); AP (induced apical periodontitis); CSI + AP (cigarette smoke inhalation and induced apical periodontitis). To inhale cigarette smoke, group with five animals remained in a smoking chamber inhaling smoke from 10 cigarettes for 8 minutes, three times daily, for 50 days. After 20 days of cigarette smoke inhalation, pulp chamber access was performed to induce apical periodontitis in the first mandibular right molar, which remained with pulp chamber exposed to oral cavity for 30 days in animals in the AP and CSI + AP group. During these 30 days after the AP induction, animals in the CSI + AP and CSI group continued to inhale cigarette smoke. On the 50th day, animals were euthanized and blood sample collected to assess serum levels of nicotine, cotinine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, red series and white series. The hemimandibles were removed and scanned in microtomograph to assess bone volume and histologically processed to assess inflammatory profile and expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and bone metabolism markers RANKL and OPG. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney tests for nonparametric data and analysis of variation test for parametric data, with a significance level of P< 0.05. Regarding histological analysis, CSI+AP group showed more intense inflammatory infiltrate compared to other groups (P < 0.05). Histometric analysis showed a larger area of bone resorption in the CSI + AP group, also observed in the microtomographic analysis (P< 0.05). Group CSI+AP had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α expression (P< 0.05). The RANKL cytokines were also more expressed in the CSI+AP group (P< 0.05), while OPG was more expressed in the AP group (P< 0.05). The hematological analysis revealed an increase in the concentration of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and leukocytes for CSI+AP (P< 0.05). Serum calcium levels were lower in CSI+AP (P> 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase and calcium remained constant in all experimental groups (P> 0.05). The serum concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in the CSI and CSI+AP group were compatible with human smokers(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phosphorus , Calcium , Oral Health , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cotinine , Alkaline Phosphatase , Interleukin-1beta , Nicotine
5.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 31(1): e31010250, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430143

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Smoking dependence is a chronic disease and a public health problem. The neurobiology of nicotine addiction can explain smoking behavior. This system has genetic variability that has been associated with vulnerability to dependence. Genetic variability in the neurobiology of smoking can help to understand why individuals exposed to drugs may or may not become addicted. Objective This study aims to address genetic variability in the neurobiology of smoking addiction with a focus on polymorphic genes related to the nicotinic response and the dopaminergic reward pathway. Method This work involved a search of the main scientific research on genetic variability in the neurobiology of smoking and its effects on smoking behavior. One hundred and five studies were selected, most of which highlighted polymorphisms in the genes of nicotinic receptors, dopamine receptors, and nicotine metabolism. Results The majority of studies have focused on genes related to the activation of the dopaminergic reward system by nicotine. Combinations between different polymorphisms were also highlighted, showing that interactions can determine a genetic profile of predisposition to smoking addiction. Additionally, gender and ethnicity were identified as relevant factors. Conclusion Knowledge of the genetic bases involved in the individual response to smoking can enable a better understanding of inter-individual differences in smoking behavior, and contribute to improving the treatment of addiction.


Resumo Introdução A dependência nicotínica é uma doença crônica e um problema de saúde pública. O comportamento tabágico pode ser explicado pela neurobiologia da adição, cujas variações genéticas têm sido associadas à dependência. A variabilidade genética na neurobiologia do tabagismo pode ajudar a entender por que indivíduos expostos a drogas podem ou não se tornar viciados. Objetivo Este estudo tem como objetivo abordar a variabilidade genética na neurobiologia do tabagismo com foco em genes polimórficos relacionados à resposta nicotínica e à via de recompensa dopaminérgica. Método Uma pesquisa foi realizada nas principais bases de dados científicos sobre a variabilidade genética na neurobiologia do tabagismo e seus efeitos no comportamento do tabagismo. 105 estudos foram selecionados, em sua maioria destacando polimorfismos nos genes de receptores nicotínicos, receptores de dopamina e de metabolismo da nicotina. Resultados A maioria dos estudos concentrou-se em genes relacionados à ativação do sistema de recompensa dopaminérgico pela nicotina. Determinadas combinações entre genótipos de diferentes polimorfismos também se destacaram, mostrando que interações gênicas podem determinar um perfil genético de predisposição ao tabagismo. Além disso, gênero e etnia foram identificados como fatores relevantes. Conclusão O conhecimento das bases genéticas envolvidas na resposta individual ao tabagismo pode permitir uma melhor compreensão das diferenças interindividuais no comportamento tabágico e contribuir para melhoria dos tratamentos disponíveis para a dependência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Genetic Variation , Behavior , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Nicotine , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptors, Dopamine , Receptors, Nicotinic , Gender Identity
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e231137, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1523140

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of nicotine on the extracellular polysaccharides in Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm. Methods: F. nucleatum (ATCC 10953) biofilms supplemented with different concentrations of nicotine (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/mL) were grown in two different BHI broth conditions [no sucrose and 1% sucrose]. Extracellular polysaccharides assay, pH measurements, and a spectrophotometric assay were performed. Data were submitted for ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference analyses (HSD) tests (α =.05). Results: Extracellular polysaccharides synthesis was influenced by an interaction between nicotine concentrations and growth medium solution containing sucrose (P<.05). The pH values declined in the sucrose-exposed biofilm were greater than in the group exposed only to nicotine (P<.05). The biofilm exposed to sucrose and nicotine had a higher total biofilm growth (P<.05) than the nicotine-treated biofilm without sucrose. Conclusions: Regardless of sucrose exposure, biofilms exposed to different nicotine concentrations influenced the amount of extracellular polysaccharides


Subject(s)
Humans , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/chemical synthesis , Fusobacterium nucleatum/growth & development , Biofilms/growth & development , Nicotine/pharmacology , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Spectrophotometry , Sucrose/administration & dosage , Culture Media , Dental Caries/microbiology , Nicotine/administration & dosage
7.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 40-49, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970753

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of nicotine on the morphology, structure of offspring's dental germ, enamel organ and other dental tissues and the further potential epigenetic mechanisms by establishing prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model. Methods: Ten C57BL/6 pregnant mice were randomly divided into control group (physiological saline subcutaneous injection) and prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) group (nicotine subcutaneous injection) by using a random number table. Postnatal day 0 (P0), postnatal day 14 (P14) and postnatal day 25 (P25) offspring mice were collected for subsequent experiments. The offspring mice were divided into offspring control group and offspring PNE group according to the maternal group respectively. Weights of P0 and P25 offspring mice were recorded. Micro-CT, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Vickers hardness test were performed to analyze the related parameters of hard tissues including alveolar bones and mandibular incisors. Total RNAs were extracted from mandible tissues and the third generation of dental epithelial stem cells (DESC) in P25 mice. The relative expression levels of osteogenic and ameloblastic differentiation related genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Immunohistochemical stainings of paraffin sections were then performed to observe the distribution and expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna), amelogenin (Amelx), histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays were used to detect the cell viabilities of DESCs after administrations of different concentrations of nicotine (0.01, 0.1, 1 mmol/L) and GSK126 (an inhibitor of histone methyltransferase Ezh2). Results: Compared with the control group, pregnant mice in PNE group were more likely to have adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as significantly lower offspring body weight [P0: offspring control (1.20±0.04) g, offspring PNE (0.99±0.02) g, P<0.001; P25: offspring control (15.26±1.70) g, offspring PNE (9.65±1.32) g, P<0.001] and increased stillbirths rate [offspring control (0), offspring PNE (46.40±9.30) %, P<0.001]. At P14 and P25, the distance parameters between the enamel mineralized deposits of mandibular incisors and the mesial surface of the first molar in offspring PNE group [P14: (-1 349±45) μm; P25: (-1 192±147) μm] was significantly decreased compared with the control group [P14: (-506±380) μm, P25: (504±198) μm] (P<0.05, P<0.001). The enamel column and enamel column stroma of incisors in offspring PNE group were blurred, arranged loosely and disorderly than those in the control group, while the microhardness of incisor enamel in offspring PNE group [(245.7±18.4) MPa] was significantly lower compared to the control group [(371.9±28.7) MPa] (P<0.001). HE staining showed disordered pre-ameloblast (Pre-Am) arrangement and delayed mineralization deposition point in offspring PNE group compared with the control group, while the length of transit-amplifying cell (TA) and Pre-Am region were prolonged as well. Immunohistochemical staining results displayed that the overall Pcna (P<0.05), H3K27me3 (P<0.01), Ezh2 (P<0.01) expression of labial cervical loop (LaCL) in PNE group were increased, while the positive signal of Amelx in ameloblast cytoplasm was impaired. In vitro, the addition of 1 mmol/L nicotine could significantly upregulate the expression level of Pcna (P<0.01) and downregulate the expression levels of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 (P<0.05), leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin like domains 1 (P<0.05), Amelx (P<0.01). In addition, 1 mmol/L nicotine could also significantly enhance the proliferation activity of DESCs (P<0.001). Addition of 10 μmol/L GSK126, could rescue the proliferation activation effect of 1 mmol/L nicotine on DESCs. Conclusions: PNE may delay the process of enamel formation and lineage differentiation, leading to the abnormal proliferation of DESCs and changes of epigenetic modification state in H3K27me3, which affect the development of enamel in offspring mice,suggesting PNE might be one of risk environmental factor for tooth development.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Mice , Animals , Nicotine/toxicity , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Histones , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Dental Enamel
8.
Psico USF ; 27(1): 157-167, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376039

ABSTRACT

Estudos mostram que o tabagismo é responsável por afetar algumas funções cognitivas. No entanto, a nicotina é apenas um dos componentes existentes no cigarro e existem evidências de que pode servir como agente neuroprotetivo e causar melhoras em algumas funções cognitivas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar como a nicotina interage com algumas funções cognitivas. Um ensaio clínico piloto com administração de gomas de nicotina contendo 2-mg ou 4-mg, ou gomas placebo contendo a mesma textura, sabor e aparência, foi realizado. Quarenta e dois participantes participaram da pesquisa e os resultados indicaram que a relação entre nicotina e o desempenho na tarefa Go/No-Go podem ser bidirecionais. Os resultados indicaram que participantes do grupo que utilizaram 4-mg de nicotina apresentaram menor desempenho, enquanto os participantes que fizeram uso de 2-mg de nicotina tiveram melhor desempenho do que os demais. Esta pesquisa tem aplicações biopsicossociais e podem ajudar na compreensão da relação entre tabagismo e nicotina, além de contribuir para estratégias que possam ajudar no abandono do cigarro ou na melhora de condições que afetem a cognição (AU).


Past findings in the literature indicated that smoking could affect given cognitive functions. However, nicotine is only one of the components in cigarettes and there is evidence that it may act as a neuroprotective agent and improve some cognitive functions. The purpose of this research was to investigate how nicotine interacts with certain cognitive functions. We conducted a pilot clinical trial using nicotine gum containing 2-mg or 4-mg, or placebo gum with the same texture, flavor, and appearance. Forty-two healthy nonsmokers were enrolled in this research. Our findings indicated that the relationship between nicotine and performance on the Go/No-Go task might be opposite. The results showed that participants in the 4-mg group performed worse, while participants who used 2-mg of nicotine performed better than the others. This research supports biopsychosocial applications and can help interpret the relationship between smoking and nicotine, and contribute to strategies that may support smoking cessation, or improve conditions that affect cognition (AU).


Estudios demuestran que el tabaquismo es responsable de afectar a algunas funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, la nicotina es solo uno de los componentes de los cigarrillos, y existen evidencias de que la nicotina puede actuar como un agente neuroprotector y mejorar algunas funciones cognitivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la nicotina interactúa con algunas funciones cognitivas. Se realizó un ensayo clínico piloto con la administración de chicles de nicotina de 2 mg o 4 mg, o chicles de placebo con la misma textura, sabor y apariencia. Cuarenta y dos participantes participaron en la investigación y los resultados indicaron que la relación entre la nicotina y el rendimiento en la tarea Go/No-go puede ser bidireccional. Los resultados indicaron que los participantes del grupo de 4 mg obtuvieron un menor rendimiento en las variables del Go/No-Go, mientras que los participantes que utilizaron 2 mg de nicotina obtuvieron un mejor rendimiento que los demás. Esta investigación respalda las aplicaciones biopsicosociales y puede ayudar a interpretar la relación entre el tabaquismo y la nicotina, además de contribuir a las estrategias que pueden ayudar a dejar de fumar o mejorar las condiciones que afectan la cognición (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Executive Function , Nicotine Chewing Gum , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Placebos/administration & dosage , Tobacco Use Disorder/psychology , Chi-Square Distribution , Pilot Projects , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance
9.
In. Alonso Texeira Nuñez, Felicita; Ferreiro Paltre, Patricia B; González Brandi, Nancy Beatriz. Adolescencias: una mirada integral. Montevideo, Bibliomédica, c2022. p.321-335, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1416985
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 271-276, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927372

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficacy of different acupuncture frequencies in tobacco-dependent patients and explore the impact of nicotine metabolite rate (NMR) on smoking cessation in the intervention with acupuncture.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 cases of tobacco-dependent patients were randomly divided into a high-frequency group (60 cases, 12 cases dropped off) and a low-frequency group (60 cases, 6 cases dropped off). In the two groups, smoking cessation counseling was provided prior to acupuncture. Acupuncture was applied to Baihui (GV 20), Lieque (LU 7), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. Additionally, electric stimulation was added at Lieque (LU 7) and Zusanli (ST 36), with continuous wave, 15 Hz in frequency. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks in either group. In the high-frequency group, the treatment was given 5 times weekly from week 1 to week 4, and was 3 times weekly from week 5 to week 8. In the low-frequency group, the treatment was given 3 times weekly from week 1 to week 4, and was twice a week from week 5 to week 8. The immediate withdrawal rate, persistent withdrawal rate, the score of Fagerstrőm test for nicotine dependence (FTND) before and after treatment, as well as the score of Minnesota nicotine withdrawal scale (MNWS) in 1 and 8 weeks of treatment were compared among the patients with high and low NMR between the two groups separately. The Logistic regression analysis was used to screen the influencing factors of smoking cessation in the intervention with acupuncture.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, there was no statistical significance of the differences in the immediate withdrawal rate (35.4% [17/48] vs 29.6% [16/54]) and the persistent withdrawal rate (33.3% [16/48] vs 25.9% [14/54]) between the high-frequency group and the low-frequency group (P>0.05). The difference in withdrawal rate had no statistical significance between high and low NMR patients (P>0.05). FTND scores after treatment were lower than those before treatment (P<0.01) and MNWS scores were lower than those in 1 week of treatment (P<0.01) in the two groups. However, the differences had no statistical significance between the two groups and between the patients with high NMR and low NMR (P>0.05). Age, education level and NMR were the influencing factors of smoking cessation in the intervention with acupuncture (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture with different frequencies has no obvious impact on the efficacy in tobacco-dependent patients. The lower nicotine metabolite rate in individuals, the better efficacy of acupuncture. The smokers with high nicotine metabolite rate may obtain a better effect of cessation in the high-frequency intervention with acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Nicotine , Smoking Cessation/psychology
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 108, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424416

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the epidemiology of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a sample of truck drivers in Brazil. METHODS Between 2015 and 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 624 truck drivers who operate on the BR-050 highway in Brazil. Participants were interviewed about sociodemographic data, occupational characteristics, mental health, behavioral data, and tobacco use. Then, the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) was used to verify nicotine dependence in smoking truck drivers. Logistic regression and linear regression were also used to verify factors associated with tobacco use in the previous 30 days and nicotine dependence scores, respectively. RESULTS The prevalence of tobacco use among truck drivers was 21.1% (n = 132;95%CI: 18.1-24.5). Of the total number of smokers who responded to the FTND (n = 118; 89.4%), most had high/very high nicotinic dependence (68.6%; 95%CI: 59.8-76.3). Tobacco use was associated with absence of religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.60; 95%CI: 1.35-5.01), employment relationship of the contract (AOR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.26-3.13); > 12 hours daily working time (AOR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.09-2.98) and alcohol use in the previous 30 days (AOR = 2.92; 95%CI: 1.86-4.57). Irregular physical activity was associated with higher scores of nicotine dependence (β = 1.87; 95%CI: 0.55-3.19). CONCLUSION The results showed a high prevalence of tobacco use and high/very high nicotine dependence among the truck drivers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Brazil , Occupational Health , Motor Vehicles , Nicotine
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1422290

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To quantify and compare respiratory functions and further screen the oral mucosa of tobacco and non-tobacco users. Material and Methods: First control group, non-tobacco users (n=55); Second group, smokers' group (n=168) who currently smoked cigarettes; Third group smokeless/chewing type, tobacco group (n=81); Fourth group, both smokeless and smoking type tobacco users (n=46). Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependences (FTND) and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST) instruments were used to assess nicotine dependence. Subsequently, spirometry and Toluidine Blue (TB) vital staining were performed. Chi-squared and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fagerstrom test resulted in 48.8% of subjects with low dependency, followed by an increase in nicotine dependency from low to moderate (29.2%), moderate (15.6%), and highly dependent (6.4%) groups. All respiratory function tests and oral screening confirmed significant changes amongst tobacco and non-tobacco users. The forced vital capacity of non-smoker group was significantly different from other tobacco users' group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Early effects of tobacco use can lead to complications with the respiratory system and oral cavity. Such data can be used to delineate the harm of tobacco and should be used to urge individuals to evade the utilization of tobacco (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Spirometry/methods , Tobacco Use Disorder , Lung Volume Measurements/instrumentation , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Nicotine/adverse effects , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , India/epidemiology
14.
Araçatuba; s.n; 2022. 55 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1435785

ABSTRACT

O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da Coenzima Q10 (CoQ10) no reparo periimplantar em implantes instalados em tíbias de ratos modificados sistemicamente ou não pela nicotina. Oitenta ratos machos (Wistar), foram divididos em quatro grupos (n=20). No dia 0 os animais receberam um implante (4 x 2,2mm ­ SLA) na metáfise proximal das tíbias direita e esquerda. Nos 30 dias que antecedem o procedimento cirúrgico e nos 28 que o sucedem, os animais receberam duas injeções subcutâneas diárias de 3mg/kg de hemissulfato de nicotina ou solução salina na região dorsal, com 12 horas de intervalo entre elas. Logo após à cirurgia, o protocolo se constituiu na administração via gavagem gástrica de 1 ml de glicerina vegetal, ou suplementação diária com 120 mg de CoQ10, ambos até o final do experimento. SS (SHAM): o protocolo de aplicação utilizado foi o de solução salina subcutânea, e os animais receberam gavagem gástrica diária de 1 ml de glicerina vegetal. SS-CoQ10: o protocolo de aplicação utilizado foi o de solução salina subcutânea e, como suplementação, receberam 120 mg de Coenzima Q10 via gavagem gástrica. NIC: o protocolo de aplicação utilizado foi o de nicotina, e os animais receberam gavagem gástrica diária de 1 ml de glicerina vegetal. NIC-CoQ10: o protocolo de aplicação utilizado foi o de nicotina e, como suplementação, os animais receberam 120 mg de CoQ10 via gavagem gástrica. As eutanásias foram aos 7 e 28 dias pós-operatórios. As peças coletadas foram processadas com desmineralização para as análises histológica, histométrica (PTON) e imunoistoquímica para detecção de BMP/2, OCN e TRAP; e sem desmineralização para análise da área do contato direto osso/implante (BIC). Após análise de normalidade e homocedasticidade, os dados foram submetidos aos testes mais adequados com significância de 5% (p≤0,05). Com relação ao contato osso implante, o grupo SS, SS-Q10 e NIC- Q10, apresentaram maior BIC em todos os períodos experimentais quando comparado com o grupo NIC. Os grupos SS, SS-Q10 e NIC-Q10 apresentaram também maior PTON em todos os períodos experimentais quando comparado com o grupo NIC. A análise histológica dos tecidos periimplantares mostrou que o grupo NIC-Q10 apresentou características histológicas que se mostraram similares ao grupo controle, no entanto, com maior quantidade de tecido ósseo periimplantar e menor quantidade de tecido conjuntivo. Nos padrões de marcação imunoistoquímica, quando comparado ao grupo SS, o grupo NIC-Q10 apresentou menor imunomarcação para e OCN, menor marcação para TRAP e não houve diferenças quanto a marcação de BMP2. Dentro dos limites do presente estudo, pode-se concluir que a Coenzima Q10 exerceu uma influência positiva na remodelação óssea periimplantar em implantes osseointegrados(AU)


The purpose of the presente study was to evaluate the influence of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on periimplant repair in implants installed in the tíbia of rats modificated sistemically or not by nicotine. Eighty male rats (Wistar) were divided into four groups(n=20). On day 0 the animals received na implant (4x2,2mm-SLA) in the proximal metaphasys of the right and left tíbias. In the 30 days preceding the surgical procedure and the 28 days following it, the animals received two daily subcutaneous injections of 3 mg/kg of nicotine hemissulfate or saline solution in the dorsal region, with a 12-hour interval between them. Soon after surgery, the protocol consisted of the administration via gastric gavage of 1ml of vegetable glycerin, or daily supplementation with 120 mg of CoQ10, both until the endo f of the experiment. SS (SHAM): the application protocol used was subcutaneous saline solution, and the animals received daily gastric gavage of 1 ml of vegetal glycerin. SS-CoQ10: the application protocol used was subcutaneous saline solution and, as a supplement, they received 120 mg of Coenzyme Q10 via gastric gavage. NIC: the application protocol used was nicotine, and the animals received daily gastric gavage of 1 ml of vegetable glycerin. NIC-CoQ10: the application protocol used was nicotine and, as a supplement, the animals received 120 mg of CoQ10 via gastric gavage. Euthanasias were performed at 7 and 28 days after surgery. The colleted pieces were processed with desmineralization for histological analysis, área of neofomad bone tissue, histomorfometric analysis (PTON) and immunohistochemistry for the detection of BMP2, OCN and TRAP; and without desmineralization for direct bone/implant contat (BIC) analysis. Regarding bonéimplant contact, the SS, SS-Q10 and NIC-Q10 groups showed higher BIC in all experimental periods When compared to the NIC group. The histological analysis of the periimplant tissues showed that the NIC-Q10 group presented histological characteristics that were similar to the control group, however, with a greater amount of periimplant bone tissue and less connective tissue. In immunohistochemical staining patterns, when compared to the SS group, the NICQ10 group showed lower immunostaining for and OCN, lower staining for TRAP and there were no diferences regarding BMP2 staining. Within the limits of the presente study, it can be concluded that Coenzyme Q10 exerted a positive influence on periimplant bone remodeling in osseointegrated implants(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Dental Implants , Coenzymes , Nicotine , Bone Regeneration , Rats, Wistar , Dental Implantation, Endosseous
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 927-938, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970088

ABSTRACT

Chronic psychological stress can promote vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. This study aims to explore the effects and mechanism of chronic psychological stress on aortic medial calcification (AMC). Rat arterial calcification model was established by nicotine gavage in combination with vitamin D3 (VitD3) intramuscular injection, and rat model of chronic psychological stress was induced by humid environment. Aortic calcification in rats was evaluated by using Alizarin red staining, aortic calcium content detection, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. The expression levels of the related proteins, including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contractile phenotype marker SM22α, osteoblast-like phenotype marker RUNX2, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) markers (GRP78 and CHOP), were determined by Western blot. The results showed that chronic psychological stress alone induced AMC in rats, further aggravated AMC induced by nicotine in combination with VitD3, promoted the osteoblast-like phenotype transformation of VSMCs and aortic ERS activation, and significantly increased the plasma cortisol levels. The 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone effectively reduced chronic psychological stress-induced plasma cortisol levels and ameliorated AMC and aortic ERS in chronic psychological stress model rats. Conversely, the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone induced AMC, promoted AMC induced by nicotine combined with VitD3, and further activated aortic ERS. The above effects of dexamethasone could be inhibited by ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate. These results suggest that chronic psychological stress can lead to the occurrence and development of AMC by promoting glucocorticoid synthesis, which may provide new strategies and targets for the prevention and control of AMC.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Nicotine/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Dexamethasone/metabolism , Vascular Calcification/metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Cells, Cultured
16.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 537-550, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365929

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar cómo y en qué medida se produce un intercambio desde los cigarrillos convencionales (CC) a los sistemas electrónicos de administración de nicotina (SEAN). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática hasta agosto de 2019. El desenlace primario fue la proporción de un intercambio completo o parcial de CC a los SEAN y sus aspectos económicos. Los desenlaces secundarios como medidas de resultado fueron la probabilidad de intercambio y la tendencia en el intercambio por países. Resultados. Se encontraron 3628 referencias y se incluyeron 49 estudios con datos epidemiológicos y económicos. Los estudios económicos sobre la elasticidad cruzada de precios mostraron que los CC son parcialmente intercambiables por SEAN. La mayoría de los estudios reportaron que la prevalencia del consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos se incrementó con el tiempo. Tres estudios reportaron una reducción significativa de los CC consumidos por día entre fumadores duales (convencionales más SEAN) en comparación con los consumidores de CC. El odds ratio ajustado y combinado de dejar los CC entre consumidores de SEAN en comparación con quienes nunca consumieron o lo hicieron en el pasado fue de 1,19 (IC95%: 1,09-1,30; heterogeneidad 0%). Los estudios longitudinales mostraron una creciente prevalencia del uso de cigarrillos electrónicos, principalmente en adolescentes. Se encontró una relación negativa entre el consumo y aumento de precio de CC y electrónicos. Conclusión. La probabilidad de dejar de fumar CC entre consumidores habituales de SEAN se incrementó respecto a los consumidores que nunca o que solían consumir SEAN. Estudios económicos reportaron que los cigarrillos electrónicos son parcialmente intercambiables por los CC.


ABSTRACT Objectives. To assess how and in what extent the electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use substituted the consumption of traditional combustible cigarettes (c-cigarettes, c-cig). Materials and Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature up to August 2019 in scientific databases. Primary outcomes were proportion of complete or partial substitution of conventional to electronic cigarettes and related economic aspects. Secondary outcomes were odds ratio of substitution and country-wise time trends. Results. We retrieved 3,628 references and included 49 studies, providing economic and epidemiological data. Economic studies of cross-price elasticity showed that combustible cigarettes are partially substitutable for electronic cigarettes. Most studies reported that electronic cigarettes consumption prevalence increased over time. Three studies reported a significant reduction of combustible cigarettes consumed per day among dual users (combustible- plus electronic- cigarettes users) versus combustible-cigarettes users. The pooled adjusted odds ratio of quitting combustible cigarettes among electronic cigarettes users versus never or past electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, e-cig) users was 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.30; heterogeneity score 0%). Longitudinal studies showed globally a growing prevalence of electronic cigarettes use, mainly in adolescents. A negative relationship between consumption and price increase of electronic and combustible cigarettes was found. Conclusion. The chance of quitting smoking combustible cigarettes among current electronic nicotine delivery systems users was increased with respect to never- or past- electronic nicotine delivery systems users. Economic studies reported that electronic cigarette is partially substitutable for combustible cigarettes.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Systematic Review , E-Cigarette Vapor , Tobacco Use Disorder , Meta-Analysis , Cigarette Smoking , Nicotine
17.
Suma psicol ; 28(1): 37-42, Jan.-June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280693

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción y objetivo: Los procesos de aprendizaje y motivación han sido centrales para la comprensión de los mecanismos que subyacen al tabaquismo. En particular, existe evidencia creciente sobre la importancia de valores motivacionales de incentivo para entender el inicio y mantenimiento del tabaquismo. El objetivo general de este experimento fue evaluar el papel de la nicotina aguda sobre el valor de incentivo de una recompensa natural, (comida) asociada con un estímulo ambiental, (palanca experimental). Método: Se utilizaron ratas Wistar. Se administró nicotina (0.4 mg/kg) de manera aguda en momentos específicos del entrenamiento, utilizando un procedimiento de diez sesiones de adquisición y cuatro sesiones extinción en una tarea pavloviana de automoldeamiento. El diseño experimental incluyó tres grupos, el grupo control de solución salina y grupos de nicotina durante la adquisición y la extinción. Resultados: Se encontró que la administración aguda de nicotina, de manera específica y en comparación con los otros dos grupos experimentales, resultó en un efecto de retardo durante la fase de extinción, y que una administración similar de nicotina no resultó en efectos observables durante el desempeño comportamental en adquisición. Conclusiones: Estos resultados apoyan el papel de la nicotina como fortalecedora del valor de incentivo de las claves ambientales durante la extinción para una tarea de automoldeamiento.


Abstract Introduction and goal: Learning and motivational processes have been central for a modern understanding of tobacco addiction. There is evidence that supports the importance of incentive motivational processes for the maintenance of tobacco addiction. The main goal of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of acute nicotine on the incentive value of a natural reward, (food) paired with an environmental cue (pressing lever). Method: Wistar rats were used. Accute nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) was administered on key sessions, using a pavlovian autoshaping procedure involving ten acquisition and four extinction sessions. The experimental design included three groups, a saline administration control group and groups with specific nicotine administration during either acquisition or extinction. Results: We found that acute administration of nicotine, in contrast with saline only or previous nicotine administration during acquisition, had an enhancing effect on responding for the environmental cue during autoshaping extinction, but we did not find evidence that acute nicotine affected acquisition performance. Conclusion: Our results are consistent with a role of nicotine enhancing the incentive value of stimuli during extinction from a pavlovian autoshaping task.


Subject(s)
Nicotine , Tobacco Use Disorder , Extinction, Biological , Motivation
18.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 48-57, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | INDEXPSI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1280640

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: identificar o grau de dependência à nicotina e dados sociodemográficos segundo o gênero dos pacientes atendidos pelo projeto de extensão Educando e Tratando o Tabagismo promovido por uma universidade pública. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, com dados provenientes de 361 prontuários de pacientes que participantes do projeto no período de 2014 a 2018. Realizou-se o teste de Fagerström, por meio do qual classificou-se os pacientes com grau de dependência: muito baixo, baixo, médio, elevado e muito elevado de acordo com a soma dos pontos obtidos nas questões aplicadas. RESULTADOS: a predominância no grau de dependência a nicotina foi observada no sexo feminino com maiores percentuais de classificação para dependência elevada e muito elevada, 33,5% e 25,3% respectivamente. Entre os homens verificou-se grau de dependência elevado 28,1% e baixo 21,9%. Contatou-se que o grau de dependência química a nicotina esteve associada a dependência física (valor-p=0,002) e psicológica (valor-p=0,003). CONCLUSÃO: a evidência de maior frequência de indivíduos com alto grau de dependência química à nicotina demonstra a importância da associação de terapias medicamentosas com abordagens cognitivas comportamentais por meio de intervenções de enfermagem, relacionadas ao controle e cessação do tabagismo por meio da educação em saúde.


OBJECTIVE: to identify the nicotine dependence degree and sociodemographic data according to the gender of the patients assisted by the Educating and Treating Smoking extension project promoted by a public university. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, with data from 361 medical records of patients participating in the project from 2014 to 2018. The Fagerström test was performed, through which patients with a degree of dependence were classified as follows: very low, low, medium, high, and very high, according to the sum of the points obtained in the applied questions. RESULTS: predominance in the nicotine dependence degree was observed in women with higher percentages of classification for high and very high dependence, 33.5% and 25.3% respectively. Among men, a high degree of dependence was found to be 28.1% and low, 21.9%. It was found that the degree of chemical dependence on nicotine was associated with physical (p-value = 0.002) and psychological (p-value = 0.003) dependence. CONCLUSION: the evidence for a higher frequency of individuals with a high chemical dependence degree for nicotine demonstrates the importance of combining drug therapies with cognitive behavioral approaches through Nursing interventions, related to controlling and quitting the smoking addiction through health education.


OBJETIVO: identificar el grado de dependencia a la nicotina y los datos sociodemográficos según el género de los pacientes atendidos por el proyecto de extensión Educar y tratar el tabaquismo promovido por una universidad pública. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, con datos de 361 registros médicos de pacientes que participaron en el proyecto de 2014 a 2018. Se realizó la prueba de Fagerström, a través de la cual se clasificaron los pacientes con un grado de dependencia: muy bajo, bajo, medio, alto y muy alto de acuerdo con la suma de los puntos obtenidos en las preguntas aplicadas. RESULTADOS: el predominio en el grado de dependencia a la nicotina se observó en mujeres con porcentajes más altos de clasificación de dependencia alta y muy alta, 33.5% y 25.3% respectivamente. Entre los hombres, se encontró un alto grado de dependencia del 28,1% y bajo del 21,9%. Se encontró que el grado de dependencia química de la nicotina se asoció con el físico (valor p = 0.002) y psicológico (valor p = 0.003). CONCLUSIÓN: la evidencia de una mayor frecuencia de individuos con un alto grado de dependencia química de la nicotina demuestra la importancia de combinar las terapias farmacológicas con enfoques cognitivos conductuales a través de intervenciones de enfermería, relacionadas con el control del tabaquismo y la cesación a través de la educación sanitaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Smoking , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gender Identity , Nicotine , Smoking Cessation
19.
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 31(1): 28-36, ene-mar 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251764

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Discutir los efectos sobre la salud causados por el uso de cigarrillos electrónicos. Material y métodos: Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed/Medline de artículos completos publicados en los últimos 10 años. Se utilizaron un total de 21 artículos, según los criterios de inclusión establecidos, con mayor prevalencia de estudios transversales. Resultados: Se encontró que los cigarrillos electrónicos pueden incluso ayudar en el cese del tabaquismo convencional, sin embargo, sus usuarios no están exentos de sufrir complicaciones de salud sistémicas. Estos contienen sustancias tóxicas y no deben considerarse completamente seguros e inofensivos. Conclusiones: se necesitan más estudios para determinar las implicaciones para la salud a largo plazo del uso de este deben considerarse completamente seguros e inofensivos.


SUMMARY Objective: to discuss the health effects caused by the use of electronic cigarettes. Material and Methods : A search was performed in the PubMed/Medline database of complete articles published in the last 10 years. A total of 21 articles were used, according to the established inclusion criteria, with a higher prevalence of cross-sectional studies. Results: It was verified that electronic cigarettes may even help in the cessation of conventional smoking, however, their users are not exempt from suffering systemic health complications. They present toxic substances and should not be considered totally safe and harmless. Conclusions : Further studies are still needed to determine the implications of the use of this electronic device on the health of its users in the long term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Oral Health , Smokers , Nicotine/adverse effects
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 953-962, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921300

ABSTRACT

Nicotine is the main addictive component in cigarettes that motivates dependence on tobacco use for smokers and makes it difficult to quit through regulating a variety of neurotransmitter release and receptor activations in the brain. Even though nicotine has an analgesic effect, clinical studies demonstrated that nicotine abstinence reduces pain threshold and increases pain sensitivity in smoking individuals. The demand for opioid analgesics in nicotine abstinent patients undergoing surgery has greatly increased, which results in many side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression, etc. In addition, these side effects would hinder patients' physical and psychological recovery. Therefore, identifying the neural mechanism of the increase of pain sensitivity induced by nicotine abstinence and deriving a way to cope with the increased demand for postoperative analgesics would have enormous basic and clinical implications. In this review, we first discussed different experimental pain stimuli (e.g., cold, heat, and mechanical pain)-induced pain sensitivity changes after a period of nicotine dependence/abstinence from both animal and human studies. Then, we summarized the effects of the brain neurotransmitter release (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, endogenous opioids, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid) and their corresponding receptor activation changes after nicotine abstinence on pain sensitivity. Finally, we discussed the limits in recent studies. We proposed that more attention should be paid to human studies, especially studies among chronic pain patients, and functional magnetic resonance imaging might be a useful tool to reveal the mechanisms of abstinence-induced pain sensitivity changes. Besides, considering the influence of duration of nicotine dependence/abstinence and gender on pain sensitivity, we proposed that the effects of nicotine abstinence and individual differences (e.g., duration of abstinence from smoking, chronic/acute abstinence, and gender) on abstinence-induced pain sensitivity should be fully considered in formulating pain treatment protocols. In summary, this paper could deepen our understanding of nicotine abstinence-induced pain sensitivity changes and its underlying neural mechanism, and could also provide effective scientific theories to guide clinical pain diagnosis and treatment, which has important clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Nicotine/adverse effects , Pain , Pain Threshold , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder
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