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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 58-69, mar. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555099

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las bases de datos y las tablas de composición de alimentos (BDCA y TCA, respectivamente) contienen información sobre la composición química-nutricional de los alimentos. Objetivo: Definir las fuentes de los datos de composición de alimentos que se usan en Costa Rica y que impacto tienen a nivel de políticas públicas. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron las TCA y BDCA disponibles en Costa Rica desde 1960 hasta el 2020. Se encuestaron usuarios de datos de composición de alimentos. Se analizaron los usos de estos datos y algunos alcances a nivel de política pública. Resultados: Se identifica la utilización predominante de datos de la BDCA de Estados Unidos, los datos nacionales son desactualizados en su mayoría y hay pocos datos de análisis directo (químico) de alimentos. Se evidencia la importancia de contar con datos propios, actualizados y representativos de composición de alimentos para la toma de decisiones en salud pública. Conclusiones: Se deben vincular las instituciones generadoras y compiladoras para maximizar los recursos para fortalecer la disponibilidad de datos de composición de alimentos en el país. Se evidencia la necesidad de generar un Sistema Nacional de Datos de Composición de Alimentos que se ajuste a las necesidades identificadas en cuanto a la calidad y presentación de la información(AU)


Introduction: Databases and food composition tables (FCDB and FCT, respectively) provide information about the chemical-nutritional composition of foods. Objective: of this work was to define the sources of food composition data used in Costa Rica and their impact on public policies. Materials and methods: It was analyzed which TCA and FCDB have been available in Costa Rica from 1960 to 2020. Users were surveyed about food composition data. It was analyzed the uses of these data and some of their impacts on public policy. Results: The predominant use of data from the U.S. FCDB is identified, the national data are mostly outdated, and there is little data from direct (chemical) analysis of food. The importance of having our own, up- to-date, and representative data on food composition for public health decision-making is evident. Conclusions: Generating and compiling institutions should be linked to maximize resources to strengthen the availability of food composition data in the country. The need to generate a National Food Composition Data System that meets the identified needs in terms of quality and presentation of information is evident(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Eating , Food Composition , Table of Food Composition , Nutrients , Database , Overweight
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 51-57, mar. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555095

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The confinement due to COVID-19 significantly affected people's food consumption, especially university students who had to adapt to virtual education. Objective: To determine the perception and food consumption frequency due to the COVID-19 pandemic among Peruvian students from a private university in Trujillo City, Peru. Materials and method: The research design was non-experimental, descriptive, and cross- sectional. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 169 students and the instrument used was a virtual survey (Cronbach's alpha = 0.846). Results: It is shown that there is a higher frequency of young people (n = 116) and adolescents (n = 45) who participated in the study, and that the average age was 22.15 ± 3.77 years. Likewise, the Frequency of Consumption dimension, it showed a higher frequency in the "Sometimes" scale, where it is related to whether it exceeded the number of meals per day (34.9%), eating out of control (38.5%), desires to eat unhealthy food (32.0%) and whether it influenced eating (30.8%). Similarly, it was shown that the majority of respondents consumed fruits (68.6%) and vegetables (58.0%) and considered water consumption essential (98.3%). On the other hand, there was a higher frequency regarding the consumption of ultra-processed foods (n = 95, 56.2%). Conclusion: The population of a private university made up mostly of young people and adolescents perceives that there was a change in their diet during the COVID-19 pandemic(AU)


Introducción: El confinamiento por COVID-19 afectó notablemente el consumo de alimentos de las personas, sobre todo de los universitarios quienes tuvieron que adaptarse a una educación virtual. Objetivo: Determinar la percepción y la frecuencia del consumo de alimentos a causa de la pandemia por COVID-19 en estudiantes de una universidad privada de la ciudad de Trujillo (Perú). Materiales y métodos: El diseño de la investigación fue no experimental de tipo descriptivo, y de corte transversal. La muestra no probabilística estuvo conformada por 169 estudiantes y el instrumento utilizado fue una encuesta virtual (Alfa de Cronbach = 0,846). Resultados: Se muestra que hay una mayor frecuencia de jóvenes (n = 116) y adolescentes (n = 45) que participaron en el estudio, y que la edad promedio fue de 22,15 ± 3,77 años. Así mismo, en la dimensión Frecuencia de Consumo, tuvo una mayor frecuencia en la escala "A veces", donde se relaciona a si excedió el número de comidas al día (34,9%), comer fuera de control (38,5%), deseos de comer comida poco saludable (32,0%) y si influenció en la alimentación (30,8%). De la misma manera, se mostró que la mayoría de encuestados consumió frutas (68,6%) y verduras (58,0) y consideró imprescindible el consumo de agua (98,3%), por otro lado, hubo una mayor frecuencia respecto al consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados (n = 95, 56,2%). Conclusiones: La población de una universidad privada conformada mayoritariamente por jóvenes y adolescentes percibe que si hubo un cambio en su alimentación durante la pandemia del COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Quality of Life , Students , Nutrients , Eating , Feeding Behavior , COVID-19 , Universities , Vegetables , Quarantine , Fruit , Food, Processed
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Nanoparticles , Helianthus , Nutrients , Dietary Supplements , Diet , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in English | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1514966

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The litterfall production, foliar nutrient dynamics and decomposition are essential to maintain nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and carbon regulation in terrestrial ecosystems. With several studies addressing the variation of these processes, their dynamics in tropical dry forests (TDFs) remain unclear, due to its complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors. Objective: To evaluate litterfall, nutrient potential return and use efficiency, and decomposition variation in a TDF successional gradient in Tolima, Colombia. Methods: We quantified litterfall from November 2017 to October 2019 in 12 plots distributed in four successional stages: initial, early, intermediate, and late forests. We identified key tree species in foliar litter production and characterized the foliar decomposition of these species. At the community level, we quantified the C, N and P potential return, the N and P use efficiency, and the C:N and N:P ratio. Subsequently, we analyze relationships between vegetation characteristics and some soil chemical properties with these ecological processes. Results: We found that total litterfall in late forests (8.46 Mg ha-1 y-1) was double that found in initial forests (4.45 Mg ha-1 y-1). Decomposition was higher in initial (k = 1.28) compared to intermediate (k = 0.97) and late forests (k = 0.87). The nutrient potential return didn't change along succession, but it did show differences between study sites. The structural development and species richness favored litterfall, while soil chemical conditions influenced nutrient returns and decomposition. Conclusions: TDFs could recover key ecosystem function related to litterfall and nutrient dynamics after disturbances cessation; however, the soil quality is fundamental in return and release of nutrients.


Introducción: La producción de hojarasca, la dinámica de nutrientes foliares y la descomposición son esenciales para mantener el ciclo de nutrientes, la fertilidad del suelo y la regulación del carbono en ecosistemas terrestres. Con diversos estudios que abordan estos procesos, su variación en los bosques secos tropicales (BSTs) permanece incierta, por su compleja interacción de factores bióticos y abióticos. Objetivo: Evaluar la caída de hojarasca, el retorno potencial de nutrientes y eficiencia de uso, y la variación en descomposición en un gradiente sucesional de un BST en Tolima, Colombia. Métodos: Cuantificamos la caída de hojarasca entre noviembre 2017 y octubre 2019 en 12 parcelas distribuidas en cuatro estados sucesionales: bosque inicial, temprano, intermedio y tardío. Identificamos las especies arbóreas clave en la producción de hojarasca y caracterizamos la descomposición foliar de estas especies. A nivel comunitario, cuantificamos el retorno potencial de C, N y P, la eficiencia de uso de N y P y la relación C:N y N:P. Posteriormente, analizamos las relaciones entre las características de la vegetación y algunas propiedades químicas del suelo con estos procesos ecológicos. Resultados: Encontramos que la caída total de hojarasca en los bosques tardíos (8.46 Mg ha-1 año-1) fue el doble de la hallada en bosques iniciales (4.45 Mg ha-1 año-1). La descomposición fue mayor en bosques iniciales (k = 1.28) en comparación con bosques intermedios (k = 0.97) y tardíos (k = 0.87). El retorno potencial de nutrientes no cambió con el avance de la sucesión vegetal, pero exhibió diferencias entre los sitios de estudio. El desarrollo estructural y la riqueza de especies favorecieron la caída de hojarasca, mientras que las condiciones químicas del suelo influyeron en el retorno de nutrientes y descomposición. Conclusiones: Los BSTs tienen la capacidad de recuperar la función ecosistémica de aporte de hojarasca fina, retorno y liberación de nutrientes después del cese de alteraciones antrópicas; sin embargo, la calidad del suelo es fundamental en el retorno y liberación de nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Soil Analysis , Nutrients/analysis , Tropical Ecosystem , Leaf Litter , Forests , Colombia , Humic Substances/analysis
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 24-34, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532811

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La acelerada transición nutricional en Latinoamérica ha modificado los patrones alimentarios, favoreciendo dietas con mayor participación de productos industrializados y alto aporte de nutrientes relacionados con enfermedades crónicas como grasas (saturadas, trans), sodio, azúcar libre y densidad de energía. Objetivo. Describir los momentos alimentarios de consumo de productos comestibles ultraprocesados (PCUP) durante el día en Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal, usando datos de consumo de alimentos del Perfil Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia 2019 y del Perfil de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Medellín 2015, en población general, muestra de 13494 individuos. Los alimentos se clasificaron según NOVA y se agruparon en subcategorías. Se calculó la media de energía consumida y su desviación estándar (confianza del 95%) para las categorías NOVA y subcategorías, además su distribución en los momentos alimentarios. Resultados. Para la población de Medellín (capital de Antioquia), en promedio el 54,7% de la energía venia de alimentos no procesados, 17,3% de ingredientes culinarios, y 20,4% de PCUP. En la población de Antioquia, 56,0% de la energía se obtuvo de alimentos no procesados, 18,8% de ingredientes culinarios y 17,0% de PCUP. En los momentos alimentarios principales (desayuno, almuerzo y cena) los alimentos no procesados tienen mayor aporte energético. Mientras que los momentos alimentarios con mayor porcentaje de energía proveniente de PCUP fueron la media mañana, el algo y la merienda. Conclusiones. Para los antioqueños el mayor riesgo de consumo de PCUP relacionados con la obesidad y las enfermedades crónicas se presenta entremedio de las comidas principales(AU)


Introduction. The accelerated nutritional transition in Latin America has modified dietary patterns, favoring diets with a greater participation of industrialized products and a high contribution of nutrients related to chronic diseases such as fats (saturated, trans), sodium, free sugar, and energy density. Objective. To describe the dietary moments of consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) during the day in Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study using food consumption data from the Food and Nutrition Profile of Antioquia 2019 and the Food and Nutrition Security Profile of Medellín 2015, in general population, sample of 13,494 individuals. Foods were classified according to NOVA and grouped into subcategories. The mean energy consumed and its standard deviation (95% confidence), were calculated for the NOVA categories and subcategories, as well as its distribution at feeding times. Results. for the population of Medellín (capital of Antioquia), on average 54.7% of the energy came from unprocessed foods, 17.3% from culinary ingredients, and 20.4% from UPF. In the population of Antioquia, 56.0% of the energy was obtained from unprocessed foods, 18.8% from culinary ingredients, and 17.0% from UPF. At the main eating moments (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) unprocessed foods have a greater energy contribution. While the food moments with the highest percentage of energy coming from UPF were mid-morning snacks and snacks. Conclusions. For Antioqueños the greatest risk of consuming UPFs related to obesity and chronic diseases occurs between main meals(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Nutritional Transition , Feeding Behavior , Food, Processed , Nutrients , Nutrition Surveys , Chronic Disease
6.
Actual. nutr ; 24(2): 83-91, abr 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, ARGMSAL, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1511179

ABSTRACT

Una de las formas de estudiar patrones alimentarios es a través de Índices de Calidad de Dieta, algunos de los cuales se basan en la densidad nutricional de los alimentos. El concepto resume en una medida la relación entre energía y nutrientes a promover y a limitar, visibilizando las adecuaciones de nutrientes en forma paralela al equilibrio energético. El objetivo del trabajo es estudiar la calidad de dieta y sus brechas en una muestra de la población urbana de Argentina y describir la conformación del patrón alimentario según niveles de calidad nutricional utilizando el enfoque de densidad nutricional. Métodos: Se analizaron los datos de una encuesta alimentaria por autorregistro sobre 1030 sujetos de 11 ciudades de Argentina. Partiendo de sus consumos alimentarios se determinó la densidad nutricional a través de un índice (IDN) basado en energía, 9 nutrientes a promover y 4 a limitar. Se analizó el IDN de la dieta total, de 5 momentos de ingesta y de grupos de alimentos. Resultados: La calidad de dieta promedio alcanzó la mitad del estándar de un patrón saludable (10,6 sobre 20 puntos). Los mejores resultados se concentraron en menores de 3 años (17% presentaron una buena calidad de dieta). Comparados con el estándar, la calidad de almuerzos y cenas superaron a desayunos y meriendas. Legumbres, hortalizas, frutas y lácteos fueron los grupos con mayores brechas de calidad. Alimentos ocasionales y feculentos en general ­también carnes­ reflejaron excesos. Preparaciones y comidas rápidas alcanzaron hasta un 21 % de la densidad nutricional total. Conclusiones: El enfoque de densidad nutricional complementa la comprensión de las brechas alimentarias en la población argentina, al aportar argumentos en favor de intervenciones orientadas a un mejor equilibrio en particular en alimentos protectores, deficitarios en la conformación del patrón alimentario


Diet Quality Index represents one way to study food patterns. Some of them are based on the nutritional density of foods. The concept summarizes the relationship between energy and nutrients to promote and limit, making visible nutrient adequacy in line with energy balance. The objective is to study the quality of the diet and its gaps in a sample of the urban population of Argentina and to describe the food pattern according to levels of nutritional quality using the nutritional density approach. Methods: Data from a self-registration dietary survey on 1030 subjects from 11 cities in Argentina were analyzed. It was determined the nutritional density of the reported consumptions through an index (IDN) based on energy, 9 nutrients to promote and 4 to limit. The IDN of the total diet, 5 moments of intake and food groups was analyzed. Results: The average diet quality was half the standard of a healthy pattern (10.6 out of 20 points). The best results were concentrated in children under 3 years of age (17% presented a good quality diet). Compared to the standard, the quality of lunches and dinners exceeded breakfasts and snacks. Legumes, vegetables, fruits and dairy products were the groups with the largest quality gaps. Occasional and starchy foods in general ­also meats­ reflected excesses. Preparations and fast meals reached up to 21% of the total nutritional density. Conclusions: The nutritional density approach complements the understanding of food gaps in the Argentine population, providing arguments in favor of interventions aimed at a better balance, particularly in protective foods, which are deficient in the conformation of the food pattern


Subject(s)
Food Quality , Energy Intake , Nutrients
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 19-31, mar. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427723

ABSTRACT

Las barras de cereal (BC), se comercializan como un snack saludable, no obstante, su calidad nutricional es baja. Una alternativa para mejorar esto, es la incorporación de ingredientes como pseudocereales, germinados y subproductos de fruta. Objetivo. Evaluar el contenido nutricional y propiedades tecnofuncionales de una barra de cereal formulada a partir de pseudocereales, germinados de soya y subproductos del procesamiento de frutas. Materiales y Métodos. Se desarrollaron 6 formulaciones (F0-F5). Se determinó el contenido de proteína y fibra cruda, se seleccionó la formulación que presentó el mayor contenido de estos componentes. A la BC seleccionada se le determinó la digestibilidad in-vitro de la proteína, las propiedades tecnofuncionales potencial prebiótico y actividad inhibitoria de ECA-I. Resultados. La formulación seleccionada fue F1 (13,6 g/100 g p.s. proteína y 13,1 g/100 g p.s. fibra cruda). La digestibilidad de la proteína fue del 69 %, el cual es cercano a valores reportados para algunos componentes de la BC. La capacidad de hinchamiento y retención de agua fue 2,55 ml/g; 12,74 %, respectivamente. El crecimiento de L. brevis en medio MRS modificado con BC no presentó diferencias estadísticas con el medio control, indicando el potencial prebiótico presente en la BC. La barra de cereal tuvo un 39% de actividad inhibitoria de ECA-I, demostrando la acción de los compuestos bioactivos posiblemente liberados durante la digestión de la BC. Conclusión. La formulación desarrollada presenta propiedades funcionales importantes y podría generar beneficios para la salud(AU)


Introduction. Cereal bars (CB) are marketed as a healthy snack; however, their nutritional quality is low. An alternative to improve this is the incorporation of ingredients such as soybean sprouts, which have a higher protein content than some seeds; as well as fruit by-products that contain important bioactive compounds. Objective. To evaluate the nutritional content and techno-functional properties of a cereal bar formulated from pseudocereals, soybean sprouts, and fruit processing by-products. Materials and Methods. 6 formulations (F0-F5) were developed. The content of protein and crude fiber was determined, the formulation that presented the highest content of these components was selected. The in-vitro digestibility of the protein, the technofunctional properties, potential prebiotic and inhibitory activity of ACE-I were determined for the selected BC. Results. The selected formulation was F1 (13.6g/100g p.s. protein and 13.1g/100 g p.s. crude fiber). Protein digestibility was 69%, which is close to reported values for some CB components. The swelling and water retention capacity was 2.55 ml/g; 12.74%, respectively. The growth of L. brevis in modified MRS medium with CB did not present statistical differences with the control medium, indicating the prebiotic potential present in CB. The cereal bar had 39% ACE-I inhibitory activity, demonstrating the action of bioactive compounds possibly released during CB digestion. Conclusion. The developed formulation has important functional properties and could generate health benefits(AU)


Subject(s)
Edible Grain , Snacks , Nutritive Value , Glycine max , Proteins , Nutrients , Mangifera , Pomegranate
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2023. 77 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BVSAM | ID: biblio-1537757

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O leite materno é o alimento ideal para o recém-nascido a termo e prétermo e sua composição varia de acordo com vários fatores que podem ser maternos, ambientais e até mesmo genéticos. Pode ser ordenhado através da expressão manual ou com auxílio de bomba (elétrica ou manual). Ainda não está claro na literatura o efeito das diferentes técnicas de ordenha na composição dos macronutrientes. Desta forma, o conhecimento das técnicas de extração do leite materno mais eficazes, no sentido de favorecer uma maior concentração de nutrientes, torna-se essencial para enriquecer uma recomendação que oriente essa ordenha em mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo durante o período de internação. Objetivos: Analisar a diferença na concentração de macronutrientes de leite das mães de recém-nascidos de acordo com a técnica de extração do leite (técnica de ordenha manual e através de bomba elétrica). Metodologia: Foi realizado um ensaio clínico randomizado crossover com 32 mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo internados na Unidade Neonatal do Instituto Nacional de Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente Fernandes Figueira (IFF/Fiocruz). Foram avaliadas 248 amostras de leite humano cru extraídos por bomba elétrica e por ordenha manual para avaliação dos macronutrientes energéticos (proteínas, gorduras e carboidratos) utilizando o Human Milk Analyzer ­ MIRIS nas fases de colostro, leite transição e leite maduro. Resultados: Não observamos diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre a mama direita e esquerda na extração por bomba e extração manual, porém houve diferença na composição dos macronutrientes. No colostro, observamos maior concentração de carboidrato na extração manual; no leite de transição a concentração de gordura e valor energético total foi maior na extração manual e no leite maduro, as concentrações de proteína e carboidrato foram maiores na extração por bomba elétrica. Conclusão: Observamos diferenças na composição de macronutrientes em todas as fases do leite humano dependendo da forma de extração. Esse resultado pode nortear as recomendações para as mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo internados na unidade neonatal, a fim de proporcionar um aporte nutricional mais próximo ao ideal.


Introduction: Breast milk is the ideal food for full-term and preterm newborns and its composition varies according to several factors that may be maternal, environmental and even genetic. It can be milked through manual expression or with the aid of a pump (electric or manual). The effect of different milking techniques on the composition of macronutrients is still unclear in the literature. In this way, knowledge of the most effective breast milk extraction techniques, in order to favor a greater concentration of nutrients, becomes essential to enrich a recommendation that guides this expression in mothers of preterm newborns during the period of hospitalization. Objectives: To analyze the difference in the concentration of macronutrients in the milk of mothers of newborns according to the milk extraction technique (manual milking technique and using an electric pump). Methodology: A randomized crossover clinical trial was carried out with 32 mothers of preterm newborns admitted to the Neonatal Unit of the Fernandes Figueira National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescent Health (IFF/Fiocruz). 248 samples of raw human milk extracted by electric pump and manual milking were evaluated to evaluate energy macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) using the Human Milk Analyzer ­ MIRIS in the colostrum, transition milk and mature milk phases. Results: We did not observe statistically significant differences between the right and left breasts in pump extraction and manual extraction, however there was a difference in the composition of macronutrients. In colostrum, we observed a higher carbohydrate concentration in manual extraction; In transitional milk, the fat concentration and total energy value were higher in manual extraction and in mature milk, protein and carbohydrate concentrations were higher in electric pump extraction. Conclusion: We observed differences in the composition of macronutrients in all phases of human milk depending on the form of extraction. This result can guide recommendations for mothers of preterm newborns admitted to the neonatal unit, in order to provide nutritional support closer to ideal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Nutrients , Breast Milk Expression/methods , Milk, Human
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , 6-Phytase , Nutrients , Chickens , Citric Acid , Dietary Supplements , Diet/veterinary , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6361-6370, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008834

ABSTRACT

Moutan Cortex(MC) residues produced after the extraction of MC can be re-extracted for active components and used to produce organic fertilizer and animal feed. However, they are currently disposed as domestic waste, which pollutes the environment. This study analyzed the chemical composition of the medicinal material, residues, and residue compost of MC by UPLC-UV-Q-TOF-MS. Furthermore, the nutrient composition of MC residues and the residue compost was analyzed. The results showed that:(1)MC residues had lower content of chemicals than the medicinal material, and content of paeonol, gallic acid, and galloylglucose in MC residues were about 1/3 of that in the medicinal material. The content of chemicals were further reduced after residue composting, and the quantitative compounds were all below the limits of detection.(2)Compared with MC residues, the residue compost showed the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and organic matter content increasing by 122.67%, 31.32%, 120.39%, and 32.06%, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that the MC residues can be used to re-extract active compounds such as paeonol, gallic acid, and galloylglucose. The MC residue compost is a high-quality organic fertilizer containing minimal content of chemicals and can be widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Composting , Fertilizers , Soil/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins , Nutrients , Acetophenones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia
13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 408-414, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969921

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between nutrient-related dietary pattern and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in middle-aged and elderly people. Methods: A total of 6 444 middle-aged and elderly people aged ≥55 years were selected in 2018 China Health and Nutrition Survey. MCI was evaluated by Mini-Mental State Examination, and the intakes of various foods were obtained by consecutive 3-day 24-hour dietary survey and weighing method. The intakes of various nutrients and total dietary energy were calculated based on the food composition table. Demographic and social information, lifestyle and health status of the respondents were obtained through questionnaire survey and physical measurements. In this study, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, iron, copper and selenium were selected as dependent variables. Nutrient-related dietary patterns were extracted by reduced rank regression method, and the relationship between dietary patterns and MCI was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Six dietary patterns were extracted in this study, and dietary pattern 1 with the highest explanatory degree was selected for subsequent analysis. Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by higher intakes of legume products, vegetables, fruits, nuts, pork, aquatic products and plant oil. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of MCI was lower in Q4 dietary score group than in Q1 dietary score group (OR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.49-0.98) in the 55-64 age group. In people with sleep duration of 8 hours per day, the risk of MCI was reduced in Q2, Q3 and Q4 dietary score groups compared with the Q1 dietary score group, with OR values of 0.68 (95%CI: 0.51-0.92), 0.67 (95%CI: 0.49-0.92) and 0.65 (95%CI: 0.45-0.92), respectively. Interaction analysis showed that the risk for MCI increased in those aged 65-74 years and ≥75 years compared with those aged 55-64 years in Q1 dietary score group. However, the risk for MCI decreased in both age groups as dietary pattern scores increased. Compared with those with sleep duration less or more than 8 hours per day in Q1 dietary score group, those with sleep duration of 8 hours per day in Q2 and Q3 dietary score groups had a reduced risk for MCI. Conclusion: Dietary patterns with higher intakes of legume products, vegetables, fruits, nuts, pork, aquatic products, and plant oil are negatively associated with MCI in people aged 55-64 years and those who slept 8 hours per day, and may reduce the risk of MCI with aging.


Subject(s)
Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Diet , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Nutrients , Vegetables , China/epidemiology
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1352-1369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970606

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis(AS) is caused by impaired lipid metabolism, which deposits lipids in the intima, causes vascular fibrosis and calcification, and then leads to stiffening of the vascular wall. Hyperlipidemia(HLP) is one of the key risk factors for AS. Based on the theory of "nutrients return to the heart and fat accumulates in the channels", it is believed that the excess fat returning to the heart in the vessels is the key pathogenic factor of AS. The accumulation of fat in the vessels over time and the blood stasis are the pathological mechanisms leading to the development of HLP and AS, and "turbid phlegm and fat" and "blood stasis" are the pathological products of the progression of HLP into AS. Didang Decoction(DDD) is a potent prescription effective in activating blood circulation, removing blood stasis, resolving turbidity, lowering lipids, and dredging blood vessels, with the functions of dispelling stasis to promote regeneration, which has certain effects in the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. This study employed high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to screen the main blood components of DDD, explored the targets and mechanisms of DDD against AS and HLP with network pharmacology, and verified the network pharmacological results by in vitro experiments. A total of 231 blood components of DDD were obtained, including 157 compounds with a composite score >60. There were 903 predicted targets obtained from SwissTargetPrediction and 279 disease targets from GeneCards, OMIM, and DisGeNET, and 79 potential target genes of DDD against AS and HLP were obtained by intersection. Gene Ontology(GO) analysis suggested that DDD presumably exerted regulation through biological processes such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory response, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) analysis suggested that signaling pathways included lipid and atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, chemo-carcinogenesis-receptor activation, and AGE-RAGE signaling pathways in diabetic complications. In vitro experiments showed that DDD could reduce free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and cholesterol ester content in L02 cells and improve cellular activity, which might be related to the up-regulation of the expression of PPARα, LPL, PPARG, VEGFA, CETP, CYP1A1, and CYP3A4, and the down-regulation of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. DDD may play a role in preventing and treating AS and HLP by improving lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, and inhibiting apoptosis with multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Network Pharmacology , Nutrients , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Lipids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1407248

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Fine root dynamics include production, turnover and decomposition; they are crucial to forest health, affect the entire biogeochemical complex of the ecosystem, and consequently, they substantially affect carbon balance. However, the influence of environmental factors and soil nutrient limitation on fine roots presents considerable uncertainties and has not been studied in tropical forests with more than 7 000 mm annual rainfall. Objective: To measure the effect of fertilization on fine roots in the high precipitation Chocó forest. Methods: We worked in two sites of the Chocó region, Colombia (August 2014-May 2015), where rainfall exceeds 10 000 mm per year. We applied five fertilization treatments (N, P, K, NPK and Control) to two soil type plots. Soil cylinders were removed at pre-established intervals to measure roots. Results: Phosphorus applications increased fined roots; and more fine roots were produced in sandy than in loam soil. The effects of fertilization were related, but not clearly determined by edaphic conditions. Conclusions: In this Chocó forest, the production of fine roots was higher in sandy and nutrient-rich soils but belowground net primary productivity was limited by the content of edaphic Phosphorus.


Resumen Introducción: La dinámica de las raíces finas incluye producción, rotación y descomposición; son cruciales para la salud de los bosques, afectan todo el complejo biogeoquímico del ecosistema y, en consecuencia, afectan sustancialmente el balance de carbono. Sin embargo, la influencia de los factores ambientales y la limitación de nutrientes del suelo en las raíces finas presenta incertidumbres considerables y no se ha estudiado en bosques tropicales con más de 7 000 mm de precipitación anual. Objetivo: Medir el efecto de la fertilización en las raíces finas en el bosque chocoano de alta precipitación. Métodos: Se trabajó en dos sitios de la región del Chocó, Colombia (agosto 2014-mayo 2015), donde las precipitaciones superan los 10 000 mm anuales. Se aplicaron cinco tratamientos de fertilización (N, P, K, NPK y Control) a dos parcelas por tipo de suelo. Los cilindros de suelo se retiraron a intervalos preestablecidos para medir las raíces. Resultados: Las aplicaciones de fósforo aumentaron las raíces finas; y se produjeron más raíces finas en suelos arenosos que en francos. Los efectos de la fertilización estuvieron relacionados, pero no claramente determinados por las condiciones edáficas. Conclusiones: En este bosque chocoano, la producción de raíces finas fue mayor en suelos arenosos y ricos en nutrientes, pero la productividad primaria neta subterránea estuvo limitada por el contenido de fósforo edáfico.


Subject(s)
Soil , Nutrients/analysis , Colombia
16.
Rev. tecnol. (St. Tecla, En línea) ; (15): 27-30, ene.-dic. 2022. tab.^c28 cm.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412635

ABSTRACT

En el beneficiado del cacao se producen una gran cantidad de residuos, las mazorcas generalmente son desechadas dentro de los mismos cultivos y genera problemáticas como la proliferación de insectos y microorganismos patógenos. De estos desechos las cáscaras son las de mayor relevancia. La Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE evaluó añadirle valor a este subproducto, incorporando desechos de cáscara de cacao en la formulación de un sustrato para el cultivo de plántulas de hortalizas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener un sustrato orgánico que sirva de soporte material y nutritivo a partir de cáscaras de cacao criollo. La biomasa vegetal se caracterizó teniendo en cuenta parámetros como el porcentaje de humedad, pH, porcentaje de cenizas, contenido de potasio, nitrógeno y fósforo. Se ejecutaron pruebas comparativas de formulación del sustrato, siembra, cultivo y crecimiento de las plántulas de hortalizas de tomate y pepino, obteniendo como resultado la fórmula óptima de un sustrato y abono orgánico y el mejor medio de desarrollo. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que, a partir de un adecuado procesamiento y aprovechamiento de las cáscaras de cacao, se puede transformar este desecho en un producto biomaterial alternativo que genera una opción de bioprospección agroindustrial. Los valores obtenidos en la caracterización fisicoquímica de las cáscaras de las mazorcas, dependen de condiciones como el tipo de suelo, variables agrometeorológicas, calidad de agua, abono y especie de la planta de cacao. El escenario de siembra condiciona el desarrollo óptimo de las plántulas; los factores como requerimiento de agua, distribución de nutrientes y estabilidad de las plántulas, se ven afectados por la relación del espacio de germinación. Como resultado de la caracterización fisicoquímica, se obtuvo: pH de 5.7, cenizas 18.83%, humedad 73.56%, celulosa 21.39%, lignina 39.81%, nitrógeno total 0.02%, fósforo total 0.02% y ausencia de potasio.


In the cacao beneficiation, a large amount of waste is produced, generally, the cacao pods are discarded within the same crops and generate problems such as the proliferation of insects and pathogenic microorganisms. The shell are the most relevant this waste. In Escuela de Ingeniería Química of ITCA-FEPADE the incorporation of cacao shell waste in the formulation of a substrate for growing vegetables was evaluated because the giving benefit to these by-products. The objective of this research was to obtain a substrate that serves as material and nutritional support for vegetable seedlings, from creole cacao shells. The vegetal biomass was characterized taking into account parameters such as moisture percentage, pH, ash percentage, potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Subsequently, comparative tests of formulation, planting and growth of vegetable tomato and cucumber seedlings were carry out, obtaining as result, the optimal formula for the substrate and the best development environment. It concludes that, through an adequate processing and use of the cacao shell, it is possible to transform a waste into an alternative biomaterial product that generates an agro industrial bioprospecting option. The values obtained in the physicochemical characterization of the shells of cacao pods depend on conditions such as soil type, agrometeorological variables, water quality, fertilizer and cacao plant species. The planting environment determines the optimal development of the seedlings, factors such as water requirement, nutrient distribution and seedling stability seems affected because relation of the germination space. The results of the characterization were a pH of 5.7, ashes 18.83%, humidity 73.56%, cellulose 21.39%, lignin 39.81%, total nitrogen 0.02%, total phosphorus 0.02%, and total phosphorus 0.02% and an absence of potassium.


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Composting/methods , Garbage , Waste Products , Nutrients , Fertilizers , Bioprospecting
17.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(1): 75-97, ene.-abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1389169

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La acuicultura tradicional se enfrenta a serios problemas medioambientales, particularmente por el uso de grandes volúmenes de agua, con las consecuentes descargas de efluentes ricos en nutrientes inorgánicos y partículas orgánicas. Un ejemplo claro de esto está en que del 20 al 30% del nitrógeno presente en la proteína del alimento suministrado es aprovechado por los peces, el restante 70-80% es desechado en el cuerpo de agua producto de la excreción y el alimento no consumido, lo que favorece la eutrofización de aguas receptoras y su entorno. Por lo anterior, se requiere el desarrollo de tecnologías y prácticas de producción innovadoras, responsables, sostenibles y rentables. Una de las alternativas que está generando interés, debido a sus implicaciones ambientales, económicas y sociales, es la producción en sistemas de acuicultura multitrófica integrada (IMTA). Este concepto se basa en la integración de diferentes niveles tróficos en un mismo sistema, lo que resulta en una conversión de los residuos de cultivo de unas especies en alimentos o fertilización para otras especies. Aplicada, la producción IMTA puede mejorar la sostenibilidad de la acuicultura al reducir el impacto de los efluentes y generar mayor rentabilidad económica, debido a la producción simultanea de dos o más productos finales y al uso mínimo de fertilizantes. El objetivo de la presente revisión es presentar los fundamentos básicos de los sistemas de IMTA, como una alternativa a los sistemas de producción en piscicultura.


ABSTRACT Traditional aquaculture faces serious environmental problems, particularly due to the use of large volumes of water, with the consequent discharge of effluents rich in inorganic nutrients and organic particles. A clear example of this is that only 20 to 30% of the nitrogen present in the protein of the supplied food is used by the fish. The remaining 70 to 80% is disposed of in the water body as a result of excretion and unconsumed food, favoring the eutrophication of receiving waters and their environment. Therefore, the development of innovative, responsible, sustainable, and profitable technologies and production practices is required. One of the alternatives that is generating interest due to its environmental, economic, and social implications is the production in integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems (IMTA). This concept is based on the integration of different trophic levels in the same system, which results in a conversion of the culture residues of some species into food or fertilization for other species. Applicated, the IMTA systems can improve the sustainability of aquaculture by reducing the impact of effluents, generating greater economic profitability due to the simultaneous production of two or more end products and minimal use of fertilizers. The objective of this review is to present fundamentals basic aspects of IMTA systems, as an alternative to fish farming production systems.


Subject(s)
Animals , Nutrients , Aquaculture , Economics , Eutrophication , Sustainable Development Indicators , Nitrogen , Schools, Veterinary , Water , Projects , Fertility Agents
18.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 149-159, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402952

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se pretendió desarrollar una fórmula artesanal, a base de lactosuero, como complemento alimenticio para niños preescolares. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva ejecutada en tres fases: 1. Ensayos preliminares para la determinación del esquema tecnológico; 2. Evaluación fisicoquímica para la caracterización del producto y determinación de macronutrientes y 3. Evaluación sensorial donde se midió el nivel de agrado del producto final. Los datos obtenidos de los análisis se tabularon en cuatro repeticiones y se analizaron a través de estadísticas descriptivas de tendencia central y en frecuencias expresadas en tablas y gráficos mediante el programa estadístico SPSS versión 20.0. Se obtuvo que en el análisis proximal del requesón deshidratado, éste aportó por cada 100 gramos de producto: 480,28 kcal, 46,5% de proteínas, 22,36% de grasas y 23,26% de hidratos de carbono. La formulación final de la bebida constó de 2,9 g de requesón deshidratado, 3,6 g de arroz previamente cocido y 1,8 g de azúcar diluidos por cada onza preparada. Se determinó que es una fórmula hipocalórica-hiperproteica e isoosmolar, con una viscosidad de 275cP, un pH de 5,1 y con 0,291% de ácido láctico. La fórmula artesanal a base de lactosuero fue de agrado para 41 niños que participaron en el análisis sensorial. Se recomienda su uso en niños que se encuentren en condición de vulnerabilidad nutricional.


Abstract The main objective of this research was to develop an artisan formula based on whey as food supplement directed to preschool children. It was a descriptive study carried out in three phases: 1. Preliminary tests, for the determination of the technological scheme; 2. Physical-chemical evaluation, for the characterisation of the product and determination of nutrients and, 3. Sensory evaluation: the level of satisfaction of the final product measured. The data obtained from the analysis were tabulated in four repetitions and analysed through descriptive statistics of central tendency and in frequencies expressed in tables and graphs using the statistical program SPSS version 20.0. As a result, for each 100 grams of dehydrated cottage cheese this malnuprovides: 480.28 kcal, 46.5% protein; 22.36% fat and 23.26% carbohydrates. The final formulation of the drink consisted of 2.9 g of dehydrated cottage cheese, 3.6 g of previously cooked rice and 1.8 g of diluted sugar for each prepared ounce. It was determined as a hypocaloric-hyperproteic and isomolar formula, with a viscosity of 275cP, a pH of 5.1 and with 0.291% lactic acid. The artisan formula based on whey was liked by 41 children who participated in the sensory analysis. As a conclusion, it can be recommended as food supplement in children with nutritional vulnerability conditions.


Resumo O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi desenvolver uma fórmula artesanal à base de soro de leite como suplemento alimentar direcionado a crianças pré-escolares. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo em três fases: 1. Ensaios preliminares, para determinação do esquema tecnológico; 2. Avaliação físico-química, para caracterização do produto e determinação de macronutrientes e 3. Avaliação sensorial: mediu-se o grau de satisfação do produto final. Os dados obtidos das análises foram tabulados em quatro repetições e analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas de tendência central e em frequências expressas em tabelas e gráficos utilizando o programa estatístico SPSS versão 20.0. Como resultado da análise proximal, para cada 100 gramas de requeijão desidratado fornece: 480,28 kcal, 46,5% de proteína; 22,36% de gordura e 23,26% de carboidratos. A formulação final da bebida consistiu em 2,9 g de requeijão desidratado, 3,6 g de arroz previamente cozido e 1,8 g de açúcar diluído para cada onça preparada. O resultado concluiu que é uma fórmula hipocalórica-hiperproteica e isoosmolar, com viscosidade de 275cP, pH de 5,1 e com 0,291% de ácido lático. A fórmula artesanal à base de soro de leite foi apreciada por 41 crianças que participaram da análise sensorial. É recomendado seu uso em crianças que se encontrem em condições de vulnerabilidade nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Infant Formula , Whey , Personal Satisfaction , Research , Oryza , Carbohydrates , Proteins , Nutrients , Cheese , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Lactic Acid , Dietary Supplements , Diagnosis , Sugars , Fats , Poaceae , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
19.
Estima (Online) ; 20(1): e1722, Jan-Dec. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1412711

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:Avaliar o consumo alimentar de macronutrientes e o estado nutricional de pessoas com estomia no contexto amazônico. Método: Estudo transversal quantitativo realizado na unidade de referência especializada às pessoas com estomia, no período de janeiro a março de 2020. A amostra foi constituída de 77 pessoas com estomias, com idade de 21 a 88 anos, de ambos os sexos. Foram utilizados informações sociodemográficas, aspectos clínicos e comportamentais, medidas antropométricas e recordatório 24 h. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio dos softwares BioEstat 5.0 e EpiInfo 3.5.1. Resultados: A maioria era do sexo masculino, com faixa etária entre 35 e 50 anos. Os tipos mais frequentes de estomia foram: colostomia (69%) e ileostomia (21%), com caráter temporário (43%), tendo em ambos os sexos a etiologia neoplásica (60%). Quanto ao estado nutricional, a maioria apresentou eutrofia segundo o índice de massa corporal, no entanto a circunferência da cintura demonstrou risco metabólico aumentado no sexo feminino, e a prega cutânea tricipital indicou obesidade no sexo masculino e eutrofia no sexo feminino (<0,0001). Com relação ao consumo alimentar, observou-se inadequação de energia e de macronutrientes. Conclusão: Os hábitos alimentares no contexto amazônico podem estar relacionados ao consumo alimentar inadequado e às alterações no estado nutricional.


Objective:To evaluate the food intake of macronutrients and nutritional status of people with ostomy in the Amazonian context. Method: Quantitative cross-sectional study carried out in the specialized reference unit for people with ostomy, in the period from January to March 2020. The sample consisted of 77 people with ostomies, aged 21 to 88 years old, of both genders. We used sociodemographic information, clinical and behavioral aspects, anthropometric measurements and 24-hour recall. Statistical analysis was performed using BioEstat 5.0 and EpiInfo 3.5.1 software. Results: Most were male, aged between 35 and 50 years old. The most frequent types of ostomy were: colostomy (69%) and ileostomy (21%), with a temporary nature (43%), with neoplastic etiology in both sexes (60%). As for the nutritional status, most presented eutrophy according to the body mass index, but waist circumference showed increased metabolic risk in females, and the triceps skinfold thickness indicated excess adiposity in males (<0.0001). Regarding food consumption, there was inadequacy of energy and macronutrients. Conclusion: Eating habits in the Amazonian context may be related to inadequate food consumption and changes in nutritional status.


Objetivo:Evaluar el consumo alimentario de macronutrientes y el estado nutricional de personas con estoma en el contexto amazónico. Método: Estudio transversal cuantitativo, realizado en la Unidad de Referencia Especializada en personas con ostomía durante el periodo de enero a marzo del 2020. La muestra estuvo constituida por 77 personas con estoma. Entre los 21 y los 88 años, de los dos sexos. Se usó información sociodemográfica, aspectos clínicos, comportamentales, medidas antropométricas y recordatorio de 24 horas. El análisis estadístico se realizó con los programas BioEstat 5.0 y EpiInfo 3.5.1. Resultados: La mayoría eran de sexo masculino, con un grupo etario de 35 a 50 años. Los tipos de ostomía más frecuentes fueron: colostomía (69%) e ileostomía (21%), de carácter temporal (43%), con etiología neoplásica en ambos sexos (60%).Por otro lado, con relación al estado nutricional, la mayoría presentó eutrofia según el índice de masa corporal. Sin embargo, la circunferencia de cintura demostró riesgo metabólico más grande en el sexo femenino y el pliegue cutáneo tricipital indicó exceso de adiposidad en el sexo masculino y eutrofia en feminino (<0,0001). Con relación al consumo alimentario, se observó la inadecuación de energía y macronutrientes. Conclusión: Los hábitos alimentarios en el contexto amazónico pueden estar relacionados con el consumo inadecuado de alimentos y cambios en el estado nutricional.


Subject(s)
Ostomy , Nutrients , Nutritional Status , Eating , Enterostomal Therapy
20.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(1): 6-14, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389923

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar y comparar la distribución de macronutrientes de las canastas alimentarias entregadas por las municipalidades peruanas durante la pandemia de COVID-19 según dominio geográfico y nivel de presupuesto asignado. Materiales y métodos. Análisis secundario de la base de datos «Consulta de adquisición y distribución de bienes de primera necesidad de la canasta básica familiar¼ de la Contraloría General de la República. Se realizó un muestreo probabilístico estratificado. Se calculó la distribución del aporte calórico según macronutrientes y se comparó con los intervalos aceptables de distribución de macronutrientes (IADM) del Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panamá (INCAP) y del Instituto Nacional de Defensa Civil (INDECI). Resultados. A nivel nacional la mediana del aporte calórico de las proteínas fue 7,7%; carbohidratos 62,5%, y grasas 28,1%. La proporción de municipalidades con canastas con déficit de proteínas fue de 84%. Las municipalidades con canastas con exceso de carbohidratos variaron de 16,5% (según INCAP) a 35,9% (según INDECI) y con exceso de grasas fue 61,6 % (según INCAP) y 20,2% (según INDECI). Según INDECI, a nivel nacional solo el 9,2% de municipalidades entregaron canastas con distribución adecuada de macronutrientes, aquí destaca Lima Metropolitana con las proporciones más altas; mientras que en la selva este porcentaje fue menor del 5%. Conclusiones. La mayoría de las canastas entregadas no tuvieron distribución adecuada de macronutrientes, en especial las canastas de municipalidades fuera de Lima Metropolitana o las que contaban con menor presupuesto. Los carbohidratos y las grasas fueron los nutrientes que se incluyeron en exceso, mientras que las proteínas tuvieron déficit.


ABSTRACT Objectives. To evaluate and compare the macronutrient distribution of the food baskets delivered by Peruvian municipalities during the COVID-19 pandemic according to the geographic domain and assigned budget level. Materials and methods. Secondary analysis of the database "Consultation of Acquisition and distribution of basic necessities of the basic family basket" of the General Comptroller of the Republic. Stratified probability sampling was carried out. The caloric intake distribution was calculated according to macronutrients and compared with the Acceptable Intervals of Macronutrient Distribution (IADM) of the Nutrition Institute of Central America and Panama (INCAP) and the National Institute of Civil Defense (INDECI). Results. At the national level, the median caloric intake of proteins was 7.7%; for carbohydrates it was 62.5%; and for fats it was 28.1%. The proportion of municipalities with protein deficit was 84%; Municipalities with excess carbohydrates ranged from 16.5% (according to INCAP) to 35.9% (according to INDECI), and with excess fat, it was between 61.6% (according to INCAP) and 20.2% (according to INDECI). According to INDECI, nationally only 9.2% of municipalities delivered baskets with an adequate distribution of macronutrients; Metropolitan Lima stands out with the highest proportions of adequate baskets, while in the Jungle region this percentage was less than 5%. Conclusions. Most of the baskets delivered did not have adequate macronutrient distribution. Especially the baskets of municipalities outside of Metropolitan Lima or those that had smaller budget. Carbohydrates and fats were the nutrients that were included in excess, while proteins were deficient.


Subject(s)
Nutrients , Cities , Food Supply , COVID-19 , Emergency Feeding , Disaster Vulnerability , Food
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