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1.
Med. UIS ; 35(2): e400, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422045

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los pacientes con discapacidad tienen limitaciones para ejecutar las actividades básicas cotidianas de la vida diaria y la participación social. Además, son diagnosticadas con patologías asociadas de forma tardía como la malnutrición. El objetivo de la presente revisión es proporcionar herramientas diagnósticas nutricionales en pacientes con discapacidad; dando a conocer las técnicas disponibles de evaluación subjetivas, como instrumentos y encuestas, y objetivas como la antropometría. La búsqueda en la literatura se realizó en bases de datos Pubmed y Scopus, en el buscador Google Scholar y Uptodate, adicionalmente se incluyeron guías internacionales, resoluciones, tesis y capítulos de nutrición descritos. Las medidas antropométricas, en especial las circunferencias (braquial, cintura y pantorrilla), son de fácil implementación en los diferentes tipos de discapacidad, de acuerdo con el entorno donde se encuentra el paciente (ambulatorio, hospitalizado o institucionalizado), además, proporcionan información que permite el manejo integral de acuerdo con el diagnóstico nutricional.


Abstract Patients with disabilities have limitations to carry out the basic daily activities of daily life and social participation. In addition, they are diagnosed late with associated pathologies such as malnutrition. The objective of this review is to provide nutritional diagnostic tools in patients with disabilities; making known the techniques available for subjective evaluation, such as instruments and surveys, and objectives such as anthropometry. The search in the literature was carried out in Pubmed and Scopus databases, in the Google Scholar and Uptodate, additionally international guides, resolutions, theses and described nutrition chapters are included. The Anthropometric measurements, especially circumferences (brachial, waist and calf), are easy to implement in the different types of disability, according to the environment where the patient is (outpatient, hospitalized or institutionalized), in addition, it provides information that allows comprehensive management according to the nutritional diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disabled Persons , Body Weight , Family Practice , Nutrition Disorders
2.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(2): 1-15, jul. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1393245

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Tanto la malnutrición por exceso como enfermedades de salud mental han afectado a los jóvenes y se ha buscado conocer cómo repercuten entre sí. El objetivo de esta revisión fue determinar si la malnutrición por exceso afecta la salud mental y/o el autoconcepto de la población infanto-juvenil. Material y método: Se realizó una revisión integrativa de la literatura en el período comprendido entre los años 2016 a 2021 a través de las bases de datos: PubMed, LILACS y EBSCO. Se identificaron 3.985 artículos de forma inicial, en donde sólo 9 cumplían criterios de inclusión y exclusión, dentro de los cuales destaca la disponibilidad del texto completo de forma gratuita o mediante las bases de datos de la Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello. Resultados: Los niños/adolescentes diagnosticados con problemas de malnutrición por exceso experimentan dificultades psicosociales por su autopercepción, dependiendo no sólo de su condición física, sino también de factores socioeconómicos, familiares y sociales, estableciéndose una relación directa bidireccional. Discusión: A partir de la primera infancia se adquieren ciertas pautas de comportamiento y aprendizajes que guían las conductas de cada individuo, dentro de estas pautas se encuentran los estereotipos de género, estándares de belleza implantados por la sociedad y medios de comunicación, estos se encuentran directamente relacionados con los problemas de autopercepción y autoestima presentes en la población infanto-juvenil, afectando en mayor porcentaje al género femenino. Conclusión: Los profesionales de Enfermería deben intervenir desde temprana edad en la promoción y prevención de la salud física y mental en la población infanto-juvenil.


Introduction: Both malnutrition due to excess and mental health diseases have affected young people and it has been sought to know how they affect each other. The objective of this review was to determine if malnutrition due to excess affects the mental health and/or self-concept of the child and adolescent population. Material and method: An integrative review of the literature was carried out in the period between 2016 and 2021 through the databases: PubMed, LILACS and EBSCO. Initially, 3,985 articles were identified, where only 9 met inclusion and exclusion criteria, among which the availability of the full text for free or through the databases of the Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello stands out. Results: Children/adolescents diagnosed with problems of malnutrition due to excess experience psychosocial difficulties due to their self-perception, depending not only on their physical condition, but also on socioeconomic, family and social factors, establishing a direct bidirectional relationship. Discussion: From early childhood certain patterns of behavior and learning are acquired that guide the behavior of each individual, within these guidelines are gender stereotypes, beauty standards implemented by society and the media, these are directly related to the problems of self-perception and self-esteem present in the child-juvenile population, affecting the female gender in a greater percentage. Conclusion: Nursing professionals should intervene from an early age in the promotion and prevention of physical and mental health in the child and adolescent population.


Introdução: Tanto a desnutrição por excesso quanto as doenças de saúde mental têm afetado os jovens e tem-se procurado saber como elas afetam umas às outras. O objetivo desta revisão foi de-terminar se a desnutrição por excesso afeta a saúde mental e/ou autoconceito da população infantil e adolescente. Material e método: Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura no período entre 2016 e 2021 por meio das bases de dados: PubMed, LILACS e EBSCO. Inicialmente, foram identificados 3.985 artigos, onde apenas 9 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, dentre os quais se destaca a disponibilização do texto completo gratuitamente ou por meio das bases de dados da Universidade Nacional Andrés Bello. Resultados: As crianças/adolescentes diagnostica-das com problemas de desnutrição por excesso vivenciam dificuldades psicossociais devido à sua autopercepção, dependendo não apenas de sua condição física, mas também de fatores socioeconômicos, familiares e sociais, estabelecendo uma relação direta bidirecional. Discussão: Desde a primeira infância são adquiridos determinados padrões de comportamento e aprendizagem que orientam o comportamento de cada indivíduo, dentro dessas diretrizes estão os estereótipos de gênero, padrões de beleza implementados pela sociedade e pela mídia, estes estão diretamente relacionados aos problemas de autopercepção e autoconhecimento presente na população infanto-juvenil, afetando em maior percentual o gênero feminino. Conclusão: Os profissionais de enfermagem devem intervir desde cedo na promoção e prevenção da saúde física e mental da população infanto-juvenil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Concept , Socioeconomic Factors , Mental Health , Nurse's Role , Malnutrition , Family Relations , Gender Stereotyping , Mental Disorders , Nutrition Disorders , Obesity
3.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(2): e2867, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408997

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El diagnóstico de la desnutrición ha tenido un complejo proceso histórico y su concepto ha transitado por numerosas tentativas para definirla. La palabra desnutrición y especialmente el término malnutrición crean bastante confusión entre los estudiosos del tema. En la última década han surgido consensos variados para clasificar la desnutrición asociada a las enfermedades unida a la carga que representan el sobrepeso y obesidad en la presencia de enfermedades crónicas y agudas. Objetivo: Conocer cómo las nuevas tecnologías mejoran el conocimiento de los trastornos nutricionales mediante la descripción e integración de sus compartimentos corporales, pero no están al alcance de los equipos de salud ni de los pacientes en los diversos escenarios de trabajo. Desarrollo: La nutrición constituye una ciencia integrada por un conjunto de disciplinas científicas que transitan desde las ciencias exactas, hasta las ciencias políticas. La aplicación del método clínico como una modalidad del método científico obliga a considerar a la nutrición también con esta visión y no como la última opción del médico en una intervención diagnóstica o terapéutica, contaminada por mitos, tabúes y prejuicios culturales. La medicina clínica proporciona competencias duras adquiridas en forma de conocimientos y habilidades a lo largo de la formación preprofesional y de postgrado, que unidas a la competencias blandas garantizarán una labor exitosa incluidos los entornos culturales hostiles, tóxicos y /o caóticos. Conclusiones: Existen tendencias a seguir patrones y guías de sociedades de países con grandes recursos financieros y tecnológicos para la investigación, que no siempre en están en consonancia con nuestras realidades. La aparición de la pandemia COVID-19, ha planteado nuevos desafíos y serias amenazas tanto para las personas, como a los sistemas de salud de forma global que afectó de manera importante a los pacientes ancianos, con cáncer y enfermedades crónicas junto al choque de la pandemia de la obesidad con la del Coronavirus(AU)


Introduction: The diagnosis of malnutrition has had a difficult historical process and its concept has gone through numerous attempts to define it. The word undernourishment and especially the term malnutrition creates a lot of confusion among scholars of the subject. In the last decade, various consensuses have emerged to classify malnutrition associated with diseases together with the burden represented by overweight and obesity in the presence of chronic and acute diseases. Objective: To identify how new technologies improve knowledge of nutritional disorders through the description and integration of their body compartments, but they are not available to health teams or patients in various work settings. Findings: Nutrition is a science made up of a set of scientific disciplines that range from exact sciences to political sciences. The application of the clinical method as a modality of the scientific method makes it necessary to consider nutrition also with this vision and not as the last option of the doctor in a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention, contaminated by myths, taboos and cultural prejudices. Clinical medicine provides hard skills acquired in the form of knowledge and skills throughout pre-professional and postgraduate training, which together with soft skills will guarantee successful work, including hostile, toxic and/or chaotic cultural environments. Conclusions: There are tendencies to follow patterns and guides of societies in countries with great financial and technological resources for research, which are not always in line with our realities. The appearance of the COVID-19 pandemic has posed new challenges and serious threats to both people and health systems globally, significantly affecting elderly patients, those with cancer and chronic diseases, along with the shock of the COVID-19 pandemic, obesity with that of the Coronavirus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Nutrition Disorders
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(4): 209-213, 20220600.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1381599

ABSTRACT

La cirugía bariátrica es reconocida como una terapia altamente efectiva para la obesidad, ya que logra una pérdida de peso sostenida, una reducción de las comorbilidades y la mortalidad relacionadas con la obesidad; además mejora de la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Sin embargo, las deficiencias nutricionales son un problema inherente en el período postoperatorio y, a menudo, requieren una suplementación de por vida. Los tipos de desnutrición después de la cirugía incluyen desnutrición proteico-energética y deficiencias de micronutrientes, como hierro, ácido fólico, vitamina A y vitamina B12. Lamentablemente, no existen regímenes estandarizados de cuidados posteriores, y los costos de los suplementos nutricionales los pagan los propios pacientes. Esta revisión se enfoca en el estudio de la desnutrición poscirugía bariátrica, recorriendo las principales deficiencias y sus causas


Bariatric surgery is recognized as a highly effective therapy for obesity, as it achieves sustained weight loss, a reduction in comorbidities and obesity-related mortality; It also improves the quality of life of patients. However, nutritional deficiencies are an inherent problem in the postoperative period and often require lifelong supplementation. Types of malnutrition after surgery include protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, such as iron, folic acid, vitamin A, and vitamin B12. Currently, there are no standardized aftercare systems, and the costs of nutritional supplements are paid by the patients themselves. This review focuses on the study of malnutrition after bariatric surgery, covering the main deficiencies and their causes.


Subject(s)
Postoperative Complications , Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y , Dietary Supplements , Bariatric Surgery , Nutrition Disorders/complications , Obesity/pathology
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408417

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La adolescencia es una etapa de la vida con grandes cambios y mayor vulnerabilidad a riesgos para la salud. Entre los principales problemas de salud destacan los trastornos nutricionales, específicamente la anemia carencial. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de anemia en adolescentes femeninas de un consultorio médico, describir características clínico epidemiológicas de adolescentes anémicas y la presencia de algunos factores que pudieran incidir en su ocurrencia. Métodos: Se realizó estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal, en 76 adolescentes hembras de entre 11 a 19 años, del consultorio médico Nº 16 del Policlínico Ramón López Peña, Santiago de Cuba, desde marzo a diciembre de 2020. La muestra fue intencional, constituida por 45 adolescentes anémicas. Se estudió la edad, intensidad de la anemia, evaluación nutricional, hábitos tóxicos, edad de la menarquia, características de las menstruaciones, hábitos alimentarios, entre otros. Resultados: La prevalencia de anemia ferropénica fue de 59,2 por ciento. La edad media fue de 14,89 años; 15,6 por ciento de las adolescentes anémicas eran bajo peso y 20 por ciento tenían sobrepeso u obesidad; 73,3 por ciento tenía malos hábitos alimentarios, solo 24,4 por ciento recibió profilaxis con sales ferrosas. Además, destacó el sangrado menstrual abundante (22,3 por ciento) y la menarquia precoz (20 por ciento). Conclusiones: La anemia constituye un problema multifactorial con alta prevalencia en las adolescentes estudiadas. Se evidenció la presencia de varios factores de riesgo, como hábitos alimentarios inadecuados, malnutrición tanto por defecto como por exceso, menstruaciones abundantes y ausencia de profilaxis para la enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Adolescence is a stage of life with many changes and greater vulnerability to health risks. Among the main health problems are nutritional disorders and, among them, deficiency anemia. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anemia in female adolescents in a medical office, and to describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of anemic adolescents and the presence of some factors that could influence its occurrence. Methods: Was carried out a descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study in 76 female adolescents between 11 and 19 years old, from the Family Medical Clinic No. 16 of the Ramón López Peña Polyclinic, Santiago de Cuba, between March and December 2020. The sample was intentional, made up of 45 anemic adolescents. Were studied age, intensity of anemia, nutritional evaluation, toxic habits, age of menarche and characteristics of menstruation, eating habits, among others. Results: The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 59.2 percent . The mean age was 14.89 years; 15.6 percent of anemic adolescents were underweight and 20 percent were overweight or obese; 73.3 percent had bad eating habits, only 24.4 percent received prophylaxis with ferrous salts. In addition, heavy menstrual bleeding (22.3 percent ) and menarche before the age of 11 (20 percent ) stood out. Conclusions: Anemia constitutes a multifactorial problem with a high prevalence in the studied adolescents. The presence of several risk factors was evidenced, especially inadequate eating habits, malnutrition both by default and by excess, heavy menstruation and the absence of prophylaxis for the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Menarche , Risk Factors , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Health Risk , Adolescent Nutrition , Nutrition Disorders , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50567, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146586

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar os principais diagnósticos de enfermagem e suas respectivas intervenções em uma população de pacientes oncológicos submetidos a jejum prolongado no pós-operatório. Método: estudo descritivo, documental e transversal. O cenário do estudo foi um hospital federal de ensino no Rio de Janeiro, caracterizado como UNACON. Os dados foram coletados durante 60 dias em prontuários referentes aos anos de 2016 a 2018. Foram analisados 61 prontuários que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão e 208 complicações foram apresentadas pelos pacientes oncológicos. Resultados: Foram definidos oito diagnósticos de enfermagem, entre os quais os mais evidentes foram: Nutrição desequilibrada: menor que as necessidades corporais e Risco de glicemia instável. Onze intervenções de enfermagem foram definidas em consonância com a Taxonomia de NANDA-I e buscaram ser de fácil aplicação na prática assistencial de enfermagem. Conclusão: foi evidenciada uma ampla gama de diagnósticos e intervenções de enfermagem a qual se recomenda sua adoção no processo de enfermagem.


Objective: to identify the main nursing diagnoses and respective interventions in a population of cancer patients undergoing prolonged postoperative fasting. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional, documentary study. The study scenario was a federal teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, characterized as a high-complexity oncological facility. Data were collected for 60 days from medical records for the years 2016 to 2018. In the 61 medical records that met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed, cancer patients presented 208 complications. Results: eight diagnoses were established, the most in evidence being: nutrition imbalance: less than body requirements; and risk of unstable blood glucose level. Eleven nursing interventions, designed to be easily applied in nursing care practice, were specified in line with the NANDA-I Taxonomy. Conclusion: the wide range of nursing diagnoses and interventions evidenced are recommended for adoption in the nursing process.


Objetivo: identificar los principales diagnósticos de enfermería y sus respectivas intervenciones en una población de pacientes oncológicos sometidos a ayuno postoperatorio prolongado. Método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, documental. El escenario de estudio fue un hospital universitario federal en Río de Janeiro, caracterizado como una instalación oncológica de alta complejidad. Se recolectaron datos durante 60 días de las historias clínicas de los años 2016 a 2018. En las 61 historias clínicas que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y fueron analizadas, los pacientes con cáncer presentaron 208 complicaciones. Resultados: se establecieron ocho diagnósticos, siendo los más evidentes: desequilibrio nutricional: menor que los requerimientos corporales; y riesgo de niveles inestables de glucosa en sangre. Once intervenciones de enfermería, diseñadas para ser fácilmente aplicadas en la práctica del cuidado de enfermería, fueron especificadas de acuerdo con la Taxonomía NANDA-I. Conclusión: la amplia gama de diagnósticos e intervenciones de enfermería evidenciados se recomiendan para su adopción en el proceso de enfermería.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Care/nursing , Cancer Care Facilities , Fasting/adverse effects , Postanesthesia Nursing , Hospitals, Teaching , Nursing Process , Pain, Postoperative/nursing , Nursing Diagnosis/classification , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Hypoglycemia/nursing , Nutrition Disorders/nursing
7.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 203-314, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391336

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes con cáncer tienen alto riesgo de infección y muerte por Covid-19 tras exposición a dicho virus. En estos pacientes confluyen la edad avanzada, inmunodepresión, desnutrición, anemia, exposición a varios prestatarios de cuidados de salud durante el tratamiento citorreductor, estadía en hospitales y unidades cerradas, y los tiempos dilatados de los esquemas terapéuticos como factores de riesgo para desarrollar una infección por dicho virus. Esta revisión presenta recomendaciones sobre acciones requeridas para la identificación, evaluación del impacto sobre el estado de salud y la respuesta terapéutica, e intervención de la desnutrición presente en el paciente con cáncer. Las intervenciones alimentarias y nutricionales se adecúan a la etapa del tratamiento citorreductor, y las terapias empleadas, se orientan a la restauración de una inmunocompetencia requerida para prevención de la infección y la continuidad de los tratamientos antineoplásicos. Se prevén acciones nutricionales en aquellos pacientes con cáncer en caso de la ocurrencia de la Covid-19 a fin de preservar la vida del enfermo y prevenir complicaciones mayores. El presente manuscrito enfatiza las medidas de protección personal, familiar y ambiental contra la Covid-19 que son aplicables con iguales propósitos en el paciente con cáncer. El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es proporcionar recomendaciones nutricionales claras para el paciente con cáncer en situaciones de alta vulnerabilidad inmunológica y nutricional, para lograr una disminución del riesgo de contagio viral con sus consecuentes complicaciones, asegurando así la continuidad de las acciones citorreductoras en el enfermo con cáncer.


Cancer patients are at high risk of infection and death from Covid-19 after exposure to this virus. In these patients, advanced age, immunosuppression, malnutrition, anemia, exposure to several health care providers during cytoreductive treatment, length of stay in hospitals and closed units, and lengthy therapeutic regimens converge as risk factors to developed an infection by Covid-19. This review presents recommendations on actions required for the identification, evaluation of the impact on the health status and therapeutic response, and intervention of malnutrition present in cancer patients. The food and nutritional interventions are adapted to the cytoreductive treatment stage, and the therapies used aim to restore the immunocompetence required for the prevention of infection and the continuity of antineoplastic treatments. Nutritional actions are foreseen in cancer patients with Covid-19 in order to preserve the life of the patient and prevent major complications. This manuscript emphasizes the personal, family, and environmental protection measures against Covid-19 that are applicable to the same purposes in cancer patients. This narrative review aims to provide clear nutritional recommendations for the cancer patient in high immunological and nutritional vulnerability to achieve a reduction in the risk of viral infection with its consequent complications, thus ensuring the continuity of cytoreductive actions in cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Nutrition Disorders/therapy , Nutritional Status , Immunocompromised Host , Enteral Nutrition , Parenteral Nutrition , Nutritional Support , Nutrition Disorders/diagnosis
8.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e604, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144479

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad crónica que genera un gran número de complicaciones sistémicas, principalmente en la población geriátrica. El control metabólico resulta vital para controlar la enfermedad. Mantener un adecuado balance nutricional es fundamental. Objetivo: Identificar el efecto de una intervención de educación nutricional sobre el control glucémico en adultos mayores con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Investigación aplicada con un diseño cuasiexperimental y enfoque mixto, que incluyó a 73 adultos mayores con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Se identificó el estado nutricional de los adultos mayores y se aplicó una intervención educativa. Se determinó el nivel glucémico previo a la intervención y posterior a su aplicación. Se aplicó la prueba de McNemar para identificar la significación de los cambios en el control glucémico de los pacientes. Resultados: Promedio de edad de 67,38 años; predominaron los pacientes entre 60 y 69 años (47,94 por ciento), del sexo femenino (73,97 por ciento) y con presencia de comorbilidades (83,56 por ciento). El 36,99 por ciento de los pacientes se encontraba con control glucémico inadecuado al inicio de la investigación. El 49,32 por ciento de los casos presentaba trastornos nutricionales por exceso y el 67,75 por ciento de ellos presentaba un nivel de conocimiento bajo. Conclusiones: La intervención nutricional aplicada favoreció el control glucémico en los adultos mayores con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 incluidos en la investigación. Mejoró el por ciento de pacientes con alteraciones nutricionales por exceso y aumentó el nivel de conocimiento de los pacientes investigados(AU)


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that generates a large number of systemic complications, mainly in the geriatric population. Metabolic control is vital to control the disease. Maintaining an adequate nutritional balance is essential. Objective: To identify the effect of a nutritional education intervention on glycemic control in older adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Applied research with a quasi-experimental design and mixed approach, which included 73 older adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The nutritional status of older adults was identified and an educational intervention was applied. The glycemic level was determined before the intervention and after its application. The McNemar test was applied to identify the significance of the changes in the glycemic control of the patients. Results: Average age was 67.38 years; patients were between 60 and 69 years (47.94 percent), female (73.97 percent) and with the presence of comorbidities (83.56 percent) predominated. 36.99 percent of the patients had inadequate glycemic control at the beginning of the investigation. 49.32 percent had excess nutritional disorders and 67.75 percent of them had a low level of knowledge. Conclusions: The applied nutritional intervention favored glycemic control in older adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus included in the research. Likewise, the percentage of patients with nutritional alterations due to excess improved and the level of knowledge of the investigated patients increased(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Food and Nutrition Education , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Applied Research , Glycemic Control , Nutrition Disorders/complications
9.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(4): e2854, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139175

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se desconoce qué marcadores de riesgo nutricional estratifican mejor el riesgo en pacientes críticos. Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo nutricional en pacientes críticos mediante dos escalas. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, transversal, con 222 pacientes ingresados en la Terapia 8B del Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras" (septiembre 2017 / mayo 2018). Se utilizaron el Control Nutricional (CONUT) y el Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill modificado (mNutric). Resultados: Según CONUT el 96,4 por ciento estaba desnutrido; según mNutric el 27,5 por ciento eran pacientes en alto riesgo nutricional. Hubo asociación entre las escalas (Kappa = 0,102). El 78.3 por ciento de los sobrevivientes eran bajo riesgo por mNutric (p=0,013). Hubo asociación entre la sepsis y la desnutrición por mNutric (p=0,013), no así entre la ventilación mecánica artificial (VMA) y la desnutrición estimada por dicha escala (p=0,116). No se encontraron diferencias entre la sepsis y la desnutrición según CONUT (p=0,126). Hubo diferencias entre la VMA en relación con la desnutrición según CONUT (p=0,027). La frecuencia de fallecidos se incrementó paralelo al grado de desnutrición según CONUT (p=0,004). La variable que más influyó sobre la mortalidad fue la VMA (OR= 8,5). Conclusiones: Según el CONUT, la mayoría de los pacientes estaban desnutridos, y según el mNutric, predominaron los pacientes en bajo riesgo nutricional. Se demostró el valor predictivo de muerte de la presencia de VMA. La desnutrición ligera y moderada y la variable no desnutrido de la escala CONUT, se consideraron categorías de menor riesgo de muerte con respecto a la desnutrición grave(AU)


Introduction: Nutritional status markers that better stratify risk in critically ill patients have yet to be established. Objective: To assess nutritional risk in critically ill patients through the use of two assessment scales. Material and Methods: A prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 222 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (8B) at the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital from September, 2017 to May, 2018. The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) and the modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNutric) were used. Results: According to CONUT, 96.4 percent of patients were alnourished; according to mNutric, 27.5 percent of patients were categorized as high nutritional risk. There was an association between the scales (Kappa = 0.102). Among survivors, 78.3 percent of patients were at low risk according to mNutric score (p=0,013). There was an association between sepsis and malnutrition due to mNutric (p = 0.013) versus artificial mechanical ventilation (AMV) and malnutrition estimated by this scale (p = 0.116). No differences were found between sepsis and malnutrition according to CONUT (p = 0.126). There were differences between the AMV in relation to malnutrition according to CONUT score (p = 0.027). The frequency of deaths increased in parallel to the degree of malnutrition according to CONUT (p = 0.004). AMV was the variable that most influenced mortality (OR = 8,5). Conclusions: According to CONUT, most of the patients were malnourished; according to mNutric, patients at low nutritional risk predominated. The predictive value of death in patients receiving AMV was demonstrated. The light and moderate malnutrition and the variable related with the not malnourished group (CONUT scale) were considered as categories associated with lower risk of death with regard to severe malnutrition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Mass Screening/methods , Critical Care , Nutrition Disorders/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness
10.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 18(1): 52-66, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115529

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introduction: La desnutrición es un problema de salud en el mundo, y la Sierra ecuatoriana es una región bastante afectada por dicha situación. En esta investigación, se evaluó el estado nutricional de la población adulta no hospitalizada de un cantón de dicha zona. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observational, descriptivo, de corte transversal en una muestra de 115 pacientes adultos del cantón Cevallos, en la región Sierra del Ecuador durante el periodo de abril a septiembre del 2016. Para determinar el estado nutricional, se utilizó el cálculo del índice de masa corporal. Las enfermedades asociadas se determinaron a partir de la anamnesis de cada uno de los pacientes. Todos los resultados fueron evaluados mediante la determinación de valores porcentuales y se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para determinar la relación entre estado nutricional y enfermedades asociadas. Resultados: el 82.61% de los pacientes estaban desnutridos. El 69.56% presentaba enfermedades asociadas a un predominio de hipertensión arterial (41.84%), diabetes mellitus (21.44%) y cardiopatía isquémica (18.37%). La correlación desnutrición-enfermedades asociadas fue prácticamente nula. Conclusiones: conocer el estado de salud de la población de los adultos pertenecientes al cantón Cevallos, permitió crear los espacios necesarios para garantizar atención médica en el desarrollo de las actividades de la población, así como diseñar un programa de charlas educativas para los beneficiarios.


Abstract Introduction: Malnutrition is a global health problem, which includes, in Ecuador, the rural population of the Sierra. This is why it was decided to evaluate the nutritional status of the non-hospitalized adults of an Ecuadorian mountains canton. Materials and methods: The study carried out was an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample of 115 mature patients of the canton Cevallos in Ecuador's Sierra region during the period April-September 2016. To determine the nutritional state, the calculation of the Body Mass Index (BMI) was used. The associate illnesses were determined, starting from the anamnesis to each one of the patients. All the results were evaluated by means of the determination of percentage values; the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between BMI and associated diseases. Results: The patients' 82.6% was undernourished; 69.57% presented illnesses associated with the prevalence of arterial hypertension (41.84 °%), diabetes Mellitus (21.43 °%), and ischemic cardiopathy (18.37 °/o). All the patients considered as very satisfactory the intervention strategy. The correlation between malnutrition and associated diseases was practically nil. Conclusions: Knowing the state of the populations of the adults belonging to the canton health, Cevallos propitiated the creation of the necessary spaces to guarantee the medical care in the development of the population's activities, as well as to design a program of educational chats to the patient beneficiaries.


Resumo Introdução: a desnutrição constitui um problema de saúde mundial, onde se inclui, no Equador, à população rural da região serra do país, motivo pelo que se decidiu avaliar o estado nutricional da população adulta não hospitalizada de um cantão a região Serra do Equador. Materiais e métodos: se realizou um estudo observacional, descritivo, de corte transversal em uma amostra de 115 participantes adultos do cantão Cevallos na região Serra do Equador durante o período abril-setembro 2016. Para determinar o estado nutricional se utilizou o cálculo do Índice de Massa Corporal. As doenças associadas determinaramse a partir da anamnese a cada um dos pacientes. Todos os resultados foram avaliados mediante a determinação de valores percentuais e se utilizou o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para determinar a relação entre estado nutricional e doenças associadas. Resultados: o 82.61%> dos pacientes estavam desnutridos. O 69.56%> apresentava doenças associadas a predomínio de hipertensão arterial (41.84%>), diabetes mellitus (21.44%>) e cardiopatia isquêmica (18.37%>). A correlação desnutrição-doença associada foi praticamente nula. Conclusões: Conhecer o estado de saúde da população dos adultos pertencentes ao cantão Cevallos propiciou criar os espaços necessários para garantir a atenção médica no desenvolvimento das atividades da população, assim como desenhar um Programa de Palestras Educativas aos beneficiários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Nutrition Assessment , Adult , Malnutrition , Ecuador , Nutrition Disorders
11.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018184, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136709

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with inadequate milk consumption among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data from the National School Health Survey (2012), a Brazilian survey carried out using a self-administered questionnaire in a representative sample of 9th-grade students from public and private schools. The frequency of milk intake and its association with socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and physical activity were estimated. A descriptive and inferential analysis of factors associated with inadequate milk consumption (no consumption at least one of the seven days of the week) was performed. A multiple logistic model was adjusted to control confounders. Results: The sample included 108,828 adolescents and inadequate milk consumption ocurred in 58.9%. The final model included nine variables independently associated with inadequate milk intake: breakfast frequency less than 4 days per week (odds ratio [OR]=2.40; p<0.001), unprocessed or minimally processed foods intake less than 5 days per week (OR=1.93; p<0.001), living in the northeast region (OR=1.39; p<0.001), less maternal schooling (OR=1.35; p<0.001), physical inactivity (OR=1.33; p<0.001), attending public school (OR=1.26; p<0.001), not being white (OR=1.14; p<0.001), being older than 14 years old (OR=1.13; p<0.001) and having a habit of eating meals while watching TV or studying (OR=1.04; p=0.036). Conclusions: Inadequate milk consumption is prevalent among Brazilian adolescents. The identification of associated factors suggests the need to develop nutritional guidance strategies for the prevention of diseases that result from low calcium intake.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao consumo inadequado de leite em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal com base em dados secundários da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE; 2012), inquérito brasileiro realizado por meio de questionário autoaplicável em amostra representativa de alunos do nono ano do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas. Estimou-se a frequência da ingestão de leite e sua associação com características sociodemográficas, consumo alimentar e prática de atividade física. Foi realizada análise descritiva e inferencial dos fatores associados ao consumo inadequado de leite (ausência em pelo menos um dos sete dias da semana). Um modelo logístico múltiplo foi ajustado para controle das variáveis de confusão. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 108.828 adolescentes e o consumo inadequado de leite foi de 58,9%. O modelo final incluiu 9 variáveis independentemente associadas à ingestão inadequada de leite: frequência de desjejum inferior a 4 dias semanais (odds ratio [OR]=2,40; p<0,001), consumo de alimentos in natura e minimamente processados inferior a 5 dias semanais (OR=1,93; p<0,001), residir na Região Nordeste (OR=1,39; p<0,001), menor escolaridade materna (OR=1,35; p<0,001), inatividade física (OR=1,33; p<0,001), frequentar escola pública (OR=1,26; p<0,001), não ser da raça branca (OR=1,14; p<0,001), ter idade superior a 14 anos (OR=1,13; p<0,001) e possuir o hábito de realizar as refeições assistindo à TV ou estudando (OR=1,04; p=0,036). Conclusões: O consumo inadequado de leite é frequente entre adolescentes brasileiros. A identificação de fatores associados sugere a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estratégias de orientação nutricional para a prevenção de doenças resultantes da baixa ingestão de cálcio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Milk/supply & distribution , Economics/statistics & numerical data , Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Schools/trends , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Eating , Economics/trends , Feeding Behavior/ethnology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Sedentary Behavior , Nutrition Disorders/ethnology , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(3): e20180809, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101507

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop nursing diagnoses and outcomes for children with nutritional anomalies based on terms found in a children's clinical protocol and on the 2017 International Classification for Nursing Practice. Methods: exploratory-descriptive study, conducted with the validation of diagnoses/outcomes by six nurses of the children's clinic of the Federal District's teaching hospital. It was based on the cross-mapping between the terms of International Classification for Nursing Practice 2017 and the terms of a children's health care protocol. The list of nursing diagnosis/outcomes was developed, then submitted to the validation process using a Likert-type scale and considering statements with content validity index > 0.79 to be validated. Results: a total of 51 diagnoses/outcomes were generated, and of those, 11 were contained in International Classification for Nursing Practice. Those that were not in it were evaluated for similarity and comprehensiveness in relation to International Classification for Nursing Practice. Thirty nursing diagnoses/outcomes were validated with CVI > 0.79 among the nurses in the validation process. Conclusions: this study will allow the formation of a terminological International Classification for Nursing Practice subset aimed at children's nutrition.


RESUMEN Objetivos: elaborar enunciados diagnósticos y resultados de enfermería sobre el niño con alteración nutricional a partir de términos encontrados en el protocolo clínico pediátrico y en la Clasificación Internacional para la Práctica de Enfermería 2017. Métodos: estudio exploratorio-descriptivo, con la validación de diagnósticos/resultados realizada por seis enfermeras de una Clínica pediátrica del Hospital-Escuela del Distrito Federal (Brasil). Se realizó un mapeo cruzado entre los términos de la Clasificación Internacional para la Práctica de Enfermería 2017 y los términos del Protocolo de Atención Sanitaria del Niño. Se elaboró una lista de diagnósticos/resultados de enfermería, a la cual se sometió al proceso de validación, que utilizó la escala tipo Likert por medio del índice de validez de contenido, que considera válido el enunciado que posee IVC > 0,79. Resultados: de los 51 enunciados diagnósticos/resultados obtenidos, 11 estaban presentes en la Clasificación Internacional para la Práctica de Enfermería. Los diagnósticos no presentes se evaluaron mediante la similitud y el alcance de la Clasificación Internacional para la Práctica de Enfermería. Treinta enunciados diagnósticos/resultados de enfermería con ICV > 0,79 fueron validados por los enfermeros en el proceso. Conclusiones: este estudio puede permitir la formación de un subconjunto terminológico Clasificación Internacional para la Práctica de Enfermería en torno a la nutrición del niño.


RESUMO Objetivos: elaborar enunciados diagnósticos e resultados de enfermagem à criança com alteração nutricional a partir de termos encontrados em protocolo clínico pediátrico e a Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem 2017. Métodos: estudo exploratório-descritivo, realizado com validação de diagnósticos/resultados por seis enfermeiras da clínica pediátrica do hospital-escola do Distrito Federal. Realizou-se mapeamento cruzado entre os termos da Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem 2017 com termos do protocolo de atenção à saúde da criança. Foram elaborados a lista de diagnósticos/resultados de enfermagem, essa lista foi submetida ao processo de validação com utilização da escala tipo Likert por meio do índice de validade de conteúdo, que considera validado o enunciado que possuir IVC > 0,79. Resultados: gerados 51 enunciados diagnósticos/resultados, dessas, 11 constantes na Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem. Os diagnósticos não constantes foram avaliados conforme similaridade e abrangência à Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem. 30 enunciados diagnósticos/resultados de enfermagem foram validados, possuindo ICV > 0,79 entre os enfermeiros, no processo de validação. Conclusão: este estudo possibilitará a formação de um subconjunto terminológico Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem voltado à nutrição da criança.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Nursing Diagnosis/trends , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/classification , Nutrition Disorders/nursing , Pediatrics/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/trends , Standardized Nursing Terminology
13.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136725

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications. Results: Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties. Conclusions: The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar dados demográficos e características de crianças e adolescentes com doenças crônicas pediátricas, de acordo com o número de especialidades/paciente. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 16.237 pacientes com doenças crônicas pediátricas durante um ano. A análise foi feita em um sistema eletrônico, de acordo com número de consultas médicas para doenças crônicas pediátricas. Este estudo avaliou dados demográficos, características do seguimento, tipos de especialidades médicas, diagnóstico (10ª Revisão da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados com a Saúde - CID-10), número de visitas e complicações agudas. Resultados: Os pacientes acompanhados por três ou mais especialidades simultaneamente tiveram seguimento de maior duração comparados com aqueles seguidos por ≤2 especialidades [2,1 (0,4-16,4) vs. 1,4 (0,1-16,2) anos; p<0,001], bem como maior número de consultas em todas as especialidades. As áreas médicas mais comuns em pacientes acompanhados por ≥3 especialidades foram: psiquiatria (Odds Ratio - OR=8,0; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 6-10,7; p<0,001); dor/cuidados paliativos (OR=7,4; IC95% 5,7-9,7; p<0,001); doenças infecciosas (OR=7,0; IC95% 6,4-7,8; p<0,001); nutrologia (OR=6,9; IC95% 5,6-8,4; p<0,001). As regressões logísticas mostraram que os pacientes com doenças crônicas pediátricas seguidos por ≥3 especialidades tinham alto risco para: maior número de consultas/paciente (OR=9,2; IC95% 8,0-10,5; p<0,001); atendimentos em hospital-dia (OR=4,8; 95%IC3,8-5,9; p<0,001); atendimentos em pronto-socorro (OR=3,2; IC95% 2,9-3,5; p<0,001); hospitalizações (OR=3,0; IC95%2,7-3,3; p<0,001); internação em terapia intensiva (OR=2,5; IC95% 2,1-3,0; p<0,001); óbitos (OR=2,8; IC95%1,9-4,0; p<0,001). Os diagnósticos de asma, obesidade, dor crônica, transplante e infecção do trato urinário foram mais frequentes nos pacientes seguidos por três ou mais especialidades. Conclusões: O presente estudo mostrou que pacientes com doenças crônicas pediátricas que necessitaram de múltiplas especialidades médicas simultaneamente apresentavam doenças complexas e graves, com diagnósticos específicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Aftercare/trends , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Medicine/standards , Palliative Care/statistics & numerical data , Appointments and Schedules , Psychiatry/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Death , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pain Management/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(12): 4499-4508, dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055759

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recent crisis and conflicts in African countries, the Middle East and the Americas have led to forced population migration and rekindled concern about food security. This article aims to map in the scientific literature the implications of forced migration on food and nutrition of refugees. Scoping Review, and database search: databases: PubMed Central, LILACS, SciElo, Science Direct and MEDLINE. Languages used in the survey were: English, Portuguese and Spanish, with publication year from 2013 to 2018. 173 articles were obtained and after removing of duplicates and full reading, 26 articles were selected and submitted to critical reading by two reviewers, resulting in 18 articles selected. From the analysis of the resulting articles, the following categories emerged: Food Inequity; Cultural Adaptation and Nutrition; Emerging Diseases and Strategies for the Promotion of Nutritional Health. Food insecurity is a marked consequence of forced international migration, and constitutes an emerging global public health problem, since concomitant with increasing population displacements also widens the range of chronic and nutritional diseases.


Resumo As recentes crises e conflitos em países Africanos, no Oriente Médio e Américas têm originado migração forçada de populações e reacende a preocupação com os cuidados com a alimentação. O objetivo deste artigo é mapear na literatura científica as implicações da migração forçada sobre a alimentação e nutrição de refugiados. Scoping Review, com buscas nas bases de dados: bases de dados: PubMed Central, LILACS, SciElo, Science Direct e MEDLINE. Os idiomas de pesquisa foram: Inglês, Português e Espanhol, e ano de publicação compreendido entre 2013 e 2018. Obteve-se 173 artigos e após remoção dos duplicados e leitura integral, 26 artigos foram selecionados e submetidos à leitura crítica por dois revisores independentes, resultando em 18 artigos selecionados. Da análise dos resultados dos artigos, emergiram as categorias: Iniquidade Alimentar; Adaptação Cultural e Nutrição; Doenças Emergentes e Estratégias de Promoção da Saúde Nutricional. A insegurança alimentar é consequência marcante da imigração internacional forçada, e se constitui um emergente problema de saúde pública global, pois concomitante aos crescentes deslocamentos populacionais também se ampliam a gama de doenças crônicas e nutricionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Nutritional Status , Emigration and Immigration/trends , Food Supply , Acculturation , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Refugees , Health Promotion/methods , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology
15.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 26(2): http://www.cienciasdasaude.famerp.br/index.php/racs/article/view/1465, abri-set.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045941

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O consumo excessivo de bebidas açucaradas na infância é uma preocupação no acompanhamento das dificuldades alimentares, visto que pode gerar inadequações do estado nutricional. Objetivo: Estimar o perfil do consumo de alimentos de consistência líquida em crianças com dificuldades alimentares atendidas em um centro especializado e, verificar a associação entre a quantidade ingerida e a contribuição energética de bebidas açucaradas e idade e índice de massa corporal por idade. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 119 crianças de 0 a 18 anos, realizado em ambulatório especializado no atendimento de dificuldades alimentares. Os dados foram coletados de prontuários e diário alimentar. Resultados: A maioria da amostra era do gênero masculino (66,1%), considerada eutrófica quanto ao IMC/idade (77,3%), com média de idade de 4,1 anos (± 3,25). Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa para ingestão total de sucos, sendo que os meninos tiveram maior média de ingestão. A média de contribuição energética tanto para o sexo masculino quanto para o feminino é maior em relação ao consumo de leite. No entanto, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os resultados (p > 0,05). Foram encontradas correlações muito fracas ou fracas entre volume ingerido e contribuição energética de bebidas açucaradas e idade e índice de massa corporal por idade. Conclusão: Crianças com dificuldades alimentares apresentam consumo elevado de bebidas açucaradas, havendo maior ingestão de sucos por crianças do sexo masculino e o leite foi o líquido que apresentou maior contribuição energética na dieta total deles. As associações encontradas entre volume consumido e contribuição energética de bebidas, idade e índice de massa corporal são fracas ou muito fracas não correspondendo à correlação entre as mesmas.


Introduction: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during childhood is a problem in the follow-up of children with feeding difficulties, as it can lead to inadequate nutritional status. Objective: To estimate the food consumption profile of liquid consistency in children with feeding difficulties attended at a specialized center in order to verify consumed amount and energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverages and age and body mass index by age. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 119 children aged 0 to 18 years at an outpatient clinic specialized in feeding difficulties. Data were collected from medical records and dietary records. Results: Most of the sample was male (66.1%) and considered eutrophic for BMI/age (77.3%), with a mean age of 4.1 years (± 3,25). There was a statistically significant difference regarding the total amount of juice intake, and boys had a higher mean intake. Mean energy intakes for both males and females are higher in relation to milk consumption. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the results (p> 0.05). Weak correlations were found between ingested volume and energy contribution of sugar-sweetened beverages and age and body mass index by age. Conclusion: Children with feeding difficulties have high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with a higher juice intake by male children. Milk was the liquid that presented the highest energy contribution in their total diet. The associations found between the volume consumed and the energy contributions of beverages, age, and body mass index were weak or very weak, not corresponding to the correlation between them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Nutrition Disorders , Energy Intake , Body Mass Index , Child , Adolescent , Child Nutrition , Adolescent Nutrition , Feeding Behavior , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(5): 391-396, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056736

ABSTRACT

Los altos niveles de vitamina B12 o cobalamina, también denominado hipervitaminosis B12 es una anormalidad analítica frecuentemente subestimada. De acuerdo con la literatura algunas de las entidades relacionadas con este hallazgo son las neoplasias sólidas (primarias o metastásicas) y las enfermedades hematológicas agudas o crónicas. Otras causas incluyen la afección hepática, la gammapatía monoclonal de significación indeterminada, la insuficiencia renal y, con menor frecuencia, un exceso de consumo de vitamina B12, enfermedades inflamatorias o autoinmunes y los trastornos hematológicos transitorios (neutrofilia y eosinofilia secundaria). Este artículo informa sobre causas de hipervitaminosis B12, nuestra experiencia y hace una revisión de la literatura.


High serum levels of vitamin B12 or cobalamin, also called hypervitaminemia B12, is a frequently underestimated biological abnormality. According to the literature, some of the entities related to this finding are solid neoplasia (primary or metastatic) and acute or chronic hematological diseases. Other causes include liver disorders, monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance, renal failure and, less frequently, excess of vitamin B12 intake, inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, and transient hematological disorders (neutrophilia and secondary eosinophilia). This article reports on causes of hypervitaminosis B12, our experience and a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin B 12/blood , Nutrition Disorders/etiology , Nutrition Disorders/blood , Vitamin B 12/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/blood
17.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 25(1): 33-39, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1058569

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la anemia es el trastorno nutricional más frecuente en el mundo y en el embarazo constituye un riesgo para la madre, el feto o recién nacido, desencadenando complicaciones como IVU, aborto, RCIU, parto prematuro, preeclampsia, bajo peso al nacer, RPM, etc. Objetivo: Determinar los efectos de la anemia en el embarazo y el desenlace perinatal de las pacientes atendidas en el Hospital Universitario Hernando Moncaleano de Neiva en el periodo de junio de 2012 a junio de 2016. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, en gestantes atendidas en consulta de alto riesgo obstétrico durante el periodo e institución mencionados, con cruce de variables para determinar la relación entre la gravedad de la anemia y sus complicaciones mediante el cálculo del Chi-cuadrado Resultados: De 1.493 pacientes, 101 mujeres embarazadas entre los 16 a 34 años fueron incluidas en el estudio. La prevalencia de anemia fue de 32.01% y las complicaciones identificadas fueron: Infección de vías urinarias (8,91%), restricción de crecimiento intrauterino (7,9%), bajo peso al nacer (6,9%), preeclampsia (4,95%), parto prematuro (3,96%), ruptura prematura de membranas (3,03%) y un solo caso de aborto. El 10,89% de los recién nacidos requirieron hospitalización, de los cuales 2 presentaron hipoglicemia y 5 ictericia neonatal. Conclusiones: La anemia es una patología subdiagnosticada que afecta a mujeres entre los 16 y 30 años cuyas complicaciones como bajo peso al nacer, restricción de crecimiento intrauterino e ictericia neonatal resultan dependientes de la gravedad de la anemia.


Abstract Introduction: Anemia is the most frequent nutritional disorder in the world and in pregnancy it is a risk for the mother, the fetus or newborn, triggering complications such as IVU, abortion, IUGR, preterm birth, preeclampsia, low birth weight, RPM, etc. Objective: To determine the effects of anemia on pregnancy and the perinatal outcome of the patients treated at the Hernando Moncaleano Hospital in Neiva from June 2012 to June 2016. Methodology: An observational, descriptive, retrospective study, In pregnant women attended at a high obstetrical risk visit during the period and institution mentioned, with cross-variables to determine the relationship between the severity of the anemia and its complications by the Chi-square calculation Results: Of 1,493 patients, 101 pregnant women Between the ages of 16 and 34 were included in the study. The prevalence of anemia was 32.01% and the complications identified were: Urinary tract infection (8.91%), intrauterine growth restriction (7.9%), low birth weight (6.9%), preeclampsia, 95%), preterm delivery (3.96%), premature rupture of membranes (3.03%) and a single case of abortion. 10.89% of the newborns required hospitalization, of which 2 had hypoglycemia and 5 neonatal jaundice. Conclusions: Anemia is an underdiagnosed pathology that affects women between 16 and 30 whose complications such as low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and neonatal jaundice are dependent on the severity of the anemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Pre-Eclampsia , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Hospitalization , Anemia , Nutrition Disorders , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Retrospective Studies , Premature Birth , Abortion , Fetal Growth Retardation , Fetus , Hypoglycemia , Infections , Jaundice, Neonatal , Obstetric Labor, Premature
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(1): 25-33, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1022450

ABSTRACT

La fenilcetonuria (PKU) es causada por una actividad deficiente de la enzima fenilalanina hidroxilasa. En los pacientes con esta deficiencia la fenilalanina (Phe) no puede ser convertida en tirosina, aumentando sus niveles en sangre y de otros metabolitos neurotóxicos, provocando un retraso mental irreversible. El tratamiento fundamentalmente se basa en una dieta controlada de Phe. Sin embargo, los alimentos libres o bajos en Phe son escasos. El objetivo de esta investigación es obtener hidrolizados proteicos con bajo contenido de Phe a partir del suero dulce de leche en polvo y harina de E. edulis Triana. El aislado proteico (96,01% proteína cruda) se obtuvo por solubilización y precipitación de las proteínas de la harina, mientras que las proteínas del suero (15,69% proteína cruda) fueron tratadas en su matriz original. Las proteínas del suero y el asilado fueron hidrolizadas enzimáticamente con pepsina y proteasa de Streptomyces griseus. La concentración de Phe se determinó por fluorometría y por HPLC, de lo cual la Phe de las proteínas del suero es liberada una hora antes que las del chachafruto, debido a que las proteínas del suero en parte fueron hidrolizadas en la elaboración del queso. Además, los resultados de la utilización del carbón activados como captor de Phe indican la reducción total del contenido de este aminoácido en los hidrolizados y la reducción de la concentración de otros aminoácidos(AU)


henylketonuria (PKU) is caused by a low activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. In patients with this deficiency, phenylalanine (Phe) cannot be converted to tyrosine, increasing blood levels and other neurotoxic metabolites, causing irreversible mental retardation. The treatment is fundamentally based on a controlled diet of Phe. However, free or low-Phe foods are scarce. The objective of this research is to obtain protein hydrolysates with low Phe content from sweet milk powder and E. edulis Triana flour. The protein isolate (96.01% crude protein) was obtained by solubilization and precipitation of the flour proteins, while the whey proteins (15.69% crude protein) were treated in their original matrix. Serum and asylated proteins were enzymatically hydrolyzed with pepsin and Streptomyces griseus protease. The concentration of Phe was determined by fluorometry and by HPLC, from which the Phe of whey proteins is released one hour earlier than those of chachafruto, due to the fact that the whey proteins were partially hydrolyzed in the elaboration of the cheese. In addition, the results of the use of charcoal activated as Phe captor indicate the total reduction of the content of this amino acid in the hydrolysates and the reduction of the concentration of other amino acids(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenylketonurias/pathology , Protein Hydrolysates/analysis , Whey Proteins/administration & dosage , Whey Proteins/biosynthesis , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Nutrition Disorders
19.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 40(2): 157-172, jun./dez. 2019. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223939

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar índice de conicidade de pacientes adultos atendidos em um Ambulatório de Nutrição, associá-lo com presença de patologias e compará-lo a indicadores antropométricos quanto à sua eficácia como preditor de risco cardiometabólico. Metodologia: Estudo observacional com dados secundários de prontuários. Dados socioeconômicos, antropométricos (peso, índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura, do pescoço e índice de conicidade), número de consultas e hábitos de vida, foram obtidos e comparados entre a primeira e última consulta. As análises foram realizadas no pacote estatístico Stata® 11.1, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Amostra constituída por 164 adultos, sendo 114 (70%) mulheres. A maioria apresentava hipertensão (45%), sedentarismo (48%), peso acima do ideal (90%) e valores de CC(82%), CP (82%) e IC (88%) acima do recomendado. A maioria apresentou perda de peso (77%), sendo que 29% perdeu mais de 5% do peso inicial, além de melhora significativa nos hábitos alimentares, principalmente pelas mulheres. O índice de conicidade associou-se significativamente com os indicadores antropométricos analisados; foi mais sensível nas mulheres quanto à classificação de risco de complicações metabólicas e cardiovasculares, e apresentou valores significativamente maiores nos hipertensos e diabéticos. Conclusão: É importante o acompanhamento nutricional para melhoria dos hábitos de vida dos pacientes, assim como a utilização do IC, que associou-se com hipertensão e diabetes,sendo mais sensível nas mulheres em relação ao risco de complicações cardiometabólicas do que a CC e CP, demonstrando ser um bom indicador antropométrico,capaz de possibilitar a detecção precoce da obesidade e da distribuição de gordura (AU)


Objective: Evaluate the conicity index of adult patients treated at a Nutrition Outpatient Clinic, to associate it with the presence of pathologies and to compare with anthropometric indicators as to its efficacy as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. Methodology: Observational study with secondary data from medical records. Socioeconomic, anthropometric data (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, neck and conicity index), number of visits and life habits were obtained and compared between the first and last visit. The analyzes were performed in Stata® 11.1 statistical package, with a significance level of 5%. Results: Sample of 164 adults, 114 (70%) of whom were women. The majority had hypertension (45%), sedentarism (48%), weight above the ideal (90%) and values of CC (82%), CP (82%) and IC (88%) above recommended. The majority presented weight loss (77%), with 29% losing more than 5% of the initial weight, in addition to a significant improvement in eating habits, mainly by women. The taper index was significantly associated with the anthropometric indicators analyzed; was more sensitive in women regarding the risk classification of metabolic and cardiovascular complications, presented significantly higher values in hypertensive and diabetic patients. Conclusion: It is important nutritional monitoring to improve life habits of patients, as well as the use of HF, which was associated with hypertension and diabetes, being more sensitive in women in relation to the risk of cardiometabolic complications than CC and CP, proving to be a good anthropometric indicator, capable of making possible the early detection of obesity and fat distribution (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ambulatory Care , Obesity , Body Mass Index , Sedentary Behavior , Hypertension , Nutrition Disorders
20.
Duazary ; 16(2,n.esp): 161-172, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1051352

ABSTRACT

En Colombia ocurre una transición nutricional; los profesionales de Enfermería participan en el diseño de intervenciones para prevenir trastornos nutricionales en la primera infancia; el objetivo es generar una guía de recomendaciones para intervenciones de Enfermería en la prevención de trastornos nutricionales en niños menores de dos años. Se adelantó una Investigación documental con fuentes de información de base secundaria; se realiza la aplicación de las 3 primeras etapas del proceso de Enfermería Basada en la Evidencia (EBE). Para la clasificación de la evidencia y elaboración de las recomendaciones se usó la herramienta Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC). La evidencia disponible refiere que el impulsar el desarrollo de estrategias dirigidas a garantizar una nutrición óptima previa a la concepción tanto en hombres como mujeres garantiza una disminución en la presentación de malnutrición en la infancia. La aplicación de la EBE identifica la evidencia científica de calidad que permite la toma de decisiones y el desarrollo de acciones que pueden llevar a fortalecer el estado de salud de las poblaciones y disminuir los costos de atención en salud desde el enfoque preventivo.


Colombia lives a nutritional transition situation where nursing professionals play an important role through the construction of interventions to prevent early childhood nutritional disorders; The objective is to build a guide to recommendations for the generation of prevention interventions in nutritional disorders in children under two years of age from nursing care; A documentary research was developed with secondary-based sources of information; The first 3 stages of the evidence-based nursing (BSE) are implemented; The tool of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) was used for the classification of the evidence and the elaboration of the recommendations; The available evidence refers to the fact that promoting the development of strategies aimed at ensuring optimal nutrition prior to conception in both men and women ensures a decrease in the presence of malnutrition in childhood. The application of BSE identifies the scientific evidence of quality that allows decision-making and the development of actions that can lead to the strengthening of the health status of the populations and to reduce the costs of health care beginning with the preventive approach.


Subject(s)
Nutrition Disorders , Nursing
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