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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 264-268, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372367

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Durante el 2020, la circulación de otros virus respiratorios fue inferior a lo acostumbrado. Es probable que, almodificarse las medidas de mitigación para la infección por el coronavirus 2019, dicha prevalencia haya aumentado en 2021. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de virus respiratorioshabituales en pacientes de 0 a 5 años asistidos en Departamento de Urgencias de un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Métodos. Estudio transversal con 348 pacientes que consultaronpor sospecha de enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019(COVID-19), en quienes se descartó dicha enfermedad y se realizó la pesquisa sistemática de virus respiratorios habitualesResultados. En el 40 % de los pacientes se identificó el virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR), un virus respiratorio habitual. La edad menor de 2 años se mostró como predictor independiente de VSR (razón de momios [OR]: 4,15; intervalos de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 2,46-6,99). Conclusión. En la población estudiada, 40 % de los pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19 en quienes se descartó infección por SARS-CoV-2 presentaban infección por VSR.


Introduction. During 2020, circulation of other respiratory viruses was lower than usual. Most likely, as mitigation measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were modified, their prevalence in 2021 may have increased. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of common respiratory viruses among patients aged 0­5 years seen at the Emergency Department of a children's hospital in the City of Buenos Aires. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 348 patients consulting for suspected COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out and routine screening for common respiratory viruses was performed. Results. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory virus, was identified in 40% of patients. Age younger than 2 years was an independent predictor of RSV (odds ratio [OR]: 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46­6.99). Conclusion. In the study population, 40% of patients suspected of COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out had RSV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viruses , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Outpatients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e202, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1390039

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ejercicio físico, integrando la rehabilitación cardíaca (RC), tiene un efecto positivo demostrado en el pronóstico de los pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular, optimizando el rendimiento cardíaco en términos de capacidad funcional. Mediante los programas de RC se pretende obtener los máximos beneficios clínicos del ejercicio físico con un mínimo riesgo para el paciente. Objetivos: Evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de un programa de RC extrahospitalario en pacientes de todos los niveles de riesgo, monitorizando con cardiotacómetros (instrumento de pulsera que detecta frecuencia cardíaca y permite programar alarmas) a pacientes de moderado y alto riesgo, con base en la ausencia de complicaciones cardíacas graves y la mejoría funcional de los participantes. Material y métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, sometida a un plan de RC durante 12 semanas en el período comprendido entre enero de 2014 y marzo de 2020. Se evaluaron parámetros clínicos y funcionales al inicio y al final del plan de rehabilitación, controlando la tolerancia al esfuerzo, la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardíaca mediante el uso de cardiotacómetros. Resultados: Se incluyeron 181 pacientes, con edad promedio de 58,7 ± 9,7 años, 87,8% del sexo masculino, mayoritariamente portadores de cardiopatía isquémica (90,1%). Según la clasificación de la Asociación Americana de Rehabilitación Cardiovascular y Pulmonar, 54 pacientes (29,8%) eran de alto riesgo, 29 (16,0%) de moderado riesgo y 98 (54,1%) de bajo riesgo. En más de 10.000 horas de actividad física realizadas, un paciente requirió el implante de un marcapaso definitivo por bloqueo auriculoventricular completo, sin observarse otras complicaciones graves. Se obtuvo una mejoría significativa (p = 0,001) de la capacidad funcional, que aumentó de 7,34 ± 2,68 a 10,20 ± 2,35 METs (incremento relativo individual promedio 28,1%). Conclusiones: La RC es un tratamiento seguro y efectivo en los pacientes cardiópatas, aún en aquellos de moderado y alto riesgo. El uso de cardiotacómetros permite una adecuada monitorización del ejercicio y una oportuna detección de complicaciones.


Introduction: physical exercise, integrating cardiac rehabilitation (CR), has a proven positive effect on the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease, optimizing cardiac performance in terms of functional capacity. CR programs aim to obtain maximum clinical benefits with minimal risks to the patient. Objectives: assess the safety and efficacy of a cardiotachometer-monitored out-of-hospital CR program in high- and moderate-risk patients, based on the absence of major cardiac complications and improvement in participant's functional capacity. Materials and methods: retrospective cohort study, submitted to a CR plan for 12 weeks in the period between January 2014 and March 2020. Clinical and functional parameters were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the rehabilitation plan, controlling effort tolerance, blood pressure and heart rate using cardiotachometers. Results: 181 patients were included, aged 58.7 ± 9.7 years and 87.8% female, of whom 90% were carriers of ischemic heart disease. According to the classification of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, the patients were distributed as follows: 54 (29.8%) at high risk, 29 (16.0%) at intermediate risk, and 98 (54.1%) low risk. In more than ten thousand hours of physical activity performed, one patient required implantation of a permanent pacemaker due to complete atrioventricular block. A significant improvement (p = 0.001) of the functional capacity, from 7.34 ± 2.68 to 10.2 ± 2.35 (mean relative improvement: 28.1%.) was obtained. Conclusions: the CR is a safe and effective procedure for cardiac patients, even in moderate or high-risk subjects. The use of cardiotachometers allows adequate exercise monitoring and timely detection of complications.


Introdução: o exercício físico, integrando a reabilitação cardíaca (RC), tem comprovado efeito positivo no prognóstico de pacientes com doença cardiovascular, otimizando o desempenho cardíaco em termos de capacidade funcional. Os programas de RC visam obter o máximo de benefícios clínicos com riscos mínimos para o paciente. Objetivos: avaliar a segurança e eficácia de um programa de RC fora do hospital monitorado por cardiotacômetro em pacientes de alto e moderado risco, com base na ausência de complicações cardíacas maiores e na melhora da capacidade funcional dos participantes. Materiais e métodos: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de um plano de RC de 12 semanas, em um período entre janeiro de 2014 a março de 2020. Os parâmetros clínicos e funcionais foram avaliados no início e no final do plano de reabilitação, a tolerância ao esforço, pressão arterial e frequência cardíaca utilizando cardiotacômetros. Resultados: foram incluídos 181 pacientes, com média de idade de 58,7 ± 9,7 anos e 87,8% do sexo masculino, dos quais 90% eram portadores de cardiopatia isquêmica. De acordo com a classificação da Associação Americana de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Pulmonar, os pacientes foram distribuídos da seguinte forma: 54 (29,8%) de alto risco, 29 (16,0%) de risco intermediário e 98 (54,1%) de baixo risco. Em mais de dez mil horas de atividade física realizada, um paciente necessitou de implante de marcapasso definitivo por bloqueio atrioventricular total. A avaliação final mostrou melhora significativa (p = 0,001) na capacidade funcional medida em METs; este passou de 7,34 ± 2,68 para 10,2 ± 2,35 (melhora relativa média: 28,1%). Conclusões: este trabalho demonstra que a RC é um tratamento seguro e eficaz para pacientes com doenças cardíacas, mesmo em indivíduos de risco moderado e alto. O uso de cardiotacômetros permite o monitoramento adequado do exercício e a detecção oportuna de complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Myocardial Ischemia/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Heart Failure/rehabilitation , Heart Valve Diseases/rehabilitation , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ergometry , Electrocardiography , Secondary Prevention , Heart Rate Determination
3.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 71(2): 74-82, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explores the relationship between patients' self-assessment and physicians' evaluation regarding clinical stability. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the general outpatient clinic of the Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB-UFRJ) in a large sample (1,447) of outpatients, of which 67.9% were patients with severe mental disorders (SMD). We collected information using a structured questionnaire developed for this purpose, filled in by the patient's physician. Clinical stability was assessed by means of five psychiatric instability criteria and by the physician's global clinical impression over the six previous months. The patients' self-assessment was based on a question about how they evaluated their health status: stable/better, worse, does not know. For the analyses, patients' self-evaluation was considered as our standard. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 824 (57%) women with an average age of 49 years. The most prevalent diagnoses within the SMD category corresponded to 937 patients, of whom 846 (90.3%) assessed themselves as stable/better. The physicians' evaluations agreed more with patients with bipolar disorders and less with schizophrenics regarding stability. As for patients with depressive disorder, physicians agreed more with them regarding instability. CONCLUSION: The data analysis confirms our hypothesis that the self- -assessment made by patients with SMD was accurate regarding their health condition, and that the self- -assessment made by patients who considered themselves stable agree with the physicians' evaluation.


OBJETIVO: Este estudo explora a relação entre a autoavaliação dos pacientes e a avaliação dos médicos quanto à estabilidade clínica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado no ambulatório do Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB-UFRJ) em uma ampla amostra de pacientes (1.447), dos quais 67,9% eram portadores de transtornos mentais graves (TMG). Coletamos informações por meio de um questionário estruturado desenvolvido para esse fim, preenchido pelo médico assistente. A estabilidade clínica foi avaliada por meio de cinco critérios de instabilidade psiquiátrica e pela impressão clínica global do médico, nos seis meses anteriores. A autoavaliação dos pacientes baseou-se em uma pergunta sobre como eles avaliavam seu estado de saúde: estável/melhor, pior, não sabe. Para as análises, a autoavaliação dos pacientes foi considerada como nosso padrão. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 824 (57%) mulheres, com idade média de 49 anos. Os diagnósticos mais prevalentes na categoria TMG corresponderam a 937 pacientes, dos quais 846 (90,3%) se avaliaram como estáveis/melhores. As avaliações dos médicos concordaram mais com pacientes portadores de transtorno bipolar e menos com esquizofrênicos em relação à estabilidade. Quanto aos pacientes com transtorno depressivo, os médicos concordaram mais com eles em relação à instabilidade. CONCLUSÃO: A análise dos dados confirma nossa hipótese de que a autoavaliação feita por pacientes com TMG foi precisa quanto à sua condição de saúde e que a autoavaliação feita por pacientes que se consideravam estáveis concorda com a avaliação dos médicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Outpatients/psychology , Bipolar Disorder/therapy , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Mental Disorders/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Medical Care , Hospitals, Psychiatric
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 14, 2022. 25 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1361836

ABSTRACT

Los presentes Lineamientos pretenden establecer las disposiciones para el seguimiento del aislamiento domiciliar, manejo ambulatorio de casos sospechosos y confirmados COVID-19, para reducir la transmisibilidad y contribuir a garantizar la protección de los familiares, convivientes, trabajadores de la salud y de toda la población


These Guidelines aim to establish the provisions for monitoring home isolation, outpatient management of suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases, to reduce transmissibility and help ensure the protection of family members, cohabitants, health workers and the entire population


Subject(s)
Patient Isolation , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Outpatients , Health , Environmental Monitoring
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): 46-: I-53, III, feb 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353491

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tratamiento de la diarrea aguda se basa en prevenir la deshidratación, reducir la duración y gravedad de la enfermedad. El objetivo fue conocer los patrones de tratamiento ambulatorio de la diarrea aguda en <5 años. Métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, mediante encuestas autoadministradas a pediatras de un hospital de niños de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se indagó: edad, sexo, lugar de trabajo, fuentes bibliográficas, indicación de tratamientos farmacológicos, no farmacológicos y medidas de prevención e higiene. Se evaluó la asociación entre prescripciones farmacológicas y características de los encuestados. Resultados. Respondieron 182/216 pediatras; la edad media fue 42,4 ± 10,24 años (el 78,6 %, mujeres); el 59,2 %, del sector público; el 22,4 %, de servicios de guardia. El 91,2 % consultaba guías/consensos. El 92,9 % prescribió fórmulas de rehidratación oral; el 46,2 %, antieméticos; el 43,4 %, antiácidos y/o protectores gástricos; el 35,7 %, probióticos, y el 30,7 %, cinc. El 91,7 % indicó realimentación precoz; el 96,7 %, lactancia materna y el 96-100 %, medidas de prevención e higiene. En el análisis multivariado, tener >40 años se asoció con prescribir antiácidos/protectores gástricos (odds ratio [OR] 2,6; 1,22-5,61), probióticos (OR 3,03; 1,34-6,83) y cinc (OR 0,39; 0,17-0,87); trabajar en el sector privado con prescribir probióticos (OR 3,05; 1,56-5,94) y en servicios de guardia, con prescribir antiácidos/ protectores gástricos (OR 2,60; 1,22-5,54). Conclusiones. El tratamiento se basó principalmente en hidratación, alimentación precoz y lactancia. La edad y el lugar de desempeño de los pediatras modifican el patrón de prescripción.


Introduction. The management of acute diarrhea is based on preventing dehydration and reducing disease duration and severity. The study objective was to establish the patterns for the outpatient management of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. Methods. Observational, analytical study using a self-administered survey among pediatricians from a children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Age, sex, place of work, bibliographic sources, indication of drug and non-drug therapies, and preventive and hygiene measures were recorded. The association between drug prescription and the characteristics of surveyed pediatricians was assessed. Results. In total, 182/216 pediatricians completed the survey. Their mean age was 42.4 ± 10.24 years; 78.6% were females; 59.2% worked in the public sector; 22.4% worked in the emergency department; and 91.2% consulted guidelines and/or consensuses. Also, 92.9% prescribed oral rehydration solutions; 46.2%, antiemetics; 43.4%, antacids and/or gastric protectors; 35.7%, probiotics; and 30.7%, zinc. Early food reintroduction was indicated by 91.7%; breastfeeding, by 96.7%; and preventive and hygiene measures, by 96-100%. The multivariate analysis showed an association between age > 40 years and prescribing antacids/ gastric protectors (odds ratio [OR]: 2.6; 1.22-5.61), probiotics (OR: 3.03; 1.34-6.83), and zinc (OR: 0.39; 0.17-0.87); between working in the private sector and prescribing probiotics (OR: 3.05; 1.565.94); and between working in the emergency department and prescribing antacids/gastric protectors (OR: 2.60; 1.22-5.54). Conclusions. Treatment was mainly based on hydration, early food reintroduction, and breastfeeding. Age and work sector affected the prescription pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Pediatricians/psychology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric
7.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56262, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367442

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the direct diagnostic costs for disease groups and other variables (such as gender, age, seasons) that are related to the direct diagnostic costs based on a 3-year data. The population of the study consisted of 31,401 patients who applied to family medicine outpatient clinic in Turkey between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2018. With this study, we determined in which disease groups of the family medicine outpatient clinic weremost frequently admitted. Then, total and average diagnostic costs for these disease groups were calculated. Three-year data gave us the opportunity to examine the trend in diagnostic costs. Based on this, we demonstratedwhich diseases' total and average diagnostic costs increased or decreased during 3 years. Moreover, we examined how diagnostic costs showed a trend in both Turkish liras and USA dollars' rate for 3 years. Finally, we analysedwhether the diagnostic costs differed according to variables such as age, gender and season. There has been relatively little analysis on the diagnostic costs in the previous literature. Therefore, we expect to contribute to both theoristsand healthcare managers for diagnostic costs with this study.


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Costs and Cost Analysis/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Family Practice/instrumentation , Family Practice/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care Facilities/supply & distribution , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , International Classification of Diseases/economics , Disease , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data
8.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 33-42, ene. 28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354418

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades crónicas endémicas no transmisibles que debido a su alta frecuencia se ha llegado a posicionar entre las principales enfermedades que afectan a cientos de millones de personas en todo el mundo, con incidencia, morbilidad y mortalidad en aumento. La información sobre atenciones ambulatorias, disponible en el Departamento de Actuariado y Estadística del Instituto Salvadoreño del Seguro Social (ISSS), indica que en 2019 se brindaron 4 871 908 consultas y 170 230 fueron por diabetes mellitus (3,5 %). El 60,7 % de las atenciones (103 429) se brindaron a mujeres. Debido a la magnitud y proporciones de la diabetes en esta población, se hace necesario realizar en el ISSS investigaciones para actualizar la situación de su condición y que al mismo tiempo permita saber el origen de estas personas. El objetivo principal del estudio consiste en definir las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de pacientes diabéticos manejados de manera ambulatoria.


Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic endemic noncommunicable diseases that, due to its high frequency, has come to position itself among the main diseases that affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, with increasing incidence, morbidity and mortality. The information on outpatient care, available at the Department of Actuarial Science and Statistics of the Salvadoran Social Security Institute (ISSS), indicates that in 2019, 4,871,908 consultations were provided and 170,230 were for diabetes mellitus (3.5%). 60.7% of the services (103,429) were provided to women. Due to the magnitude and proportions of diabetes in this population, it is necessary to carry out research at the ISSS to update the situation of their condition and at the same time allow knowing the origin of these people. The main objective of the study is to define the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of diabetic patients managed on an outpatient basis


Subject(s)
Outpatients , Social Security , Diabetes Mellitus , Ambulatory Care , Noncommunicable Diseases , Chronic Disease , Incidence
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 253-261, jan. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356027

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudou-se a influência da Autoavaliação para Melhoria do Acesso e Qualidade (AMAQ) na produção de procedimentos especializados nos Centros de Especialidades Odontológicas (CEO). Utilizou-se dados da avaliação externa de 900 CEO do primeiro ciclo do Programa para Melhoria do Acesso e Qualidade (PMAQ/CEO) e Sistema de Informação Ambulatorial (SIA/SUS). A variável dependente foi a média mensal de procedimentos (proc/mês) dos CEO entre os três períodos: 1) outubro de 2012 a setembro de 2013; 2) outubro de 2013 a setembro de 2014; e 3) outubro de 2014 a setembro 2015. A principal variável independente foi o uso da AMAQ/CEO no segundo período. Tipo de CEO, média de cirurgiões-dentistas com carga-horária de 20h, estratégias contra absenteísmo, apoio matricial, protocolos clínicos e cobertura de cadastrados na Estratégia de Saúde Bucal das Família foram covariáveis. Utilizou-se modelos de regressão linear múltipla para análises ajustadas. Equipes que utilizaram a AMAQ-CEO apresentaram média de 515,0 proc/mês, 575,5 proc/mês, e 519,9 proc/mês no primeiro, segundo e terceiro períodos, respectivamente. As equipes que utilizaram AMAQ-CEO tiveram uma maior média de produção do que aquelas que não utilizaram, com diferença ajustada de 32,7 proc/mês, 64,7 proc/mês e 27,7 proc/mês no primeiro, segundo e terceiro períodos, respectivamente.


Abstract We studied the influence of Self-Assessment for Improving Access and Quality (AMAQ) in the production of specialized procedures in the of Dental Specialties Centers (DSC). Data were obtained from the 900 DSC submitted to the external evaluation of the Program for Improving Access and Quality (PMAQ-CEO) and the Outpatient Information System (SIA-SUS). The dependent variable was the monthly average of dental procedures (proc/mon) in the DSC performed in three periods: 1) October 2012 to September 2013; 2) October 2013 to September 2014; and 3) October 2014 to September 2015. The main independent variable was the use of AMAQ/CEO, which occurred during the second period. Type of DSC, average number of dentists with a 20-hour workload, strategies to reduce missing appointments, referral support, clinical protocols and coverage of PHC registered users were used as covariates. Multiple linear regression models were run to estimate adjusted differences. Teams that used AMAQ-CEO had a mean of 515.0 proc/mon, 575.5 proc/mon, and 519.9 proc/mon in the first, second and third periods, respectively. The DSC that used AMAQ-CEO had a higher mean than those that did not, with an adjusted difference of 32.7 proc/mon, 64.7 proc/mon and 27.7 proc/mon for the first, second and third periods, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Outpatients , Self-Assessment , Specialties, Dental
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 378-387, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364322

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Apesar da necessidade de opções terapêuticas específicas para a doença do coronavírus 2019 (covid-19), ainda não há evidências da eficácia de tratamentos específicos no contexto ambulatorial. Há poucos estudos randomizados que avaliam a hidroxicloroquina (HCQ) em pacientes não hospitalizados. Esses estudos não indicaram benefício com o uso da HCQ; no entanto, avaliaram desfechos primários diferentes e apresentaram vieses importantes na avaliação dos desfechos. Objetivo Investigar se a HCQ possui o potencial de prevenir hospitalizações por covid-19 quando comparada ao placebo correspondente. Métodos O estudo COVID-19 Outpatient Prevention Evaluation (COPE) é um ensaio clínico randomizado, pragmático, duplo-cego, multicêntrico e controlado por placebo que avalia o uso da HCQ (800 mg no dia 1 e 400 mg do dia 2 ao dia 7) ou placebo correspondente na prevenção de hospitalizações por covid-19 em casos precoces confirmados ou suspeitos de pacientes não hospitalizados. Os critérios de inclusão são adultos (≥ 18 anos) que procuraram atendimento médico com sintomas leves de covid-19, com randomização ≤ 7 dias após o início dos sintomas, sem indicação de hospitalização na triagem do estudo e com pelo menos um fator de risco para complicações (> 65 anos, hipertensão, diabetes melito, asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica ou outras doenças pulmonares crônicas, tabagismo, imunossupressão ou obesidade). Todos os testes de hipótese serão bilaterais. Um valor de p < 0,05 será considerado estatisticamente significativo em todas as análises. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04466540. Resultados Os desfechos clínicos serão avaliados centralmente por um comitê de eventos clínicos independente cegado para a alocação dos grupos de tratamento. O desfecho primário de eficácia será avaliado de acordo com o princípio da intenção de tratar. Conclusão Este estudo apresenta o potencial de responder de forma confiável a questão científica do uso da HCQ em pacientes ambulatoriais com covid-19. Do nosso conhecimento, este é o maior estudo avaliando o uso de HCQ em indivíduos com covid-19 não hospitalizados.


Abstract Background Despite the need for targeting specific therapeutic options for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been no evidence of effectiveness of any specific treatment for the outpatient clinical setting. There are few randomized studies evaluating hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in non-hospitalized patients. These studies indicate no benefit from the use of HCQ, but they assessed different primary outcomes and presented important biases for outcome evaluation. Objective To evaluate if HCQ may prevent hospitalization due to COVID-19 compared to a matching placebo. Methods The COVID-19 Outpatient Prevention Evaluation (COPE) study is a pragmatic, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of HCQ (800 mg on day 1 and 400 mg from day 2 to day 7) or matching placebo for the prevention of hospitalization due to COVID-19 in early non-hospitalized confirmed or suspected cases. Inclusion criteria are adults (≥ 18 years) seeking medical care with mild symptoms of COVID-19, with randomization ≤ 7 days after symptom onset, without indication of hospitalization at study screening, and with at least one risk factor for complication (> 65 years; hypertension; diabetes mellitus; asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other chronic lung diseases; smoking; immunosuppression; or obesity). All hypothesis tests will be two-sided. A p-value < 0.05 will be considered statistically significant in all analyses. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04466540. Results Clinical outcomes will be centrally adjudicated by an independent clinical event committee blinded to the assigned treatment groups. The primary efficacy endpoint will be assessed following the intention-to-treat principle. Conclusion This study has the potential to reliably answer the scientific question of HCQ use in outpatients with COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the largest trial evaluating HCQ in non-hospitalized individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Outpatients , Treatment Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 32(1): 4-12, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398506

ABSTRACT

Trabajo analítico, descriptivo, cualicuantitativo, que caracteriza los cambios estructurales en el HMALL llevados a cabo para la atención de pacientes ambulatorios durante la Pandemia Covid-19, describe las modificaciones en la oferta de servicios ambulatorios durante la Pandemia Covid-19 y analiza la demanda de servicios de salud ambulatorios no Covid-19 durante el año 2020.


Subject(s)
Outpatients , COVID-19 , Argentina , Pandemics
12.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32108, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391283

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Levantar dados sobre o perfil do agressor e da vítima de abuso sexual na infância atendida no pronto-socorro e ambulatório de violência sexual. O estudo visa também avaliar a efetividade do fluxo de encaminhamentos que possibilitam a longitudinalidade do cuidado. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal retrospectivo, em hospital de referência no atendimento a esses pacientes na cidade estudada, no qual foram avaliados 121 prontuários de possíveis vítimas menores de 13 anos em 2018. Foram coletados dados do perfil da vítima e agressor, além de informações sobre encaminhamentos e frequência nas consultas de seguimento. Resultados: Foi realizada uma análise descritiva dos dados, nos quais entre os resultados encontrados destacam-se a predominância do gênero masculino entre os agressores e feminino entre as vítimas. A prevalência do gênero da vítima e do agressor foram semelhantes a outros estudos. A maioria dos abusos aconteceram em residência, o agressor era conhecido. Dentre as 121 crianças atendidas no pronto socorro, 90 foram encaminhadas ao ambulatório e apenas 33 compareceram à consulta. Notou-se uma falha no encaminhamento do paciente acolhido no pronto atendimento ao ambulatório, comprometendo o seguimento longitudinal. Houve uma dificuldade na coleta dos dados devido à inexistência de um prontuário eletrônico único. Conclusão: O perfil da vítima e do agressor nesse estudo foram similares a outros estudos publicados anteriormente sobre violência sexual. Foi percebida uma falha comunicativa entre os atendimentos em que a criança abusada permeia, com uma importante descontinuação do acompanhamento após agressão.


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to raise data on the profile of sexual abused children attended at the emergency room and sexual violence outpatient clinic. It also aims to evaluate the effectiveness of referrals flow that enable care longitudinality. Methods: This was a retrospective crosssectional study in a referral hospital for sexual violence victims, in which 121 medical records of potential victims under 13 years were evaluated in 2018. Data was collected on the profile of victim and offender, along with referrals and attendance at follow-up appointments. Results: A descriptive analysis of data was performed, in which results highlight male predominance among aggressors and females amidst victims. Gender prevalence of victim and offender was similar to other studies. Most abuses took place in residences and the offender was known by the victim. Of the 121 children seen at the emergency room, 90 were referred to outpatient clinic and only 33 attended consultation. A failure in patient referral at the emergency room was pointed out, which compromises ambulatory follow-up. Data collection was difficult due to the lack of a single electronic medical record. Conclusion: The victim and perpetrator profile in this study was similar to other previously published studies on sexual violence. It was also noticed failure between hospital sectors in which the abused child permeates, with an important discontinuation of follow-up after the aggression.


Subject(s)
Child , Outpatients , Child Abuse, Sexual , Pediatrics , Sex Offenses
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the effects of ozone (O3) concentrations measured with different approaches across different seasons on the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits, as well as the differentiation of such effects across different groups of patients.@*METHODS@#The outpatient data of three grade A tertiary hospitals in Lanzhou City spanning from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017, as well as air pollution and meteorological data during the same period were collected. Considering the nonlinear relationship between O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits and meteorological factors, a generalized additive temporal sequence model was employed to analyze the short-term association between changes in O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. Taking into account of the variations in O3 concentrations within 1 day, this study adopted different measurement approaches to address the three types of O3 exposures, namely, the maximum 1 h daily concentration (O3max1h), the maximum 8 h daily concentration (O38h) and the mean 24 h daily concentration (O324h) as the short term exposure indicators to O3, followed by a model-based analysis.@*RESULTS@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer had a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. With lag0 for the current day, every 10 μg/m3 increase in atmospheric concentration of O3max1h was associated with an increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits by 3.351% (95%CI: 1.231%-5.516%); for every 10 μg/m3 increase in O38h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits increased by 3.320% (95%CI: 0.197%-3.829%); for every 10 μg/m3increase in O324h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits in summer increased by 6.600% (95%CI: 0.914%-12.607%); moreover, an increase in exposure to O3max1h also led to a significant rise in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits among the males.@*CONCLUSION@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer in Lanzhou City has a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits; O3max1h is more closely correlated with the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/etiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Outpatients , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter , Seasons , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 348-353, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935394

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the HIV infection status in male outpatients in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Tianjin from 2016 to 2020. Methods: According to the sentinel surveillance protocol, continuous cross-sectional studies were conducted between April and June during 2016-2020 to collect the information about the awareness of AIDS related knowledge, related sex behaviors, HIV infection, syphilis prevalence and HCV infection of male STD outpatients in Tianjin with a sample seize of 400 in each sentinel clinic. Results: From 2016 to 2020, a total of 4 000 male STD outpatients were surveyed. The HIV positive rate increased from 1.13% (9/800) to 2.25% (18/800) (trend χ2=14.22, P<0.001), the positive rate of syphilis increased from 9.38% (75/800) to 13.00% (104/800) (trend χ2=7.30, P=0.007) in this population during this period. The overall HCV positive rate was 0.45% (18/4 000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with those who were unmarried, had registered residence in Tianjin, had no temporary sexual behavior in the past 3 months, had no anal sex and had negative syphilis test result, the risk factors of HIV infection in the male STD outpatients included cohabitation (aOR=7.53, 95%CI:2.13-26.62), being from other provinces (aOR=3.64,95%CI:1.58-8.38), having temporary sexual behavior in the past 3 months (aOR=2.24,95%CI:1.03-4.89), having homosexual anal sex (aOR=85.99,95%CI:38.76-190.74) and suffering from syphilis (aOR=6.06,95%CI:3.18-11.56). Conclusion: The detection rates of HIV infection and syphilis in male STD outpatients in Tianjin showed upward trends from 2016 to 2020. Having temporary sexual behavior and anal sex, and suffering from syphilis were the main risk factors of HIV infection in male STD outpatients.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Outpatients , Syphilis/epidemiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 319-325, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928253

ABSTRACT

The use of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation to relieve anxiety and pain in dental outpatient treatment has been a very mature and safe technique in the world. This technology has been introduced into China for nearly 20 years, and many clinical cases have proved its safety, practicability and effectiveness, which can meet the clinical needs of patients. To further standardize and popularize this technique, the Society of Sedation and Analgesia, Chinese Stomatological Association formed the recommended application guidelines after many discussions and revisions on the basis of widely soliciting opinions and referring to relevant literatures. It covers indications, contraindications, standardized operation procedures, occupational protection, identification and treatment of adverse reactions, training and other aspects. This guideline can be used as a reference for the use of nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation techniques in the outpatient setting of dentistry.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Dental , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Conscious Sedation/methods , Dental Anxiety/prevention & control , Humans , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , Outpatients , Oxygen
16.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(3): 454-460, dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1352612

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever saberes e práticas realizadas por pessoas com úlcera venosa no cuidado da lesão. Método: Estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa, realizado com onze pacientes em tratamento de úlcera venosa em um Serviço Ambulatorial de Estomaterapia em Brasília, Distrito Federal. A coleta de dados foi realizada entre abril e maio de 2019 por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, que foram gravadas e posteriormente transcritas na íntegra. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: A maioria era do sexo feminino e com mais de sessenta anos. Três categorias emergiram a partir da análise de conteúdo das entrevistas: práticas e saberes gerais no autocuidado da úlcera; mitos e crenças que perpassam o autocuidado; e dificuldades vivenciadas durante o cuidado com a úlcera. Conclusão: Este estudo desvelou saberes, práticas e também crenças que os pacientes com úlcera venosa apresentam a respeito da doença vascular e do processo de cicatrização da lesão, os quais propiciam melhor direcionamento no planejamento e no desenvolvimento de ações educativas em saúde voltada às necessidades dos usuários do ambulatório de forma a potencializar o autocuidado. (AU)


Objective: To describe knowledge and practices performed by people with venous ulcers in the care of injuries. Methods: A descriptive study with a qualitative approach, carried out with eleven patients undergoing treatment of venous ulcers in an Outpatient Stomatherapy Service in Brasília, Federal District. Data collection was carried out between April and May 2019 through semi-structured interviews, which were recorded and later transcribed in full. The data were submitted to thematic content analysis. Results: Most were female and over sixty years old. Three categories emerged from the content analysis of the interviews: general knowledge and practices in ulcer self-care; myths and beliefs that permeate self-care; and difficulties experienced during ulcer care. Conclusion: This study unveiled the knowledge, practices and also beliefs that patients with venous ulcers have about vascular disease and the wound healing process, which provide better guidance in the planning and development of educational health actions aimed at the needs of outpatient users in order to enhance self care. (AU)


Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento y las prácticas realizadas por personas con úlceras venosas en el cuidado de lesiones. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con enfoque cualitativo, realizado con once pacientes sometidos a tratamiento de úlceras venosas en un Servicio de Estomatoterapia ambulatorio en Brasilia, Distrito Federal. La recopilación de datos se realizó entre abril y mayo de 2019 a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, que se registraron y luego se transcribieron en su totalidad. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: La mayoría eran mujeres y mayores de sesenta años. Del análisis de contenido de las entrevistas surgieron tres categorías: conocimiento general y prácticas en el autocuidado de úlceras; mitos y creencias que impregnan el autocuidado; y dificultades experimentadas durante el cuidado de la úlcera. Conclusión: Este estudio reveló el conocimiento, las prácticas y también las creencias que los pacientes con úlceras venosas tienen sobre la enfermedad vascular y el proceso de curación de heridas, que proporcionan una mejor orientación en la planificación y el desarrollo de acciones educativas de salud dirigidas a las necesidades de los usuarios del ambulatorio para mejorar el autocuidado. (AU)


Subject(s)
Varicose Ulcer , Outpatients , Knowledge , Nursing Care
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(6): 737-744, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388314

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El uso indebido de cefalosporinas puede provocar resistencia de las bacterias. OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil de prescripción e indicación de cefalosporinas en un grupo de pacientes afiliados al Sistema de Salud de Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal. A partir de una base de datos poblacional se obtuvo una muestra aleatoria de pacientes atendidos en consulta ambulatoria para identificar las indicaciones de cefalosporinas en registros clínicos. Se evaluaron variables farmacológicas relacionadas con formulación no indicada según guías de práctica clínica. RESULTADOS: En 381 pacientes, con edad media 41,2 ± 15,4 años, el 61,4% (n = 234) eran mujeres. Cefalexina fue la más utilizada (n=318; 83,5%), con duración media del tratamiento de 7,3 ± 3,2 días, seguida de cefradina (n = 43, 11,3%) y ceftriaxona (n = 20, 5,2%). Se prescribieron para infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (n = 177; 46,4%, de las cuales 47,5% eran purulentas), del tracto urinario (n = 70; 18,4%), de vías respiratorias superiores (n = 57; 15,0%), e infecciones de transmisión sexual (n = 21; 5,5%). Estaban indicadas en 169 pacientes (44,4%), pero sólo 103 (60,9%) tenían prescripciones que cumplían las recomendaciones de dosificación. CONCLUSIONES: Más de la mitad de pacientes prescritos con cefalosporinas en un contexto ambulatorio tenían prescripciones consideradas no indicadas, en particular por su uso en infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos purulentas.


BACKGROUND: Misuse of cephalosporins can lead to bacterial resistance. Aim: To determine the prescription profile and indication of cephalosporins in the patients affiliated to the Colombian Health System. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. From a population database, a random sample of patients treated in an outpatient consultation was obtained, to identify the indications of the prescribed cephalosporins in their clinical record. Pharmacological variables, and those related to non-indicated formulations were evaluated according to the clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: In 381 patients, the mean age was 41.2 ± 15.4 years, and 61.4% (n = 234) were women. Cefalexin was the most widely used (n=318; 83.5%), with a mean duration of treatment of 7.3 ± 3.2 days; followed by cefradine (n = 43; 11.3%), and ceftriaxone (n = 20; 5.2%). The most common uses were for skin and soft tissue infections (n = 177; 46.4% of which 47.5% were purulent), urinary tract infections (n = 70; 18.4%), upper respiratory airway infections (n = 57; 15.0%) and sexually transmitted diseases (n = 21; 5.5%). The use was considered indicated in 169 patients (44.4%), but only 103 (60.9%) had prescriptions that met the dosage recommendations from the clinical practice guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the patients prescribed with cephalosporins in the outpatient setting had prescriptions considered not indicated, particularly for their use in purulent skin and soft tissue infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Outpatients , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Prescriptions , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353134

ABSTRACT

Objective: to presenting the linguistic validation of the Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale Short-Form (DFS-SF) among pa-tients with ulcer diabetic foot (DFU) to Brazilian Portuguese and evaluate its content, practicability and acceptability. Methods and casuistry: a cross-sectional, methodological research, was conducted among 30 outpatients in follow--up for DF, assessed regarding QoL, sociodemographic and clinical data. International recommendations provided by the Mapi Research Trust on adaptation procedures were followed: the stages of Forward translation, Backward trans-lation and the Cognitive interview were carried out. The Content Validity Index was calculated and a pre-test were gathered to produce a pre-final version. Practicability and acceptability were also assessed. Results: the semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalences between the linguistic validated and the original version were obtai-ned. The DFS-SF was practical, well accepted and easy to understand. Conclusion: the linguistic validation process of the Brazilian version of the DFS-SF has been completed in accordance with internationally recommended standards. The instrument was easy to apply, to understand and presented short time for administration. (AU)


Objetivo: apresentar a validação linguística do DFS-SF entre pacientes com DFU para o português do Brasil e avaliar seu conteúdo, praticabilidade e aceitabilidade. Metodologia e casuística: foi realizada uma pesquisa metodológica de corte transversal entre 30 pacientes ambulatoriais em acompanhamento para DFU. Seguiram-se recomendações internacionais fornecidas pelo Mapi Research Trust sobre procedimentos de adaptação: tradução direta, tradução reversa e entrevista cognitiva. O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo foi calculado e um pré-teste foi coletado para produzir uma versão pré-final. A praticidade e aceitabilidade também foram avaliadas. Resultados:foram obtidas as equivalências semântica, idiomática, cultural e conceitual entre a versão linguística validada e a versão original. O DFS-SF foi prático, bem aceito e fácil de entender. Conclusão: O DFS-SF da versão brasileira foi concluído de acordo com os padrões internacionalmente recomendados, foi fácil de aplicar, entender e apresentou pouco tempo para administração. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Outpatients , Quality of Life , Diabetic Foot , Validation Study , Diabetes Mellitus
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 384-389, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345308

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that endoscopy fellows can perform colonoscopy effectively and safely. However, little is known about the performance of surgical residents without prior knowledge of endoscopic techniques. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether quality indicators were met at an outpatient endoscopy center and whether surgical residents, without prior upper or lower endoscopy skills, could perform colonoscopy adequately. METHODS: A prospective non-randomized cohort study was undertaken. All exams were performed either by assistant physicians or by residents. Quality measures were compared between those groups. RESULTS: A total of 2720 colonoscopies were analyzed. In the resident group, we observed older patients (57.7±12.7 years vs 51.5±14.5 years, P<0.001), a higher prevalence of screening colonoscopies (52% vs 39.4%, P<0.001) and a higher prevalence of colorectal cancer (6.4% vs 1.8%, P<0.001). The cecal intubation rate was higher in the attending group (99.9% vs 89.3%; P<0.001). The polyp detection rate was 40.8%, and no differences were observed between the studied groups. The residents had a higher rate of perforation in all exams (0.4% vs 0%; P=0.02). Postpolypectomy bleeding and 7-day readmission rates were the same (0.2%). All readmissions in 7 days occurred due to low digestive bleeding, and none required intervention. CONCLUSION: Quality indicators were met at a university outpatient endoscopy center; however, medical residents achieved lower rates of cecal intubation and higher rates of perforation than the attending physicians.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Estudos recentes mostraram que médicos em treinamento podem realizar a colonoscopia de maneira eficaz e segura. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a performance dos médicos residentes de cirurgia sem o conhecimento prévio das técnicas endoscópicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se os indicadores de qualidade foram atendidos em um centro de endoscopia ambulatorial e se os residentes de cirurgia, sem habilidades anteriores em endoscopia alta ou baixa, realizaram a colonoscopia de forma adequada. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte prospectivo não randomizado. Todos os exames foram realizados por médicos assistentes ou residentes. Os indicadores de qualidade foram comparados entre esses grupos. RESULTADOS: Um total de 2.720 colonoscopias foram analisadas. No grupo de médicos residentes, observamos pacientes mais velhos (57,7±12,7 anos vs 51,5±14,5 anos, P<0,001), maior prevalência de colonoscopias de rastreamento (52% vs 39,4%, P<0,001) e maior prevalência de câncer colorretal (6,4% vs 1,8%, P<0,001). A taxa de intubação cecal foi maior no grupo de médicos assistentes (99,9% vs 89,3%; P<0,001). A taxa de detecção de pólipos foi de 40,8% e não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos estudados. Os médicos residentes tiveram maior índice de perfuração (0,4% vs 0%; P=0,02). O sangramento pós-polipectomia e as taxas de readmissão em 7 dias foram iguais (0,2%). Todas as readmissões em 7 dias ocorreram devido a hemorragia digestiva baixa e nenhuma intervenção foi necessária. CONCLUSÃO: Os indicadores de qualidade foram alcançados em um centro de endoscopia universitário; no entanto, os médicos residentes alcançaram taxas mais baixas de intubação cecal e taxas mais altas de perfuração do que os médicos assistentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Outpatients , Cecum , Universities , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Colonoscopy , Clinical Competence
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