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Braz. dent. sci ; 27(1): 1-19, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1554283


Postoperative pain is a frequent complication after root canal treatment. Its management is an important aspect of endodontic practice. Some treatment-related parameters were associated with the development of postoperative pain, including the sealer composition and extrusion. Objective: This systematic review aimed to answer the clinical question: Do root canal sealers composition influence postoperative pain after endodontic treatment of permanent teeth? Material and Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, LILACS, and grey literature databases until September 2021. The studies were qualitatively assessed using the RoB2 tool (Cochrane) and the certainty of evidence (GRADE). Sensitivity and pooled estimates were calculated using a random-effects model. Twelve articles were included. Results: The risk of bias was high in one study, low in nine, and two had some concerns. Qualitative analyses showed no influence of sealer extrusion on postoperative pain. Meta-analyses showed no significant difference in postoperative pain with moderate to very low levels of certainty between AH Plus and calcium silicate-based sealers, in a 95% confidence interval. Analysis between AH Plus, Zinc Oxide and Eugenol (ZOE), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)-based sealers were not performed due to heterogeneity and lack of data. Conclusion: Literature showed contrasting results in postoperative pain between AH Plus and ZOE-based sealers, with low to moderate certainty of evidence. Regarding Ca(OH)2-based sealers, a single study with a low level of certainty concluded that AH Plus presented less postoperative pain than Apexit Plus. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess the influence of these sealers on postoperative pain. Evidence showed no difference in postoperative pain between AH Plus and calcium silicate-based sealers. Sealer extrusion is a variable that requires further studies (AU)

A dor pós-operatória é uma complicação frequente após o tratamento endodôntico. O seu manejo é um importante aspecto na prática endodôntica. Algumas variáveis relacionados ao tratamento foram associados com o desenvolvimento da dor pós-operatória, incluindo a composição e extrusão dos cimentos endodônticos. Objetivo: Esta revisão sistemática objetivou responder a seguinte pergunta clínica: A composição dos cimentos endodônticos podem influenciar a dor pós-operatória de dentes permanentes tratados endodonticamente?Material e Métodos: Buscas eletrônicas foram realizadas nas bases de dados no PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, LILACS, e literatura cinzenta até setembro de 2021. Os estudos foram avaliados qualitativamente usando a ferramenta RoB2 (Cochrane) e a certeza de evidência (GRADE). A sensibilidade e as estimativas agrupadas foram calculadas usando um modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Doze artigos foram incluídos. Resultados: O risco de viés foi alto em um estudo, baixo em nove e dois tiveram algumas preocupações. A análise qualitativa mostrou que não há influência da extrusão do cimento na dor pós-operatória. A meta-análise mostrou que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na dor pós-operatória entre o AH Plus e os cimentos a base de silicato de cálcio com moderada a muito baixa certeza de evdência. Análises entre os cimentos AH Plus, óxido de zinco e eugenol (OZE) e hidróxido de cálcio não foram realizados devido a heterogeneidade e falta de dados. Conclusão:A literatura sugere resultados contrastantes com relação a dor pós-operatória e entre os cimentos AH Plus e OZE, com baixa a moderada certeza de evidência. Já os cimentos a base de hidróxido de cálcio, um único estudo com baixa certeza de evidência concluiu que o AH Plus apresentou menos dor pós tratamento endodôntico do que o Apexit Plus. Portanto,mais estudos são necessários para avaliar a influência desses tipos de cimentos na dor pós-operatória. Com relação ao cimento AH Plus e os cimentos a base de silicato de cálcio não houve diferença estatística entre eles e a dor. A extrusão dos cimentos é uma variável que requer mais estudos (AU)

Pain, Postoperative , Dental Cements
Singapore medical journal ; : 16-22, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007300


INTRODUCTION@#The use of periarticular (PA) tranexamic acid (TXA) and its efficacy in comparison with intra-articular (IA) TXA have not been well explored in the literature. This retrospective cohort study aimed to compare the effects of IA and PA TXA with analgesic components in reducing blood loss and improving immediate postoperative pain relief and functional outcomes in patients after unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).@*METHODS@#A total of 63 patients underwent TKA, and they were divided into the IA TXA delivery group ( n = 42) and PA TXA delivery group ( n = 21). All patients were administered 1 g of TXA. They also received pericapsular infiltration consisting of 0.5 mL of adrenaline, 0.4 mL of morphine, 1 g of vancomycin, 1 mL of ketorolac and 15 mL of ropivacaine. Outcomes for blood loss and surrogate markers for immediate functional recovery were measured.@*RESULTS@#Of the 63 patients, 54% were female and 46% male. The mean drop in postoperative haemoglobin levels in the PA and IA groups was 2.0 g/dL and 1.6 g/dL, respectively, and this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.10). The mean haematocrit drop in the PA and IA groups was 6.1% and 5.3%, respectively, and this was also not statistically significant ( P = 0.58). The postoperative day (POD) 1 and discharge day flexion angles, POD 1 and POD 2 visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, gait distance on discharge and length of hospitalisation stay were largely similar in the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study showed that both IA and PA TXA with analgesic components were equally efficient in reducing blood loss and improving immediate postoperative pain relief and functional outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Tranexamic Acid/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Antifibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Administration, Intravenous , Analgesia , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Injections, Intra-Articular
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 98-102, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009231


The discoid meniscus is a common congenital meniscal malformation that is prevalent mainly in Asians and often occurs in the lateral discoid meniscus. Patients with asymptomatic discoid meniscus are usually treated by conservative methods such as observation and injury avoidance, while patients with symptoms and tears need to be treated surgically. Arthroscopic saucerization combined with partial meniscectomy and meniscus repair is the most common surgical approach., and early to mid-term reports are good. The prognostic factors are the patient's age at surgery、follow-up time and type of surgery. Some patients experience complications such as prolonged postoperative knee pain, early osteoarthritis, retears and Osteochondritis dissecans. The incidence of prolonged postoperative knee pain was higher and the incidence of Osteochondritis dissecans was the lowest. Retears of the lateral meniscus is the main reason for reoperation.

Child , Humans , Osteochondritis Dissecans , Treatment Outcome , Follow-Up Studies , Knee Joint/surgery , Menisci, Tibial/surgery , Joint Diseases/surgery , Prognosis , Cartilage Diseases/surgery , Meniscus , Pain, Postoperative , Arthroscopy/methods
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(4): 261-266, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528949


Objective: To examine the effectiveness of nefopam on postoperative pain control after anorectal surgeries. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent anorectal surgeries from January 2019 to March 2022 at two medical centers. The data were divided into nefopam and conventional groups. The primary outcome was the number of patients who requested additional opioids in the 24-h postoperative period. The secondary outcomes were numeric rating pain scores (NRPS) within a 24-h postoperative period and analgesic drugs-related side effects. Results: Eighty-seven patients in the conventional group and 60 in the nefopam group were recruited. The nefopam group reported less additional opioid consumption than the conventional group in all dimensions of analysis, including overall, adjusted to anesthetic techniques and types of surgery. However, these did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.093). Only patients in the nefopam group who underwent hemorrhoidectomy under TIVA or spinal anesthesia significantly required fewer additional opioids (P = 0.016, 60% mean difference). Similarly, the 24-h postoperative morphine consumption was lower in the nefopam group (mean difference = -3.4, 95%CI: 0.72,6.08). Furthermore, significantly lower NRPS were reported in the nefopam group during the 12-18 h postoperative period (P = 0.009). On the other hand, analgesic drugs related side effects were similar in both groups. Conclusions: The administration of nefopam after major anorectal surgery is beneficially evident in reducing postoperative opioid requirements. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rectum/surgery , Colon/surgery , Nefopam/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative , Retrospective Studies , Anesthesia, Rectal
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 725-735, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520381


Abstract Background: Ultra-low-dose Spinal Anesthesia (SA) is the practice of employing minimal doses of intrathecal agents so that only the roots that supply a specific area are anesthetized. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of ultra-low-dose spinal anesthesia with that of Perineal Blocks (PB). Methods: A two-arm, parallel, double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing two anesthetic techniques (SA and PB) for hemorrhoidectomy and anal fistula surgery was performed. The primary outcomes were postoperative pain, complementation and/or conversion of anesthesia, and hemodynamic changes. Results: Fifty-nine patients were included in the final analysis. The mean pain values were similar in the first 48 h in both groups (p > 0.05). The individuals allocated to the SA group did not need anesthetic complementation; however, those in the PB group required it considerably (SA group, 0% vs. PB group, 25%; p = 0.005). Hemodynamic changes were more pronounced after PB: during all surgical times, the PB group showed lower MAP values and higher HR values (p < 0.05). Postoperative urinary retention rates were similar between both groups (SA group 0% vs. PB group 3.1%, p = 0.354). Conclusion: SA and PB are similarly effective in pain control during the first 48 h after hemorrhoidec-tomy and anal fistula surgery. Although surgical time was shorter among patients in the PB group, the SA technique may be preferable as it avoids the need for additional anesthesia. Furthermore, the group that received perineal blocks was under sedation with a considerable dose of propofol.

Humans , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 711-717, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520383


Abstract Background: Pain management in hip fracture patients is of great importance for reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality. Multimodal techniques, including peripheral nerve blocks, are preferred for postoperative analgesia. Older-old hip fracture patients with high ASA scores are highly sensitive to the side effects of NSAIDs and opioids. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the recently popularized Supra-Inguinal Fascia Iliaca Block (SIFIB) in this population. Methods: Forty-one ASA III-IV patients who underwent SIFIB + PCA (G-SIFIB) or PCA alone (Group Control: GC) after general anesthesia were evaluated retrospectively. In addition to 24-hour opioid consumption, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, opioid-related side effects, block-related complications, and length of hospital stay were compared. Results: Twenty-two patients in G-SIFIB and 19 patients in GC were evaluated. The postoperative 24-hour opioid consumption was lower in G-SIFIB than in GC (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores at the postoperative 1st, 3rd, and 6th hours at rest (p < 0.001) and during movement (p < 0.001 for the 1st and 3rd hours, and p = 0.02 for the 6th hour) in G-SIFIB compared to GC. There was no difference in pain scores at the 12th and 24th hours postoperatively. While there was no difference between the groups in terms of other side effects, respiratory depression was significantly higher in GC than in G-SIFIB (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The SIFIB technique has a significant opioid-sparing effect and thus reduces opioid-related side effects in the first 24 hours after hip fracture surgery in older-old patients.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Hip Fractures/surgery , Hip Fractures/complications , Analgesics, Opioid , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Lower Extremity , Fascia
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 794-809, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520384


Abstract Background: This study compares Fascia Iliaca compartment (FI) block and Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) block for hip surgery. Methods: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane were systematically searched in April 2022. Inclusion criteria were: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs); comparing PENG block versus FI block for hip surgery; patients over 18 years of age; and reporting outcomes immediately postoperative. We excluded studies with overlapped populations and without a head-to-head comparison of the PENG block vs. FI block. Mean-Difference (MD) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were pooled. Trial Sequential Analyses (TSA) were performed to assess inconsistency. Quality assessment and risk of bias were performed according to Cochrane recommendations. Results: Eight RCTs comprising 384 patients were included, of whom 196 (51%) underwent PENG block. After hip surgery, PENG block reduced static pain score at 12h post-surgery (MD = 0.61 mm; 95% CI 1.12 to -0.09; p = 0.02) and cumulative postoperative oral morphine consumption in the first 24h (MD = -6.93 mg; 95% CI -13.60 to -0.25; p = 0.04) compared with the FI group. However, no differences were found between the two techniques regarding dynamic and static pain scores at 6 h or 24 h post-surgery, or in the time to the first analgesic rescue after surgery. Conclusion: The findings suggest that PENG block reduced opioid consumption in the first 24 h after surgery and reduced pain scores at rest at 12 h post-surgery. Further research is needed to fully understand the effects of the PENG block and its potential benefits compared to FI block. PROSPERO registration: CRD42022339628 PROSPERO registration: RecordID=339628

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Femoral Nerve , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Fascia/injuries
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 744-750, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520387


Abstract Background and aims: Dexamethasone as adjunct to local anesthetic solution improves the quality of brachial plexus block (BPB). However, evidence for its efficacy at low doses (< 4 mg) is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the duration of analgesia attained with low dose dexamethasone as adjuvant to local anesthetic for creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) under BPB. Methods: Sixty-six patients scheduled for AVF creation were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control) or 2 mg dexamethasone, together with 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.2% lignocaine. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia, defined as time from performing the block to the first analgesic request. The secondary outcomes were time from injection to complete sensory block, time from injection to complete motor block, duration of motor block, postoperative analgesic consumption, and fistula patency at three months. Results: All the blocks were effective. In the group that received dexamethasone, the time to first analgesic request was significantly delayed (432 ± 43.8 minutes vs. 386.4 ± 40.2 minutes; p < 0.01). The onset of sensory and motor blockade occurred faster in dexamethasone group and overall analgesic consumption was also reduced. However, dexamethasone addition did not prolong the duration of motor block. There was no statistically significant difference in the patency of fistulas between the two groups at three months. (p = 0.34). Conclusion: Addition of low-dose perineural dexamethasone to local anesthetic solution significantly prolonged the duration of analgesia. Further trials are warranted to compare the adverse effects between dexamethasone doses of 4 mg and lower.

Humans , Arteriovenous Fistula , Brachial Plexus Block , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pain, Postoperative , Dexamethasone , Analgesics , Anesthetics, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 819-821, Nov.Dec. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520390


Abstract An elderly patient was admitted to the hospital due to an enterovesical fistula and a terminal colostomy was proposed. The patient had a high anesthetic risk and thus a quadratus lumborum block was chosen as the sole anesthetic technique. This block has been described to provide both somatic and visceral analgesia to the abdomen. In fact, it yielded good anesthetic conditions to perform the procedure and allowed the patient to be hemodynamically stable and comfortable throughout the case. The postoperative period was uneventful.

Humans , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Nerve Block/methods , Colostomy/adverse effects , Abdominal Muscles , Anesthetics, Local
Dolor ; 33(76): 24-28, ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510386


Una deficiente calidad del manejo del dolor post operatorio agudo genera aumento en la morbilidad perioperatoria, disminuye la calidad de vida del paciente, aumenta los reingresos hospitalarios y, finalmente, los costes en salud. La analgesia preventiva y multimodal son dos estrategias que han sido implementadas para tratar de optimizar el manejo del dolor. Si bien en la primera, la evidencia es favorable a su empleo, aún no existe un total consenso en esto. A su vez, la analgesia multimodal, al emplear diferentes fármacos y/o técnicas, ha logrado evidenciar de mejor manera su utilidad y los beneficios al implementarla como terapia. En este artículo, revisamos la evidencia que certifica y avala el uso de éstas. Finalmente, a nuestro parecer, lo más importante en el quehacer del clínico, es lograr individualizar la estrategia que usaremos en el manejo del dolor postoperatorio, adaptándonos a las necesidades y el contexto propio de cada uno de nuestros pacientes.

A poor quality of acute postoperative pain management generates an increase in perioperative morbidity, decreases the quality of life of the patient, increases hospital readmissions and finally, increases health costs. Preventive and multimodal analgesia are two strategies that are implemented to try to optimize pain management. Although in the first, the evidence is favorable to its use, there is still no total consensus. At the same time, multimodal analgesia, by using different drugs and/or techniques, has demonstrated, in a better way, its usefulness and benefits when implemented as a therapy. In this article, we review the evidence that certifies and supports the use of these techniques. Finally, in our opinion, the most important thing in the clinician's task is to be able to individualize the strategy that we will use in postoperative pain management, adapting to the needs and context of each one of our patients.

Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Quality of Life
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(2): 39-41, 20230000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1436992


La incidencia de la hernia inguinal a lo largo de la vida es variable, pero con una mayor prevalencia en los hombres. Hoy en día no existe una técnica superior en términos de reducir el dolor postoperatorio crónico, que es la mayor morbilidad que afecta a los pacientes. Es por eso que realizamos un breve análisis comparativo, donde evaluamos la incidencia de dolor crónico entre el ensayo convencional versus laparoscópico de la patología de la hernia

The incidence of inguinal hernia throughout life is variable, but with a higher prevalence in males. Today there is no superior technique in terms of reducing chronic postoperative pain, which is the greatest morbidity that afflicts patients. That is why we carried out a brief comparative analysis, where we evaluated the incidence of chronic pain between conventional versus laparoscopic rehearsal of hernia pathology

Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative , Laparoscopy , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Hernia, Inguinal/pathology
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 347-350, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439615


Abstract In five patient undergoing surgery for proximal humerus fracture we investigated into postoperative analgesia provided by continuous costoclavicular block using continuous stimulating catheter. The postoperative pain scores were less than 4 in all patients except in two patients who required intravenous tramadol 50 mg as a rescue analgesic. The radiocontrast dye study executed in two patients revealed contiguous contrast spread through the brachial plexus sheath with the catheter tip in the interscalene space. We propose that a continuous costoclavicular block with a retrograde stimulating catheter is a feasible alternative regional anesthesia technique for postoperative analgesia in shoulder surgery.

Humans , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Analgesia , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Shoulder/surgery , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Catheters , Ropivacaine , Anesthetics, Local
Rev. ADM ; 80(2): 76-81, mar.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513112


La cirugía de terceros molares es uno de los procedimientos más realizados dentro de la práctica odontológica, generalmente conlleva la prescripción de fármacos, incluidos antibióticos indicados para prevenir la aparición de procesos infecciosos. La resistencia antimicrobiana es considerada como un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, por lo que el uso de antibióticos debe ser cauteloso. La solución electrolizada de súperoxidación ha demostrado tener efectos bactericidas, virucidas y ha sido utilizada para la prevención y el tratamiento de procesos infecciosos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la efectividad de dicha solución en la prevención de infecciones posteriores a la cirugía de terceros molares. Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado, ciego, prospectivo en 20 pacientes utilizando un diseño split mouth, en donde cada paciente fue sujeto control y experimental, en el grupo control se irrigó durante el procedimiento con solución de súperoxidación y no se prescribió antibiótico posterior, mientras que en el grupo control se irrigó con solución fisiológica y se prescribió antibiótico posterior. Se realizaron 40 cirugías en 20 pacientes utilizando en cada paciente ambas terapéuticas. Se analizó el dolor postoperatorio, inflamación y presencia de infección. El dolor y la inflamación fueron ligeramente superiores en el grupo experimental al tercer día; sin embargo, al séptimo día los resultados fueron similares. No se presentó ningún caso de infección postoperatoria. El uso de solución de súperoxidación transoperatoria puede ser una herramienta muy útil en la prevención de infecciones postoperatorias posterior a cirugía de terceros molares en pacientes sanos en cirugías con dificultad leve a moderada (AU)

Third molar surgery is one of the most performed procedures in dental practice, generally involving the prescription of drugs including antibiotics indicated to prevent the onset of infectious processes. Antimicrobial resistance is considered a public health problem worldwide, so the use of antibiotics should be cautious. The electrolyzed super oxidation solution has been shown to have bactericidal and virucidal effects and has been used for the prevention and treatment of infectious processes. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of said solution in the prevention of infections after third molar surgery. A randomized, blind, prospective study was conducted in 20 patients using a split mouth design where each patient was a control and experimental subject, in the control group they were irrigated during the procedure with super oxidation solution and no subsequent antibiotic was prescribed. while the control group was irrigated with physiological solution and a subsequent antibiotic was prescribed. Forty surgeries were performed on 20 patients using both therapies in each patient. Postoperative pain, inflammation and presence of infection were analyzed. Pain and inflammation were slightly higher in the experimental group on third day, however on seventh day the results were similar. There were no cases of postoperative infection. The use of trans operative super oxidation solution can be a very useful tool in the prevention of postoperative infections after third molar surgery in healthy patients undergoing surgeries with mild to moderate difficulty.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Oxidation , Molar, Third/surgery , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Randomized Controlled Trial
J. nurs. health ; 13(1): 13122933, abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1524517


Objetivo: descrever a percepção dos cuidadores frente a dor pós-operatória pediátrica e cuidados de enfermagem. Método: estudo descritivo, realizado na Unidade de Pediatria de um Hospital Universitário no Paraná com dados coletados mediante formulário sociodemográfico e questionário de Dor de MCGill-Melzack adaptado e análise a partir de estatística descritiva. Resultados: participaram do estudo 24 cuidadores de crianças submetidas a intervenções cirúrgicas, predominantemente, mulheres (22), preponderando as crianças do sexo masculino. Os resultados apresentaram maior utilização de dipirona como analgesia (50%), tendo a maioria dos cuidadores descrito a dor como breve (33,3%). O principal comportamento de dor relatado foi choro (35%). De forma geral, os cuidadores classificaram a assistência de enfermagem como muito boa ou excelente. Conclusão: o profissional de enfermagem, reconhece a dor como um evento importante e presta assistência. O estudo incita a necessidade de padronização de instrumentos de avaliação e manejo da dor pediátrica pós-operatória.

Objective: to describe the perception of caregivers regarding pediatric postoperative pain and nursing care.Method:descriptive study, carried out at the Pediatrics Unit of a University Hospital in Paraná with data collected using a sociodemographic form and an adapted MCGill-Melzack Pain questionnaire and analysis based on descriptive statistics. Results: 24 caregivers of children undergoing surgical interventions participated in the study, predominantly women (22), with a predominance of male children. The results showed a greater use of dipyrone as analgesia (50%), with most caregivers describing the pain as brief (33.3%). The main reported pain behavior was crying (35%). In general, caregivers rated nursing care as very good or excellent.Conclusions: the nursing professional recognizes pain as an important event and provides assistance. The study highlights the need for standardization of postoperative pediatric pain assessment and management instruments.

Objetivo: describir la percepción de los cuidadores sobre el dolor posoperatorio pediátrico y el cuidado de enfermería. Método: estudio descriptivo, realizado en la Unidad de Pediatría de un Hospital Universitario de Paraná con datos recolectados mediante formulario sociodemográfico y cuestionario MCGill-Melzack Pain adaptado y análisis con base en estadística descriptiva. Resultados: participaron del estudio 24 cuidadores de niños sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas, predominantemente mujeres (22), con predominio de niños varones. Los resultados mostraron un mayor uso de dipirona como analgesia (50%), con la mayoría de los cuidadores describiendo el dolor como breve (33,3%). La principal conducta de dolor reportada fue el llanto (35%). En general, los cuidadores calificaron la atención de enfermería como muy buena o excelente. Conclusiones: el profesional de enfermería reconoce el dolor como un evento importante y brinda asistencia. El estudio destaca la necesidad de estandarizar los instrumentos de evaluación ymanejo del dolor pediátrico posoperatorio.

Pain, Postoperative , Child , Caregivers , Analgesia
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 198-216, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439594


Abstract Introduction Spinal infusions of either fentanyl or sufentanil have been reported in international reports, articles, and scientific events worldwide. This study aimed to determine whether intrathecal fentanyl or sufentanil offers safety in mortality and perioperative adverse events. Methods MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane library databases), gray literature, hand-searching, and were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials with no language, data, or status restrictions were included, comparing the effectiveness and safety of adding spinal lipophilic opioid to local anesthetics (LAs). Data were pooled using the random-effects models or fixed-effect models based on heterogeneity. Results The initial search retrieved 4469 records; 3241 records were eligible, and 3152 articles were excluded after reading titles and abstracts, with a high agreement rate (98.6%). After reading the full texts, 76 articles remained. Spinal fentanyl and sufentanil significantly reduced postoperative pain and opioid consumption, increased analgesia and pruritus. Fentanyl, but not sufentanil, significantly reduced both postoperative nausea and vomiting, and postoperative shivering; compared to LAs alone. The analyzed studies did not report any case of in-hospital mortality related to spinal lipophilic opioids. The rate of respiratory depression was 0.7% and 0.8% when spinal fentanyl or sufentanil was added and when it was not, respectively. Episodes of respiratory depression were rare, uneventful, occurred intraoperatively, and were easily manageable. Conclusion There is moderate to high quality certainty that there is evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of adding lipophilic opioids to LAs in spinal anesthesia.

Humans , Fentanyl/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative , Sufentanil/adverse effects , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 165-170, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439581


Abstract Background Opioids are the cornerstone in managing postoperative pain; however, they have many side effects. Ketamine and Magnesium (Mg) are NMDA receptor antagonists used as adjuvant analgesics to decrease postoperative opioid consumption. Objective We assumed that adding Mg to ketamine infusion can improve the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic efficacy of ketamine infusion alone in cancer breast surgeries. Methods Ninety patients aged between 18 and 65 years and undergoing elective cancer breast surgery were included in this prospective randomized, double-blind study. Group K received ketamine 0.5 bolus then 0.12 infusion for the first 24 hours postoperatively. Group KM: received ketamine 0.5 and Mg sulfate 50, then ketamine 0.12 and Mg sulfate 8 infusions for the first 24 hours postoperative. The primary outcome was the morphine consumption in the first 24 hours postoperative, while the secondary outcomes were: intraoperative fentanyl consumption, NRS, side effects, and chronic postoperative pain. Results Group KM had less postoperative opioid consumption (14.12 ± 5.11 mg) than Group K (19.43 ± 6.8 mg). Also, Group KM had less intraoperative fentanyl consumption. Both groups were similar in postoperative NRS scores, the incidence of side effects related to opioids, and chronic neuropathic pain. Conclusion Adding Mg to ketamine infusion can safely improve intraoperative and postoperative analgesia with opioid-sparing effect in cancer breast surgery.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Analgesia , Ketamine , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Fentanyl , Double-Blind Method , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Morphine/therapeutic use
Femina ; 51(3): 147-150, 20230331. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428721


A evolução contínua das áreas cirúrgicas se deve a estudos e pesquisas, avanços tecnológicos e desenvolvimento de equipamentos mais avançados. A cirurgia minimamente invasiva, incluindo a videolaparoscopia, histeroscopia e cirurgia robótica, tem sido impactada significativamente pelos avanços cirúrgicos. As técnicas minimamente invasivas têm se tornado padrão-ouro no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças ginecológicas, proporcionando benefícios como redução do tempo cirúrgico, menor dor no pós-operatório e melhoria na qualidade de vida. O treinamento adequado do cirurgião e da equipe é fundamental para o sucesso do tratamento cirúrgico, e o desenvolvimento tecnológico e aprimoramento dos equipamentos impulsionam a cirurgia minimamente invasiva como uma área específica da Ginecologia. Métodos seguros de treinamento, como laboratórios de simulação, permitem o aprimoramento gradual das habilidades dos cirurgiões em formação, preparando-os para uma prática segura e eficaz. A literatura fornece ferramentas e conceitos para o treinamento em cirurgia minimamente invasiva, visando formar residentes e novos cirurgiões.

Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Pain, Postoperative , Patient Care Team , Quality of Life , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/history , Teaching/education , Technological Development , Surgical Oncology/trends , Medical Staff, Hospital/education
Espaç. saúde (Online) ; 24: 1-13, 01 mar. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512530


Avaliar e manejar a dor no período pós-operatório é fundamental, pois a dor aguda, se não ratada, é capaz de alterar diversos sistemas orgânicos. A realidade virtual constitui instrumento promissor de baixo custo para o alívio da dor. Este trabalho objetivou determinar a eficácia da realidade virtual no manejo da dor aguda leve a moderada em pacientes no pós-operatório mediato. Trata-se de um estudo clínico randomizado, realizado em um hospital pediátrico de Curitiba. Os participantes da pesquisa foram randomizados e alocados em dois grupos, submetidos a um vídeo temático relaxante e à realidade virtual. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e inferencial. A redução da dor proporcionada pela realidade virtual é estatisticamente significativa e superior quando comparada à redução induzida pelo vídeo temático relaxante, podendo otimizar a experiência de hospitalização, com atenção centrada na experiência do paciente, mitigando os efeitos colaterais relacionados ao uso de opioides.

Assessing and managing pain in the post-operative period is essential, as acute pain, if left untreated, can alter several organic systems. Virtual reality is a promising low-cost tool for pain relief. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality in the management of mild to moderate acute pain in patients in the immediate postoperative period. This is a randomized clinical study, carried out in a pediatric hospital in Curitiba. Research participants were randomized and allocated into two groups, and shown a relaxing thematic video and virtual reality. Data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Pain reduction provided by virtual reality is statistically significant and superior when compared to the reduction induced by the relaxing thematic video, and can optimize the hospitalization experience, with attention focused on the patient's experience, mitigating side effects related to the use of opioids

La evaluación y manejo del dolor en postoperatorio es fundamental. Ya que el dolor agudo, si no se trata, es capaz de alterar varios sistemas. La realidad virtual es un instrumento prometedor de bajo costo para alivio del dolor. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la efectividad de la realidad virtual en el manejo del dolor agudo en pacientes en postoperatorio inmediato. Se trata de un estudio clínico aleatorizado realizado en un hospital pediátrico de Curitiba. Los sujetos de la investigación fueron aleatorizados y distribuidos en dos grupos, sometidos a un video temático relajante y a la realidad virtual. Los datos fueron sometidos al análisis estadístico descriptivo e inferencial. La reducción del dolor proporcionada por la realidad virtual es estadísticamente significativa y superior en comparación con la reducción inducida por el video temático relajante, que puede optimizar la experiencia de hospitalización, con atención contrada en la experiencia del paciente, mitigando efectos secundarios relacionados con opioides.

Pain, Postoperative , Nursing Care
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 72-77, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420640


Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the common surgical intervention for benign biliary diseases. Postoperative pain after LC remains as an important problem, with two components: somatic and visceral. Trocar entry incisions lead to somatic pain, while peritoneal distension with diaphragm irritation leads to visceral pain. Following its description by Forero et al., the erector spinae plane (ESP) block acquired considerable popularity among clinicians. This led to the use of ESP block for postoperative pain management for various operations. Materials and methods This study was conducted between January and June 2019. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. All the patients received bilateral or unilateral ESP block at the T8 level preoperatively according to their groups. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms NRS scores either at rest or while coughing at any time interval except for postoperative 6th hour (p = 0.023). Morphine consumption was similar between the groups but was significantly lower in group B at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.044 and p = 0.022, respectively). Twelve patients in group A and three patients in group B had shoulder pain and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Discussion In conclusion, bilateral ESP block provided more effective analgesia than unilateral ESP block in patients undergoing elective LC. Bilateral ESP block reduced the amount of opioid consumption and the incidence of postoperative shoulder pain.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Analgesia , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/ethnology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Shoulder Pain , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthetics, Local