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1.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 6: 1-16, 30-01-2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1531233

ABSTRACT

Con la sanción de la Constitución Nacional en 1992 de la Repúblicadel Paraguay, se declara en sus artículos 68 y 69 "que el Estado protegerá y promoverá el derecho a la salud como fundamental, proveyendo las condiciones dentro del Sistema Nacional de Salud, recursos, planes y políticas integradas al desarrollo". Este marco constitucional ha sido la base y el fundamento de la Ley 1.032/96, que crea el Sistema Nacional de Salud, el cual está compuesto por los subsectores públicos, mixtos y privados, caracterizado por un modelo segmentado y fragmentado, reglamentado por el Decreto Ley N°21.376 del año 1998 bajo la rectoría del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social, actualmente la salud paraguaya está fundamentada en los ejes estratégicos basados en la creación e implementación de unidades de salud familiar y se define con un enfoque basado en la atención primaria de la salud. Palabras clave: Paraguay; derecho a la salud; sistemas nacionales de salud; constitución y estatutos; atención primaria de salud


With the enactment of the National Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay in 1992, articles 68 and 69 state that "the State will protect and promote the right to health as fundamental, providing the conditions within the National Health System, resources, plans and policies integrated to development". This constitutional framework has been the basis and foundation of Law 1.032/96, which creates the National Health System, which is composed of public, mixed and private subsectors, characterized by a segmented and fragmented model, regulated by the Decree Law No. 21,376 of 1998, under the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, Paraguayan health is currently based on strategic axes based on the creation and implementation of family health units and is defined with an approach based on primary health care. Key words: Paraguay; right to health; national health systems; constitutionand bylaws; primary health care


Subject(s)
Right to Health , Paraguay , Primary Health Care , Constitution and Bylaws , National Health Systems
2.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 6: 1-7, 30-01-2024.
Article in English | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1526922

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The connection between news sources and the connotation of mental health articles in Paraguay during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2023) significantly impacted public opinion about mental health. Objective.This study analyzednews onmental health in Paraguay in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods.A descriptive retrospective study of all news articles on mental health published in the three primary newspapers of the country between May 2020 and May 2023 was conducted. The keywords were depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and mental health issues. Results. A total of 534 newswereexamined, 39.5% published by La Nación newspaper, 33.1% in 2023, and in 88.4% the author's identity and gender were not specified. Of the writing characteristics, 99.8% were written in the third person, 62.7% had a human-interest context,48.5% had a neutral connotation, 65.7% focused on health and well-being,and 7.5% written by health experts. The year of publication wasstatistically associated to connotation (p=0.003) and context (p<0.001). Conclusion. The media has paid significant attention to mental health. Despite the objectivity provided by third-person narration, problems arise because of a lack of author identification. To encourage balanced and non-polarized reporting, it is crucial to incorporate expert voices and promote the framing of mental health stories as "human interest". Palabras clave: mental health; news; newspaper article; COVID-19; Paraguay


Introducción. La conexión entre las fuentes de noticias y la connotación de los artículos sobre salud mental en Paraguay durante la pandemia de COVID-19 (2020-2023) impactó significativamente en la opinión pública sobre la salud mental. Objetivo. Analizar las noticias sobre salud mental en Paraguay en el contexto de la pandemia COVID-19. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de todos los artículos periodísticos sobre salud mental publicados en los tres principales periódicos del país entre mayo de 2020 y mayo de 2023. Las palabras clave fueron trastornos depresivos, trastornos de ansiedad, trastorno bipolar, esquizofrenia y problemas de salud mental. Resultados. Se examinaron 534 artículos periodísticos, 39,5% publicados por el diario La Nación, 33,1% en 2023y en 88,4%no se especificó la identidad ni el género del autor. De las características de redacción, el 99,8% estaban escritos en tercera persona, 62,7% pertenecían a un contexto de interés humano,48,5% tenían una connotación neutra, 65,7% se centraban en la salud y el bienestar y el 7,5% escritos por expertos en salud. El año de publicación se asoció significativamente con la connotación (p=0,003) y con el contexto (p<0,001). Conclusión. Los medios de comunicación han prestado gran atención a la salud mental. A pesar de la objetividad que aporta la narración en tercera persona, surgen problemas por la falta de identificación del autor. Para fomentar una información equilibrada y no polarizada, es crucial incorporar voces expertas y promover el encuadre de las historias de salud mental como "interés humano". Key words: salud mental; noticias; artículo de periódico; COVID-19;Paraguay


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mental Health , COVID-19 , Paraguay , News , Newspaper Article
3.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-8, 26-01-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1511711

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Caracterizar la epidemia del SARS-CoV-2 en la comunidad puede aportar datos útiles a las autoridades en la toma de decisiones sobre las instituciones educativas en Paraguay. Objetivo. Describir las características epidemiológicas de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en los hogares de escolares de tres instituciones de Asunción y departamento Central. Materiales y Métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado entre el 25 de octubre al 5 de noviembre de 2021. Se aplicaron encuestas estructuradas a los padres o encargados de escolares mediante un cuestionario en formato del formulario de Google enviado a través del WhatsApp desde la Dirección de las instituciones educativas. El cuestionario incluía preguntas sobre el número integrantes del hogar, datos demográficos del encuestado, número de personas con co-morbilidad, personas con COVID-19, con necesidad de hospitalización, número de fallecidos y vacunados contra COVID-19. Resultado. Se obtuvieron datos de 780 hogares, 379 (48,6%) de San Lorenzo, 217 (27,8) de Limpio, 93 (11,9%) de Asunción y 91 de otras localidades de Central (11,7%), el 18,6 % (731/3920) de los integrantes del hogar tuvo COVID-19, de ellos 9,7% (71/731) fue hospitalizado. La mortalidad fue de 0,79% (31/3920) y la letalidad 4,2% (31/731). El 52,7% (2340/3920) ya fue vacunado contra COVID-19 y el 88,2% (2065/2340) de ellos con dosis completa. Conclusión. La prevalencia de COVID-19 estuvo dentro del rango esperado para las infecciones sintomáticas con un alto índice de transmisión intradomiciliaria. Tanto la tasa de mortalidad como letalidad fueron consistentes con los datos nacionales. Palabras Clave: COVID-19; instituciones académicas; Paraguay; características de estudios epidemiológicos


Introduction. Characterizing the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the community can provide useful data for the authorities in making decisions on the educational institutions in Paraguay. Objective.To describe the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the homes of schoolchildren from three institutions in Asunción and the Central Department. Materials and Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between October 25 and November 5, 2021. Structured surveys were applied to parents or guardians of schoolchildren through a questionnaire in the format of the Google form sent through WhatsApp from the Directorate of the educational institutions. The questionnaire included questions about the number of household members, demographic data of the respondent, number of people with co-morbidity, people with COVID-19, need of hospitalization, number of death and vaccinated against COVID-19. Results.Data from 780 households were obtained, 379 (48.6%) from San Lorenzo, 217 (27.8) from Limpio, 93 (11.9%) from Asunción and 91 from other localities from Central (11.7%); 18.6% (731/3920) of household members had COVID-19, of them 9.7% (71/731) were hospitalized. Mortality rate was 0.79% (31/3920) and lethality 4.2% (31/731). 52.7% (2,340/3,920) were already vaccinated against COVID-19 and 88.2% (2,065/2,340) of them fully vaccinated. Conclusion.The prevalence of infection was within the expected range for symptomatic COVID-19 infections with a high rate of intradomiciliary transmission. Both the hospitalization and fatality rates were within the range for the country. Key words: COVID-19; schools; Paraguay; epidemiologic study characteristics


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Paraguay , Schools , Epidemiologic Study Characteristics
4.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-5, 26-01-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1517625

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La infección por el virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) es la causa más frecuente de mononucleosis infecciosa, y también está asociada a varios tipos de cáncer. La prevalencia de la infección por este virus varía en diferentes poblaciones y no hay publicaciones sobre la epidemiología de esta infección en Paraguay. Objetivo. Describir la seroprevalencia de la infección por VEB en estudiantes universitarios y las características sociodemográficas asociadas. Materiales y Métodos. Estudio transversal en estudiantes de una universidad pública del departamento Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Se incluyeron 101 participantes, mediante muestreo de casos consecutivos. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se tomó muestras sanguíneas. Se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos por el método ELISA de captura de IgG específicos contra el antígeno de la cápside viral -VCA del VEB, además se evaluaron factores asociados a la seropositividad. Resultados. La seroprevalencia global fue 89,1% (90/101), asociado (p<0,025) a la condición socioeconómica baja (93,4%vs 76%, OR: 4.9 [IC 95%: 1,2 ­16,3]). Conclusión. La seroprevalencia contra el virus de Epstein-Barr es alta en estudiantes universitarios y está asociada a la condición socioeconómica baja. Palabras Clave: estudios seroepidemiológicos; anticuerpos; infecciones por virus de Epstein-Barr; estudiantes; Paraguay


Introduction. Infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is also linked to multiple cancers. The prevalence of EBV infection varies in different populations and there is no publication about the epidemiology of this infection in Paraguay. Objective.To describethe seroprevalence among university students and associated sociodemographic characteristics. Material and Methods.Cross-sectional study in students from a public university in Alto Paraná, Paraguay.A total of 101 participants were recruited through consecutive sampling.Aquestionnaire was applied and blood samples were obtained. Antibodies were determined by Epstein-Barr Virus IgG anti-VCA capture ELISA method, and factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated. Results. The overall seropositivity was 89,1%(90/101), which was associated(p<0,025) with low socioeconomic status (93,4%vs 76%, OR: 4.9 [95% CI: 1.2 -16.3]). Conclusion. The seroprevalence to EBV is high in collegestudents which is associated to low socioeconomic condition. Key words: seroepidemiologic studies; antibodies; Epstein-Barr virus infections; students; Paraguay


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Paraguay , Students , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 27: e20220323, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1440101

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Compreender a atenção à saúde de puérperas em uma região de fronteira na vigência da pandemia por COVID-19. Método Pesquisa qualitativa do tipo Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, vertente straussiana, realizada em região de fronteira, na atenção primária à saúde, com 30 participantes, que formaram três grupos amostrais entre mulheres, profissionais de saúde e gestores, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, realizadas por chamada de voz e de forma presencial entre agosto de 2021 a maio de 2022. Resultados Identificaram-se cinco categorias, conforme modelo paradigmático, sendo elas: Identificando serviços de atenção ao puerpério; retornando para a atenção primária à saúde no puerpério; identificando fatores que interferiram no atendimento à puérpera; apontando estratégias para promoção da saúde no puerpério; e tendo uma atenção puerperal frágil. Conclusão e implicações para a prática Fragilidades existentes foram agravadas no curso da pandemia por COVID-19. Recomenda-se qualificar a contrarreferência para garantir a continuidade da atenção puerperal em tempo oportuno; o teleatendimento para viabilizar o acompanhamento, quando condições epidemiológicas forem de risco para a saúde materna; políticas públicas podem fortalecer a assistência a estrangeiras e migrantes em região de fronteira.


Resumen Objetivo Comprender la atención a la salud de puérperas en una región fronteriza durante la presencia de la pandemia por COVID-19. Método Investigación cualitativa del tipo Teoría Fundamentada, vertiente straussiana, realizada en una región fronteriza, en atención primaria de salud, con 30 participantes, que conformaron tres grupos muestrales entre mujeres, profesionales de la salud y directivos, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, realizadas por llamada de voz y personal directivo entre agosto de 2021 y mayo de 2022. Resultados Se identificaron cinco categorías, de acuerdo con el modelo paradigmático: Identificar los servicios de atención al puerperio; volver a la atención primaria de salud en el puerperio; identificar los factores que interfirieron en la atención puérpera; señalar estrategias para la promoción de la salud en el puerperio; teniendo un cuidado puerperal frágil. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica las debilidades existentes fueron exacerbadas en el curso de la pandemia por COVID-19. Se recomienda calificar la contrarreferencia para asegurar la continuidad de la atención puerperal en tiempo y forma; el teleservicio para permitir el seguimiento, cuando las condiciones epidemiológicas representen un riesgo para la salud materna; Las políticas públicas pueden fortalecer la atención a los extranjeros y migrantes en la región fronteriza.


Abstract Objective To understand the health care of puerperal women in a border region during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method Grounded Theory qualitative research, straussian strand, conducted in a border region, in primary health care, with 30 participants, who formed three sample groups among women, health professionals, and managers through semi-structured interviews conducted by voice call and in-person between August 2021 and May 2022. Results Five categories were identified, according to the paradigmatic model, namely: Identifying postpartum care services; returning to primary health care in the postpartum; identifying factors that interfered in the care of postpartum women; pointing out strategies for health promotion in the postpartum period; and having fragile postpartum care. Conclusion and implications for practice Existing weaknesses were exacerbated during the pandemic by COVID-19. It is recommended to qualify the counter-referral to ensure continuity of postpartum care on time; teleservice to enable follow-up when epidemiological conditions pose a risk to maternal health; public policies can strengthen assistance to foreign women and migrants in the border region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Postnatal Care , Border Health , Maternal-Child Health Services , Paraguay , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Health Centers , Health Services Accessibility , House Calls
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431253

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to verify the prevalence of breastfeeding and the children's nutritional status of indigenous origin up to two years of age in the triple frontier region: Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Methods: data from the Sistema de Vigilância Nutricional e Alimentar Indígena (Indigenous Food and Nutrition Surveillance System) were analyzed, being a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The survey was carried out in 2018, with data referring to 2017. Registrations of indigenous children of both sexes,aged zero to two years old were included. Data were extracted from the indigenous children's follow-up map. The prevalence of breastfeeding and complementary feeding was evaluated. Results: the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in children under six months of age was 93.4% and complementary breastfeeding was 6.5%. The prevalence of complementary breastfeeding after six months was 71.6% and exclusive breastfeeding after six months was 28.3%. Regarding social benefits, 30.3% of the families accumulated two types of social benefits. Conclusions: the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was high and surpassed the national prevalence in the first semester of life, there was no early weaning.


Resumo Objetivos: verificar a prevalência do aleitamento materno e estado nutricional de crianças de origem indígena até dois anos de idade na região de tríplice fronteira: Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai. Métodos: foram analisados dados do Sistema de Vigilância Nutricional e Alimentar Indígena, sendo um estudo transversal e descritivo. A pesquisa foi realizada em 2018, com dados referentes à 2017. Foram incluídos registros de crianças indígenas de zero a dois anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram extraídos do mapa de acompanhamento de crianças indígenas. Foi avaliada a prevalência do aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar. Resultados: a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo em menores de seis meses foi de 93,4% e do aleitamento materno complementado foi de 6,5%. A prevalência do aleitamento materno complementado após seis meses foi de 71,6% e do aleitamento materno exclusivo após seis meses foi de 28,3%. Com relação à classificação de peso para a idade, 80,5% dos registros mostraram crianças com peso adequado para a idade. Em relação aos benefícios sociais, 30,3% das famílias acumulavam dois tipos de benefícios sociais. Conclusões: a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi alta e superam prevalência nacional no primeiro semestre de vida, não houve desmame precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Status , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Infant Nutrition , Indigenous Peoples , Paraguay/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Weaning , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1423753

ABSTRACT

La paracoccidiodomicosis es la micosis sistémica más frecuente en América Latina. La afectación del sistema nervioso central (SNC) está descrita en un 10-27%. El objetivo es presentar dos pacientes del sexo masculino con neuroparacoccidiodomicosis internados en el Departamento de Medicina Interna del Hospital Nacional, uno en el año 2017 y el otro en el 2021. Ambos pacientes presentaron síntomas neurológicos con mejoría de las lesiones con anfotericina B. Los granulomas cerebrales de PCM pueden tener comportamiento pseudotumoral. La regresión de las lesiones fue completa con anfotericina B y trimetoprin sulfametoxasol en el primer caso y anfotericina B e itraconazol en el segundo caso.


Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most common systemic mycosis in Latin America. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is described in 10-27%. The objective is to present two male patients with neuroparacoccidioidomycosis admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of the National Hospital, one in 2017 and the other in 2021. Both patients presented neurological symptoms with improvement of the lesions with amphotericin B. The granulomas brain cells of PCM may have pseudotumor behavior. Regression of the lesions was complete with amphotericin B and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole in the first case and amphotericin B and itraconazole in the second case.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioidomycosis , Signs and Symptoms , Paraguay , Behavior , Central Nervous System
8.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220216, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521590

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to estimate the epidemiological burden of excessive salt intake reduction and achieve the World Health Organization salt reduction target for 2025 in Paraguay, in 2019. Methods We used the Preventable Risk Integrated Model, a comparative risk assessment macro-simulation model, to estimate the averted deaths, disease incidence, and disability-adjusted life years from cardiovascular disease attributable to salt intake in the population of Paraguay for different salt reduction policy scenarios. Results As a result, in Paraguay, excessive salt intake (over 5 g/day) is responsible for approximately 2,656 cardiovascular disease deaths (95% Uncertainty Interval: 1,250-3,765), 4,816 cardiovascular disease cases (95% UI: 2,251-6,947), and 60,529 disability-adjusted life years (95% UI: 27,828-86,258) per year. By reducing salt consumption by 30%, as recommended by the World Health Organization until 2025, approximately 1,188 deaths (95% UI: 520 to 1,820), 2,100 incident cases (95% UI: 923-3,234), and 27,272 disability-adjusted life years (95% UI: 11,999-41,675) from cardiovascular disease could be averted every year. Conclusion In conclusion, the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to excessive salt intake is significant and salt reduction policies must become a priority in Paraguay.


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo visa estimar a carga epidemiológica do consumo excessivo de sal e o alcance da meta da Organização Mundial de Saúde para 2025 no Paraguai, em 2019. Métodos Foi usado um modelo de avaliação comparativa de risco (Preventable Risk Integrated Model) para análise comparativa de risco para estimar mortes, casos incidentes e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALYs) por doenças cardiovasculares atribuíveis ao consumo excessivo de sal na população paraguaia em diferentes cenários. Resultados No Paraguai, o consumo excessivo de sal é responsável por aproximadamente 2.656 mortes (Intervalo de Incerteza 95%: 1.250-3.765), 4.816 casos incidentes (95% II: 2.251-6.947) e 60.529 DALYs (95% II: 27.828-86.258) por doenças cardiovasculares por ano. Com uma redução de 30% no consumo de sal, como recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde até 2025, aproximadamente 1.188 mortes (95% II: 520-1.820), 2.100 casos incidentes (95% II: 923-3.234) e 27.272 DALYs (95% II: 11.999-41.675) por doenças cardiovasculares poderiam ser prevenidos ou adiados por ano. Conclusão Concluiu-se que a carga de doenças cardiovasculares atribuível ao consumo excessivo de sal no Paraguai é significante e políticas de redução deveriam ser priorizadas no país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sodium, Dietary/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Paraguay , World Health Organization , Mortality/ethnology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Health Policy , Hypertension/mortality
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30: e2023036, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448367

ABSTRACT

Neste texto, analisamos o tratamento dispensado aos escravos enfermos do Ofício da Província Jesuítica do Paraguay e da Estância de Santa Catalina entre 1711 e 1745. As fontes analisadas - Libro de cuentas del Ofício, Memoriales e Cartas ânuas - revelam que o adoecimento de escravos do Ofício gerava despesas tanto com a aquisição de medicamentos, roupas e alimentos quanto com mortalhas para seu sepultamento. No caso dos escravos da Estância de Santa Catalina, observou-se que, dependendo da enfermidade, eles eram encaminhados à cidade de Córdoba, onde eram tratados por leigos treinados nas artes de curar, o que implicava despesas de outra natureza também registradas nos relatórios contábeis.


Abstract This text analyzes the way sick slaves were treated at the Office (ofício) of the Jesuit Province of Paraguay and Santa Catalina Farm (estancia) between 1711 and 1745. The sources consulted - Libro de cuentas del Ofício, Memoriales, and Cartas ânuas - reveal that the sickness of the enslaved people generated expenses, not only for medications, clothing, and food, but also for shrouds for their burial. As for the slaves from the Santa Catalina Farm, the sources indicate that depending on the infirmity, they were sometimes sent to Córdoba, where they were treated by laypersons trained in the healing arts, which incurred different expenses, also recorded in the ledgers.


Subject(s)
Health Expenditures , Death , Delivery of Health Care , Enslaved Persons , Paraguay , History, 18th Century
10.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 67-82, jul.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1410692

ABSTRACT

Introducción:existe una sospecha sobre la relación bidireccional entre la apnea obstructiva del sueño (AOS) y la hipertensión arterial (HTA). Ambas ejercen una acción sinérgica sobre desenlaces cardiovasculares porlo quees trascendente ponderar la prevalencia de riesgo para AOS en los hipertensos. En este último grupo también hemos investigado la tasa de adherencia a los fármacos prescritos. Metodología:mediante un estudio de casos y controles y con la aplicación del cuestionario STOP-BANG se han discriminado las categorías de riesgo para apnea de sueño en las dos cohortes. Para el análisis de la adherencia a fármacos antihipertensivos se utilizó el cuestionario abreviado de Morisky. Resultados:se incluyeron a 590 individuos (295 casos y 295 controles. Se observó alto riesgo para AOS en el grupo de hipertensos (36,6%) comparado con el 14,2% del grupo control. Por otro lado, el sexo masculino OR 7,77 (IC95% 4,33-13,84), la obesidad OR 5,03 (IC95% 3,11-8,13) y la HTA OR 4,31 (IC95% 2,64-7,03) se ponderan significativos en un modelo de ajuste logístico aquí estudiado. El 61,69% de los hipertensos refería adherencia al tratamiento farmacológico prescrito. Discusión:el tamizaje de AOS es factible con un cuestionario aplicable en la práctica clínica diaria. De la probabilidad clínica pre-test hay que partir hacia métodos diagnósticos específicos para el diagnóstico de AOS, enfatizando casos de HTA resistente, HTA nocturna y HTA enmascarada. Se deberían realizar estudios locales que nos ayuden a comprender las causas de la falta de adherencia a fármacos antihipertensivos en una fracción importante de los individuos con HTA


Introduction:there is a suspicion about the bidirectional relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and arterial hypertension (AHT). Both have a synergistic action on cardiovascular outcomes, so it is important to assess the prevalence of risk for OSA in hypertensive patients. In this last group we have also investigated the rate of adherence to prescribed drugs.Metodology:through a case-control study and with the application of the STOP-BANG questionnaire, the risk categories for sleep apnea in the two cohorts have been discriminated. For the analysis of adherence to antihypertensive drugs, the abbreviated Morisky questionnaire was used. Results:590 individuals were included (295 cases and 295 controls. A high risk for OSA was observed in the hypertensive group (36.6%) compared to 14.2% in the control group. On the other hand, the male sex OR 7.77 (95%CI 4.33-13.84), obesity OR 5.03 (95%CI 3.11-8.13) and hypertensionOR4.31(95%CI 2.64-7.03) they areweighted significant in a logistic adjustment model studied here.61.69% of hypertensive patients reported adherence to the prescribed pharmacological treatment.Discussion:OSA screening is feasible with a questionnaire applicable in daily clinical practice. From the pre-test clinical probability, specific diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of OSA must be started, emphasizing cases of resistant AHT, nocturnal AHT, andmasked AHT. Local studies should be carried out to help us understand the causes of non-adherence to antihypertensive drugs in a significant fraction of individuals with AHT


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Risk Assessment , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Obesity , Paraguay/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Waist-Hip Ratio , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents
11.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 04--17, jul.-dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1402655

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la donación de órganos sigue siendo un problema incluso en aquellos sistemas más exitosos en la detección de donantes. Objetivo: identificar la actitud hacia la Ley Anita en estudiantes de la Facultad de ciencias de la salud Universidad Nacional del Caaguazú, año 2021. Metodología: estudio observacional, tipo descriptivo y de corte transversal. Se llevó a cabo en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, de la Universidad Nacional de Caaguazú, en el periodo comprendido durante los meses de junio a agosto del año 2021. El instrumento fue un cuestionario de preguntas cerradas con opciones múltiples. Resultado: en cuanto a la actitud respecto a la donación de órganos el 81.9 % donaría sus órganos y el 95.1 % donaría sus órganos si es un familiar el que necesita del mismo, el 69.8 % afirmó donarían los órganos de sus familiares. La opinión de la familia es favorable para el 43.4 % es favorable mientras que el 52.2 % de la población manifestó que su religión condice con la donación de órganos. El 92.3 % está a favor de la ley Anita. Conclusión: la actitud favorable hacia la donación de órganos estuvo relacionada con la opinión favorable de la familia y de la religión, además de ser positiva para los que están de acuerdo con la donación de sangre. La opinión de la familia y la religión influye también en la actitud favorable hacia la donación de órganos de familiares, además de asociarse hacia la actitud favorable hacia la Ley Anita.


Introduction: organ donation continues to be a problem even in the most successful systems in donor detection. Objective: to identify the attitude towards the Anita Law in students at the College of Health Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Caaguazú, during 2021. Methodology: this was an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was carried out at the College of Health Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Caaguazú, from June to August, 2021. The instrument was a questionnaire of closed questions with multiple-choice answers. Result: regarding attitudes towards organ donation, 81.9 % would donate their organs and 95.1 % would donate their organs if a family member required so, 69.8 % said they would donate the organs of their relatives. Family opinions were favorable for 43.4 % while 52.2 % of the population stated that their religious denomination agrees with organ donation. 92.3 % support the Anita law. Conclusion: the favorable attitude towards organ donation was related to the favorable opinions of the family and religious denomination, in addition to being positive for those who agree with blooddonation. The opinion of the family and religious denomination also influences the favorable attitude towards family organ donation, in addition to being associated with a favorable attitude towards the Anita Law.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Expressed Emotion , Optimism , Social Factors , Paraguay , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 018-029, jul.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1402658

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en Paraguay es del 58 % en la población adulta, y 34,5 % en niños y adolescentes. Para enfrentar esta situación existen varios tratamientos, siendo el quirúrgico el medio terapéutico actual que permite obtener la mayor pérdida de peso y por tiempo más prolongado. Objetivo: describir la morbimortalidad de las cirugías bariátricas en el Hospital Nacional de Itauguá en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2017 y setiembre 2021. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, observacional, retrospectivo de corte transversal, con un muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de obesidad que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico entre enero 2017 a setiembre del 2021. Se recabaron 126 historias clínicas, 121 de ellos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: de 121 pacientes, 82 % eran mujeres y 18 % hombres, con una edad media de 37 años. Se realizó una gastrectomía vertical en 68 % y by-pass gástrico en 21 %, con una estadía hospitalaria promedio de 61 h. La fístula fue la complicación postoperatoria más frecuente (7 %) seguida de la dehiscencia de anastomosis (2 %). La morbilidad de la cirugía bariátrica fue 11 %, con una mortalidad del 1 %. Conclusión: la morbilidad de la cirugía bariátrica en el Hospital Nacional de Itauguá es baja, con una mortalidad aceptable. La técnica más realizada es la gastrectomía vertical y la fístula es la complicación más común.


Introduction: the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Paraguay is 58 % in the adult population, and 34.5 % in children and adolescents. There are several treatments to deal with these conditions, with surgery being the current therapeutic option that allows for the greatest weight loss and for the longest time. Objective: to describe the morbidity and mortality of bariatric procedures at the Hospital Nacional, Itauguá from January 2017 to September 2021. Metodology: descriptive, observational, retrospective cross-sectional study, with a non- probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases of all patients diagnosed with obesity who received surgical treatment between January 2017 and September, 2021. 126 medical records were collected, 121 of them met the inclusion criteria. Results: of 121 patients, 82 % were women and 18 % men, with a mean age of 37 years. Vertical gastrectomy was performed in 68 % and gastric bypass in 21 %, with an average hospital stay of 61 hours. Fistula was the most frequent postoperative complication (7 %) followed by anastomosis dehiscence (2 %). The morbidity of bariatric surgery was 11 %, with a mortality of 1 %. Conclusion: the morbidity of bariatric surgery at the Hospital Nacional, Itauguá is low, with an acceptable mortality rate. The most common technique is sleeve gastrectomy and fistula is the most common complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Morbidity , Mortality , Overweight , Bariatric Surgery , Length of Stay , Obesity , Paraguay/epidemiology , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Prevalence , Diagnosis , Fistula
13.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 14(2): 030-043, jul.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1402679

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el primer caso de COVID-19 se confirmó en Paraguay el 7 de marzo de 2020. No se han encontrado publicaciones que haya caracterizado la frecuencia y características clínicoepidemiológica de COVID-19 en estudiantes de medicina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y características clínicas de estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacífico en el periodo académico 2020-2021. Metodología: estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, que incluyó a estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Pacifico. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta virtual por Google Docs© que incluía la edad, sexo, curso, síntomas, secuelas, pruebas laboratoriales y resultados para SARS-CoV-2 y gravedad del cuadro. Resultados: se encuestaron 342 estudiantes entre 18 a 42 años de los 6 cursos, 70,8 % de sexo femenino, 66,4 % presentó síntomas compatibles con COVID-19, el más frecuente (44,2 %) fue el dolor de cabeza. El 67,5 % estuvo en contacto con alguna persona con COVID-19 y 40,4 % informó no haber respetado estrictamente la cuarentena, el 61,7 % se realizó alguna prueba laboratorial y de ellos el 42,7 % resultó positivo para el SARS-CoV-2, 98,9 % cursó con cuadro leve. El 86,7 % conocía el nexo de contagio. Se observó significativamente (p<0,001) mayor frecuencia de COVID19 en los estudiantes ≤21 años (65 % vs 32 %), los que tuvieron contacto con persona con COVID19 (49,1 % vs 10,5 %), y aquellos que presentaron síntomas compatibles (48,8 % vs 18,6 %). Conclusiones: casi la mitad de los participantes presentaron resultados positivos para SARS-CoV2, lo que pone de manifiesto una alta transmisión comunitaria.


Introduction: the first case of COVID-19 in Paraguay was confirmed on March 7, 2020. No publications characterizing the frequency and clinical-epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in medical students have been found. Objective: to determine the frequency of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and clinical characteristics of medical students at the Universidad del Pacífico during the 2020-2021 academic period. Methodology: this was a cross-sectional descriptive observational study, that included medical students from the Universidad del Pacífico. The data was obtained through an online survey by Google Docs© that included age, sex, academic year, symptoms, sequelae, laboratory testing and results for SARS-CoV-2 and severity of the condition. Results: 342 students between 18 and 42 years of age from the 6 courses were surveyed, 70.8% were female; 66.4 % presented symptoms compatible with COVID-19, the most frequent (44.2 %) was headache. 67.5 % were in contact with someone with COVID-19 and 40.4 % reported not strictly following quarantine guidelines, 61.7 % underwent some laboratory testing and 42.7 % of them were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 98.9 % had a mild infection. 86.7 % knew the contagion source. A significantly (p<0.001) higher frequency of COVID-19 was observed in students ≤21 years old (65 % vs 32 %), those who had contact with a person with COVID-19 (49.1 % vs 10.5 %), and those who presented compatible symptoms (48.8 % vs 18.6 %). Conclusions: almost half of the participants presented positive results for SARS-CoV-2, which shows high community transmission.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Universities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Paraguay , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data
14.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 303-310, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409938

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El personal de otorrinolaringología presenta una elevada exposición al virus SARS-CoV-2, debido a los procedimientos que lleva a cabo. Es fundamental tomar las medidas de protección adecuadas. Determinar la seroprevalencia nos dará un mejor panorama sobre la exposición, contagios y efectividad de medidas de protección adoptadas. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de resultados serológicos positivos en personal médico que presta servicio en la Cátedra de Otorrinolaringología de marzo del 2020 a marzo de 2021. Material y Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, corte transversal, retrospectivo con asociación cruzada. Muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. La población total fue de 38 médicos del Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital de Clínicas. Resultados: La media de edades fue 37,4 años, 63,5% refirió haber atendido a paciente conocido portador de COVID-19. Un 42% refirió no haber cumplido con todas las medidas de protección personal, mientras que un 23,7% de los sujetos de estudio dio positivo para IgG, interpretándose como infección previa por COVID-19. Conclusión: Más de las dos terceras partes de los médicos refirió dar consulta a paciente COVID-19 positivo. Casi la cuarta parte de los médicos resultó ser positivo para COVID-19 según la prueba de serología anti-N. No se halló asociación entre consulta ni cirugía a pacientes portadores de COVID-19 y el contagio al personal médico.


Abstract Introduction: Otolaryngology personnel have a high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus due to the procedures they perform. It is essential to take appropriate protective measures. Determining seroprevalence will give us a better picture of exposure, contagion and effectiveness of protective measures adopted. Aim: To determine the prevalence of positive serological results in medical staff serving in the otolaryngology department from March 2020 to March 2021. Material and Method: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, retrospective study with cross-association. Non-probability sampling of consecutive cases. The total population was 38 physicians of the Otolaryngology Service of the Hospital de Clinicas. Results: The mean age was 37.4. 63.5% reported having seen a patient known to be a COVID-19 carrier, while 42% reported not having complied with all personal protection measures. A 23.68% of the study subjects tested positive for IgG, interpreting previous COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: More than two-thirds of the physicians referred to giving consultation to COVID-19 positive patients. Almost a quarter of the physicians were positive for COVID-19 according to the Anti-N serology test. No association was found between consultation or surgery of patients with COVID-19 and infection of medical personnel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngologists/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , Paraguay/epidemiology , Security Measures , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Personal Protection , COVID-19 Serological Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 238-247, jun. 2022. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407783

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La COVID-19, causada por el virus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo tipo-2 (SARS-CoV-2), fue declarada pandémica en marzo de 2020. Los estudios de seroprevalencia son útiles para efectuar diversas estimaciones: la proporción de la población previamente infectada, cuantificar la magnitud de la transmisión, la tasa de letalidad, evaluar el efecto de intervenciones, y el grado de inmunidad de una población. OBJETIVOS: Determinar la extensión de la infección y la incidencia acumulada de infección mediante el estudio de seropositividad en pobladores de las regiones sanitarias de Asunción y Departamento Central de Paraguay. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio de cohorte poblacional. Se encuestaron 126 hogares en Asunción y 609 en el Departamento Central entre diciembre 2020 y marzo 2021. Se realizaron tres visitas a los hogares seleccionados. RESULTADOS: La tasa de testeo fue 66,6%, 1.699 personas (324 en Asunción y 1.375 en Central) de las 2.553 personas censadas. En la primera, segunda y tercera rondas, las seroprevalencias fueron en Asunción 15,5%, 15,4% y 14,3%, respectivamente; en Central 23,1%, 27,8% y 26,9%, respectivamente. Hubo una seroconversión entre la primera y segunda ronda de 5,9% y en la tercera ronda 6,5%. La seroprevalencia global acumulada fue de 26,9% (IC95%: 24,8-19,1); en Asunción 23,1% (IC95%: 18,9-28,0) y en Central 27,8% (IC95%: 25,5-30,2). El 8,5% de los participantes reportó síntomas; de estos, el 54,2% presentó serología positiva. CONCLUSIÓN: La sero-prevalencia fue alta con una baja proporción de encuestados sintomáticos.


BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus type-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic in March 2020. Seroprevalence studies are useful to estimate the proportion of the population previously infected, quantify the magnitude of transmission, estimate the fatality rate, evaluate the effect of interventions, and estimate the degree of immunity of the population. AIM: To determine the extension of the infection and the cumulative incidence of age-specific infection, determined by seropositivity in the population of the sanitary regions of Asunción and the Central Department of Paraguay. METHODS: Population-based cohort study. In Asunción 126 households and in the Central Department 609 were surveyed between December 2020 to March 2021. Three visits were made to the selected households. RESULTS: The testing rate was 66.6%, 1,699 people (324 in Asunción and 1,375 in Central) of the 2,553 people registered. In the first, second and third rounds, seroprevalences were 15.5%, 15.4% and 14.3% in Asunción, respectively; in Central 23.1%, 27.8% and 26.9%, respectively. There was a seroconversion between the first and second rounds of 5.9%, and in the third round 6.5%; the accumulated global seroprevalence was 26.9% (95% CI: 24.8-19.1); in Asunción 23.1% (95% CI: 18.9-28.0) and in Central 27.8% (95% CI: 25.5-30.2). 8.5% of the participants reported symptoms; of them, 54.2% had positive serology. CONCLUSION: The sero-prevalence was high with a low proportion of people with symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Paraguay/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Age Distribution , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
16.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(3): 1-12, jun. 30, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427702

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the frequency of signs and/or symptoms compatible with COVID-19 in Paraguayan dentists, as well as the possible source of contagion. Material and Methods: Online survey consisting of 13 questions, applied to all dentists in Paraguay from January 20 to February 15, 2021. Results: A total of 433 dentists participated in the survey; 47.5% displayed symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and 13.39% indicated that they had contracted the disease, providing confirmation via a positive test result. Headache, loss of smell, loss of taste, cough, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms among COVID-19 positive cases. The main source of contagion was the family nucleus. Only one participant reported having contracted the disease while providing dental care. Conclusion: Almost half of the dentists displayed symptoms compatible with COVID-19. Only 13.39% tested positive for COVID-19. Only one case of contagion was reported to have happened during the provision of dental care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dentists , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Paraguay , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(2): 1-12, June 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512590

ABSTRACT

The alteration of the senses of taste and smell in relation to COVID-19 is a widely known phenomenon; however, this alteration has not been exhaustively characterized in the international literature. The following study is proposed with the aim of describing the alterations in the senses of taste and smell in relation to COVID-19 by means of their subjective evaluation. The nature of the study is observational, descriptive and cross-sectional, and was applied to patients who sought medical attention via remote consultations carried out on virtual platforms of the Service of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of the Clínicas Hospital, San Lorenzo, between the months of March and October of 2021. We included 440 patients aged 31.3 ± 9.9 years (18 to 60 years), 308 (70%) female, 388 (88%) from urban areas, with evidence of infection by SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in 260 (59%), predominantly without comorbidities 232 (53%), with fever as the most frequently reported symptom 352 (80%), treated more frequently with NSAIDs 208 (47%) and/or Paracetamol 216 (49%). Both taste and smell alterations in patients who have had COVID-19 have been shown to appear more frequently 1 to 7 days after the onset of symptoms (207 for smell, 184 for taste), occurring more frequently with a total decrease of both senses (anosmia 302 and ageusia 216), recovering completely in most cases (214 and 216) and within a period of 1 to 4 weeks (140 and 130).


La alteración de los sentidos del gusto y del olfato en relación con el COVID-19 es un fenómeno ampliamente conocido, sin embargo, esta alteración no ha sido caracterizada de forma exhaustiva en la literatura internacional. Se plantea el siguiente estudio con el objetivo de describir las alteraciones del sentido del gusto y del olfato en relación con el COVID-19 a través de la evaluación subjetiva del mismo. El mismo es observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, aplicado a pacientes que consultaron a través de teleconsultas realizadas sobre plataformas virtuales de la Cátedra y Servicio de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello del Hospital de Clínicas, de San Lorenzo, durante los meses de marzo a octubre del 2021. Fueron incluidos 440 pacientes de 31,3 ± 9,9 años (18 a 60 años), 308 (70%) de sexo femenino, 388 (88%) provenientes de zona urbana, con evidencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 por RT-PCR en 260 (59%), predominantemente sin comorbilidades 232 (53%), con fiebre como síntoma asociado al COVID-19 más frecuentemente reportado 352 (80%), tratados más frecuentemente con AINES 208 (47%) y/o Paracetamol 216 (49%). Tanto la alteración del gusto como del olfato en pacientes que han cursado con COVID-19 ha demostrado ser aparecer más frecuentemente en 1 a 7 días del inicio del cuadro (207 para el olfato. 184 para el gusto), cursando más frecuentemente con disminución total de ambos sentidos (anosmia 302 y ageusia 216), recuperándose más frecuentemente de forma total (214 y 216) y en un plazo de 1 a 4 semanas (140 y 130).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Paraguay/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urban Area , Ageusia , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , COVID-19/therapy , Sociodemographic Factors , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 86-90, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388337

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta un caso clínico de queratitis por Mycobacterium abscessus en una mujer de 76 años, residente en la ciudad de Asunción, sin traumatismo ni cirugía ocular previa y con antecedente de una queratouveitis herpética. Por tratarse de una queratitis causada por un agente etiológico poco frecuente y por la importancia de un diagnóstico correcto y oportuno para la instauración del tratamiento adecuado, se comunica el primer caso de queratitis por micobacterias en Paraguay.


Abstract We present a clinical case of keratitis caused by M. abscessus in a 76-year-old female patient, resident in the city of Asunción, without trauma or previous ocular surgery and with a history of herpetic keratouveitis. Because it is a keratitis caused by a rare etiological agent and because of the importance of a correct and timely diagnosis for the establishment of appropriate treatment, the present case is reported, the first of Mycobacteria keratitis in Paraguay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Keratitis/microbiology , Paraguay , Mycobacterium abscessus
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232868, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153458

ABSTRACT

The "piaussu", Megaleporinus macrocephalus is an anostomatid fish species native to the basin of the Paraguay River, in the Pantanal biome of western Brazil. However, this species has now been recorded in a number of other drainages, including those of the upper Paraná, Uruguay, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri, and Paraíba do Sulrivers. This study presents two new records of the occurrence of M. macrocephalus, in the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the state of Maranhão, in the Brazilian Northeast. The piaussu is a large-bodied fish of commercial interest that is widely raised on fish farms, and its occurrence in the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers is likely the result of individuals escaping from fish tanks when they overflow during the rainy season. Morphological analyses and sequences of the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene confirmed the taxonomic identification of the specimens as M. macrocephalus. The COI sequences were 99.66% similar to those of M. macrocephalus deposited in the BOLDSystems database. These records extend the known distribution of M. macrocephalus to the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the Brazilian Northeast, highlighting a new case of introduction of exotic fish species into Brazilian river basins.


Megaleporinus macrocephalus é uma espécie de peixe anostomatídeo nativa da bacia do rio Paraguai, no bioma Pantanal do oeste do Brasil. No entanto, essa espécie já foi registrada em várias outras drenagens, incluindo as dos rios Alto Paraná, Uruguai, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri e Paraíba do Sul. Este estudo apresenta dois novos registros da ocorrência de M. macrocephalus, nas bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no estado do Maranhão, no nordeste brasileiro. O piaussu é um peixe de grande porte, de interesse comercial, amplamente criado em pisciculturas, e sua ocorrência nos rios Itapecuru e Mearim é provavelmente o resultado de indivíduos que escapam dos tanques quando transbordam durante a estação chuvosa. Análises morfológicas e sequências do gene da subunidade I do citocromo oxidase (COI) confirmaram a identificação taxonômica dos espécimes como M. macrocephalus. As sequências de COI foram 99,66% semelhantes às de M. macrocephalus depositadas no banco de dados BOLDSystems. Esses registros estendem a conhecida distribuição de M. macrocephalus às bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no nordeste brasileiro, destacando um novo caso de introdução de espécies exóticas de peixes nas bacias hidrográficas brasileiras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rivers , Characiformes/genetics , Paraguay , Uruguay , Brazil
20.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 32(4): e320406, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422320

ABSTRACT

Resumo Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, que procurou compreender os sentidos atribuídos por formadores de opinião - trabalhadores da saúde coletiva, representantes de movimentos sociais, docentes universitários e jornalistas - acerca da cidadania, no âmbito da saúde, e de seu exercício na fronteira entre Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevista aberta a partir de duas perguntas norteadoras: O que é cidadania para você? O que ela representa em territórios de fronteira? Os resultados indicam que o exercício dos direitos fundamentais e sociais apresentam contradições próprias para quem vive em territórios fronteiriços, coexistem distintas concepções de cidadania e do seu exercício na fronteira e a noção de cidadania como atributo dos nacionais não é suficiente para a dinâmica que se estabelece nestes territórios. Conclui-se que a compreensão da fronteira como espaço de integração, e não de divisão, pode romper com a realidade edificada por uma subcidadania local, estreitando os laços humanitários e de solidariedade entre as comunidades fronteiriças, o que pode contribuir para a fruição dos direitos sociais nesta territorialidade, como o direito à saúde. Entende-se que formadores de opinião devem ser convocados ao debate visando à construção de uma agenda pública que discuta a edificação de uma cidadania internacional.


Abstract Research with a qualitative approach, which sought to understand the meanings attributed by opinion leaders - collective health workers, representatives of social movements, university professors and journalists - about citizenship, in the field of health, and its exercise on the border between Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Data collection took place through an open interview based on two guiding questions: What is citizenship for you? What does it represent in border territories? The results indicate that the exercise of fundamental and social rights has its own contradictions for those who live in border territories, different conceptions of citizenship and its exercise at the border coexist and the notion of citizenship as an attribute of nationals is not enough for the dynamics that are established in these territories. It is concluded that the understanding of the border as a space of integration, and not of division, can break with the reality built by a local sub-citizenship, strengthening humanitarian and solidarity ties between border communities, which can contribute to the enjoyment of rights in this territoriality, as the right to health. We understand that opinion leaders should be summoned to the debate with a view to building a public agenda that discusses the construction of international citizenship.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Public Opinion , Border Areas , Right to Health , Citizenship , Human Rights , Paraguay , Argentina , Brazil
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