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2.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 220-224, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394953

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is an underdiagnosed disease in the pediatric population due to the absence of specific signs and symptoms and late clinical manifestations. Iron deficiency anemia has recently been identified as an early hematological manifestation, allowing an early diagnostic approach. We present the case of a Colombian teenager, with no history of autoimmunity, with refractory iron deficiency. He underwent extension studies; biopsies and serology compatible with autoimmune gastritis were documented, requiring parenteral iron in its evolution. This pathology is underdiagnosed in our context since early diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion to prevent associated complications.


Resumen La gastritis autoinmune es una enfermedad subdiagnosticada en la población pediátrica. Lo anterior se debe a la ausencia de signos y síntomas específicos y manifestaciones clínicas tardías. Recientemente se ha identificado la anemia ferropénica como una manifestación hematológica precoz, lo que permite un enfoque diagnóstico temprano. Se presenta el caso de un adolescente colombiano, sin antecedentes de autoinmunidad, con ferropenia refractaria, en el que se realizaron estudios de extensión y se documentaron biopsias y serología compatible con gastritis autoinmune, con requerimiento de hierro parenteral en su evolución. Esta patología es subdiagnosticada en nuestro medio, ya que el diagnóstico temprano requiere un alto índice de sospecha, lo que permite la prevención de las complicaciones asociadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adolescent , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Gastritis , Pathology , Population , Signs and Symptoms , Autoimmunity , Early Diagnosis
3.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e48503, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1394510

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, des critiva e exploratória, realizada no Tratamento Fora de Domicílio, na cidade de Cuiabá-MT, Brasil, que objetivou levantar reflexões sobre os itinerários terapêuticos de pessoas trans, na busca pelo Processo Transexualizador. Participaram três homens trans, duas mulheres trans e uma mulher travesti, com faixa etária de 21 a 32 anos. Os da dos foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas e analisados mediante análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostram que essas pessoas trans seguem trajetórias diver sas, procurando serviços institucionalizados ou informais (redes de socialidade trans), para a afirmação de suas identidades de gênero. Destacam-se entraves atinentes à patologização, ao acolhimento, à continuidade do cuidado, à resolutividade e à referência na rede de atenção do processo transexualizador. Observaram-se importantes pontos críticos na assistência social, endocrinológica e para a psicologia, sendo a peregrinação pelos serviços de saúde demarcada por constantes discriminações institucionais, permitindo a compreensão de como o sistema de saúde se organiza em relação ao atendimento dessas pessoas, elencando questões para o trabalho da psicologia, nesse campo, a partir de uma perspectiva da experiência e materialidade do gênero.


RESUMEN. Esta es una investigación cualitativa, descriptiva y exploratoria realizada en el tratamiento fuera del domicilio en la ciudad de Cuiabá, Brasil, que tuvo como objetivo plantear reflexiones sobre los itinerarios terapéuticos de las personas trans en la búsqueda del proceso transexual. Participaron tres hombres trans, 2 mujeres trans y 1 mujer travesti de 21 a 32 años. Los datos fueron recogidos a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y fueron analizados mediante el Análisis de Contenido. Los resultados muestran que estas personas trans siguen caminos divergentes en busca de servicios institucionalizados o informales (redes sociales trans) para afirmar sus identidades de género. Se destacan los obstáculos relacionados con la patologización, acogida, la continuidad de la atención, la resolución y la referencia en la red de atención del Proceso Transexualizador. Se observaron puntos críticos importantes en la asistencia social, la endocrinología y la psicología, em que la peregrinación por los servicios de salud es delimitada por la constante discriminación institucional que permite comprender cómo se organiza el sistema de salud en relación con la atención de estas personas que señalan los problemas para el trabajo de la Psicología en este campo desde una perspectiva de experiencia y materialidad de género


ABSTRACT. This qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research conducted in the Away from Home Treatment (Tratamento Fora de Domicílio [TFD]), in Cuiabá, Brazil, aimed to raise reflections on the therapeutic process itineraries of trans people in the search for the Transsexualizer Process (Processo Transexual [PT]). Three transgender men, two transgender women and one transvestite woman participated. They were aged between 21 and 32 years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using Content Analysis. The results show that trans people follow different itineraries, looking for institutionalized or informal services (trans sociality networks) to affirm their gender identities. Obstacles related to pathologization, reception, continuity of care, resolution and reference in the care network of the Transsexualizer Process stand out. Important critical points were observed in social, endocrinological and psychological care. The pilgrimage by health services was marked by constant institutional discrimination, allowing for the understanding of how the health system is organized concerning the care of these people, listing issues for the work of Psychology, in this field, from a perspective of the experience and materiality of gender.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pathology , Psychology , Unified Health System , Transgender Persons , Therapeutic Itinerary/ethics , Social Behavior , Social Support , Transvestism/psychology , Continuity of Patient Care , Empathy/ethics , User Embracement , Social Discrimination/psychology , Gender Identity , Health Services/supply & distribution
4.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 11(1): 1-7, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378865

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to determine the sigma metrics of analytes when using different total allowable error guidelines.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 19 general chemistry analytes at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital in South Africa between January 2017 and December 2017. Sigma metrics were calculated on two identical analysers, using internal quality control data and total allowable error guidelines from the Ricos biological variation database and three alternative sources (the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendment, and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine). Results: The sigma performance was similar on both analysers but varied based on the guideline used, with the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendment guidelines resulting in the best sigma metrics (53% of analytes on one analyser and 46% on the other had acceptable sigma metrics) and the Royal College of Pathologists of Australia guidelines being the most stringent (21% and 23%). Sodium and chloride performed poorly across all guidelines (sigma < 3). There were also month-to-month variations that may result in acceptable sigma despite poor performance during certain months.Conclusion: The sigma varies greatly depending on the total allowable error, but could be a valuable tool to save time and decrease costs in high-volume laboratories. Sigma metrics calculations need to be standardised


Subject(s)
Quality Control , Pathology , Total Quality Management , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Diagnostic Errors , Laboratories
5.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 879-881, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399384

ABSTRACT

The anatomical pathology autopsy serves several purposes, notably as a quality management tool for evaluation of accuracy in clinical diagnosis. Despite its value, for various reasons there has been an international decline in autopsies conducted. In the modern medical era, with all its advances in technology, diagnostic techniques and interventions, there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings.Objectives. To establish the discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings in anatomical pathology autopsies.Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted over the 4-year-period 2014 - 2017. The clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings of cases referred to the Department of Anatomical Pathology at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, were evaluated and compared using the modified Goldman criteria.Results. A total of 288 cases qualified for the study and were evaluated. The gender distribution was 155 (53.8%) male and 133 (48.2%) female, with the majority of cases in the age group 19 - 60 years (mean 36.4). The majority of the cases were referred by internal medicine, followed by paediatrics. The most common cause of death in major missed diagnoses was pulmonary conditions. Of the cases, 115 (39.3%) had a major discrepancy and 62 (21.5%) a minor discrepancy.Conclusion. This study showed that there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings, similar to studies conducted globally. The current COVID-19 pandemic may be a driver for revival of the anatomical pathology autopsy, and future studies are recommended to evaluate whether the decline can be reversed


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pathology , Autopsy , Comparative Study
6.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(1): 49-59, 20211217. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355295

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El cáncer de pulmón es la primera causa de mortalidad por cáncer a nivel mundial, lo que hace que sea considerado un problema de salud pública. Existen diferentes hallazgos imagenológicos que hacen sospechar la presencia de cáncer de pulmón, uno de los cuales son los nódulos pulmonares; sin embargo, estos también pueden verse en entidades benignas.Métodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con biopsia de nódulo pulmonar en la Clínica Reina Sofía, en la ciudad de Bogotá, D.C., Colombia, entre el 1° de marzo del 2017 y el 28 de febrero del 2020. Se analizaron las características demográficas de los pacientes, las características morfológicas e histopatológicas de los nódulos pulmonares y la correlación entre sus características imagenológicas e histopatológicas. Resultados. El 69,2 % de los nódulos estudiados tenían etiología maligna, de estos el 55,5 % era de origen metástasico y el 44,5 % eran neoplasias primarias de pulmón, con patrón sólido en el 70,6 % de los casos. El patrón histológico más frecuente fue adenocarcinoma. Respecto a las características radiológicas, en su mayoría los nódulos malignos medían de 1 a 2 cm, de morfología lisa y distribución múltiple, localizados en lóbulos superiores. Conclusiones. La caracterización de los nódulos pulmonares brinda información relevante que orienta sobre los diagnósticos más frecuentes en nuestro medio, cuando se estudian nódulos sospechosos encontrados incidentalmente o en el seguimiento de otro tumor. Como el nódulo es la manifestación del cáncer temprano del pulmón, establecer programas de tamización que permitan el diagnóstico oportuno, es hoy día una imperiosa necesidad, para reducir la mortalidad.


Introduction. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, which makes it a public health problem. There are different imaging findings that suggest the presence of lung cancer, one of which is pulmonary nodules; however, these can also be seen in benign entities. Methods. A total of 66 patients with pulmonary nodule biopsy at Clínica Reina Sofía, in the city of Bogotá D.C. were included between March 1, 2017 and February 28, 2020. The demographic characteristics of the patients, the morphologic and histopathologic characteristics of the pulmonary nodules and their correlation with their pathological diagnosis were analyzed.Results. 69.2% of the nodules studied had malignant etiology, of these 55.5% were of metastatic origin, and 44.5% were primary lung neoplasms, with a solid pattern in 70.6% of the cases. The most frequent histological pattern was adenocarcinoma. Regarding the radiological characteristics, most of the malignant nodules measure 1 to 2 cm, of smooth morphology and had multiple distribution, located in the upper lobes. Conclusions. The characterization of pulmonary nodules provides relevant information that guides the most fre-quent diagnoses in our setting, when suspicious nodules found incidentally or in the follow-up of another tumor are studied. As the nodule is the manifestation of early lung cancer, establishing screening programs that allow timely diagnosis is an urgent need to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule , Lung Neoplasms , Pathology , Biopsy, Needle , Diagnostic Imaging , Diagnosis
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 119-128, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352967

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sarcoidosis es una enfermedad inflamatoria, granulomatosa de etiología desconocida. Puede afectar cualquier órgano siendo la afectación pulmonar la más frecuente. La piel se compromete en aproximadamente 30% de los casos, pudiendo ser inicial o único. La sarcoidosis es muy rara en el Paraguay. Objetivos: Realizar una revisión de los casos de sarcoidosis observados en el Servicio de Dermatología del Hospital Nacional en el periodo 2010-2020; determinando sus características demográficas, clínicas, laboratoriales y evolutivas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y observacional. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 5 casos, todas mujeres de raza blanca, con edades que oscilaban de 41 a 63 años. Las formas clínicas fueron papulosa en 3 casos, en placa 1 y mixta 1. Las lesiones cutáneas eran asintomáticas y estaban ubicadas preferentemente en rostro (4 casos). El compromiso sistémico se objetivó en las primeras consultas en 2 casos (pulmonar, ocular y ganglionar en 1 y del aparato lagrimal en otro). En todos los casos el diagnóstico se fundamentó en la correlación clínico-histológica, con el hallazgo de los granulomas sarcoides. Todos recibieron clobetasol tópico, 3 pacientes ciclos de prednisona y 2 hidroxicloroquina. La evolución fue favorable en 3 casos y 2 no volvieron a sus controles. Conclusión: La sarcoidosis con manifestaciones cutáneas es rara en nuestro Servicio, pero representa un desafío diagnóstico, que debe ser oportuno para diferenciarla de otras patologías más prevalentes en nuestro medio


Introduction: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It can affect any organ, lung involvement being the most frequent. The skin is compromised in approximately 30% of the cases, and can be initial or unique. Sarcoidosis is very rare in Paraguay. Objectives: To carry out a review of the sarcoidosis cases observed in the Dermatology Service of the National Hospital in the period 2010-2020; determining their demographic, clinical, laboratory and evolutionary characteristics. Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive and observational study. Results: 5 cases were diagnosed; all white women; with ages ranging from 41 to 63 years. The clinical forms were papular in 3 cases, in plate 1 and mixed 1. The skin lesions were asymptomatic and were preferably located on the face (4 cases). Systemic involvement was observed in the first consultations in 2 cases (pulmonary, ocular and lymph node in 1 and the lacrimal apparatus in another). In all cases the diagnosis was based on the clinical-histological correlation, with the finding of sarcoid granulomas. All received topical clobetasol, 3 patients received prednisone cycles and 2 hydroxychloroquine. The evolution was favorable in 3 cases and 2 did not return to their controls. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis with skin manifestations is rare in our Service, but it represents a diagnostic challenge that must be timely to differentiate it from other more prevalent pathologies in our setting


Subject(s)
Sarcoidosis , Pathology , Skin , Demography , Disease , Dermatology , Diagnosis , Laboratories
8.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(4): 427-433, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1356952

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: la litiasis biliar tiene una prevalencia actual en Occidente del 10-20%. El 7-16% de los pacientes presentan también coledocolitiasis. El diagnóstico preoperatorio de coledocolitiasis es difícil de establecer. Objetivo: establecer nuestra experiencia en el estudio de la patología biliar complicada y el manejo de la coledocolitiasis en dos tiempos, como terapéutica de elección. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional. Pacientes con patología biliar sometidos a procedimientos en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Vidal, desde el 30/06/2019 al 30/12/2019. Resultados: la ecografía hepato-bilio-pancreática (HPB) es específica, con exactitud del 80,9% y sensibilidad del 50%. La colangio resonancia magnética (CRNM) es 100% específica, tiene exactitud del 84,6% y sensibilidad de 67%. La colangio pancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (ERCP -por sus siglas en inglés-), durante la primera colangiografía mostró en el 100% litiasis coledociana, pero, luego del tratamiento, la colangiografía de "control" muestra 0% de sensibilidad, 100% especificidad, con exactitud del 15,4%. En los hallazgos intraoperatorios, el cístico dilatado en asociación con alteraciones humorales ha demostrado una sensibilidad del 100%, especificidad del 90% y tasa de exactitud de 93,6%. Conclusión: la colangiografía intraoperatoria (CIO) es el procedimiento de referencia ("gold standard") en el abordaje de la patología biliar complicada, siendo su uso sistemático. La asociación entre alteraciones de parámetros humorales y el cístico dilatado resulta un parámetro con alto valor predictivo para la presencia de litiasis coledociana.


ABSTRACT Background: Nowadays, the prevalence of gallstones ranges between 10 and 20% in Western world, and 7-16% of the patients also present choledocholithiasis. The preoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis is difficult. Objective: To establish our experience in the evaluation of complicated gallstone disease and two-stage management of choledochal lithiasis as standard or care. Material and methods: This prospective and observational study included patients hospitalized with gallstone disease undergoing procedures in the Department of General Surgery of Hospital Vidal from June 30, 2019, to December 30, 2019. Results: Ultrasound of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas was specific, with accuracy of 80.9% and sensitivity of 50%. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) had a sensitivity of 100%, accuracy of 84.6% and sensitivity of 67%. As for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis was made in 100% of the cases during the first cholangiography while "control" cholangiography had a sensitivity of 0%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 15.4%. The presence of a dilated cystic duct intraoperatively in association with abnormal biochemical parameters had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 90%, and accuracy of 93.6%. Conclusion: Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is the gold standard procedure for the management of complicated gallstone disease. The association of biochemical parameters and a dilated cystic duct has high predictive value for choledochal lithiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biliary Tract , Cholangiography , Lithiasis , Pancreas , Pathology , General Surgery , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Cholelithiasis , Gallstones , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Cystic Duct , Choledocholithiasis/complications , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Liver , Methods
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 501-507, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360975

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los tumores neuroendocrinos del colon son relativamente raros en comparación con el carcinoma colorrectal esporádico; su incidencia es muy baja y la localización más frecuente es en el ciego, colon sigmoideo y recto. Se describe con poca frecuencia la asociación de tumor neuroendocrino con la colitis ulcerativa debido a la inflamación crónica que conduce a la diferenciación de células neuroendocrinas a partir de células multipotenciales en el epitelio displásico, que puede ser responsable del desarrollo de carcinomas neuroendocrinos colorrectales. La presentación del caso se trata de un paciente de 57 años de edad con colitis ulcerativa con cuadro de dolor abdominal, pérdida de peso y diarreas líquidas con moco. En el examen físico presentó una lesión endurecida en el marco colónico derecho con tomografía de lesión neoplásica en el colon ascendente y en su hospitalización presentó un cuadro de oclusión intestinal, por lo que se le realizó una hemicolectomía más ileostomía, cuyo resultado en la biopsia fue un tumor neuroendocrino G3 de células grandes en el colon ascendente. En este artículo se revisan de forma práctica los aspectos relacionados con la fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la asociación de estas dos patologías.


Abstract Neuroendocrine colon tumors are relatively unknown compared with sporadic colorectal cancer; its incidence is low, and it is generally located in the cecum, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The existing relation between neuroendocrine tumors and ulcerative colitis is not frequently described due to the chronic inflammation that leads to neuroendocrine cell differentiation from multipotential cells in the dysplastic epithelium, which can be responsible for colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas development. The study refers to the case of a patient of 57 years old with ulcerative colitis, abdominal pain, weight loss, and liquid diarrhea with mucus. Physical examination revealed a hardened lesion in the right colonic framework with the tomography of a neoplastic lesion in the ascending colon. When the patient was hospitalized, he developed an intestinal obstruction. A hemicolectomy plus ileostomy procedure was performed resulting in a large cell G3 neuroendocrine tumor in the ascending colon revealed in the biopsy. In this article, the aspects related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the association of these two pathologies are reviewed in a practical way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Colon , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Pathology , Rectum , Therapeutics , Colorectal Neoplasms , Abdominal Pain , Colitis , Diarrhea , Inflammation , Intestinal Obstruction , Mucus
10.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 536-538, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360981

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST) son tumores infrecuentes del tracto digestivo. Sus localizaciones más frecuentes son el estómago, intestino delgado, colon y recto; su aparición en otros lugares fuera del trato gastrointestinal como el mesenterio, epiplón o retroperitoneo es infrecuente. La tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y la resonancia magnética (RM) son los estudios de imágenes de primera elección. La recesión quirúrgica es el estándar de oro para los tumores localizados y en los tumores avanzados o metastásicos son tratados con imatinib. A continuación, se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 53 años de edad sin antecedentes de patologías previos con cuadro clínico de dolor abdominal generalizado, pérdida de peso de 20 kg aproximadamente, distención abdominal, melena, hematemesis y astenia; en el examen físico presentó abdomen distendido y en la palpación se encontró endurecimiento epigástrico y mesogástrico, y marco colónico izquierdo. En la tomografía de abdomen se observó una masa tumoral de aspecto infiltrativo de aparente origen gástrico, con crecimiento extragástrico e infiltración del bazo, páncreas, raíz mesentérica, epiplón mayor, colon transverso, asas intestinales delgadas e infiltración en el hilio hepático, y metástasis hepática. Además, el cuadro se asoció con enfermedad respiratoria por coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave de tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2; neumonía por coronavirus de 2019 [COVID-19]). Se realizó una biopsia percutánea ecodirigida en el hipocondrio izquierdo y la histología reportó un GIST. En este artículo se revisa la clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento del GIST gigante extradigestivo.


Abstract Giant extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare tumors of the digestive tract. Its most frequent locations are the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. Its appearance in other places outside the gastrointestinal tract such as the mesentery, omentum, or retroperitoneum is infrequent. Computerized axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the imaging studies of the first choice. Surgical recession is the gold standard for localized tumors and advanced or metastatic tumors are treated with imatinib. This study presents the case of a male patient of 53 years with no history of previous pathologies. The patient was admitted with a clinical condition of generalized abdominal pain, weight loss of approximately 20 kg, abdominal distention, melena, hematemesis, and asthenia. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen and palpation revealed epigastric and mesogastric hardening and left colonic frame. The abdominal tomography revealed a tumor mass with an infiltrative appearance of apparent gastric origin, with extragastric growth and infiltration of the spleen, pancreas, mesenteric root, greater omentum, transverse colon, thin intestinal loops, and infiltration in the hepatic hilum, and liver metastases. Moreover, the condition was related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome type 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). An ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed in the left upper quadrant and histology reported a GIST. In this article medical condition, diagnosis, and treatment of the Giant extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal, is reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gastrointestinal Tract , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasms , Pathology , Rectum , Stomach , Tomography , Abdominal Pain , Colon , Diagnosis , Abdomen
11.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(5): 440-446, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358081

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes en estado crítico presentan disfunción fisiológica que provoca inestabilidad en órganos y sistemas del cuerpo, con desenlaces fatales y lesiones irreversibles o incluso la muerte. En los servicios de Medicina Interna de los hospitales de México, en especial en los públicos, hay pacientes críticos con múltiples patologías que requieren vigilancia en el cumplimiento de diversas metas de su tratamiento. Se presenta un compendio de las guías y metas de patologías críticas con mayor prevalencia en los servicios de Medicina Interna, las cuales son necesarias para guiar el tratamiento.


Patients with critical illness develop physiological dysfunction which provokes multi-organ system failure and triggers fatal outcomes and irreversible injuries or even death. Inside Internal Medicine services of Mexican hospitals, especially in public hospitals, there is a considerable number of critically ill patients with multiple pathologies who require surveillance to reach clinical goals of their treatment. We present a summary of guidelines and goals of the most prevalent critical diseases inside Internal Medicine services, which are necessary to guide treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Critical Illness , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Internal Medicine , Pathology , Sepsis , Hepatic Insufficiency , Heart Arrest , Hospitals, Public , Mexico
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 409-419, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345392

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma apocrino primario de glándula sudorípara es una neoplasia con una muy baja incidencia, que puede representar un reto diagnóstico, clínico e histológico, y un reto terapéutico local, adyuvante y de la enfermedad avanzada. La edad media de los pacientes es de alrededor de 67 años, y no se ha observado preferencia según el sexo. Se presenta con mayor frecuencia en las axilas y en el cuero cabelludo. Se caracteriza clínicamente por un lento crecimiento, aunque puede progresar agresivamente, con compromiso local, ganglionar y metastásico, principalmente, pulmonar, hepático y óseo. El tratamiento recomendado -una vez establecida la histología- consiste en una resección local amplia con un margen claro de 1 a 2 cm y linfadenectomía regional si se detectan ganglios clínicamente positivos. El tratamiento adyuvante (radioterapia o quimioterapia) y de la enfermedad avanzada no está claramente establecido. Se presentan dos pacientes de sexo femenino con sospecha inicial de cáncer de mama, en quienes se diagnosticó finalmente un carcinoma apocrino de glándula sudorípara.


Abstract Primary apocrine carcinoma of the sweat gland is a neoplasm with a very low incidence that may represent a clinical and histological diagnostic challenge, as well as for adequate local, adjuvant, and advanced disease management. The average age of patients is around 67 years with no gender preference. This cancer develops primarily at the axillary and scalp levels and is clinically characterized by slow growth, but can progress aggressively with local, nodal, and metastatic involvement (primarily lung, liver, and bone). The recommended management, once the histology is established, consists of a wide local resection with a clear margin of 1 to 2 cm and regional lymphadenectomy if clinically positive nodes are detected. The adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy or chemotherapy) and for the advanced disease is not established. We report here the cases of two female patients initially diagnosed with breast cancer who were finally diagnosed with apocrine carcinoma of the sweat gland.


Subject(s)
Apocrine Glands , Breast Neoplasms , Pathology , Skin Neoplasms , Case Reports
14.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 224-227, 20210930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368024

ABSTRACT

O exame citopatológico tem sido utilizado para rastreamento de câncer desde a década de 1940. O exame apresenta uma variação grande com relação à sensibilidade devido a vários fatores provocados durante o processo da fase pré-analítica. O estudo se baseia em uma revisão sistemática, onde os autores fizeram uma investigação sobre o tema, com a finalidade de identificar, selecionar, avaliar e sintetizar as evidências relevantes disponí- veis. A busca dos artigos científicos foi realizada por meio de buscas nas bases de dados eletrônica Literatura Latino-Americana em Ciência e Saúde (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO), National Library of Medicine, Estados Unidos (MEDLINE). O objetivo deste estudo foi levantar os principais pontos da fase pré-analitica que podem impactar no resultado do exame de citopatologia e identificar os impactos gerados pela negligência do controle de qualidade analítico e as consequências geradas. Ao estudar a fase pré-analítica na citologia oncótica, entende-se a relevância da qualidade inicial, para o melhor resultado ao paciente. Todos os sistemas de avaliação de desempenho em laboratórios de citopatologia coincidem na necessidade de um programa de controle interno da qualidade perfeitamente estabelecido e executado, podendo obter resultados mais confiáveis.


The cytopathological exam has been used for cancer screening since the 1940s. The exam has a wide variation in sensitivity due to several factors caused during the process of the pre-analytical phase. The study is based on a systematic review, where the authors conducted an investigation on the topic, with the purpose of identifying, selecting, evaluating and synthesizing the relevant evidence available. The search for scientific articles was carried out by searching the electronic databases Latin American Literature on Science and Health (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO), National Library of Medicine, States States (MEDLINE). The objective of this study was to raise the main points of the pre-analytical phase that can impact the result of the cytopathology exam and to identify the impacts generated by the neglect of the analytical quality control and the consequences generated. When studying the pre-analytical phase in oncotic cytology, the relevance of the initial quality is understood, for the best result to the patient. All performance evaluation systems in cytopathology laboratories coincide with the need for a perfectly established and executed internal quality control program, which can obtain more reliable results.


Subject(s)
Total Quality Management , Papanicolaou Test , Pathology , Cervix Uteri
15.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(3): 391-398, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347356

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad litiásica biliar es una patología frecuente en mujeres embarazadas, y las complicaciones relacionadas con los cálculos biliares durante el embarazo pueden generar desenlaces adversos tanto en la madre como en el feto. La coledocolitiasis en el embarazo requiere de una aproximación diagnóstica adecuada y su manejo busca minimizar los riesgos de las intervenciones médicas. Se describen dos casos de mujeres embarazadas quienes presentan coledocolitiasis documentada por colangiorresonancia. Se realizó el tratamiento con la combinación de ultrasonido endoscópico (USE) y colangiopancreatografía endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE) sin fluoroscopia, con lo cual se logró resolver la coledocolitiasis sin exponer al feto a radiación ionizante, se confirmó la permeabilización del colédoco y se observó una adecuada evolución posoperatoria tanto materna como fetal.


Abstract Biliary lithiasis is a common condition in pregnant women, and complications related to gallstones during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes in both the mother and the fetus. Choledocholithiasis during pregnancy requires an adequate diagnostic approach to minimize the risks of medical interventions. The following are two cases of pregnant women with choledocholithiasis diagnosed using magnetic resonance cholangiography. Treatment included a combination of endoscopic ultrasound and retrograde endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without fluoroscopy, achieving the resolution of choledocholithiasis, without exposing the fetus to ionizing radiation, confirming the permeabilization of the common bile duct, and observing an adequate postoperative evolution of both the mother and the fetus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Ultrasonics , Fluoroscopy , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Pregnant Women , Choledocholithiasis , Pathology , Radiation, Ionizing , Therapeutics , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Gallstones , Lithiasis
16.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(3): 404-407, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347357

ABSTRACT

Resumen El dolor torácico es un motivo de consulta muy frecuente en el servicio de urgencias. El abordaje adecuado del paciente en el que se incluye el diligenciamiento de la historia clínica, el examen físico y la toma de paraclínicos iniciales son cruciales para determinar cuáles son los posibles diagnósticos diferenciales. A continuación, presentamos el caso de un paciente de 71 años que ingresa al servicio de urgencias por un dolor retroesternal intenso posterior al consumo de alimentos, en quien, ante la persistencia del dolor, biomarcadores cardíacos negativos y patología aórtica descartada, se realiza una endoscopia que evidencia un hematoma disecante del esófago. En general, el pronóstico es bueno, pero es de gran importancia una buena historia clínica para su sospecha.


Abstract Chest pain is a very common reason for consultation in the emergency department. An adequate approach to the patient, including medical history, physical examination and initial laboratory tests, is crucial for determining possible differential diagnoses. The following is the case of a 71-year-old patient that visited the emergency room due to severe retrosternal pain after food consumption. In view of the persistence of pain and negative cardiac biomarkers, and after ruling out aortic disease, the patient underwent an endoscopy that showed dissecting hematoma of the esophagus. The prognosis is generally favorable, but a thorough medical history is required to suspect it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Esophagus , Hernia, Hiatal , Pathology , Patients , Surgical Mesh , Eating , Emergencies , Endoscopy
17.
Psychol. av. discip ; 15(1): 31-42, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356669

ABSTRACT

Abstract Individuals with personality pathology exhibit significant impairment in intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning that compromise psychological welfare of significant others. However, common pathological personality traits in college students remain unclear. This study aimed to describe pathological personality traits identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-5) Section III alternative model of personality disorder in college students. This is a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional study. Participants were 81 college students from a Colombian University who were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Findings suggest that women scored significantly higher than men on hostility (z=-2.577; p=0.01; n 2 = 0.082). A medium size effect was found (p> 0.039) through the ( 2 index. The remaining variables did not prove statistically significant differences when controlling the participant gender (p < 0.05). The personality domain that reached the most dysfunctionality was disinhibition (risk taking, impulsivity, rigid perfectionism). Negative affect had the highest mean score and gender differences in facets and domains showed that women scored significantly higher than men on hostility. However, more studies into the pathological personality traits established by the PID-5 is required if the shift to a dimensional model is likely to occur in future editions of the DSM.


Resumen Las personas con patologías de la personalidad exhiben un deterioro significativo en el funcionamiento inter-intrapersonal que compromete el bienestar psicológico de los más cercanos. Sin embargo, los rasgos de personalidad patológica más comunes en estudiantes universitarios aún no son muy claros. Este estudio busca describir los rasgos de personalidad patológica identificados en el manual diagnóstico y estadístico de trastornos mentales (DSM-5), en estudiantes universitarios. Este es un estudio cuantitativo, transversal, no experimental. Los participantes fueron 81 estudiantes del programa de psicología de una Universidad Colombiana quienes fueron evaluados por medio del Inventario de personalidad para el DSM-5. Los hallazgos sugieren que las mujeres tuvieron puntuaciones significativamente más altas que los hombres en hostilidad (z=-2.577; p=0.01; n 2 = 0.082). Se encontró un tamaño del efecto medio (p> 0.039) por medio del índice ( 2 . En las demás variables no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto al género (p < 0.05). Inhibición presentó el grado más alto de disfuncionalidad. Afecto negativo obtuvo la puntuación promedio más alta y las diferencias de género muestran que las mujeres tienden a ser más hostiles que los hombres. Sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios sobre los rasgos de personalidad patológica propuestos por el Inventario de personalidad para el DSM-5 si a futuro se propone un modelo dimensional.


Subject(s)
Personality Disorders , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Hostility , Impulsive Behavior , Pathology , Personality , Personality Inventory , Students , Diagnosis , Mental Disorders
19.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 4-9, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280487

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este manuscrito es reflexionar sobre la enfermedad, la eutanasia y el aborto desde la bioética, considerando las implicaciones legales en Colombia y la visión al respecto de profesionales dedicados a las ciencias de la salud en diferentes lugares del mundo. Las enfermedades crónicas son causa importante de limitación funcional, sufrimiento y mortalidad; algunas patologías comprometen tanto el estado de conciencia en las personas que afectan la capacidad de decidir, por lo cual, es importante buscar alternativas para garantizar la autonomía de los pacientes. La eutanasia es aceptada solo en algunos países, pero cuenta con dificultades para el acceso, debido a trámites burocráticos o falta de reglamentación. Finalmente, el aborto es un procedimiento altamente cuestionado por colectivos sociales y religiosos, lo cual ha llevado a la estigmatización de las mujeres que desean acceder a él.


Abstract This manuscript aims to reflect on the disease, euthanasia, and abortion from bioethics, reviewing the legal implications in Colombia and comparing with the vision of health sciences professionals in different parts of the world. Chronic diseases are a major cause of functional limitation, suffering, and mortality. Some pathologies compromise the state of consciousness in people, which affects the ability to decide, so it is important to look for alternatives to guarantee the autonomy of patients. Euthanasia is accepted in only a few countries, but it has difficulties with access due to red tape or lack of regulation. Finally, abortion is judged by religious and social groups, which has led to the stigmatization of women who wish to access it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Euthanasia , Disease , Personal Autonomy , Abortion , Pathology , Social Control, Formal , Societies , Chronic Disease , Consciousness , Health Sciences
20.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 98-114, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252498

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 se transmite principalmente a través de la vía aérea. La media del tiempo desde la exposición hasta la presentación de la sintomatología es de 5 días. Los pacientes infectados pueden permanecer asintomáticos o tener un amplio espectro de manifestaciones como: fiebre, tos seca y malestar general. Aproximadamente, el 20% de pacientes con la COVID-19 requiere hospitalización (10% en área general, el 5% requiere cuidados intermedios y el 5% restante ingresa a cuidados intensivos debido a su estado de gravedad). Los exámenes de laboratorio y radiológicos muestran anomalías de común presentación, pero inespecíficas. El diagnóstico es a través de la prueba de reacción en cadena de polimerasa de transcripción inversa cuando detecta SARS CoV-2. El objetivo de la revisión que se presenta es sintetizar elementos importantes relacionados con la fisiolopatología, manifestaciones clínicas y diagnóstico de la COVID-19.


SARS CoV-2 is transmitted primarily through the airway. The mean time from exposure to presentation of symptoms is 5 days. Infected patients can remain asymptomatic or have a wide spectrum of manifestations such as: fever, dry cough, and general malaise. Approximately 20% of patients with COVID-19 require hospitalization (10% in the general area, 5% require inter-mediate care, and the remaining 5% enter intensive care due to their serious condition). Labora-tory and radiological examinations show common but nonspecific abnormalities. Diagnosis is through the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test when it detects SARS CoV-2. This systematic review aimed to synthesize important elements related to the physiopathology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pathology , Coronavirus Infections , Natural History , Patients , Signs and Symptoms , Diagnosis
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