Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 854
Filter
1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310064, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537219

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil constituyen un problema de salud pública. El inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 pudo haber favorecido esta patología. El puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (Z-IMC) es un indicador aceptado para su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Objetivo. Evaluar si la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó durante la pandemia. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en efectores públicos de salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (GCABA), de 2 a 5 años de edad, con registro de peso y talla en dos consultas, antes y después de haber comenzado el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO). Se registró estado nutricional (Z-IMC) y variación del Z-IMC entre ambas consultas. Resultados. Se evaluaron 3866 sujetos, edad promedio 3,4 ± 0,8 años; el 48,1 % fueron mujeres. El intervalo promedio entre consultas fue 14,3 ± 2,5 meses. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad aumentó del 12,6 % (IC95% 11,6-13,6) al 20,9 % (IC95% 19,6-22-2); p <0,001, al igual que el Z-IMC (0,4 ± 1,1 vs. 0,8 ± 1,3; p <0,001). Conclusión. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó significativamente durante la pandemia.


Introduction. Childhood overweight and obesity are a public health problem. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to this condition. The body mass index (BMI) Z-score has been accepted as an indicator for overweight and obesity diagnosis and follow-up. Objective. To assess whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased during the pandemic. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Patients included were those seen at public health care facilities in the City of Buenos Aires (CABA), who were aged 2 to 5 years, had weight and height values recorded at 2 different visits, before and after the establishment of the preventive and mandatory social isolation policy. Patients' nutritional status (BMI Z-score) and the variation in this indicator between both visits were recorded. Results. A total of 3866 subjects were assessed; their average age was 3.4 ± 0.8 years; 48.1% were girls. The average interval between both visits was 14.3 ± 2.5 months. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased from 12.6% (95% CI: 11.6­13.6) to 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6­22.2), p < 0.001, and so did the BMI Z-score (0.4 ± 1.1 versus 0.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased significantly during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 843-873, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425128

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar na literatura científica a efetividade das intervenções não farmacológicas para o manejo da obesidade infantil. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática do tipo overview. As bases científicas para coleta de dados foram: Cinahl, Cochrane, Lilacs, Medline, Scopus, Scielo e Science direct, e todo o processo de seleção foi feito por pares e avaliado pelo teste Kappa. A análise dos estudos utilizou os instrumentos: AMSTAR para avaliação da qualidade metodológica, Robis 2.0 para avaliação do risco de viés, e o Sistema Grade para classificar nível de evidência. Resultado: 17 estudos foram considerados elegíveis, e avaliação das evidências demonstrou que as intervenções não farmacológicas são efetivas para o manejo da obesidade infantil, sendo classificadas pelo Sistema Grade com alto e moderado nível de evidência. Essas intervenções são caracterizadas como: comportamentais, educacional, familiar, nutricional e tecnológica e são capazes de promover mudanças no Índice de Massa Corporal e estilo de vida. Conclusão: As intervenções não farmacológicas são capazes de promover mudanças positivas quanto ao comportamento alimentar e manejo da obesidade, entretanto os resultados não são imediatos.


Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for the management of childhood obesity in the scientific literature. Method: This is a systematic review of the overview type. The scientific databases for data collection were: Cinahl, Cochrane, Lilacs, Medline, Scopus, Scielo and Science direct, and the entire selection process was done by pairs and evaluated by Kappa test. The analysis of the studies used the instruments: AMSTAR to assess methodological quality, Robis 2.0 to assess risk of bias, and the Grade System to rank level of evidence. Results: 17 studies were considered eligible, and evaluation of the evidence showed that non- pharmacological interventions are effective for the management of childhood obesity, being classified by the Grade System with high and moderate level of evidence. These interventions are characterized as: behavioral, educational, family, nutritional, and technological, and are able to promote changes in Body Mass Index and lifestyle. Conclusion: Non-pharmacological interventions are able to promote positive changes in eating behavior and obesity management, but the results are not immediate.


Objetivo: Analizar la efectividad de las intervenciones no farmacológicas para el manejo de la obesidad infantil en la literatura científica. Método: Se trata de una revisión sistemática de tipo panorámica. Las bases de datos científicas para la recogida de datos fueron: Cinahl, Cochrane, Lilacs, Medline, Scopus, Scielo y Science direct, y todo el proceso de selección se realizó por parejas y se evaluó mediante el test de Kappa. En el análisis de los estudios se utilizaron los instrumentos AMSTAR para evaluar la calidad metodológica, Robis 2.0 para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo y el Grade System para clasificar el nivel de evidencia. Resultados: Se consideraron elegibles 17 estudios, y la evaluación de la evidencia mostró que las intervenciones no farmacológicas son efectivas para el manejo de la obesidad infantil, siendo clasificadas por el Sistema Grade con nivel de evidencia alto y moderado. Estas intervenciones se caracterizan por ser: conductuales, educativas, familiares, nutricionales y tecnológicas, y son capaces de promover cambios en el Índice de Masa Corporal y en el estilo de vida. Conclusiones: Las intervenciones no farmacológicas son capaces de promover cambios positivos en la conducta alimentaria y en el manejo de la obesidad, pero los resultados no son inmediatos.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Obesity Management , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Healthcare Models , Effectiveness , Body Mass Index , Child Nutrition Sciences , Feeding Behavior
3.
Rev Enferm UFPI ; 12(1): e4139, 2023-12-12. tab e graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1523670

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Construir e validar um protocolo de intervenções nutricionais para o manejo da obesidade infantil no âmbito da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo metodológico, organizado em três fases: elaboração de uma revisão sistemática do tipo overview, com uso das recomendações PRISMA, construção do protocolo clínico e validação do conteúdo com uso dos instrumentos AGREE II e AGREE-REX. Resultados: Foram incluídos 17 estudos para a construção do protocolo, indicando efetividade em intervenções com desfechos na redução significativa do IMC, mudança no comportamento e hábitos alimentares, aumento no nível de conhecimento sobre alimentação saudável. A avaliação do protocolo clínico obteve uma pontuação >70% e, conforme o parâmetro utilizado (≥50% qualidade alta), foi considerado adequado para implementação no campo da saúde da criança, mais especificamente no manejo da obesidade infantil. Conclusão: Um protocolo assistencial para o manejo da obesidade infantil no âmbito da Atenção Primária à Saúde representa de forma positiva uma estratégia sustentável e flexível com atuação de diversos atores sociais como profissionais da saúde e familiares, dentre outros, contribuindo para a redução de riscos de comorbidades associadas à obesidade e custos de saúde, bem como para promover comportamentos mais saudáveis na população pediátrica. Descritores: Atenção Primária à Saúde; Obesidade Infantil; Manejo da Obesidade; Protocolos Clínicos.


Objective: To create and validate a protocol to implement nutritional interventions for the management of childhood obesity in the Primary Health Care scope.Methods: This is a methodological study organized into three phases: elaboration of a systematic review of the "overview" type using the PRISMA recommendations; preparation of the clinical protocol; and content validation using the AGREE II and AGREE-REX instruments.Results: A total of 17 studies were included to create the protocol, indicating effectiveness in interventions with outcomes in a significant BMI reduction, change in eating behaviors and habits, and increase in the knowledge level about healthy eating. The clinical protocol assessment obtained a score >70% and, according to the parameter used (≥50% high quality), it was considered adequate for implementation in the children's health field, more specifically in the management of childhood obesity.Conclusion: A care protocol for the management of childhood obesity in the Primary Health Care scope positively represents a sustainable and flexible strategy with performance of several social actors such as health professionals and family members, among others, contributing to reducing risks of comorbidities associated with obesity and health costs, as well as to promoting healthier behaviors in the pediatric population. Descriptors: Primary Health Care; Pediatric Obesity; Obesity Management; Clinical Protocols.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Clinical Protocols , Pediatric Obesity , Obesity Management
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202854, oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1452090

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de sobrepeso y obesidad es alarmante en el mundo. En Argentina son escasos los estudios multifactoriales a pesar de los altos índices de sobrepeso y obesidad en la población infantil (SOI). En este estudio evaluamos la prevalencia de SOI y sus factores de riesgo asociados desde una perspectiva multicausal: analizamos hábitos de sueño, uso de pantallas, estrés crónico en niños y sus cuidadores, problemas de relación social, alimentación y actividad física. De los 397 niños de primer y séptimo grado que completaron los cuestionarios, el 41 % presentó SOI. Los niños con obesidad mostraron realizar menos actividad física, tener un menor consumo de alimentos protectores, más riesgos de trastornos del sueño, mayores niveles de estrés crónico (tanto en los niños como en sus cuidadores) y mayor índice de rechazo entre pares. En la mayoría de los niños se encontró un uso generalizado de pantallas antes de acostarse. El presente estudio evidencia la diversidad de factores asociados a esta problemática y destaca la conveniencia de utilizar un enfoque multidimensional para abordar la obesidad en la infancia. Asimismo, los resultados de este trabajo sugieren la necesidad de considerar los hábitos de vida como estrategia preventiva y terapéutica para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad desde etapas tempranas.


The incidence of overweight and obesity is alarming worldwide. In Argentina, multifactorial studies are scarce despite the high rates of childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB). In this study we assessed the prevalence of childhood OW/OB and the associated risk factors from a multicausal perspective: we analyzed sleep habits, screen use, chronic stress in children and their caregivers, social relationship problems, eating habits, and physical activity. Of the 397 first and seventh graders who completed the questionnaires, 41% had childhood OW/OB. In children with obesity, a lower level of physical activity, a lower consumption of protective foods, a higher risk for sleep disorders, higher levels of chronic stress (in both children and their caregivers), and higher rates of peer rejection were observed. Widespread use of screens before bedtime was noted in most children. This study evidences the diversity of factors associated with childhood OW/OB and highlights the convenience of a multidimensional approach to address it. In addition, the results of this study suggest the need to consider lifestyle habits as a preventive and therapeutic strategy for the management of OW/OB from early stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior
5.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514489

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico de un niño o adolescente como hipertenso no es tarea fácil. El principal medio para el diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial sigue siendo la presión arterial tomada en el consultorio, pero por su escasa reproducibilidad, este método tiene algunas limitaciones. Existen otros menos usados en el medio pediátrico, pero más reproducibles y confiables, como el monitoreo ambulatorio de la presión arterial, el cual permite disminuir el subdiagnóstico de hipertensión arterial. La investigación se realizó a partir de un pesquisaje efectuado con el objetivo de identificar la morbilidad oculta de hipertensión arterial en adolescentes con exceso de peso, en el área de salud del Policlínico «Chiqui Gómez Lubián», Santa Clara, Villa Clara. El caso reviste importancia para la Atención Primaria de Salud, promueve la utilización de un método diagnóstico que mejora la correcta clasificación y tratamiento de la hipertensión en edades tempranas para contribuir a la prevención de complicaciones posteriores


Diagnosing a child or an adolescent as hypertensive is not an easy task. The main way to diagnose arterial hypertension continues to be at the doctor´s office, but due to its poor reproducibility, this method has some limitations. There are other less used methods in the pediatric setting, but are more reproducible and reliable, such as ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, which makes it possible to reduce the underdiagnosis of arterial hypertension. We present a case of a male adolescent who was detected during a screening, with the objective of identifying hidden morbidity of arterial hypertension in overweight adolescents, in the health area at "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" Polyclinic, in Santa Clara, Villa Clara. The case is of great important for primary health care, promotes the use of a diagnosis method that improves the correct classification and treatment of hypertension at an early age and contributes to the prevention of subsequent complications


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Pediatric Obesity , Hypertension
6.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 180-190, sept 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1516062

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En Chile la prevalencia de obesidad total en población escolar alcanza al 31% y la obesidad severa al 10,8%. La Región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, es una de las más afectadas por esta epidemia. El diagnóstico nutricional confiable y una intervención oportuna pueden evitar que los niños enfermen y deterioren su calidad de vida. Objetivo: Analizar la tendencia del estado nutricional de escolares de la Región de Magallanes, según datos reportados por la Junta Nacional de Auxilio Escolar y Becas, JUNAEB, entre 2009-2019 y comparar resultados del año 2010 con un estudio propio. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó el estado nutricional de 71.334 escolares de la Región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena por nivel educacional y variables demográficas, según información de JUNAEB. Luego se compararon los resultados de escolares de 1º básico del año 2010, obtenidos a través de dos metodologías: fuente secundaria, Encuesta JUNAEB, y fuente primaria, estudio antropométrico realizado en la misma región y año. Resultados. Según datos de JUNAEB el exceso ponderal se incrementó en escolares de la región en 4,4 % entre 2009 y 2019, el grupo más afectado fue 1º básico. En el año 2010 la prevalencia de obesidad para escolares de 1º básico según JUNAEB fue 21,8% y según estudio regional propio fue 25,7%. Conclusiones. La malnutrición por exceso afecta al 53,8% de los escolares de la Región de Magallanes y podría ser mayor, considerando que la información censal podría estar subestimando el sobrepeso y obesidad. Es urgente intervenir para evitar perpetuar esta epidemia(AU)


Introduction. In Chile the prevalence of total obesity in school population reaches 31% and severe obesity 10.8%. The Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region is one of the most affected by this epidemic. Reliable nutritional diagnosis and timely intervention can prevent children from getting sick and deteriorating their quality of life. Objective. To analyze the trend of nutritional status of schoolchildren in the Magallanes Region, according to data reported by the National Board of School Aid and Scholarships, JUNAEB between 2009-2019 and compare results from 2010 with our own study. Materials and methods. The nutritional status of 71,334 schoolchildren in the Magallanes Region and Chilean Antarctica was analyzed by educational level and demographic variables, according to information from JUNAEB. Then, the results of schoolchildren in 1st grade in 2010 were compared, obtained through two methods: secondary source, JUNAEB survey, and primary source, anthropometric study carried out in the same region and year. Results. According to JUNAEB data, overweight increased in school children in the region by 4.4% between 2009 and 2019, the most affected group was 1st grade. In 2010 the prevalence of obesity for 1st grade schoolchildren according to JUNAEB was 21.8% and according to our own regional study it was 25.7%. Conclusions. Excess malnutrition affects 53.8% of school children in the Magallanes Region and could be higher, considering that census information could be underestimating overweight and obesity. It is urgent to intervene to avoid perpetuating this epidemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Pediatric Obesity , Malnutrition , Overweight
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 58-64, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532918

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Mundialmente se observaron consecuencias negativas en la salud por el aislamiento social durante la pandemia de COVID-19; el sobrepeso y la obesidad mostraron tendencias crecientes. Objetivo. Analizar los cambios en el sobrepeso, obesidad y alimentación de escolares del noroeste de México antes y después del aislamiento por COVID-19. Materiales y métodos. Se colectaron y analizaron el peso, talla y circunferencia de cintura de escolares del noroeste de México pre y post pandemia por COVID 19 (n=479 y n=820). Además, se analizaron los cambios en la alimentación en una submuestra de 203 y 179 escolares pre y post pandemia, respectivamente. Resultados. La edad promedio de los escolares en 2019 fue 8,9 ±1,75 y en el 2022 de 9,1 ± 1,54 años. Se observó un aumento de 6,2 puntos porcentuales en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad y diferencias en la distribución de las categorías del estado nutricio (p=0,049) entre los dos periodos. También, se observaron cambios en la adiposidad central con un aumento de 3 centímetros en la circunferencia de cintura (p=0,001; 62,6 y 65,6 cm). El índice de alimentación saludable (IAS) mostró una alimentación poco saludable durante los dos periodos. Conclusiones. El aumento en las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad, así como de obesidad central durante la emergencia epidemiológica, indicaron un deterioro del estado nutricio de los escolares, que coincide con los reportes en poblaciones a nivel mundial y en Latinoamérica; los resultados resultan preocupantes dada la problemática antes de la emergencia(AU)


Introduction. Negative health consequences due to social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic were observed worldwide; overweight and obesity showed increasing trends. Objective. To analyze the changes in overweight, obesity and diet of schoolchildren in northwest Mexico before and after lockdown due to COVID-19. Materials and methods. Weight, height, and waist circumference of schoolchildren (n=479 pre-pandemic and n=820 post-pandemic) were collected in public schools located in medium to high marginalization neighborhoods. In the same periods dietary data was collected from a subsample of 203 and 179 schoolchildren, respectively. Results. The average age of schoolchildren in 2019 was 8,9 ±1,75 and 9,1 ± 1,54 in 2022. An increase in percentage of 6,2 was observed in the overweight plus obesity prevalence and a significant difference in the distribution of nutritional status (p=0,049) between the two periods. In addition, changes in central adiposity were observed, with an increase of 3 centimeters in waist circumference (p=0,001; 62,6 and 65,6 cm). The healthy eating index (HAI) classified the diet of schoolchildren as unhealthy during both periods. Conclusions. The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as central adiposity is worrying given that they were already a health problem before the COVID 19 confinement(AU)


Subject(s)
Child , Nutritional Status , Pediatric Obesity , COVID-19 , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Malnutrition , Overweight , Waist Circumference , Sedentary Behavior , Pandemics , Diet, Healthy
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 5-11, jun 22, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442362

ABSTRACT

Introduction: childhood obesity is one of the main public health problems worldwide, leading to health status repercussions and growth and maturation process implications in both children and adolescents. Objective: the aim of this study was to verify body morphology and bone age variations in girls with obesity and without obesity. Methodology: this comprises a cross-sectional study conducted with 140 girls aged 8 to 15 years old, 70 with obesity and 70 without obesity. Hip and waist circumferences, body mass, height and and Body Mass Index (BMI) were determined. For maturation status determinations, bone ages were determined by a left wrist and hand radiography employing the Fels method. Results: the findigs indicate significant correlations between nutritional and maturation statuses (r=0.80; p˂0.01). Girls with obesity presented higher weight and BMI values, larger waist and hip circumferences and more advanced bone age compared to girls without obesity (p˂0.01). The same significant differences (p˂0.01) were noted in the contrasting maturational group analysis, where girls presenting advanced maturation always exhibited the highest parameter values. Conclusion: nutritional status is associated to maturation status, and girls with obesity exhibit more advanced bone age than girls without obesity.


Introdução: a obesidade infantil é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública mundial, com repercussões no estado de saúde e implicações no processo de crescimento e maturação de crianças e adolescentes. Objetivo: verificar a variação da morfologia corporal e da idade óssea em meninas com e sem obesidade. Metodologia: estudo transversal conduzido com 140 meninas de 8 a 15 anos de idade, sendo 70 meninas com obesidade e 70 sem obesidade. Foram mensuradas as circunferências do quadril e da cintura, massa corporal, altura e o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC). Para o status maturacional foi determinada a idade óssea por meio de radiografia de punho e mão esquerdos pelo Método Fels. Resultados: os resultados apontaram a existência de correlação entre o status nutricional e o status maturacional (r=0,80; p˂0,01). As meninas com obesidade apresentaram maior peso, IMC mais elevado, circunferências maiores e idade óssea mais avançada quando comparadas às meninas sem obesidade (p˂0,01). Na análise dos grupos maturacionais contrastantes as mesmas diferenças se apresentaram com valores significativos (p˂0,01), sendo as meninas avançadas maturacionalmente sempre com valores superiores. Conclusão: o status nutricional apresentou correlação com o status maturacional, e as meninas com obesidade apresentam idade óssea mais avançada que aquelas sem obesidade


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Public Health , Failure to Thrive , Waist Circumference , Pediatric Obesity , Growth , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
s.l; Ministerio de Salud y Desarrollo Social;Ministerio de Educación, Cultura, Ciencia y Tecnología; mar. 2023. 30 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418679

ABSTRACT

El sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNyA) así como en adultos, es una epidemia en aumento que está tomando proporciones alarmantes en todo el mundo y representa uno de los principales problemas de salud pública que requiere respuestas de los Estados en forma urgente1 . El sobrepeso y la obesidad muestran una curva ascendente especialmente preocupante en NNyA, en quienes el crecimiento es más acelerado que en personas adultas. El sobrepeso y la obesidad afectan tanto la salud psico-física inmediata de NNyA, como el nivel educativo que pueden alcanzar y su calidad de vida. Asimismo, los NNyA con sobrepeso y obesidad tienen mayores probabilidades de seguir siendo personas obesas en la edad adulta y presentan mayor riesgo de sufrir enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), como las cardiovasculares, la diabetes o el cáncer2. Más información detallada sobre la evolución de la epidemia de obesidad en NNyA a nivel internacional y en Argentina, así como su impacto en la salud y en la economía de los países se desarrolló en el reciente informe publicado por la Secretaria de Gobierno de Salud en colaboración con UNICEF3. En dicho informe se analizaron el peso y la talla de NNyA de 0 a 18 años que accedieron a la atención del sistema público de salud del país y se concluyó que en Argentina, en sintonía con la reconocida "transición nutricional" global, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en NNyA representa la forma más prevalente de malnutrición. Esto se evidencia en el hecho de que entre los más de 3 millones de NNyA atendidos en el sector público del sistema de salud argentino en 2016, 31,1% tenían malnutrición por exceso (sobrepeso y obesidad) y 8,1% malnutrición por carencia (bajo peso). En la actualidad, y como consecuencia de numerosos cambios sociales, culturales y económicos, como por ejemplo los cambios en los modelos de producción de alimentos, su disponibilidad, asequibilidad, comercialización y marketing, así como por la escasa práctica de actividad física, los NNyA crecen y se desarrollan a menudo en entornos obesogénicos. Un entorno obesogénico es aquel que fomenta el consumo excesivo de kilocalorías y nutrientes críticos como azúcares, grasas y sodio, además de ofrecer múltiples barreras para el desarrollo de actividad física y fomentar el comportamiento sedentario4. Así, la falta de regulación que promueva entornos más saludables, ha favorecido en las últimas décadas al crecimiento del sobrepeso y la obesidad. Las respuestas conductuales y biológicas de NNyA ante un entorno obesogénico pueden estar determinadas por procesos anteriores incluso a su nacimiento, lo que empuja a un número cada vez mayor de NNyA hacia la obesidad, si siguen una alimentación de baja calidad nutricional y no realizan la actividad física recomendada1 . Existen pruebas convincentes de que la publicidad y la comercialización de alimentos y bebidas con alto contenido de sodio, grasas, azúcares y kilocalorías, pero deficientes en micronutrientes, pueden repercutir en las preferencias alimentarias, el comportamiento de compra y el consumo de NNyA. La comercialización y provisión en las escuelas de alimentos y bebidas con altos niveles de azúcar, grasa, sal y bajo valor nutricional, también influyen en los patrones y hábitos de consumo en niños y niñas5, 6, 7, 8. La prevención y el tratamiento de la obesidad exige un enfoque intersectorial e intergubernamental y en el que las políticas de todos los sectores tengan en cuenta sistemáticamente la salud, eviten los efectos sanitarios nocivos y, por tanto, mejoren la salud de la población y la equidad. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y otros organismos internacionales han publicado en los últimos años, numerosos documentos que, en base a evidencia científica, establecen un conjunto de medidas para regular los entornos obesogénicos y los productos, de modo de fomentar hábitos saludables y así detener el crecimiento de esta epidemia2, 9, 10. Dentro de estas medidas recomendadas, una que resulta clave y que cuenta con alto consenso a nivel internacional es la regulación de los entornos escolares para promover la nutrición adecuada y la actividad física. Sólo a través de una serie de medidas (intervención multicomponente) de demostrada eficacia que aborde integralmente aspectos nutricionales y de actividad física en las instituciones escolares, se conseguirán las transformaciones necesarias para fomentar hábitos saludables y mejorar los patrones de conducta de NNyA. El objetivo del presente documento es establecer un conjunto de recomendaciones que, basadas en las mejores evidencias científicas disponibles, constituyan los estándares para guiar el proceso de sanción de leyes e implementación de programas efectivos, para transformar los entornos obesogénicos en entornos escolares saludables. Estos estándares están dirigidos a legisladores y decisores políticos tanto del nivel nacional como provincial y municipal así como también a organizaciones académicas y de la sociedad civil que trabajen en la temática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schools , Education, Primary and Secondary , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion , Argentina/epidemiology , Exercise , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Healthy Lifestyle
11.
Goiânia; SES-GO; jan. 2023. 10 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1416554

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é um transtorno crônico, complexo e multifatorial, envolve fatores ambientais, estilo de vida, hormonais e genéticos, acomete indivíduos de todas as idades e quanto mais cedo ocorre, maiores são os riscos à saúde. Uma criança com obesidade tem 80% chance de tornar-se um adulto com obesidade (FREEDMAN et al., 2007). Tratamento medicamentoso está aprovado a partir do IMC> 27 kg/m2 associado a comorbidades ou ≥ 30 kg/m2 mesmo na ausência de comorbidades. Liraglutida é o único medicamento aprovada para uso em adolescentes a partir dos 12 anos de idade com peso corporal maior que 60 kg e IMC correspondendo a 30 kg/m² para adultos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Pediatric Obesity/drug therapy , Liraglutide
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(4): 114-120, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512147

ABSTRACT

La infección previa por el adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) se ha asociado con el proceso adipogénico y el control glicémico en modelos experimentales de cultivos celulares y animales. En humanos, la presencia de anticuerpos contra Ad-36 ha mostrado aumentar el riesgo de obesidad y, paradójicamente, mejorar el control glicémico en diferentes poblaciones. Se evaluó la influencia de la seropositividad contra Ad-36 sobre riesgo de obesidad, el perfil lipídico y glicémico en una población de niños en edad escolar. Métodos: Doscientos ocho individuos de entre 9 y 13 años se agruparon según estado nutricional como normopeso (IMC z-score de -1 a +1), con sobrepeso (IMC z-score de +1 a +2) y con obesidad (IMC z-score > +3). Se evaluaron medidas antropométricas, desarrollo puberal según Tanner y parámetros bioquímicos (perfil lipídico, glucemia e insulina) y la seropositividad contra Ad-36. Se determinó la resistencia a la insulina (RI) según criterio para la población infantil chilena. La seropositividad contra Ad-36 se determinó mediante ELISA. Resultados: Hubo una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad en la población de estudio. La seropositividad contra Ad-36 fue del 5,4% en el grupo total, pero no se observó una asociación con el estado nutricional. No se encontró correlación entre la seropositividad contra Ad-36 y los parámetros del perfil lipídico. La insulina y la HOMA-RI fueron significativamente más bajas en el grupo Ad-36 (+) (p<0,001), no habiendo sido reportados casos de RI en el grupo Ad-36 (+) en nuestra población. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que la infección previa por el adenovirus-36 afecta la secreción de insulina y la resistencia a la insulina, como se ha descrito anteriormente, sin embargo, no se observa correlación con el desarrollo de la obesidad infantil en la población pediátrica del sur de Chile.


Previous infection with Adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) has been associated with adipogenic process and glycemic control in experimental models of cell culture and animals. In humans, the presence of antibodies against Ad-36 has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and, paradoxically, improve glycemic control in different populations. The influence of Ad-36 seropositivity on obesity risk, lipid and glycemic profile was evaluated in a population of school-age children. Methods: Two hundred eight individuals aged 9 to 13 years were grouped according to their nutritional status as normal weight (BMI z-score from -1 to +1), overweight (BMI z-score from +1 to +2) or obese (BMI z-score from -1 to +1). z-score > +3). Anthropometric measurements, pubertal development according to Tanner stage, biochemical parameters (lipid profile, glycemia and insulin) and seropositivity against Ad-36 were evaluated. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined according to criteria for the Chilean child population. Seropositivity against Ad-36 was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a high prevalence of overweight/obesity in the study population. Seropositivity against Ad-36 was 5.4% in the total group, but no association with nutritional status was observed. No correlation was found between Ad-36 seropositivity and lipid profile parameters. Insulin and HOMA-RI were significantly lower in the Ad-36 (+) group (p<0.001), and no cases of RI were reported in the Ad-36 (+) group in our population. Conclusions: Our results suggest that previous adenovirus-36 infection affects insulin secretion and insulin resistance, as previously described, however, no correlation is observed with the development of childhood obesity in the pediatric population. from southern Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/virology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chile , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/virology , Lipids/analysis
13.
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1748, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions among adolescents. Methods, such as bariatric surgery, have become the most effective treatment for patients with classes III and IV obesity. AIM: To evaluate weight loss, comorbidity remission, and long-term results of bariatric surgery in adolescents. METHODS: Study with adolescent patients undergoing bariatric surgery, evaluating laboratory tests, comorbidities, and the percentage of excess weight loss in the preoperative period and at one, two, and five years postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients who met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 18.6 years, were included in the analysis. In the preoperative period, 30.8% of hypercholesterolemia, 23.1% of systemic arterial hypertension, and 18.4% of type 2 diabetes were recorded, with remission of these percentages occurring in 60, 66.7 and 83.4%, respectively. The mean percentage of excess weight loss was 63.48% after one year of surgery, 64.75% after two years, and 57.28% after five years. The mean preoperative total cholesterol level was 180.26 mg/dL, and after one, two, and five years, it was 156.89 mg/dL, 161.39 mg/dL, and 150.97 mg/dL, respectively. The initial mean of low-density lipoprotein was 102.19mg/dL and after five years the mean value reduced to 81.81 mg/dL. The mean preoperative glycemia was 85.08 mg/dL and reduced to 79.13 mg/dL after one year, and to 76.19 mg/dL after five years. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in adolescents, with low morbidity, resulting in a loss of excess weight and long-term stability, improving laboratory tests, and leading to remission of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and systemic arterial hypertension.


RESUMO RACIONAL: A obesidade tomou proporções epidêmicas entre adolescentes, e procedimentos como a cirurgia bariátrica tornou-se o tratamento mais efetivo em pacientes com obesidade grau III e IV. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a perda peso, a remissão de comorbidades, e resultados a longo prazo da cirurgia bariátrica em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo com pacientes adolescentes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, avaliando exames laboratoriais, comorbidades e o percentual de perda de excesso de peso, nos períodos pré-operatório e com 1, 2 e 5 anos de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 65 pacientes que preencheram os critérios de inclusão, com a média de idade de 18,6 anos. No pré-operatório foram registrados: 30,8% hipercolesterolemia, 23,1% hipertensão arterial sistêmica e 18,4% diabetes tipo 2, ocorrendo remissão destes porcentuais em 60, 66,7 e 83,4%, respectivamente. O percentual médio de perda de excesso de peso após 1 ano foi de 63,48%, após 2 anos foi de 64,75% e após 5 anos foi 57,28%. O valor médio do colesterol total no pré-operatório era de 180,26mg/dL, e após 1 ano, 2 anos e 5 anos foram de 156,89mg/dL,161,39mg/dL e de 150,97mg/dL, respectivamente. A média inicial de lipoproteína de baixa densidade era 102,19mg/dL e após 5 anos o valor médio reduziu para 81,81 mg/dL. O valor médio da glicose pré-operatório era 85,08 mg/dL, após um ano uma média 79,13mg/dL, e com 5 anos 76,19 mg/dL. CONCLUSÕES: A cirurgia bariátrica é segura e eficaz em adolescentes, com baixa morbidade, resultando em uma perda do excesso de peso e estabilidade a longo prazo, melhorando exames laboratoriais e levando a remissão de comorbidades como diabetes mellitus, hipercolesterolemia e hipertensão arterial sistêmica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Pediatric Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/diagnosis , Weight Loss , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis
14.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20210223, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BVSAM | ID: biblio-1449159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the trend and correlation of obesity and the increase in continued breastfeeding in children aged six to 23 months in Brazil, from 2015-2019. Methods: ecological time series study with data from the Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (Food and Nutritional Surveillance System). The dependent variable was the prevalence of obesity. Prais-Winsten linear regression was used to verify the trend. Spearman's correlation was used to verify the relationship between the prevalence of obesity and the increase in continued breastfeeding. Results: there was a trend towards a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in all regions in Brazil (Annual Percentage Variation [APV]: -4.14; CI95%=-4.50; -3.79). The prevalence of continued breastfeeding showed an upward trend in the North (APV=4.89; CI95%=2.92; 6.90), Southeast (APV=3.36; CI95%=2.32; 4 .41) and South (APV=2.67; CI95%=0.98; 4.38). There was a negative and significant correlation between obesity and continued breastfeeding in the North, Northeast, Southeast and South regions. Conclusion: the reduction in the prevalence of obesity and the increase in continued breastfeeding occurred only in some regions, requiring the implementation of effective strategies to be present throughout the country. Actions to promote, protect and support continued breastfeeding and healthy eating should be more prioritized to promote the child's healthy growth.


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a tendência e a correlação de obesidade e o aumento do aleitamento materno continuado em crianças de seis a 23 meses no Brasil, de 2015-2019. Métodos: estudo ecológico de série temporal com dados do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional. A variável dependente foi a prevalência de obesidade. A regressão linear de Prais-Winsten foi usada para verificar a tendência. Adotou-se a correlação de Spearman para verificar a relação entre as prevalências de obesidade e o aumento do aleitamento materno continuado. Resultados: verificou-se tendência de redução da prevalência de obesidade em todas as suas regiões do Brasil (Variação Percentual Anual [VPA]: -4,14; IC95%=-4,50; -3,79). A prevalência do aleitamento materno continuado apresentou tendência de aumento nas regiões Norte (VPA=4,89; IC95%=2,92; 6,90), Sudeste (VPA=3,36; IC95%=2,32; 4,41) e Sul (VPA= 2,67; IC95%=0,98; 4,38). Houve correlação negativa e significativa entre obesidade e aleitamento materno continuado nas regiões Norte, Nordeste, Sudeste e Sul. Conclusão: a redução da prevalência da obesidade e o aumento do aleitamento materno continuado ocorreram somente em algumas regiões, requerendo implementação de estratégias eficazes para esteja presente em todo o país. Ações de promoção, proteção e apoio ao aleitamento materno continuado e a alimentação saudável devem ser mais priorizadas para promover o crescimento saudável da criança.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Breast Feeding/trends , Infant Nutrition , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Time Series Studies , Nutritional Status
15.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253741, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448940

ABSTRACT

Apesar das crescentes investigações sobre uso de telas na infância, essa é uma temática complexa e ainda recente, que traz diversos desafios para pesquisadores e cuidadores. Comunidades virtuais em redes sociais são utilizadas por mães e pais para esclarecer dúvidas e receber conselhos acerca da parentalidade e saúde infantil, podendo, simultaneamente, assumir uma função prescritiva e normativa quanto ao seu modo de agir. Sendo assim, este artigo pretende compreender como o uso de telas na infância vem sendo abordado por especialistas em grupos de mães e pais no Facebook. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo envolvendo 49 postagens de especialistas, sobretudo psicólogos e educadores, extraídas de cinco grupos públicos de mães e pais nessa rede social. Os textos das publicações foram verificados por meio de análise temática e discutidos com base no referencial teórico psicanalítico. Os resultados mostraram que os especialistas destacam os possíveis prejuízos do uso de telas na infância, além de fornecer orientações aos pais sobre como lidar com sua presença no cotidiano das crianças e de suas famílias. Concluiu-se que apesar dos grupos de cuidadores no Facebook serem uma ferramenta de divulgação de informações acerca do uso de telas na infância, cabe não naturalizar a presença de especialistas nesses espaços virtuais criados por pais e mães, interpondo-se nos saberes e nas trocas horizontalizadas entre os cuidadores.(AU)


Although investigations on the use of screens in childhood are increasing, this is a complex and recent topic, which poses several challenges for researchers and caregivers. Virtual communities in social networks are used by mothers and fathers to clarify doubts and receive advice regarding parenting and child health, at times, simultaneously, assuming a prescriptive and normative role on their way of acting. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how the use of screens in childhood has been approached by experts in groups of mothers and fathers on Facebook. A qualitative study was carried out involving 49 posts from specialists, mainly psychologists and educators, extracted from five public groups of mothers and fathers in this social network. The publications' texts were verified via thematic analysis and discussed based on the psychoanalytical theoretical framework. The results showed that experts highlight the possible damage of the use of screens in childhood, in addition to providing guidance to parents on how to deal with the presence of digital technology in the daily lives of children and families. It was concluded that, although caregivers' groups on Facebook are a tool for disseminating information about the use of screens in childhood, it is important not to naturalize the presence of specialists in these virtual spaces created by fathers and mothers, interposing in the horizontally interchanges that occur between the caregivers.(AU)


A pesar de las crecientes investigaciones sobre el uso de pantallas en la infancia, este es un tema complejo y aún reciente, que plantea varios desafíos para investigadores y cuidadores. Las comunidades virtuales en las redes sociales son utilizadas por madres y padres para aclarar dudas y recibir consejos sobre educación y salud infantil, pudiendo, al mismo tiempo, asumir un rol prescriptivo y normativo sobre su forma de actuar. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender cómo el uso de las pantallas en la infancia ha sido abordado por especialistas en grupos de madres y padres en Facebook. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo a partir de 49 publicaciones de especialistas, principalmente de psicólogos y educadores, extraídas de cinco grupos públicos de madres y padres en esta red social. Se realizó en los textos de las publicaciones un análisis temático y se utilizó el marco teórico psicoanalítico. Los resultados mostraron que los expertos destacan posibles daños que provoca el uso de pantallas en la infancia, además de orientar a los padres sobre cómo afrontar esta presencia de la tecnología digital en el día a día de los niños y sus familias. Se concluyó que, a pesar de que los grupos de cuidadores en Facebook son una herramienta de difusión de información sobre el uso de pantallas en la infancia, es importante no naturalizar la presencia de especialistas en estos espacios virtuales creados por padres y madres que se interpone entre los saberes e intercambios horizontales de los cuidadores.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychoanalysis , Child , Social Networking , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Pediatrics , Personality Development , Personality Disorders , Play and Playthings , Psychology , Psychology, Educational , Aspirations, Psychological , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Schools , Autistic Disorder , Sleep , Achievement , Social Change , Social Isolation , Socialization , Sports , Stress, Physiological , Technology , Television , Thinking , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Behavior Therapy , Books, Illustrated , Neurosciences , Bereavement , Exercise , Child Behavior , Child Care , Child Development , Child Guidance , Child Health Services , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Child Health , Parenting , Negotiating , Caregivers , Health Personnel , Cognition , Communication , Early Intervention, Educational , Video Games , Internet , Creativity , Affect , Threshold Limit Values , Cultural Characteristics , Cybernetics , Metabolic Syndrome , Moral Development , Cell Phone , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Educational Status , Emotions , User Embracement , Population Studies in Public Health , Overweight , Child Nutrition , Failure to Thrive , Fantasy , Sunbathing , Emotional Intelligence , Sedentary Behavior , Video-Audio Media , Pediatric Obesity , Mobile Applications , Social Skills , Courage , Sociological Factors , Emotional Adjustment , Literacy , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder , Games, Recreational , Cell Phone Use , Frustration , Internet Addiction Disorder , Social Interaction , COVID-19 , Technology Addiction , Happiness , Helplessness, Learned , Hobbies , Hospitals, Maternity , Hypertension , Imagination , Individuality , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Language Development Disorders , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Leisure Activities , Life Style , Mother-Child Relations , Motor Activity , Nonverbal Communication
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 194 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509541

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diante da alta prevalência de obesidade infantil, torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de pesquisas sobre intervenções que sejam econômicas e acessíveis. Assim, sugere-se que uma dessas intervenções possa ser a exposição segura à luz solar ou radiação ultravioleta (UVR), tendo em vista que a exposição solar parece ter um importante efeito indireto contra o desenvolvimento da obesidade por meio da síntese de vitamina D. Objetivo: Investigar as relações entre o tempo de exposição solar, os hábitos de vida e a presença de excesso de peso em crianças portuguesas. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com crianças de ambos os sexos participantes do projeto "Inequalities in childhood obesity: the impact of the socioeconomic crisis in Portugal from 2009 to 2015". Entre 2016 e 2017 foram coletados dados nas cidades de Coimbra (n = 2980), Lisboa (n = 3066) e Porto (n = 2426). No presente estudo, foram utilizados apenas os dados coletados de crianças entre 3 e 11 anos que tinham informações sobre o tempo de exposição solar (TES). Também foram coletadas informações sobre tempo de tela, tempo destinado às brincadeiras ativas e à prática de atividade física, consumo alimentar e nível socioeconômico (NSE), por meio de questionários padronizados. Profissionais treinados realizaram medidas de circunferência da cintura, dobras cutâneas e de peso e estatura, obtendo-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) para classificação do estado nutricional de acordo com os pontos de corte estabelecidos pela International Obesity Task Force IOTF. Foram realizados testes de diferenças entre as médias (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon/Ranksum e Kruskal-Wallis), Análise de Componentes Principais (Principal Component Analysis) e análises de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Foram analisadas 4.755 crianças com média de idade de 7,11 ±1,91 anos, 58,14% do sexo feminino (n = 2.384). Dentre os avaliados, 6,01% foram classificados com baixo peso, 72,09% como eutróficos, 16,50% com sobrepeso e 5,38% com obesidade, sem diferença significativa no TES (média de 210 ± 45 minutos por dia) de acordo com o estado nutricional ou sexo. Além de estar associado com o maior NSE (p < 0,001), o TES apresentou associação negativa com o IMC (ß = - 0,09,95% IC:- 0,18;- 0,003; p = 0,042), com a % de gordura corporal (ß = - 0,31, 95%; IC: - 0,54; - 0,07; p = 0,010) e com o tempo no computador (ß = - 0,08,95% IC: - 0,12; - 0,05; p < 0,0001); e associação positiva com o tempo destinado às brincadeiras ativas (ß = 0,22 ,95% IC: 0,17; 0,27; p < 0,0001) e prática de atividade física ((ß = 10,01,95% IC: 4,52;15,20; p < 0,0001). O padrão alimentar Fast food' foi o único que apresentou associação negativa com o TES em todos os NSE (p = 0,002; p < 0,001; p < 0,001 nos NSE baixo, médio e alto, respectivamente). Conclusões: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de orientações futuras sobre o tempo ideal de exposição solar, principalmente em crianças, que são um grupo de risco para deficiência de vitamina D.


Background: In view of the high prevalence of childhood obesity, it is necessary to develop research on interventions that are affordable and accessible. Thus, it is suggested that one of these interventions may be safe exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet radiation (UVR), given that sun exposure seems to have an important indirect effect against the development of obesity through vitamin D synthesis. Aim: To investigate the relationships among sun exposure time, lifestyle habits and the presence of overweight in Portuguese children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out with children of both sexes participants of the project "Inequalities in childhood obesity: the impact of the socioeconomic crisis in Portugal from 2009 to 2015". Between 2016 and 2017, data were collected in the cities of Coimbra (n = 2980), Lisbon (n = 3066) and Porto (n = 2426). In the present study, only the data collected from children between 3 and 11 years old who had information about sun exposure time (SET) were used. Information was also collected about screen time, time devoted to active play and physical activity, food consumption and socioeconomic status (SES), through standardized questionnaires. Trained professionals performed measurements of waist circumference, skinfolds and weight and height, obtaining the Body Mass Index (BMI) for classifying the nutritional status according to the cutoff points established by the International Obesity Task Force IOTF. Difference tests were performed between the means (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon/Ranksum e Kruskal-Wallis), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: A total of 4,755 children with a mean age of 7.11 ± 1.91 years, 58.14% female (n = 2,384) were analyzed. Among those assessed, 6.01% were classified as underweight, 72.09% as normal weight, 16.50% with overweight and 5.38% with obesity, with no significant difference in SET (mean 210 ± 45 minutes per day) according to nutritional status or sex. In addition to being associated with the highest SES (p < 0.001), SET was negatively associated with BMI (ß = - 0.09.95% CI:- 0.18; - 0.003; p = 0.042), with the body fat percentage (ß = - 0.31, 95%; CI: - 0.54; - 0.07; p = 0.010) and time on computer (ß = - 0.08.95% CI: - 0.12; - 0.05; p < 0.0001); and was positivily associated with the time devoted to active play (ß = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.17; 0.27; p < 0.0001) and physical activity practice (ß = 10.01.95% CI : 4.52; 15.20; p < 0.0001). The 'Fast food' eating pattern was the only one that showed a negative association with SET in all SES (p = 0.002; p < 0.001; p < 0.001 in low, medium and high SES, respectively). Conclusion: The results reinforce the need for future guidelines on the ideal time for sun exposure time, especially in children, who are a risk group for vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Child , Solar Radiation , Pediatric Obesity , Habits , Feeding Behavior
17.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 13: 222545, 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1426724

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El consumo incrementado de alimentos de alta densidad energética y la falta de actividad física han provocado un aumento de la obesidad infantil, presentando México una de las tasas más elevadas en América Latina. Objetivo: Identificar los principales alimentos que los padres de familia ofrecen a niños de edad preescolar en México, su frecuencia a la semana y la cantidad de azúcar añadida a la dieta. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal. Se aplicó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENANUT), considerando sexo, edad y escolaridad de los padres, lugar de procedencia, alimentos ofrecidos a los niños incluyendo: leche y productos lácteos, frutas, verduras y alimentos industrializados. Se realizó estadística descriptiva resumida en frecuencias y porcentajes. La asociación de variables (consumo de azúcar y caries) se realizó mediante Chi2 de Pearson considerando p≤0,05 como estadísticamente significativo. Resultados: n=98 encuestas. El 83,7% de los padres que respondieron fueron mujeres. El 37,8% se encontraba en edades entre los 36 y 40 años. La edad promedio de los niños fue de 4,4±0,76 años. El consumo de frutas y verduras se reportó de 5 a 6 veces a la semana, la fruta de consumo más frecuente fue el plátano y de las verduras la zanahoria. La comida rápida, cereales y dulces los consumen de 2 a 4 veces a la semana. Conclusiones: Esta encuesta indicó un aumento en el consumo de aguas frescas con azúcar y de jugos industrializados.


Introdução: O aumento do consumo de alimentos energéticos e a falta de atividade física têm causado um aumento da obesidade infantil, com o México apresentando uma das maiores taxas da América Latina. Objetivo: Identificar os principais alimentos que os pais oferecem às crianças pré-escolares no México, sua frequência semanal e a quantidade de açúcar adicionada à dieta. Material e métodos: Estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal. Aplicou-se a pesquisa ENSANUT, considerando sexo, idade e escolaridade dos pais, procedência, alimentos oferecidos às crianças, incluindo leite e derivados, frutas, verduras e alimentos industrializados. Foram realizadas estatísticas descritivas resumidas em frequências e percentuais. A associação das variáveis (consumo de açúcar e cárie) foi realizada por meio do Pearson's Chi2 considerando p≤0,05 como estatisticamente significante. Resultado (n=98 pesquisas): 83,7% dos pais que responderam eram mulheres, 37,8% tinham entre 36 e 40 anos e a média de idade das crianças foi de 4,4±0,76 anos. O consumo de frutas e hortaliças foi relatado de 5 a 6 vezes na semana, tendo a banana como a fruta mais consumida e a banana e a cenoura dentre as hortaliças. Comida rápida, cereais e doces são consumidos 2 a 4 vezes por semana. Conclusões: Esta pesquisa indicou um aumento no consumo de água doce com açúcar e sucos industrializados.


Introduction: Increased consumption of energy dense food and the lack of physical activity have led to an increase in child obesity. Mexico ranks one of the highest rates in Latin America. Objective: Identify the main foods that parents offer to preschool children in Mexico. Frequency to the week and the quantity of added sugar to diet. Method: Descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study. A poll ENSANUT was applied, considering, sex, age, parent's school grade, place of origin, foods offered to children, including milk and milk product, fruits and vegetables and processed food. Descriptive statistics summarized in frequencies and percentages were performed. The association of variables (sugar intake vs cavities) was done using Chi2 considering p≤0.05 as statistically significant. Results: n= 98 surveys. 83.7% of the parents who responded were women. 37.8% was between the ages of 36 and 40. The average age of the children was 4.4±0.76 years. Fruit and vegetable consumption was reported 5-6 times a week, banana was the fruit more frequent consumption and the carrot of the vegetable. The fast food, cereal and candies were consumed 2-4 times a week. Conclusions: This survey indicated an increase in the consumption of fresh water with sugar and industrialized juices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pediatric Obesity , Dietary Sugars , Daucus carota , Eating , Nutritional Sciences , Mexico
18.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 16(2): 5046-5057, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1425733

ABSTRACT

Contexte & objectif. Les modifications lipidiques chez les enfants obèses en Afrique noire sont peu documentées. Les objectifs de la présente étude étaient de déterminer chez les adolescents obèses le profil lipidique, et analyser les associations entre quelques paramètres anthropométriques et lipidiques. Méthodes. L'étude transversale a été réalisée à Brazzaville auprès de 82 adolescents âgés de 11 à 18 ans, répartis en 45 sujets obèses, 17 en état de surpoids et 20 poids normal. Des mesures de la taille, du poids, du tour de taille, des plis cutanés sous-scapulaire et tricipital ont été effectuées. Des prélèvements sanguins ont permis de déterminer les concentrations en cholestérol total, cholestérol-LDL, cholestérol-HDL et triglycérides. Résultats. Les concentrations lipidiques notées chez les adolescents obèses étaient significativement supérieures à celles des sujets de poids normal : cholestérol total, 1,70 vs 1,59g/L ; cholestérol-LDL, 1,03 vs 0,88g/L ; triglycérides, 1,18 vs 0,86. Par contre, celles du cholestérol-HDL étaient significativement inférieures : 0,42 vs 0,51g/L. Une corrélation positive a été retrouvée entre le rapport tour de taille/taille et le cholestérol-HDL (r=0,75 ; p=0,031). Conclusion. Nos résultats soulignent la nécessité de renforcer la prise en charge des enfants obèses afin de prévenir les facteurs de risque potentiels des maladies cardiovasculaires à l'âge adulte


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent Health , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Blood , Pediatric Obesity
19.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 436-441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association between rs2587552 polymorphism (has a strong lin-kage disequilibrium with rs1800497 which had been found in many studies to be related to obesity, r2=0.85) of DRD2 gene and the effect of a childhood obesity intervention in Chinese population, and provide a scientific basis for future personalized childhood obesity intervention based on genetic background.@*METHODS@#From a multi-center cluster randomized controlled trial studying the effect of a childhood obesity intervention, we enrolled 382 children from 8 primary schools (192 and 190 children from intervention and control groups, respectively) in Beijing as study subjects. Saliva was collected and DNA was extracted to detect the rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene, and the interactions between the gene and study arms on childhood obesity indicators [including body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, and body fat percentage] were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#No association was found between rs2587552 polymorphism and the changes in hip circumference or body fat percentage in the intervention group (P>0.05). However, in the control group, children carrying the A allele at DRD2 rs2587552 locus showed a greater increase in hip circumference and body fat percentage compared with those not carrying A allele (P < 0.001). There were interactions between rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene and study arms on the changes in hip circumference and body fat percentage (P=0.007 and 0.015, respectively). Compared with the control group, children in the intervention group carrying the A allele at DRD2 rs2587552 locus showed decrease in hip circumference by (-1.30 cm, 95%CI: -2.25 to -0.35, P=0.007) and decrease in body fat percentage by (-1.34%, 95%CI: -2.42 to -0.27, P=0.015) compared with those not carrying A allele. The results were consistent between the dominant model and the additive model (hip circumfe-rence: -0.66 cm, 95%CI: -1.28 to -0.03, P=0.041; body fat percentage: -0.69%, 95%CI: -1.40 to 0.02, P=0.056). No interaction was found between rs2587552 polymorphism and study arms on the changes in other childhood obesity-related indicators (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Children carrying the A allele at rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene are more sensitive to intervention and showed more improvement in hip circumference and body fat percentage after the intervention, suggesting that future personalized childhood obesity lifestyle intervention can be carried out based on the rs2587552 polymorphism of DRD2 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Prospective Studies , Polymorphism, Genetic , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference , Receptors, Dopamine D2/genetics
20.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 421-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the association between outdoor artificial light-at-night (ALAN) exposure and overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years in China.@*METHODS@#Using follow-up data of 5 540 children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years conducted from November 2019 to November 2020 in eight provinces of China, latitude and longitude were determined based on school addresses, and the mean monthly average nighttime irradiance at the location of 116 schools was extracted by the nearest neighbor method to obtain the mean outdoor ALAN exposure [unit: nW/(cm2·sr)] for each school. Four indicators of overweight and obesity outcomes were included: Baseline overweight and obesity, persistent overweight and obesity, overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence. Mixed effects Logistic regression was used to explore the association between ALAN exposure levels (divided into quintiles Q1-Q5) and baseline overweight and obesity, persistent overweight and obesity, overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence. In addition, a natural cubic spline function was used to explore the exposure response association between ALAN exposure (a continuous variable) and the outcomes.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of baseline overweight and obesity, persistent overweight and obesity, overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence among the children and adolescents in this study were 21.6%, 16.3%, 2.9% and 12.8%, respectively. The OR value for the association between ALAN exposure and baseline overweight and obesity was statistically significant when ALAN exposure levels reached Q4 or Q5, 1.90 (95%CI: 1.26-2.86) and 1.77 (95%CI: 1.11-2.83), respectively, compared with the children and adolescents in the Q1 group of ALAN exposure. Similar to the results for baseline overweight and obesity, the OR values for the association with persistent overweight and obesity were 1.89 (95%CI: 1.20-2.99) and 1.82 (95%CI: 1.08-3.06) when ALAN exposure levels reached Q4 or Q5, respectively, but none of the OR values for the association between ALAN and overweight and obesity progression and overweight and obesity incidence were statistically significant. Fitting a natural cubic spline function showed a non-linear trend between ALAN exposure and persistent overweight and obesity.@*CONCLUSION@#There is a positive association between ALAN exposure and overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, and the promotion of overweight obesity in children and adolescents by ALAN tends to have a cumulative effect rather than an immediate effect. In the future, while focusing on the common risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, there is a need to improve the overweight and obesity-causing nighttime light exposure environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Child , Overweight/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Light Pollution , Risk Factors , China/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL