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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 487-515, jul. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538020

ABSTRACT

Myrtus communis L., commonly known as true myrtle, is a medicinal plant native to the Mediterranean area. Since ancient times, the inhabitant s of this area have been using it for its cultural and medicinal properties. Because of the vast diversity of biomolecules in its aerial parts, it exhibits several biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. This review retrospect the research on the source, biological activities with empirical evidence, chemical composition, applications, and cellular targets of extracts and essential oils obtained from M. communis leaves, which provides a perspective for further studies on the applications and formulations of extract and EO of M. communis leaves. The efficacy of constituents' individually, in association with other bioactive constituents, or in combination with available commercial drugs would provide insights in to the development of these bio - actives as future drugs and their evolving future potential applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and aroma industries.


Myrtus communis L., comúnmente conocido como arrayán verdadero, es una planta medicinal originaria de la zona mediterránea. Desde la antigüedad, los habitantes de esta zona lo utilizan por sus propiedades culturales y medicinales. Debido a la gran div ersidad de biomoléculas en sus partes aéreas, exhibe varias propiedades biológicas, incluidas propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y anticancerígenas. Esta revisión retrospectiva de la investigación sobre la fuente, las actividades biológicas con evi dencia empírica, la composición química, las aplicaciones y los objetivos celulares de los extractos y aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas de M. communis , lo que brinda una perspectiva para futuros estudios sobre las aplicaciones y formulaciones de l os extractos y EO de M. communis . La eficacia de los componentes individualmente, en asociación con otros componentes bioactivos o en combinación con medicamentos comerciales disponibles proporcionaría información sobre el desarrollo de estos bioactivos co mo medicamentos futuros y sus futuras aplicaciones potenciales en las industrias farmacéutica, alimentaria y aromática


Subject(s)
Myrtus communis/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Antioxidants
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 523-533, jul. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538056

ABSTRACT

Leaves of Croton stipulaceuswere extracted (EHex, ECHCl3and EEtOH extracts) to assesstheir antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory activity in murine models and acute toxicity. EEtOH showed the highest effect in DPPH (37.80% inhibition), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) and total polyphenols (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). EHex was the most active, ~ 50% inhibition of TPA-induced ear edema; while EEtOH (dose of 2 mg/ear) showed the highest inhibition in the chronic model (97% inhibition), and inhibited MPO activity (48%). In carrageenan-induced edema, ECHCl3(dose 500 mg/kg) was the most active. None of the extracts showed acute toxicity (LD50) at 2 g/kg (p.o.). This work is the first report that supports the traditional use of C. stipulaceusas an anti-inflammatory.


De las hojas de Croton stipulaceusse obtuvieron diferentes extractos (EHex, ECHCl3y EEtOH) evaluando el potencial antioxidante y la actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos y la toxicidad aguda. El EEtOH mostró mayor efecto en DPPH (37.80% inhibición), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) y polifenolestotales (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). El EHex fue el más activo, cercano al 50% de inhibición del edema auricular inducido con TPA; mientras que el EEtOH (dosis de 2 mg/oreja) mostró la mayor inhibición en el modelo crónico (97% inhibición), e inhibió la actividad de la MPO (48%). En el edema inducido con carragenina, el ECHCl3(dosis 500 mg/kg) fue el más activo. Ninguno de los extractos mostró una toxicidad aguda (DL50) mayor a 2 g/kg (p.o). Este trabajo es el primer reporte que sustenta el uso tradicional de C. stipulaceuscomo antiinflamatorio.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Structures/metabolism , Plant Structures/chemistry , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Croton/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072

ABSTRACT

Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.


Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Ecuador , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(3): 437-447, mayo 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538171

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to optimize by response surface design, the extraction of the leaf essential oil (EO) from Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb., grown in Ecuador, using steam distillation. The factors used were extraction time (XTIE) of 60, 105 and 150 min and plant material/water ratio (XRMA) of 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. The optimal combination was reached with XRMA 1:5 and XTIE 150 min, obtaining a process yield of 0.67%. The chemical composition of the EO analyzed by GC - MS was determined, where the main compounds were carvacryl acetate (44.01%), carvacrol (16.51%) and menthone (8.20%). The anti oxidant capacity of EO was evaluated using the FRAP and ABTS methodologies, with an IC 50 243.21 µmol Fe 2+ /g and 0.12 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of EO was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Escherich ia coli and Staphylococcus aureus .


El objetivo del estudio fue optimizar, mediante un diseño de superficie respuesta, la extracción d el aceite esencial (AE) de hojas de Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb. del Ecuador, mediante destilación por arrastre de vapor. Los factores fueron el tiempo de extracción (XTIE) de 60, 105 y 150 min, y relación de material vegetal/ agua destilada (XRMA) d e 1:3, 1:4 y 1:5. La combinación óptima se logró con XTIE 150 min y XRMA 1:5 para un rendimiento de 0,67%. Se determinó la composición química del AE por GC - MS donde los compuestos mayoritarios fueron acetato de carvacrilo (44,01%), carvacrol (16,51%) y me ntona (8,20%). Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del AE por las metodologías FRAP y ABTS, con CI 50 de 243,21 µmol Fe 2+ /g y 0,12 mg/mL, respectivamente. Además, se demostró la actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Es cherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus .


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lamiaceae/metabolism , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Ecuador
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(2): 180-198, mar. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538281

ABSTRACT

India's commercial advancement and development depend heavily on agriculture. A common fruit grown in tropical settings is citrus. A professional judgment is required while analyzing an illness because different diseases have slight variati ons in their symptoms. In order to recognize and classify diseases in citrus fruits and leaves, a customized CNN - based approach that links CNN with LSTM was developed in this research. By using a CNN - based method, it is possible to automatically differenti ate from healthier fruits and leaves and those that have diseases such fruit blight, fruit greening, fruit scab, and melanoses. In terms of performance, the proposed approach achieves 96% accuracy, 98% sensitivity, 96% Recall, and an F1 - score of 92% for ci trus fruit and leave identification and classification and the proposed method was compared with KNN, SVM, and CNN and concluded that the proposed CNN - based model is more accurate and effective at identifying illnesses in citrus fruits and leaves.


El avance y desarrollo comercial de India dependen en gran medida de la agricultura. Un tipo de fruta comunmente cultivada en en tornos tropicales es el cítrico. Se requiere un juicio profesional al analizar una enfermedad porque diferentes enfermedades tienen ligeras variaciones en sus síntomas. Para reconocer y clasificar enfermedades en frutas y hojas de cítricos, se desarrolló e n esta investigación un enfoque personalizado basado en CNN que vincula CNN con LSTM. Al utilizar un método basado en CNN, es posible diferenciar automáticamente entre frutas y hojas más saludables y aquellas que tienen enfermedades como la plaga de frutas , el verdor de frutas, la sarna de frutas y las melanosis. En términos de desempeño, el enfoque propuesto alcanza una precisión del 96%, una sensibilidad del 98%, una recuperación del 96% y una puntuación F1 del 92% para la identificación y clasificación d e frutas y hojas de cítricos, y el método propuesto se comparó con KNN, SVM y CNN y se concluyó que el modelo basado en CNN propuesto es más preciso y efectivo para identificar enfermedades en frutas y hojas de cítricos.


Subject(s)
Citrus/classification , Citrus/parasitology , Neural Networks, Computer , Plant Leaves/classification , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Fruit/classification , Fruit/growth & development
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252735, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.


Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.


Subject(s)
Panicum , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Desiccation , Droughts , Hydrogen Peroxide
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

ABSTRACT

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Subject(s)
Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Stress, Physiological , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Seedlings , Salinity , Salt Tolerance , Antioxidants/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252364, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355885

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding morphological and physiological changes under different light conditions in native fruit species in juveniles' stage is important, as it indicate the appropriate environment to achieve vigorous saplings. We aimed to verify growth and morphophysiological changes under shade gradient in feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) to achieve good quality saplings adequate to improve cultivation in orchards. The saplings were grown for twenty-one-month under four shading treatments (0%, 30%, 50%, and 80%). Growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf anatomy parameters were evaluated. Saplings under full sun and 30% shade had higher height and diameter growth and dry mass accumulation due to higher photosynthesis rate. As main acclimatization mechanisms in feijoa saplings under 80% shade were developed larger leaf area, reduced leaf blade thickness, and enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II. Even so, the net CO2 assimilation and the electron transport rate was lower and, consequently, there was a restriction on the growth and dry mass in saplings under deep shade. Therefore, to obtain higher quality feijoa saplings, we recommend that it be carried out in full sun or up to 30% shade, to maximize the sapling vigor in nurseries and, later, this light environment can also be used in orchards for favor growth and fruit production.


Resumo A verificação de mudanças morfológicas e fisiológicas sob diferentes condições luminosas em espécies frutíferas nativas em estágio juvenil é importante, uma vez que indicam o ambiente adequado para a formação de mudas com alto vigor. Objetivou-se verificar o crescimento e as alterações morfofisiológicas sob gradiente de sombreamento em mudas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) para obter mudas de boa qualidade, adequadas para fomentar os plantios da espécie em pomares. As mudas foram cultivadas por vinte e um meses sob quatro tratamentos de sombreamento (0%, 30%, 50% e 80%). Foram avaliados parâmetros de crescimento, pigmentos fotossintéticos, trocas gasosas, fluorescência da clorofila e anatomia foliar. Mudas a pleno sol e 30% de sombra apresentaram maior crescimento em altura, diâmetro e acúmulo de massa seca, devido à maior taxa de fotossíntese. Como principais mecanismos de aclimatação sob 80% de sombra, as mudas desenvolveram maior área foliar, redução da espessura do limbo foliar e aumento do rendimento quântico do fotossistema II. Mesmo assim, a assimilação líquida de CO2 e a taxa de transporte de elétrons foram menores e, consequentemente, houve restrição ao crescimento e acúmulo de massa seca das mudas no maior nível de sombreamento. Portanto, para a obtenção de mudas de feijoa de maior qualidade, recomendamos que seja realizada a pleno sol ou até 30% de sombra, para maximizar o vigor das mudas em viveiros e, posteriormente, este ambiente de luz também pode ser utilizado em pomares para favorecer o crescimento e a produção de frutos.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Feijoa , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Acclimatization , Light
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Manihot , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Biodiversity , Endophytes , Fungi
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Moringa , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Leaves , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 22(6): 700-746, nov. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554189

ABSTRACT

The genus Desmodium includes about 350 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The objective of this review wa s to associate the traditional medicinal uses of the genus Desmodium with its biological activities reported in the scientific literature. Traditional medicinal uses and biological activities were described in 56 species. More than 100 traditional medicina l uses have been reported in 43 countries, highlighting the use in inflammatory, gastrointestinal and infectious processes, muscular pain, rheumatic, renal and hepatic affections. Among the 45 biological activities experimentally evaluated, antioxidant, an timicrobial, anti - inflammatory, hepatoprotective and antinociceptive were the most reported. The species with the highest number of studies were D. gangeticum, D. adscendens and D. styracifolium. In conclusion, several traditional medicinal uses have been experimentally supported, demonstrating the pharmacological potential of this genus.


El género Desmodium incluye alrededor de 350 especie s, distribuidas en regiones tropicales y subtropicales alrededor del mundo. El objetivo de esta revisión fue asociar los usos medicinales tradicionales del género Desmodium con sus actividades biológicas reportadas en la literatura científica. Los usos med icinales tradicionales y las actividades biológicas fueron descritos en 56 especies. Más de 100 usos medicinales tradicionales han sido reportados en 43 países, destacándose el uso en procesos inflamatorios, gastrointestinales e infecciosos, dolores muscul ares, reumáticos, afecciones renales y hepáticas. Dentro de las 45 actividades biológicas evaluadas experimentalmente, las más reportadas fueron la antioxidante, antimicrobiana, antiinflamatoria, hepatoprotectora y antinociceptiva. Las especies con mayor n úmero de estudios fueron D. gangeticum, D. adscendens y D. styracifolium. En conclusión, varios usos medicinales tradicionales han sido experimentalmente respaldados, demostrando el potencial farmacológico de este género.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Leaves/physiology , Medicine, Traditional
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1382-1386, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521046

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Mormodica balsamina is a valuable medicinal plant that is used to treat wounds and inflammation; its leaves are also used as an antibiotic and in the treatment of stomach pain. This study was conducted to determine the anti-ulcer activity of methanolic leaf extract of Mormodica balsamina on ethanol-induced ulcer in albino rats. A total of 32 rats were used for the study. Groups I and II served as the baseline and negative controls respectively, while groups III-VII served as the test groups. Group I was untreated, while group II received 1ml/kg body weight of the vehicle (2 % DMSO). Three test groups (III - V) received methanol extracts (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/kg body weight respectively) while the other three test groups (VI - VIII) received aqueous extracts (75 mg, 150mg, 300 mg/kg body weight respectively) via oral gavage for seven days prior to ulcer induction. The rats were sacrificed, stomachs excised and ulcers scored. Histological sections were produced and examined. Findings revealed that M. balsamina extracts protected the rats' gastric epithelia from ethanol induced ulceration to varying degree with the high dose (150 and 300 mg/kg) of both extracts offering the best preservation (42 % and 50 % ulcer protective index respectively) when compared to untreated animals. Histological findings correlated with calculated ulcer indices, with treated animals having less severe gastric mucosal lesions. In conclusion, extracts of M. balsamina may possess reasonable antiulcer activities in rats against ethanol induced gastric ulcer.


Mormodica balsamina es una valiosa planta medicinal que se utiliza para tratar heridas e inflamaciones; sus hojas también se utilizan como antibiótico y en el tratamiento del dolor de estómago. Este estudio se realizó para determinar la actividad antiulcerosa del extracto metanólico de hojas de Mormodica balsamina sobre la úlcera inducida por etanol en ratas albinas. Se utilizaron un total de 32 ratas para el estudio. Los grupos I y II sirvieron como referencia y controles negativos respectivamente, mientras que los grupos III-VII sirvieron como grupos de prueba. El grupo I no se trató, mientras que el grupo II recibió 1 ml/kg de peso corporal del vehículo (2% de DMSO). Tres grupos de prueba (III - V) recibieron extractos de metanol (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/ kg de peso corporal respectivamente) mientras que los otros tres grupos de prueba (VI - VIII) recibieron extractos acuosos (75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg/kg de peso corporal respectivamente) por sonda oral durante siete días antes de la inducción de la úlcera. Se sacrificaron las ratas, se extirparon los estómagos y se puntuaron las úlceras. Se realizaron y examinaron secciones histológicas. Los resultados revelaron que los extractos de M. balsamina protegieron el epitelio gástrico de las ratas de la ulceración inducida por etanol en diversos grados, y la dosis alta (150 y 300 mg/kg) de ambos extractos ofreció la mejor conservación (42 % y 50 % de índice de protección contra úlceras, respectivamente) en comparación con los animales no tratados. Los hallazgos histológicos se correlacionaron con los índices de úlcera calculados, y los animales tratados tenían lesiones de la mucosa gástrica menos graves. En extractos de M. balsamina puede poseer actividades antiulcerosas razonables en ratas contra la úlcera gástrica inducida por etanol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Momordica/chemistry , Ethanol/toxicity , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Plants, Medicinal , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Momordica balsamica , Plant Leaves , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/chemistry
13.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 298-307, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982701

ABSTRACT

Five new terpenoids, including two vibsane-type diterpenoids (1, 2) and three iridoid allosides (3-5), together with eight known ones, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Viburnum odoratissimum var.sessiliflorum. Their planar structures and relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques. The sugar moieties of the iridoids were confirmed as β-D-allose by GC analysis after acid hydrolysis and acetylation. The absolute configurations of neovibsanin Q (1) and dehydrovibsanol B (2) were determined by quantum chemical calculation of their theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced ECD analysis. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 3, 4, and 5 were evaluated using an LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell model. Compounds 3suppressed the release of NO in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 55.64 μmol·L-1. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1-5 on HCT-116 cells were assessed and the results showed that compounds 2 and 3 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 13.8 and 12.3 μmol·L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Terpenes/pharmacology , Viburnum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Diterpenes/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248122, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


Resumo Por ser o vetor do vírus do Nilo Ocidental e da falaríase, o controle de Culex quinquefasciatus Say é provavelmente essencial. O tratamento com inseticida sintético parece ser mais eficaz para o controle dos mosquitos vetores. No entanto, esses produtos são tóxicos para o meio ambiente e organismos não visados. Consequentemente, o controle ecológico dos mosquitos vetores é necessário. Nesse sentido, o inseticida botânico parece mais produtivo. Portanto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia do extrato metanólico e de várias frações, incluindo n-hexano, acetato de etila, clorofórmio e fração aquosa, obtidos do extrato metanólico de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. e Justicia adhatoda L. usando funil de separação contra os estágios larval, pupal e adulto de C. quinquefasciatus. As larvas e pupas de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a várias concentrações (31,25-1000 ppm) de extrato metanólico, e suas frações por 24 horas de período de exposição. Para o bioensaio knock-down (bioensaio de impregnação de papel de filtro), diferentes concentrações do extrato metanólico e suas várias frações (ou seja, 0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1 mg / mL) foram aplicadas por um período de exposição de 1 hora. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando desvio padrão, análise Probit e regressão linear. Os valores de R2 de larvas, pupas e adultos variaram de 0,4 a 0,99. Os valores de LC50 (concentração que causa 50% de mortalidade) para larvas de terceiro estádio tardio após 24 horas de período de exposição variaram de 93-1856,7 ppm, enquanto os valores de LC90 variaram de 424-7635,5ppm. Os valores de LC50 para pupas variaram de 1326,7-6818,4 ppm e os valores de LC90 variaram de 3667,3-17427,9 ppm, respectivamente. O KDT50 variou de 0,30 a 2,8% e os valores de KDT90 variaram de 1,2 a 110,8%, respectivamente. Por fim, a espécie J. adhatoda pôde ser eficaz para controlar populações de mosquitos vetores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21283, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439509

ABSTRACT

Abstract The anecdotal use of Alternanthera sessilis L. as a relief for diabetes has been known in the Philippines for generations, and antidiabetic activity of similar varieties in other countries is likewise documented. However, the compounds responsible for this activity remain unclear. This study aims to isolate the anti-hyperglycemic fraction of local A. sessilis leaves and identify the compounds in this fraction. Methanol extract of A. sessilis leaves and its hexane, ethyl acetate (ASE), and water fractions were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic mice. ASE (250mg/kg) had the highest anti-hyperglycemic activity at 6-h post-treatment (25.81%±12.72%), with almost similar blood glucose reduction rate as metformin (30.13±3.75%, p=0.767). Repeated fractionation employing chromatographic separation techniques followed by in vivo anti-hyperglycemic assay yielded partially purified subfractions. A. sessilis ethyl acetate subfraction 4-2 (100mg/kg) displayed remarkable suppression of blood glucose rise in diabetic mice at 6-h post-treatment (26.45±3.75%, p<0.0001), with comparable activity with metformin (100mg/kg, 27.87±5.65%, p=0.652). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed eight distinct peaks, with four peaks annotated via the Traditional Chinese Medicine library and custom library for A. sessilis. Among these, luteolin, apigenin, ononin, and sophorabioside were identified as putative compounds responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic activity. This result provided basis for the reported anecdotal claims and potential utility of the local variety of A. sessilis leaves as sources of anti-hyperglycemic agents


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Biological Assay/methods , Plant Leaves/classification , Amaranthaceae/adverse effects , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Apigenin/agonists
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22076, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439496

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bauhinia forficata Link aqueous extract is usually recommended as a phytomedicine to reduce blood glucose levels and its biological activity has been linked to the presence of phenolic compounds from B. forficata preparations. Several drying processes are used in the production of dry herbal extracts, which may influence the chemical composition and efficacy of final herbal medicines. Due to significant chemical changes, defining appropriate drying processes is essential for phytopharmaceutical drug development. In view of this, we analyzed dried B. forficata leaf infusion (BFLI) extracts by HPLC-UV-MSn, followed by molecular networking analysis to evaluate the chemical profiles from dried extracts yielded by freeze-and spray-drying processes. The main metabolites detected included 11 ferulic/isoferulic acid derivatives and 13 glycosylated flavonoids. The qualitative chemical profiles were alike for both drying processes, whereas the relative abundance of some flavonoids was higher using spray-drying. Taken together, our results showed that freeze-and spray-drying preserved the phenolic profile of BFLI and suggested that spray-drying may be the most suitable to obtain its dried products. Along with studying the chemical profiles of dried herbal extracts, evaluating the influence of drying processes on the quality and chemical profiles of final products is pivotal and may benefit future research.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/classification , Bauhinia/adverse effects , Phenolic Compounds , Fabaceae/classification , Flavonoids/agonists , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Total Quality Management/organization & administration , Herbal Medicine/trends , Drug Development/instrumentation
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39047, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428233

ABSTRACT

Following the adoption of Roundup Ready crops, glyphosate spraying frequency increased, while the use of other herbicide modes of action was neglected. Herbicide-resistant biotypes were reported in three major Conyza species in Brazil, including Conyza bonariensis, increasing growers' bottom line. Considering that leaf surface structures affect proper herbicide deposition, uptake, and performance, this study aimed to characterize epicuticular surface components in glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) C. bonariensis. Conyza spp. seeds were collected in 36 locations in Brazil, and plants were subjected to resistance screening tests by spraying glyphosate at 720 and 1440 g ae ha-1 (0.5X and 1X the label recommended rate, respectively). For resistance level characterization, C. bonariensis biotypes with contrasting responses were selected for glyphosate dose-response assays. Leaf tissues for epicuticular surface analysis were harvested from newly-obtained R and S biotypes at two growth stages. Histological cuts were made on a leaf area of 25 mm² with a blade. Samples were fixed in Karnowsky solution, gradually changed to 100% ethanol, critical-point dried with CO2, and coated with gold, followed by stomatal and trichome density quantification using scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated a poor control with glyphosate in 33 of 36 Conyza spp. biotypes, and a high (31.5) resistance factor was calculated after dose-response trials. Leaf surface analysis indicated that C. bonariensis leaves are amphistomatic and exhibit tectorial trichomes. A higher number of trichomes and altered stomatal density (number.mm²) were quantified in R compared to the S counterpart, potentially reducing glyphosate uptake and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Conyza , Herbicides
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39010, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415880

ABSTRACT

Clitoria guianensis and Ouratea spectabilis, found in the Brazilian Cerrado, are used in folk medicine, despite the few chemical and biological studies reported in the literature. The present study aims to investigate the toxicity and effect of extracts from both species on the microcrustacean Artemia salina, and to determine the chemical composition of the hexane extract of O. spectabilis leaves and the EtOAc fraction of C. guianensis leaves. Kaempferitrin, a flavonoid isolated from of the EtOAc fraction of C. guianensis leaves, was identified by chemical analysis. Analysis of the hexane extract of O. spectabilis leaves using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) suggested the presence of twenty-five known substances. The Hex, EtOAc, and EtOH crude extracts of C. guianensis leaves exhibited high and moderate toxicity against Artemia salina, with median lethal dose values (LD50) of 43.7, 25.4, and 233.4 mg.L−1, respectively. The acetone extract of O. spectabilis leaves showed moderate toxicity against Artemia salina with an LD50 value of 115.13 mg.L−1.


Subject(s)
Artemia , Plant Leaves , Clitoria/toxicity , Clitoria/chemistry , Ochnaceae/toxicity , Ochnaceae/chemistry
19.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 812-829, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010993

ABSTRACT

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf is a well-established traditional Chinese botanical and culinary resource. It has found widespread application in the management of diabetes. The bioactive constituents of mulberry leaf, specifically mulberry leaf flavonoids (MLFs), exhibit pronounced potential in the amelioration of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This potential is attributed to their ability to safeguard pancreatic β cells, enhance insulin resistance, and inhibit α-glucosidase activity. Our antecedent research findings underscore the substantial therapeutic efficacy of MLFs in treating T2D. However, the precise mechanistic underpinnings of MLF's anti-T2D effects remain the subject of inquiry. Activation of brown/beige adipocytes is a novel and promising strategy for T2D treatment. In the present study, our primary objective was to elucidate the impact of MLFs on adipose tissue browning in db/db mice and 3T3-L1 cells and elucidate its underlying mechanism. The results manifested that MLFs reduced body weight and food intake, alleviated hepatic steatosis, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased lipolysis and thermogenesis in db/db mice. Moreover, MLFs activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) and induced the browning of inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) and 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing the expressions of brown adipocyte marker genes and proteins such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and beige adipocyte marker genes such as transmembrane protein 26 (Tmem26), thereby promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanistically, MLFs facilitated the activation of BAT and the induction of WAT browning to ameliorate T2D primarily through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) signaling pathway. These findings highlight the unique capacity of MLF to counteract T2D by enhancing BAT activation and inducing browning of IWAT, thereby ameliorating glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. As such, MLFs emerge as a prospective and innovative browning agent for the treatment of T2D.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Sirtuin 1/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Morus/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Signal Transduction , Adipose Tissue, White , Plant Leaves , Uncoupling Protein 1/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/metabolism
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6600-6612, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008859

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to provide data support for resource utilization of the stems and leaves of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus(SLAM) by analyzing and evaluating the chemical constituents. The crude protein, crude fiber, and soluble saccharide of SLAM were analyzed by Kjeldahl method, filtration method, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively. The nucleosides, amino acids, flavonoids, and saponins of SLAM were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry(UPLC-TQ-MS). Combined with principal component analysis(PCA), the quality difference of resource components of SLAM was comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the average content of crude protein, crude fiber, total polysaccharide, and redu-cing sugar in SLAM was 5.11%, 30.33%, 11.03 mg·g~(-1), and 31.90 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Six nucleosides, 15 amino acids, 22 flavonoids, and one saponin were detected, with an average content of 1.49 mg·g~(-1), 6.00 mg·g~(-1), 1.86 mg·g~(-1), and 35.67 μg·g~(-1), respectively. The content of various types of chemical components in SLAM differed greatly in different harvesting periods and growing years. The results of PCA showed that the quality of SLAM produced in Ningxia was superior. The results can provide references for the utilization of SLAM.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Amino Acids , Saponins/analysis
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