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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4708-4717, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008052

ABSTRACT

Plasmids are the most commonly used gene carriers in the field of gene synthesis and sequencing. However, the main problems faced by traditional plasmid DNA extraction technology are low extraction throughput and high production cost, so they cannot meet the growing demand. In this study, a double-magnetic-bead method (DMBM) for plasmid extraction was developed based on the principle of plasmid extraction. The effects of the input of magnetic beads, the size of plasmid DNA fragments, and the volume of bacterial on plasmid DNA extraction were explored. In addition, the quality, throughput, and cost of plasmid DNA extraction were also compared between this technique and the commercial plasmid DNA extraction kits. The results showed that the DMBM can meet the needs of extracting plasmid DNA with different cell densities and fragment lengths. Moreover, the sensitivity and quality of plasmid extraction by the DMBM method were both superior to those of the centrifugal adsorption column method. In addition, this technique could be applied on a 96-channel automated nucleic acid extractor, resulting in higher purity of the extracted plasmid DNA, 80% reduction in extraction time, and 57.1% reduction in cost. It also reduces manual operations, achieving high-throughput and low-cost plasmid DNA extraction, thus may facilitate gene synthesis and sequencing.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/genetics , DNA/genetics , Nucleic Acids , Genetic Techniques , Magnetic Phenomena
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4219-4233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008022

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the expression changes of VASA gene in sheep testis development and to construct VASA gene knock-in vector to prepare for the study on the differentiation of sheep germ cells in vitro. The testicular tissues of 3-month-old (3M) and 9-month-old (9M) sheep which represent immature and mature stages, respectively, were collected. The differential expression of VASA gene was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting, and the location of VASA gene was detected by immunohistochemistry. The sgRNA targeting the VASA gene was designed and homologous recombination vectors were constructed by PCR. Subsequently, plasmids were transferred into sheep ear fibroblasts. The VASA gene was activated in combination with CRISPR/dCas9 technology to further verify the efficiency of the vector. The results showed that the expression level of VASA gene increased significantly with the development of sheep testis (P < 0.01), and was mainly located in spermatocytes and round spermatids. The knock-in vector of VASA gene was constructed by CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the Cas9-gRNA vector and pEGFP-PGK puro-VASA vector were transfected into ear fibroblasts. After CRISPR/dCas9 system was activated, ear fibroblasts successfully expressed VASA gene. The results suggest that VASA gene plays a potential function in sheep testicular development and spermatogenesis, and the VASA gene knock-in vector can be constructed in vitro through the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Our results provided effective research tools for further research of germ cell development and differentiation.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Sheep/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Knock-In Techniques , RNA, Guide, CRISPR-Cas Systems , Plasmids , Germ Cells
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007861

ABSTRACT

Leclercia adecarboxylata is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a carbapenem-resistant L. adecarboxylata strain isolated from a healthy newborn. The L. adecarboxylata strain isolated in this study carried four plasmids that may serve as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmids 2 and 4 did not harbor any antimicrobial resistance genes. Plasmid 3 is a novel plasmid containing three resistance genes. The bla IMP gene harbored in the strain was most similar to bla IMP-79 at the nucleotide level, with a similarity of 99.4% (737/741). This case highlights the importance of considering L. adecarboxylata as a potential cause of infections in children.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Child , Humans , Female , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Plasmids
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1217-1231, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970434

ABSTRACT

The construction of efficient and stable Lactobacillus expression vector is critical for strain improvement and development of customized strains. In this study, four endogenous plasmids were isolated from Lacticaseibacillus paracasei ZY-1 and subjected to functional analysis. The Escherichia coli-Lactobacillus shuttle vectors pLPZ3N and pLPZ4N were constructed by combining the replicon rep from pLPZ3 or pLPZ4, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat from pNZ5319 and the replicon ori from pUC19. Moreover, the expression vectors pLPZ3E and pLPZ4E with the promoter Pldh3 of lactic acid dehydrogenase and the mCherry red fluorescent protein as a reporter gene were obtained. The size of pLPZ3 and pLPZ4 were 6 289 bp and 5 087 bp, respectively, and its GC content, 40.94% and 39.51%, were similar. Both shuttle vectors were successfully transformed into Lacticaseibacillus, and the transformation efficiency of pLPZ4N (5.23×102-8.93×102 CFU/μg) was slightly higher than that of pLPZ3N. Furthermore, the mCherry fluorescent protein was successfully expressed after transforming the expression plasmids pLPZ3E and pLPZ4E into L. paracasei S-NB. The β-galactosidase activity of the recombinant strain obtained from the plasmid pLPZ4E-lacG constructed with Pldh3 as promoter was higher than that of the wild-type strain. The construction of shuttle vectors and expression vectors provide novel molecular tools for the genetic engineering of Lacticaseibacillus strains.


Subject(s)
Lacticaseibacillus , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei , Plasmids/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Lactobacillus/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1142-1162, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970429

ABSTRACT

Lysis is a common functional module in synthetic biology and is widely used in genetic circuit design. Lysis could be achieved by inducing expression of lysis cassettes originated from phages. However, detailed characterization of lysis cassettes hasn't been reported yet. Here, we first adopted arabinose- and rhamnose-inducible systems to develop inducible expression of five lysis cassettes (S105, A52G, C51S S76C, LKD, LUZ) in Escherichia coli Top10. By measuring OD600, we characterized the lysis behavior of strains harboring different lysis cassettes. These strains were harvested at different growth stages, induced with different concentrations of chemical inducers, or contained plasmids with different copy numbers. We found that although all five lysis cassettes could induce bacterial lysis in Top10, lysis behaviors differed a lot at various conditions. We further found that due to the difference in background expression levels between strain Top10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, it was hard to construct inducible lysis systems in strain PAO1. The lysis cassette controlled by rhamnose-inducible system was finally inserted into the chromosome of strain PAO1 to construct lysis strains after careful screen. The results indicated that LUZ and LKD were more effective in strain PAO1 than S105, A52G and C51S S76C. At last, we constructed an engineered bacteria Q16 using an optogenetic module BphS and the lysis cassette LUZ. The engineered strain was capable of adhering to target surface and achieving light-induced lysis by tuning the strength of ribosome binding sites (RBSs), showing great potential in surface modification.


Subject(s)
Rhamnose/pharmacology , Plasmids/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 842-857, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970409

ABSTRACT

The modern bio-fermentation industry requires design and creation of efficient microbial cell factories for directed conversion of raw materials to target products. The main criteria for assessing the performance of microbial cell factories are their product synthesis capacity and stability. Due to the deficiencies of plasmids in gene expression such as instability and being easy to lose, integration of genes into chromosome is often a better choice for stable expression in microbial hosts. To this end, chromosomal gene integration technology has received much attention and has developed rapidly. In this review, we summarize the recent research progresses of chromosomal integration of large DNA fragments in microorganisms, illustrate the principles and features of various technologies, highlight the opportunity brought by the CRISPR-associated transposon systems, and prospect future research direction of this technology.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , Plasmids , DNA , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970357

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health issue of global concern. Conjugation is an important way for fast spreading drug-resistant plasmids, during which the type Ⅳ pili plays an important role. Type Ⅳ pili can adhere on the surfaces of host cell and other medium, facilitating formation of bacterial biofilms, bacterial aggregations and microcolonies, and is also a critical factor in liquid conjugation. PilV is an adhesin-type protein found on the tip of type Ⅳ pili encoded by plasmid R64, and can recognize the lipopolysaccharid (LPS) molecules that locate on bacterial membrane. The shufflon is a clustered inversion region that diversifies the PilV protein, which consequently affects the recipient recognition and conjugation frequency in liquid mating. The shufflon was firstly discovered on an IncI1 plasmid R64 and has been identified subsequently in plasmids IncI2, IncK and IncZ, as well as the pathogenicity island of Salmonella typhi. The shufflon consists of four segments including A, B, C, and D, and a specific recombination site named sfx. The shufflon is regulated by its downstream-located recombinase-encoding gene rci, and different rearrangements of the shufflon region in different plasmids were observed. Mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1, which has attracted substantial attentions recently, is mainly located in IncI2 plasmid. The shufflon may be one of the contributors to fast spread of mcr-1. Herein, we reviewed the discovery, structure, function and prevalence of plasmid mediated shufflon, aiming to provide a theoretical basis on transmission mechanism and control strategy of drug-resistant plasmids.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/genetics , Proteins/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Recombinases , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985444

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of food-borne diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and the prevalence of mcr genes that mediates mobile colistin resistance in parts of China, 2020. Methods: For 91 DEC isolates recovered from food sources collected from Fujian province, Hebei province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Shanghai city in 2020, Vitek2 Compact biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing platform was used for the detection of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) against to 18 kinds of antimicrobial compounds belonging to 9 categories, and multi-polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the mcr-1-mcr-9 genes, then a further AST, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and bioinformatics analysis were platformed for these DEC isolates which were PCR positive for mcr genes. Results: Seventy in 91 isolates showed different antimicrobial resistance levels to the drugs tested with a resistance rate of 76.92%. The isolates showed the highest antimicrobial resistance rates to ampicillin (69.23%, 63/91) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (59.34%, 54/91), respectively. The multiple drug-resistant rate was 47.25% (43/91). Two mcr-1 gene and ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) positive EAEC (enteroaggregative Escherichia coli) strains were detected. One of them was identified as serotype of O11:H6, which showed a resistance profile to 25 tested drugs referring to 10 classes, and 38 drug resistance genes were predicted by genome analysis. The other one was O16:H48 serotype, which was resistant to 21 tested drugs belonging to 7 classes and carried a new variant of mcr-1 gene (mcr-1.35). Conclusion: An overall high-level antimicrobial resistance was found among foodborne DEC isolates recovered from parts of China in 2020, and so was the MDR (multi-drug resistance) condition. MDR strains carrying multiple resistance genes such as mcr-1 gene were detected, and a new variant of mcr-1 gene was also found. It is necessary to continue with a dynamic monitoring on DEC contamination and an ongoing research into antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colistin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , China/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Plasmids/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2634-2643, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981221

ABSTRACT

The antigen gene expression level of a DNA vaccine is the key factor influencing the efficacy of the DNA vaccine. Accordingly, one of the ways to improve the antigen gene expression level of a DNA vaccine is to utilize a plasmid vector that is replicable in eukaryotic cells. A replicative DNA vaccine vector pCMVori was constructed based on the non-replicative pcDNA3.1 and the replicon of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in this study. An EGFP gene was cloned into pCMVori and the control plasmid pcDNA3.1. The two recombinant vectors were transfected into PK-15 cell, and the plasmid DNA and RNA were extracted from the transfected cells. Real-time PCR was used to determine the plasmid replication efficiency of the two plasmids using plasmid before and after Bcl Ⅰ digestion as templates, and the transcription level of the Rep gene in PCV2 replicon was detected by RT-PCR. The average fluorescence intensity of cells transfected with the two plasmids was analyzed with software Image J, and the transcription level of EGFP was determined by means of real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the replication efficiency of pCMVori in PK-15 cells incubated for 48 h was 136%, and the transcriptions of Rep and Rep' were verified by RT-PCR. The average fluorescence intensity of the cells transfected with pCMVori-EGFP was 39.14% higher than that of pcDNA3.1-EGFP, and the transcription level of EGFP in the former was also 40% higher than that in the latter. In conclusion, the DNA vaccine vector pCMVori constructed in this study can independently replicate in eukaryotic cells. As a result, the expression level of cloned target gene was elevated, providing a basis for developing the pCMVori-based DNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Circovirus/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Replicon/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1789-1803, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981170

ABSTRACT

Manipulation of genes, including knock-out or knock-in, replacement of gene elements (such as promoters), fusion with a fluorescent protein gene, and construction of in situ gene reporter, is required in most of the biotechnological laboratories. The widely used gene manipulating methods based on two-step allelic exchange are cumbersome in terms of constructing plasmids, transforming and screening. In addition, the efficiency of using this method for long fragment knockout is low. To simplify the process of gene manipulation, we constructed a minimized integrative vector pln2. When a gene needs to be inactivated, an internal fragment of the target gene (non-frameshift) is cloned into the pln2 plasmid. Once the single-crossover recombination between genome and the constructed plasmid occurs, the endogenous gene is segmented by the plasmid backbone and thus inactivated. We developed a toolbox based on pln2 that can be used for different genomic operation mentioned above. With the help of this toolbox, we successfully knocked out large fragments of 20-270 kb.


Subject(s)
Genetic Vectors/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genome
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1621-1632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981158

ABSTRACT

The widespread of tigecycline resistance gene tet(X4) has a serious impact on the clinical efficacy of tigecycline. The development of effective antibiotic adjuvants to combat the looming tigecycline resistance is needed. The synergistic activity between the natural compound β-thujaplicin and tigecycline in vitro was determined by the checkerboard broth microdilution assay and time-dependent killing curve. The mechanism underlining the synergistic effect between β-thujaplicin and tigecycline against tet(X4)-positive Escherichia coli was investigated by determining cell membrane permeability, bacterial intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, iron content, and tigecycline content. β-thujaplicin exhibited potentiation effect on tigecycline against tet(X4)-positive E. coli in vitro, and presented no significant hemolysis and cytotoxicity within the range of antibacterial concentrations. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that β-thujaplicin significantly increased the permeability of bacterial cell membranes, chelated bacterial intracellular iron, disrupted the iron homeostasis and significantly increased intracellular ROS level. The synergistic effect of β-thujaplicin and tigecycline was identified to be related to interfere with bacterial iron metabolism and facilitate bacterial cell membrane permeability. Our studies provided theoretical and practical data for the application of combined β-thujaplicin with tigecycline in the treatment of tet(X4)-positive E. coli infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tigecycline/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/therapeutic use , Plasmids , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct an adenovirus vector expressing artificial splicing factor capable of regulating alternative splicing of Yap1 in cardiomyocytes.@*METHODS@#The splicing factors with different sequences were constructed against Exon6 of YAP1 based on the sequence specificity of Pumilio1. The PCR fragment of the artificially synthesized PUF-SR or wild-type PUFSR was cloned into pAd-Track plasmid, and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli DH5α for plasmid amplification. The amplified plasmids were digested with Pac I and transfected into 293A cells for packaging to obtain the adenovirus vectors. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were transfected with the adenoviral vectors, and alternative splicing of YAP1 was detected using quantitative and semi-quantitative PCR; Western blotting was performed to detect the signal of the fusion protein Flag.@*RESULTS@#The transfection efficiency of the adenovirus vectors was close to 100% in rat cardiomyocytes, and no fluorescent protein was detected in the cells with plasmid transfection. The results of Western blotting showed that both the negative control and Flag-SR-NLS-PUF targeting the YAPExon6XULIE sequence were capable of detecting the expression of the protein fused to Flag. The results of reverse transcription-PCR and PCR demonstrated that the artificial splicing factor constructed based on the 4th target sequence of YAP1 effectively regulated the splicing of YAP1 Exon6 in the cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#We successfully constructed adenovirus vectors capable of regulating YAP1 alternative splicing rat cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Alternative Splicing , Animals, Newborn , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Genetic Vectors , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Plasmids , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , Transfection
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1576-1588, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927802

ABSTRACT

In order to overcome the challenges of insufficient restriction enzyme sites, and construct a fusion-expression vector with flexible fusion direction, we designed an LB cloning system based on the type IIS and type IIT restriction enzymes LguⅠ and BbvCⅠ. The LB cloning system is constructed by inserting the LB fragment (GCTCTTCCTCAGC) into the multiple cloning site region of the broad-host plasmid pBBR1MCS-3 using PCR. The LB fragment contains partially overlapped recognition sites of LguⅠ and BbvCⅠ. Therefore, the same non-palindromic sequence will be generated by these two restriction endonucleases digestion. This feature can be used to quickly and flexibly insert multiple genes into the expression vector in a stepwise and directed way. In order to verify the efficacy of the cloning system, two glycosyltransferase genes welB and welK of Sphingomonas sp. WG were consecutively fused to the LB cloning vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into Sphingomonas sp. WG by triparental mating. The results showed that gene fusion expression has little effect on sphingan titer, but enhanced the viscosity of sphingan. The viscosity of the sphingan produced by recombinant strain Sphingomonas sp. WG/pBBR1MCS-3-LB-welKB was 24.7% higher than that of the wild strain after fermentation for 84 h, which would be beneficial for its application. In conclusion, the application of LB cloning system were verified using Sphingomonas sp. WG. The LB cloning system may provide an efficient tool for fusion expression of target genes.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation , Plasmids/genetics , Sphingomonas/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1432-1445, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927791

ABSTRACT

Bacterial multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a global challenge in the fields of medicine and health, agriculture and fishery, ecology and environment. The cross-region spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among different species is one of the main cause of bacterial MDR. However, there is no effective strategies for addressing the intensifying bacterial MDR. The CRISPR-Cas system, consisting of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated proteins, can targetedly degrade exogenous nucleic acids, thus exhibiting high application potential in preventing and controlling bacterial MDR caused by ARGs. This review briefly introduced the working mechanism of CRISPR-Cas systems, followed by discussing recent advances in reducing ARGs by CRISPR-Cas systems delivered through mediators (e.g. plasmids, bacteriophages and nanoparticle). Moreover, the trends of this research field were envisioned, providing a new perspective on preventing and controlling MDR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteriophages/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1218-1226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927776

ABSTRACT

In order to develop a simple and efficient site-directed mutagenesis solution, the Gibson assembly technique was used to clone the cyclin dependent kinase 4 gene with single or double site mutations, with the aim to simplify the overlap extension PCR. The gene fragments containing site mutations were amplified using a strategy similar to overlap extension PCR. Meanwhile, an empty plasmid was digested by double restriction endonucleases to generate a linearized vector with a short adaptor overlapping with the targeted gene fragments. The gene fragments were directly spliced with the linearized vector by Gibson assembly in an isothermal, single-reaction, creating a recombinant plasmid. After the recombinant plasmids were transformed into competent Escherichia coli DH5α, several clones were screened from each group. Through restriction analysis and DNA sequencing, it was found that the randomly selected clones were 100% target mutants. Since there was neither tedious multiple-round PCR amplification nor frequent DNA extraction operation, and there was no need to digest the original plasmid, this protocol circumvents many factors that may interfere with the conventional site-directed mutagenesis. Hence, genes with single or multiple mutations could be cloned easily and efficiently. In summary, the major defects associated with overlap extension PCR and rolling circle amplification were circumvented in this protocol, making it a good solution for site-directed mutagenesis.


Subject(s)
Clone Cells , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Mutation , Plasmids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1138-1148, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927769

ABSTRACT

Loofah seeds ribosome inactivating protein luffin-α was fused with a tumor-targeting peptide NGR to create a recombinant protein, and its inhibitory activity on tumor cells and angiogenesis were assessed. luffin-α-NGR fusion gene was obtained by PCR amplification. The fusion gene was ligated with pGEX-6p-1 vector to create a recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-1/luffin-α-NGR. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21, and the target protein was isolated and purified by GST affinity chromatography. The luffin-α-NGR fusion gene with a full length of 849 bp was successfully obtained, and the optimal soluble expression of the target protein was achieved under the conditions of 16 ℃, 0.5 mmol/L IPTG after 16 h induction. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting confirmed the recombinant protein has an expected molecular weight of 56.6 kDa. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was de-tagged by precision protease digestion. The inhibitory effects of the recombinant protein on liver tumor cells HepG2 and breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 were significantly stronger than that of luffin-α. The Transwell and CAM experiment proved that the recombinant protein luffin-α-NGR also had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor cells migration and neovascularization. The inhibitory activity on tumor cells and angiogenesis of the recombinant luffin-α-NGR protein lays a foundation for the development of subsequent recombinant tumor-targeting drugs.


Subject(s)
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Plasmids , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Saporins/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 780-795, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927744

ABSTRACT

As a new CRISPR/Cas-derived genome engineering technology, base editing combines the target specificity of CRISPR/Cas and the catalytic activity of nucleobase deaminase to install point mutations at target loci without generating DSBs, requiring exogenous template, or depending on homologous recombination. Recently, researchers have developed a variety of base editing tools in the important industrial strain Corynebacterium glutamicum, and achieved simultaneous editing of two and three genes. However, the multiplex base editing based on CRISPR/Cas9 is still limited by the complexity of multiple sgRNAs, interference of repeated sequence and difficulty of target loci replacement. In this study, multiplex base editing in C. glutamicum was optimized by the following strategies. Firstly, the multiple sgRNA expression cassettes based on individual promoters/terminators was optimized. The target loci can be introduced and replaced rapidly by using a template plasmid and Golden Gate method, which also avoids the interference of repeated sequence. Although the multiple sgRNAs structure is still complicated, the editing efficiency of this strategy is the highest. Then, the multiple gRNA expression cassettes based on Type Ⅱ CRISPR crRNA arrays and tRNA processing were developed. The two strategies only require one single promoter and terminator, and greatly simplify the structure of the expression cassette. Although the editing efficiency has decreased, both methods are still applicable. Taken together, this study provides a powerful addition to the genome editing toolbox of C. glutamicum and facilitates genetic modification of this strain.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Gene Editing , Plasmids , /metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4744-4755, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970345

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus niger is an important industrial strain which has been widely used for production of enzymes and organic acids. Genome modification of A. niger is required to further improve its potential for industrial production. CRISPR/Cas9 is a widely used genome editing technique for A. niger, but its application in industrial strains modification is hampered by the need for integration of a selection marker into the genome or low gene editing efficiency. Here we report a highly efficient marker-free genome editing method for A. niger based on CRISPR/Cas9 technique. Firstly, we constructed a co-expression plasmid of sgRNA and Cas9 with a replication initiation region fragment AMA1 (autonomously maintained in Aspergillus) by using 5S rRNA promoter which improved sgRNA expression. Meanwhile, a strain deficient in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) was developed by knocking out the kusA gene. Finally, we took advantage of the instability of plasmid containing AMA1 fragment to cure the co-expression plasmid containing sgRNA and Cas9 through passaging on non-selective plate. With this method, the efficiency of gene editing reached 100% when using maker-free donor DNA with a short homologous arm of 20 bp. This method may facilitate investigation of gene functions and construction of cell factories for A. niger.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Aspergillus niger/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1): 69-80, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388209

ABSTRACT

Resumen Pseudomonas aeruginosa es uno de los principales patógenos que causa infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS). Su capacidad de adaptación, diseminación, resistencia intrínseca a los antimicrobianos y de adquirir nuevos mecanismos a través de elementos genéticos móviles, hacen que el tratamiento de las infecciones por este microorganismo sea un desafío para el médico clínico. Intrínsecamente, P. aeruginosa, presenta una reducida permeabilidad en la membrana externa, debido a la expresión de bombas de expulsión, y una cefalosporinasa tipo AmpC inducible. Además, P. aeruginosa es capaz de adquirir nuevos determinantes de resistencia por transferencia horizontal en forma de casetes situados en integrones, y a su vez, localizados en transposones o plásmidos. Dentro de la resistencia enzimática que presenta P. aeruginosa destacan las β-lactamasas, incluyendo aquellas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y las carbapenemasas. Pero también enzimas modificadoras de los aminoglucósidos, haciendo que este microorganismo pueda presentar fenotipos de multi-resistencia (MDR), resistencia extrema (XDR) y panresistencia (PDR) a los antimicrobianos denominados antipseudomonas, incluyendo a las nuevas cefalosporinas con inhibidores de beta-lactamasas.


Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Its capacity of adaptation, dissemination, intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials and of acquiring new mechanisms through mobile genetic elements, make the treatment of infections by this microorganism a challenge for the clinician. Intrinsically, P. aeruginosa, presents a reduced permeability in the external membrane, due to the expression of efflux pumps, and an inducible AmpC-type cephalosporinase. In addition, P. aeruginosa is able to acquire new resistance determinants by horizontal transfer in the form of cassettes located in integrons, and in turn located in transposons or plasmids. Within the enzymatic resistance that P. aeruginosa presents, betalactamases, including extended spectrum (ESBL) and carbapenemases. But also aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, stand out, causing this microorganism to present multi-resistance phenotypes (MDR), extreme resistance (XDR) and pan-resistance (PDR) to the called antipseudomonal antibiotics, including the new cephalosporins with betalactamase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas Infections , Plasmids , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Laboratories , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. xviii, 99 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391586

ABSTRACT

Em geral, a doença causada pelo vírus Zika (ZIKV) é clinicamente semelhante às de outros arbovírus. No entanto, ocasionalmente ela é associada a síndromes neurológicas como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Além disso, durante a gravidez a infecção pode causar a síndrome congênita do zika, com danos cerebrais e sistêmicos no feto e/ou bebês, incluindo microcefalia. O genoma do ZIKV codifica três proteínas estruturais, capsídeo, pré-membrana/membrana e envelope (E), e sete proteínas não estruturais (NS1-5). As proteínas E e NS1 são indicadas como antígenos promissores, sendo consideradas alvos importantes no desenho de vacinas contra diversos flavivírus. Nosso grupo construiu dois plasmídeos recombinantes que codificam o ectodomínio da proteína E (pZKectoE) e a proteína NS1 (pZKNS1) do ZIKV. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a capacidade desses plasmídeos de mediar a expressão de proteínas recombinantes e induzir respostas imunes. Células BHK-21 foram transfectadas com estes plasmídeos e a expressão das proteínas recombinantes foi avaliada. Como esperado, o pZKectoE e o pZKNS1 mediaram a expressão das proteínas recombinantes E e NS1, respectivamente. A ativação das respostas imunes humoral e celular em camundongos foi avaliada por ELISA e por ELISPOT. Ambos os plasmídeos induziram títulos de anticorpos específicos significativamente mais elevados do que o plasmídeo controle (pcTPA). Além disso,induziram respostas de células T com produção de IFN-γ após estimulação com duas bibliotecas de peptídeos derivadas de E e NS1. O mapeamento de peptídeos imunogênicos através de ensaios de ELISPOT identificou cinco epítopos imunodominantes na proteína E e três na proteína NS1. A maioria dos modelos murinos para estudos de ZIKV usa animais imunocomprometidos, que fornecem infecções robustas e letais, mas talvez não sejam ideais para testes de vacinas. Portanto, a fim de estabelecer um modelo murino imunocompetente suscetível à infecção pelo ZIKV, iniciamos experimentos de neuroadaptação de um vírus isolado de um paciente no Brasil, por sucessivas passagens no cérebro de camundongos recém-nascidos. Grupos de camundongos Swiss, com idades entre três e nove dias, foram infectados pela via intracerebral com ZIKV. No sétimo dia após a infecção, os animais foram eutanasiados e os cérebros foram coletados. As amostras foram tituladas por ensaio de plaques em células Vero. Em cada passagem, a amostra com o título viral mais alto foi usada para inoculação subsequente no cérebro de outros camundongos recém-nascidos. Nossos resultados mostraram uma alteração na morfologia do plaque produzido pela infecção com o vírus em comparação àquelas observadas com a amostra inicial de ZIKV. Em relação à carga viral, houve um aumento de 4 log durante as primeiras quatro passagens, seguido por uma ligeira redução e o sequenciamento do genoma viral revelou algumas mutações pontuais. De modo geral, as vacinas pZKEctoE e pZKNS1 foram capazes de mediar a expressão das proteínas recombinantes E ou NS1 com ativação das respostas imunes humoral e celular. Até o momento, não foi possível o estabelecimento de um modelo murino imunocompetente. Para obtenção do vírus neuroadaptado, com capacidade de causar sinais clínicos da infecção em animais adultos, deverão ser realizadas mais passagens em cérebros de camundogos Swiss. (AU)


Subject(s)
Peptides , Plasmids , Recombinant Proteins , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Vaccines, DNA , Flavivirus , Zika Virus
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